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Contention 1 Were Not Alone

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Uniqueness: The best estimates put the number of alien civilizations at 10,000
Drake, Astronomy and Astrophysics Professor University of California at Santa Cruz ,02 <July, Astrobiology Magazine, http://www.astrobio.net/news/article236.html>
The Earth's fossil record is quite clear in showing that the complexity of the central nervous system - particularly the capabilities of the brain - has steadily increased in the course of evolution. Even the mass extinctions did not set back this steady increase in brain size. It can be argued that extinction events expedite the development of cognitive abilities, since those creatures with superior brains are better able to save themselves from the sudden change in their environment. Thus smarter creatures are selected, and the growth of intelligence accelerates. We see this effect in all varieties of animals -- it is not a fluke that has occurred in some small sub-set of animal life. This picture suggests strongly that, given enough time,

a biota can

evolve not just one intelligent species, but many. So complex life should occur abundantly.
There is a claim that "among the millions of species which have developed on Earth, only one became intelligent, so intelligence must be a very, very rare event." This is a textbook example of a wrong logical conclusion.

All planets in time may produce one or more intelligent species, but they will not appear simultaneously. One will be first. It will look around and find it is the only intelligent species. Should it be surprised? No! Of course the first one will be alone. Its uniqueness - in
principal temporary - says nothing about the ability of the biota to produce one or more intelligent species. If we assume that Earths are common, and that usually there is enough time to evolve an intelligent species before nature tramples on the biota, then

the optimistic view is that new systems of intelligent, technology-using creatures appear about once per year. Based on an extrapolation of our own experience, let's make a guess that a civilization's technology is detectable after 10,000 years. In that case, there are at least 10,000 detectable civilizations out there. This is a heady result, and very encouraging to SETI people. On the other hand, taking into account the number and distribution of stars in space, it implies that the nearest detectable civilizations are about 1,000 light years away, and only one in ten million stars may have a detectable civilization. These last numbers create a daunting challenge to those who construct instruments and projects to search for extraterrestrial intelligence. No actual
observing program carried out so far has come anywhere close to meeting the requirement of detecting reasonable signals from a distance of 1,000 light years, or of studying 10 million stars with high sensitivity. Donald Brownlee: But how often are animal-habitable planets located in the habitable zones of solar mass stars? Of the all the stars that have now been shown to have planets, all either have Jupiter-mass planets interior to 5.5 AU or they have Jupiters on elliptical orbits. It is unlikely that any of these stars could retain habitable zone planets on long-term stable orbits. On the other hand, many

of the stars that do not have currently detectable giant planets could have habitable zone planets. But even when rocky planets are There are many "Rare Earth" factors (such as planet mass, abundance of water and carbon, plate tectonics, etc.) that may play important and even critical roles in allowing the apparently difficult transition from slime to civilization.
located in the right place, will they have the "right stuff" for the evolution and long term survival of animal-like life? As is the case in the solar system, animal-like life is probably uncommon in the cosmos. This might even be the case for microbes: how can scientists agree that microbial life is common in our celestial neighborhood when there is no data? Even the simplest life is extraordinarily complicated and until we find solid evidence for life elsewhere, the frequency of life will unfortunately be guesswork. We can predict that some planetary bodies will provide life-supporting conditions, but no one can predict that life will form. Frank Drake: Only about 5% of the stars that have been studied sufficiently have hot Jupiters or Jupiters in elliptical orbits. The other 95% of the stars studied do not have hot Jupiters, and just

that 95% of the stars - for which the answers are not yet in - could be similar to our own system. This is reason for optimism among those who expect solar system analogs to be abundant.
what they have is still an open question. The latest discoveries, which depend on observations over a decade or more, are finding solar system analogs. This suggests

Organic materials are widespread ensuring like is plentiful throughout the universe
McKay, NASA Planetary Scientist, 02 (Christopher, Complex Life in the Universe?, http://www.astrobio.net/news/article236.html)
Chris McKay: There is no solid evidence of life elsewhere, but several factors suggest it is common. Organic material is widespread in the interstellar medium and in our own solar system. We have found planetary systems around other sun-like stars. On Earth, microbial life appeared very quickly - probably before 3.8 billion years ago. Also, we know that microbial ecosystems can survive in a variety of environments with liquid water and a suitable chemical energy source or sunlight. These factors suggest that microbial life - the sort of life the dominated Earth for the first two billion years - is widespread in the stellar neighborhood.

