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Voice Transmission using Frequency Shift Keying

Dhaval J. Shah Third Year, Electronics and Tele-communication, Sardar Patel Institute of Technology. August 16, 2010
Abstract This project implements a Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) [1] system for transmission of sound as well as data.The system can be used to transmit digital signal (either voice or data) over a distance by means of a wire.

Introduction

Now-a-days data or voice signal is converted into digital form and this digital data is used to modulate the analog carrier.Converting the data in digital form will give the advantages of digital transmission,security etc. Frequency Shift Keying is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is trnasmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. This project implements BFSK [2] in its basic form using VCO or analog multiplexer. The FSK data is transmitted by means of wire and decoded in the reciver. The modulating data can be voice or digital data. Figure 1 shows the simple block diagram of FSK modulator. As shown in the gure according to the modulating signal m(t) the electronic switch will pass either frequency f1 or f2. The signals transmitted for marks (binary ones) and spaces (binary zeros) are given by the following equtions. S1 (t) = A cos(1 t + c ) S2 (t) = A cos(2 t + c ) 0<t<T 0<t<T (1) (2)

Here equation (1) referred to the mark frequency and equation (2) referred to the space frequency equation. 1

Figure 1: Basic Block Diagram.

Figure 2: FSK Modulator Block Diagram.

System Description

Figure 2 shows the block diagram of communication system. The voice signal is converted into an electrical signal by using condenser microphone at the input. The microphone output is amplied and then it is given to the ADC. The output of ADC is given to parallel to serial converter which will convert parallel input into serial output. This serial data is given as a input to the VCO whose output frequency depends on the input voltage. Figure 3 shows the block diagram of FSK demodultor. The FSK signal is demodulated by using Phase Locked Loop(PLL). The output of PLL is given to the Serial to parallel converter. This output is given to DAC to convert digital signal into analog form and this output is amplied by power amplier and given to speaker.

Figure 3: FSK Demodulator Block Diagram.

Circuit Diagram

The circuit for the system is divided into two parts, the transmitter circuit and the receiver. Each of them are explained in detail in folowing sections

3.1

Transmitter Circuit

The transmitter circuit as shown in gure contains an amplier which is direcctly connected to a condensor microphone. The amplier also acts as a low pass lter with capacitors connected at its output. The amplier feeds to the 8 bit ADC 0808. The ADC is clocked at a frequency of 640 Khz using a astable multivibrator made of IC 555. The output of ADC is 8 bit parallel data. This data is serialized and encoded with extra synchronizing bits using encoder IC HT640. The output of HT640 is fed to a VCO IC565 whose output is required FSK signal.

3.2

Receiver Circuit

In the receiver, as shown in gure,the FSK data is received and is demodulated by using IC 566. The output is the channel encoded data which needs to be decoded and converted to parallel form. This is done using decoder HT648. The output of HT648 is a 8 bit parallel data which is given to DAC8080 for analog conversion. The analog data is then amplied using audio amplier lm380. The output is fed to 8 W speaker.

Figure 4: FSK Waveform.

Waveform

The Figure 4 shows the output waveform of the FSK modulator.

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5.1

List of Components
Transmitter Circuit
Table 1

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Component label IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 R1,R2,R3,R5 R4,R6,R8 R9 C1,C2

IC number A741 NE555 ADC0808 HT640 1K 4.7K 390K 2.2F

5.2

Receiver Circuit
Table 2

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Component label IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 R1,R2,R3,R5 R4,R6,RR9 C1,C2 S1

IC number HT648 DAC8080 A741 LM386 1K 4.7K 2.2F Speaker 8W

Conclusion

Hence the above method can be usefully implemented for transmission of voice.Also it can be altered in an easy way to enable it transmit and receiver data as well.

References
[1] Frequency Shift Keying,Electronics communication systems by Wayn Tomasi [2] Binary Frequency Shift Keying,Modulation Techniques by Kennedy