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3.2.

7 Excitation system
The excitation systems of the 3-phase synchronous alternators installed at the CEBs power stations can be classified into one of three types: 1. brush type excitation 2. brushless type excitation 3. static type excitation

3.2.7.1 Brush type excitation Figure 3.2.18 shows the block diagram of a brush-type excitation system.
RG

Carbon brush system

RF

DC generator with shaft coupled to prime mover Field winding on rotor

Figure 3.2.18: Brush type excitation system

The shaft of a dc generator is coupled to the shaft of the prime-mover of the machine and rotates along with it. The dc voltage at the stationary terminals of the dc generator is supplied through carbon brushes to the field winding wound on the poles of the rotor and moving at the rotors speed.

The number of carbon brushes depends on the rated field current, which is itself dependent on the rotor rated speed and the rated terminal voltage of the alternator. As the rated rotor speed of the alternator decreases, the flux per pole
P

and hence the field current IF must be higher to achieve the

required excitation voltage. A higher number of carbon brushes is required to carry the field current from the terminals of the dc generator to the field winding.

3.2.7.2 Brushless type excitation Figure 3.2.19 shows the block diagram of a brushless-type excitation system.

RF

=
3-phase generator mounted on rotor 3-phase ac-to-dc converter mounted on rotor Field winding on rotor

Figure 3.2.19: Brushless type excitation system

A small 3-phase ac generator and a 3-phase ac-to-dc converter are mounted on the rotor of the alternator and move at the rotors speed. AC voltage is generated at the terminal of the small

generator when the rotor is driven by the prime-mover and the voltage is fed to the rectifier. The dc output of the rectifier is directly supplied to the field winding wound on the poles of the rotor.

3.2.7.3 Static type excitation


N B Y R

Carbon brush system

RF

=
3-phase lowvoltage supply Stationary 3-phase ac-to-dc converter Field winding on rotor

Figure 3.2.20: Static type excitation system

Figure 3.2.20 shows the block diagram of a static type excitation system. A stationary 3-phase ac-todc converter is supplied with 3-phase ac power from one low-voltage busbar of the power station or the terminal of the alternator through a step-down distribution transformer. The dc output of the converter is connected to the field winding wound on the poles of the rotor through a system of carbon brushes. The number of carbon brushes depends on the rated field current IF, which is itself dependent on the rotors speed and the rated terminal voltage of the alternator.

3.2.7.4 3-phase ac-to-dc converter For the brushless and static type excitation system, the 3-phase ac-to-dc converter may employ a bridge of six thyristors or six diodes.

3-phase ac-to-dc converter employing thyristors Figure 3.2.21 shows the schematic diagram of a 3-phase ac-to-dc converter employing six thyristors. The average dc voltage at the output of the converter employing six thyristors is a function of the firing angle of the thyristors and the variation of the firing angle results in a change of the field current and

hence the excitation voltage.

ER

EY EB

Output DC Voltage V0

Figure 3.2.21: 3-phase ac-to-dc converter employing thyristors

The converter makes use of six thyristors and has six possible paths for conduction. The line -to-line voltage appearing at the output of the converter depends on which pair of thyristors is conducting at that specific time. The firing angle of the thyristor, , is measured relative to the angle at the

intersection between two line-to-line voltages on the positive side of the voltage axis. Of the two lineto-line voltages, it is the one that is increasing at the instant of intersection that maintain the voltage when the thyristors are fired. Angle assumes value in the range [0, 60 ] and the higher its value, the
0 0

lower would be the average value of the DC output voltage. With the symmetrical firing scheme, a pair of thyristors conducts for the next 60 after the pair is brought into conduction. In one cycle of the ac supply voltage, all the six paths conducts for a duration of 1/6f=1/360 seconds where f is the frequency of the ac supply, i.e. over an angle of 600 each. The output DC voltage is given as:

Vo !

3 3E pk cos(E ) T

where Epkis the magnitude of the phase-to-neutral supply voltage 3-phase ac-to-dc converter employing diodes For the 3-phase ac-to-dc converter employing diodes shown in Figure 3.2.22, the dc output voltage is varied by changing the value of the variable resistance arranged in parallel with the field winding.

utput oltage

Figure 3.2.22: 3-phase ac-to-dc converter employing diodes