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Contention 2 If theres a bright center to the universe youre on the plane its farthest from
Scenario 1 Nanotechnology A. Destroying humanity now is critical to prevent an unregulated boom in Nanotechnology.
C.R.N. 04 <1/24/04, Center for Responsible Nanotechnology, http://crnano.typepad.com/crnblog/what_we_believe/>
Molecular nanotechnology manufacturing will arrive suddenly, perhaps within the next ten years, and almost certainly within the next twenty. If it takes the world by surprise, we will not have systems in place that can deal with it effectively. No single organization or mindset can create a full and appropriate policyand inappropriate policy will only make things worse. A combination of separate policy efforts will get in each other's way, and the risks will slip through the cracks.

B. Inevitable nanoaccidents will destroy life throughout the universe

ETC 03 <Action Group on Erosion, Technology and Concentration Atomtech: Technologies Converging at the Nano-scale January 2003 __http://www.etcgroup.org/documents/TheBigDown.pdf__>
Gray Goo refers to the obliteration of life that could result from the accidental and uncontrollable spread of self-replicating nanobots. The term was coined by K. Eric Drexler in the mid-1980s. Bill Joy, Chief Scientist at Sun MicroSystems, took Drexlers apocalyptic vision of nanotechnology run amok to a wider public.5 Drexler provides a vivid example of how quickly Gray Goo could devastate the planet, beginning with one rogue replicator. If the first replicator could assemble a copy of itself in one thousand seconds, the two replicators could then build two more in the next thousand seconds, the four build another four, and the eight build another eight. At the end of ten hours, there are not thirty-six new replicators, but over 68 billion. In less than a day, they would weigh a ton; in less than two days, they would outweigh the Earth; in another four hours, they would exceed the mass of the Sun and all the planets combined.6

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Scenario 2 Military Lasers A. New military technology will use lasers that exceed cosmic energy
Leslie, Philosophy Professor, Guelph Univerity, 96.
<John, The End of The World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction pg 113-114> Among the sources of electromagnetic waves which physicists have so far developed, the most powerful are the hardX-ray lasers of President Reagans SDI or Star Wars project. While the energy outputs of the lasers are secret, they are at any rate much greater than that of the hangar-sized Nova Laser of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This can deliver one hundred thousand joules, energy enough to raise a kilogram weight by about ten thousand meters, in a burst lasting a billionth of a second. The National Ignition Facility laser proposed to replace it would be about twenty times more powerful.
In 1988 the US Department of Energy relaxed secrecy sufficiently to reveal that Livermores nuclear fusion programme needing powerful lasers to compress pellets and heat them to 100,000,000 C, it was pursued in parallel with SDI laser research was progressing so well that a new laser with pulses of ten million joules was contemplated. Each pulse would rival the explosion of two kilograms of TNT. This laser, though, would be designed to operate many times.

The SDI lasers, in contrast, would be vaporized after generating single pulses because they would be powered by small nuclear bombs. An X-ray laser pumped by a one-hundredkiloton bomb might generate not just ten million joules, but ten trillion. This would be what was needed to destroy an intercontinental ballistic missile during
its far-distant acceleration phase, given that the laser beam would be distributed over a spot perhaps two hundred meters in diameter.

Could such lasers be used to exceed cosmic ray collision energies? Laser pulses which might seem very brief could still have their energies spread over periods much greater than those of collisions between particles (cosmic rays are protons, helium nuclei and occasional heavier nuclei) which were moving at nearly the speed of light. Several techniques of pulse compression are available, however.
They delay a pulses successive elements to different degrees, so that the entire pulse reaches the target at virtually the same moment. Compression by about a thousand times can be achieved by simple acousto-optic delay lines or, when a pulse has a mixture of frequencies varying with time, by using grating to direct components with different frequencies along paths of different lengths. With light of a single frequency, one can use a crystal whose refractive index varies in response to a rapidly oscillating electric field.

We remain faced with the impossibility of bringing any mere wave to a focus narrower than its wavelength. Now, there is quite a gap between an SDI X-ray lasers 10 -9 meter (millionth of a millimeter) wavelength and the circa 10 -15 meter which is characteristic of cosmic rays. Still, use of tremendously energetic
pulses could help compensate for this.

So could techniques for generating higher harmonics: that is to say, of processing beams so as to increase their frequencies and hence reduce their wavelengths. The original discovery in this area was that passing laser light through a quartz crystal could lead to frequency doubling. Greater frequency increases were next obtained with other crystals acting singly or in combination. Later still, increases by over a hundred times could be had: intense laser beams tore electrons from atoms but then allowed them to spring back, which made them radiate at the higher frequencies.

B. These energies will disturb the vacuum

Leslie, Philosophy Professor, Guelph Univerity, 96. <John, The End of The World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction pg 109>
How could anything as empty as a vacuum ever be threatened by particle accelerators or by anything? And if we did feel any
fears on this score, how could they be reduced by studying cosmic rays? For the present, at least, particle accelerators are the physicists preferred means of reaching very high energies: ones which are locally over tiny regions much above those produced by H-bombs. What guided Hut and Rees was that,

among all the events of whose existence we can be fairly confident, collisions between cosmic rays, extremely fast particles which can have the kinetic energies of rifle bullets, are by far the most locally energetic. So long as cosmic ray collision energies werent exceeded, nothing disastrous could be expected. Any higher energies, however, might pose a threat to our vacuum. For
vacuum in modern physics, or empty space, neednt mean a region absolutely empty. It usually means one of two other things instead:

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C. Vacuum destabilization destroys the Universe
Leslie, Philosophy Professor, Guelph Univerity, 96. <John, The End of The World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction pg 110>
As Hut and Rees commented, it may be that the vacuum state we live in is not the absolute lowest one because on many physical theories a local minimum of the effective potential, which can be quite stable, can exist for certain parameter values. The Universe, starting at a high temperature, might have supercooled in such a local minimum. In this case we should find ourselves in a false vacuum. Fields wouldnt be at their lowest energies, the ones to which they would like to fall. It would follow that our vacuum sate space of the sort we live in might suddenly disappear if a bubble of real vacuum formed. The bubble would expand at close to the speed of light, with enormous energy release, right through the galaxy and then onwards indefinitely. Might such an unfortunate event be triggered by a new generation of particle accelerators? As had been pointed out by Coleman and De Luccia, this would be the ultimate ecological catastrophe. Inside the expanding bubble, the new vacuum, there would be new constants of nature. Not only is life as we know it impossible, so is chemistry as we know it, since all protons all would decay as soon as they were hit by the advancing bubble wall. Worse still, there would be no hope that the new vacuum would in due course come to sustain if not life as we know it, at least some structures capable of knowing joy. For the space through which the bubble had expanded would suffer gravitational collapse in microseconds or less.

Scenario 3 particle accelerators Advances in particle accelerator technology ensure the destruction of the entire universe
CR4.com, 8-13-07 (Concern that the LHC might destroy the universe, http://cr4.globalspec.com/thread/11070/Concern-that-the-LHC-might-destroy-the-universe)
People both inside and outside of the physics community have voiced concern that the LHC might trigger one of several theoretical disasters capable of destroying the Earth or even our entire Universe. Each advance in particle accelerator technology exposes the stability of the very fabric of the universe to more stringent tests. RHIC has been running since 2000 and has generated no major problems; however the Large Hadron Collider is set to create an environment significantly more exotic than realized in the RHIC, and therefore the probability of catastrophe is greater. Theoretical disasters include:

Creation of a stable black hole[9] inside the earth Creation of strange matter that is more stable than ordinary matter Creation of magnetic monopoles that could catalyze proton decay Triggering a transition into a different quantum mechanical vacuum (see False vacuum)

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Scenario 4 time travel Time travel will occur in the future new advances ensure it
Highfield, editor of the New Scientist, 8-8-07 (Roger, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2007/08/08/scitime108.xml)
Prof Amos Ori has set out a theoretical model of a time machine which would allow people to travel back in time to explore the past. The way the machine would work rests on Einsteins theory of general relativity, a theory of gravity that shows how time can be warped by the gravitational pull of objects. Bend time enough and you can create a loop and the possibility of temporal travel. Prof Oris theory, set out in the prestigious science journal Physical Review, rests on a set of mathematical equations describing hypothetical conditions that, if established, could lead to the formation of a time machine, technically known as closed time-like curves. In the blends of space and time, or spacetime, in his equations, time would be able to curve back on itself, so that a person travelling around the loop might be able to go further back in time with each lap. In the past, one of the major challenges has been the alleged need for an exotic material with strange properties - what physicists call negative density - to create these time loops. This is no longer an issue, he told The Daily Telegraph. You can construct a time machine without exotic matter, he said. It is now possible to use any material, even dust, so long as there is enough of it to bend spacetime into a loop.

A. Time travel will destroy the universe

Herbert, 00 (Ryan, Time travel, http://xar.us/stuff/papers/time_travel/)
Despite these restraints, Gerard 't Hooft of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands is determined to grind any hope that cosmic strings may work under his heel. He warns, "Don't try [to go back in time using cosmic strings] . . . You won't just failyou might destroy the entire universe" (Mukerjee, 1994, p. 32). The dilemma described by 't Hooft shows that in a closed universe, the strings cannot pass parallel to each other. Instead, they begin to orbit each other, moving closer and closer together spinning faster and faster. As the kinetic energy of the strings approached infinity, the universe would begin to crumble and collapse in onto the strings. Mukerjee (1994) described the event from the prospective of a potential time traveler: "A timemachine ticket-holder will see massive walls closing in while being shredded to spaghetti by the strings speeding through. . . The scene sketched by 't Hooft shows how such objects can act as Nature's dragons, guarding time machines from fools who would rush in" (p. 32).

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Scenario 5 zero point energy A) Zero point energy is coming now
Scott, editor of Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3-1-04 (William, To the stars, Aviation Week & Space Technology, p. lexis)
At least two large aerospace companies and one U.S. Defense Dept. agency are betting that zero point energy could be the next breakthrough in aerospace vehicle propulsion, and are backing those bets with seed money for ZPE research. If their efforts pay off, ZPE-driven powerplants might enable Mach 4 fighters, quiet 1,200-seat hypersonic airliners that fly at 100-mi. altitudes as far as 12,000 mi. in about 70 min., and 12.6-hr. trips to the Moon. ONE OF THOSE companies, BAE Systems, launched Project Greenglow in 1986 to provide a focus for research into novel propulsion systems and the means to power them, said R.A. Evans, the project leader, in a technical paper last year. Although funding levels have been modest, Greenglow is exploring ZPE as one element of the programs project-directed research, according to John E. Allen, a consultant to BAE Systems. At least one large U.S. aerospace company is embarking on ZPE research in response to a Defense Dept. request, but the company and its customer cannot be identified yet. National laboratories, the military services and other companies either now have or have had low-level ZPE-related efforts underway.

B) Zero point energy will destroy the universe

Page, 8-7-07 (Lewis, Boffins flick Quantum vacuum switch from suck to blow http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/08/07/quantum_levitation_incredible/, accessed on 10/9/09)
Or, freely paraphrasing, we don't really know what's going on here but zero-point energy and the Casimir force are real and could conceivably rip open the fabric of the space-time continuum and destroy the universe. The St Andrews team appear to endorse the idea that zero-point effects could at least be used to produce some kind of ultra-powerful devastating energy ray, as developed by "Syndrome" the supervillain in The Incredibles. On their webpage they show a pic of Syndrome blasting something, captioned:

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Scenario 6 AI We will develop uncontrollable artificial life unleashing a universal biocide
Rheingold, 9-22-92 (Howard, At the beginning of the twentieth century, Whole Earth Review, p. lexis)
It looks as if something even more powerful than thermonuclear weaponry is emanating from that same, strangely fated corner of New Mexico where nuclear physicists first knew sin. Those who follow the progress of artificial-life research know that the effects of messing with the engines of evolution might lead to forces even more regrettable than the demons unleashed at Alamogordo. At least nuclear weaponry and biocidal technologies only threaten life on Earth, and don't threaten to contaminate the rest of the universe. That's the larger ethical problem of a-life. The technology of self-replicating machines that could emerge in future decades from today's a-life research might escape from human or even terrestrial control, infest the solar system, and, given time, break out into the galaxy. If there are other intelligent species out there, they might not react benevolently to evidence that humans have dispersed interstellar strip-mining robots that breed, multiply, and evolve. If there are no other intelligent species in existence, maybe we will end up creating God, or the Devil, depending on how our minds' children evolve a billion years from now. The entire story of life on earth thus far might be just the wetware prologue to a longer, larger, drier tale, etched in silicon rather than carbon, and blasted to the stars -- purposive spores programmed to seek, grow, evolve, expand. That's what a few people think they are on the verge of inventing.

Scenario 7 high energy experiments Future technologies will produce experiments that exceed cosmic energies causing a vacuum destabilization that destroys everything
Leslie, 96 (John, Univ. of Guelph Philosophy Professor, The End of the World: The Science and Ethics of Human Extinction, pages 8-9)
The possibility of producing an all-destroying phase transition, comparable to turning water into ice, could be much graver. In 1984, Edward Farhi and Robert Jaffe suggested that physicists might produce strange-quark matter of a kind which attracted ordinary matter, changing it into more of itself until the entire Earth had been converted (eaten). It is thought, however, that strange-quark matter would instead repel ordinary matter. In contrast, there might be a very real vacuum meta-stability danger associated with experiments at extremely high energies. The space in which we live may be in a false vacuum state, filled with a force field technically speaking, it would be a scalar field which is like a statue balancing upright: stable against small jolts but upsettable by large ones. If the jolt of a high-energy experiment produced a bubble of true vacuum, this would then expand at nearly the speed of light, destroying everything, rather as when a tiny ice crystal changes a large volume of supercooled water into more ice crystals. We might be safe only so long as our experiments kept below the energies already reached by colliding cosmic rays. Many people think such energies will never be attained by us. But David Schramm and Leon Lederman, Nobelprizewinning former Director of the National Accelerator Laboratory in Chicago, wrote in 1989 that we might reach them as early as the year 2100 with radically new technology.

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Scenario 8 anti matter weapons Anti-matter weapons are coming now and will destroy everything
AboveTopSecret.com, 1-6-05 (Does anyone really understand antimatter?, http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread144369/pg1)
This technological breakthrough seems to be falling under the same smoke screen as nuclear weaponry capabilities. Antimatter is the highest source of energy known to man. It releases energy with 100% effiecency (Nuclear Fusion is 1.5% effeicient). CERN in Geneva, Switzerland is producing small portions on an atomic level, but as they finish their moderrn particle eccelerator under ground in a few years, they will be a ble to produce antimatter at a larger rate. If you don't know much about it, antimatter cannot be found anywhere in nature, for if it did it would immediately annihalate with everything, including air. It has all the oposites of real matter, matter has negatively charged electrons, antimatter has positively charged, positrons. Antimatter can be contained inside a magnetic field. My point is, this weapon, with a basketball sized sphere of antimatter could destroy the entire Rhode Island. This weapon is the beginning of the end, yet it is ignored by the masses. Inevitabilities usaully are!

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Contention 3 A New Hope 1. The disad: outweighs the case: the ethical problems of annihilating all life on earth pales in comparison to threatening destruction of the universe.
Whole Earth Review, 92.
<At the beginning of the twentieth century - computational biology Column Whole Earth Review, Fall, 1992 by Howard Rheingold, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1510/is_n76/ai_12635777__>

It looks as if something even more powerful than thermonuclear weaponry is emanating from that same, strangely fated corner of New Mexico where nuclear physicists first knew sin. Those who follow the progress of artificial-life research know that the effects of messing with the engines of evolution might lead to forces even more regrettable than the demons unleashed at Alamogordo. At least nuclear weaponry and biocidal technologies only threaten life on Earth, and don't threaten to contaminate the rest of the universe. That's the larger ethical problem of a-life. The technology of self-replicating machines that could emerge in future decades from today's a-life research might escape from human or even terrestrial control, infest the solar system, and, given time, break out into the galaxy. If there are other intelligent species out there, they might not react benevolently to evidence that humans have dispersed interstellar strip-mining robots that breed, multiply, and evolve. If there are no other intelligent species in existence, maybe we will end up creating God, or the Devil, depending on how our minds' children evolve a billion years from now. The entire story of life on earth thus far might be just the wetware prologue to a longer, larger, drier tale, etched in silicon rather than carbon, and blasted to the stars -- purposive spores programmed to seek, grow, evolve, expand. That's what a few people think they are on the verge of inventing. Scenarios like that make the potential for global thermonuclear war or destruction of the biosphere look like a relatively local problem. Biocide of a few hundred thousand species (including ourselves) is one kind of ethical problem; turning something like the Alien loose on the cosmos is a whole new level of ethical lapse. The human species has precious little time to gain the wisdom necessary to handle the knowledge scientists have discovered. Artificial life is too important to remain an esoteric specialty. The time to think about what it might mean is now, while we still have a choice. Military applications of autonomous, self-reproducing robots might lead to worse fates than mere annihilation. There's some question about whether it is ever possible to put knowledge back in the bottle, but there is no question that we still have time to make sure that the self-reproducing increasingly intelligent, interstellar lifeforms that we are about to create are more closely modeled on E.T. than on the Alien.

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2. There is no justification to exclude other beings from our moral calculation Singer,
a chair in bioethics at Princeton University's Center for Human Values, 01 <Peter, To: Richard A. Posner June 11, http://www.utilitarian.net/singer/interviews-debates/200106--.htm >

People often say, without much thought, that all human beings are infinitely more valuable than any animals of any other species. This view owes more to our own selfish interests and to ancient religious teachings that reflect these interests than to reason or impartial moral reflection. What ethically significant feature can there be that all human beings but no nonhuman animals possess? We like to distinguish ourselves from animals by saying that only humans are rational, can use language, are self-aware, or are autonomous. But these abilities, significant as they are, do not enable us to draw the requisite line between all humans and nonhuman animals. For there are many humans who are not rational, self-aware, or autonomous, and who have no languageall humans under 3 months of age, for a start. And even if they are excluded, on the grounds that they have the potential to develop these capacities, there are other human beings who do not have this potential. Sadly, some humans are born with brain damage so severe that they will never be able to reason, see themselves as an independent being, existing over time, make their own decisions, or learn any form of language. If it would be absurd to give animals the right to vote, it would be no less absurd to give that right to infants or to severely retarded human beings. Yet we still give equal consideration to their interests. We don't raise them for food in overcrowded sheds or test household cleaners on them. Nor should we. But we do these things to nonhuman animals who show greater abilities in reasoning than these humans. This is because we have a prejudice in favor of the view that all humans are somehow infinitely more valuable than any animal. Sadly, such prejudices are not unusual. Like racists and sexists, speciesists say that the boundary of their own group is also a boundary that marks off the most valuable beings from all the rest. Never mind what you are like, if you are a member of my group, you are superior to all those who are not members of my group. The speciesist favors a larger group than the racist and so has a large circle of concern; but all these prejudices use an arbitrary and morally irrelevant fact membership of a race, sex, or speciesas if it were morally crucial. The only acceptable limit to our moral concern is the point at which there is no awareness of pain or pleasure, and no preferences of any kind. That is why pigs count, but lettuces don't. Pigs can feel pain and pleasure. Lettuces can't.

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Aliens Exist.
Drake, Astronomy and Astrophysics Professor University of California at Santa Cruz ,02 <July, Astrobiology Magazine, http://www.astrobio.net/news/article236.html>
Michael Meyer: The strongest evidence is a lack thereof - we don't have evidence of life beyond Earth. However, from what we think we know (and this seems to be the opinion of the debaters) microscopic life may be common. But, if your question is about intelligent life, the unknowns are tremendous. Out of approximately 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars, it seems reasonable that at least one other star is capable of harboring a planet sustaining complex life. If complex life is rare, space is so vast and inimical to life that we may never learn about our nearest neighbor. But, if there are many planetary experiments that did not fail, then it is just a matter of time before we learn that we are not alone.

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Link + Impact Isomer Bombs

The military is pursuing new Isomer bombs which will destroy the quantum vacuum and the universe we dont even have to win development or use just that these weapons are experimented or tested with.
Bekkum 4 (Gary S., Founder Spacetime Threat Assessment Report Research, American Military is Pursuing New Types of
Exotic Weapons, Pravda, 8-30, http://www.starstreamresearch.com/dark_matters.htm) the American military is pursuing new types of exotic bombs - including a new class of isomeric gamma ray weapons. Unlike conventional atomic and hydrogen bombs, the new weapons would trigger the release of energy by absorbing radiation, and respond by re-emitting a far more powerful radiation. In this new category of gamma-ray weapons, a nuclear isomer absorbs x-rays and re-emits higher frequency gamma rays. The emitted gamma radiation has been reported to release 60 times the energy of the x-rays that trigger the effect.
Recently the British science news journal "New Scientist" revealed that The discovery of this isomer triggering is fairly recent, and was first reported in a 1999 paper by an international group of scientists. Although this controversial development has remained fairly obscure, it has not been hidden from the public.

Beyond the visible part of defense research is an immense underground of secret projects considered so sensitive that their very existence is denied.
These so-called "black budget programs" are deliberately kept from the public eye and from most political leaders. CNN recently reported that in the United States the black budget projects for 2004 are being funded at a level of more than 20 billion dollars per year. In the summer of 2000 I contacted Nick Cook, the former aviation editor and aerospace consultant to Jane's Defence Weekly, the international military affairs journal. Cook had been investigating black budget super-secret research into exotic physics for advanced propulsion technologies. I had been monitoring electronic discussions between various American and Russian scientists theorizing about rectifying the quantum vacuum for advanced space drive. Several groups of scientists, partitioned into various research organizations, were exploring what NASA calls "Breakthrough Propulsion Physics" - exotic technologies for advanced space travel to traverse the vast distances between stars. Partly inspired by the pulp science fiction stories of their youth, and partly by recent reports of multiple radar tracking tapes of unidentified objects performing impossible maneuvers in the sky, these scientists were on a quest to uncover the most likely new physics for star travel. The NASA program was run by Marc Millis, financed under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP). Joe Firmage, then the 28-year-old Silicon Valley CEO of the three billion dollar Internet firm US Web, began to fund research in parallel with NASA. Firmage hired a NASA Ames nano-technology scientist, Creon Levit, to run theInternational Space Sciences Organization, a move which apparently alarmed the management at NASA. The San Francisco based Hearst Examiner reported that NASA's Office of Inspector General assigned Special Agent Keith Tate to investigate whether any proprietary NASA technology might have been leaking into the private sector. Cook was intrigued when I pointed out the apparent connections between various private investors, defense contractors, NASA, INSCOM (American military intelligence), and the CIA.

While researching exotic propulsion technologies Cook had heard rumors of a new kind of weapon, a "sub-quantum atomic bomb", being whispered about in what he called the "dark halls" of defense research. Sub-quantum physics is a controversial re-interpretation of quantum theory, based on so-called pilot wave theories, where an information field controls quantum particles. The late Professor David Bohm showed that the predictions of ordinary quantum mechanics could be recast into a pilot wave
information theory. Recently Anthony Valentini of the Perimeter Institute has suggested that ordinary quantum theory may be a special case of pilot wave theories, leaving open the possibility of new and exotic non-quantum technologies. Some French, Serbian and Ukrainian physicists have been working on new theories of extended electrons and solitons, so perhaps a sub-quantum bomb is not entirely out of the question.

there is no question that mainstream physicists seriously contemplate a phase transition in the quantum vacuum as a real possibility. The quantum vacuum defies common sense, because empty space in quantum field theory is actually filled with virtual particles. These virtual particles appear and disappear far too quickly to be detected directly, but their existence has been confirmed by experiments that demonstrate their influence on ordinary matter.
Even if the rumors of a sub-quantum bomb are pure fantasy, "Such research should be forbidden!" In the early 1970's Soviet physicists were concerned that the vacuum of our universe was only one possible state of empty space. The fundamental state of empty space is called the "true vacuum". Our universe was thought to reside in a "false vacuum", protected from the true vacuum by "the wall of our world". A change from one vacuum state to another is known as a phase transition. This is analogous to the transition between frozen and liquid water. Lev Okun, a Russian physicist and historian recalls Andrei Sakharov, the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, expressing his concern about research into the phase transitions of the vacuum.

If the wall between vacuum states was to be breached, calculations showed that an unstoppable expanding bubble would continue to grow until it destroyed our entire universe! Sakharov declared that "Such research should be forbidden!" According to Okun, Sakharov feared that an experiment might accidentally trigger a vacuum phase transition.

Wayne State
Jake/John Carrol 14 Order 66

Impact Universe Destruction

Were on the brink of becoming a Type-II civilization able to destroy solar systemsEventually multiple universes. Lubbock, 1998
[Richard, Science faces the unthinkable, http://www.dcn.Davis.ca.us/~sander/mensa/glbmail1.html August 8th, 1998]
Barrow sketches the plausible progress of civilizations up a ladder that begins with our present abilities. "We are nearly a low-level type II civilization," he says. That means we are almost capable of restructuring solar systems, among other things. Barrow's complex sequence of civilizations runs all the way up to the final type Omega civilization "which could manipulate the entire universe (and

even other universes)."

Wayne State
Jake/John Carrol 15 Order 66

A) Humanity must acknowledge the equality of alien life to prevent universal genocide Packer, Master in Communication Wake Forest, 07 <Joe, Alien Life in Search of Acknowledgment, pg 62-63> Once we hold alien interests as equal humanity's obligations to life beyond this planet.
2. All living things struggle together for the sake of replication. This replication will culminate in the replication of entire universe. In the face of this goal the loss of humanity is as insignificant as the loss of a single organism. Gardner, Scientist, published in peer-reviewed scientific journals Complexity and journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 03
<James N., Biocosm: the new scientific theory of evolution: intelligent life is the architect of the universe pg 231-232> The essence of the ... on planet Earth?