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BIOSCIENCES 1 SUMMER 2010

MIDTERM EXAM 1

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BIOSCIENCES1 (BIO1404)

EXAM1 Summer2010 A
1)

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion. 1) Organicchemistryisasciencebasedonthestudyof A) functionalgroups. B) vitalforcesinteractingwithmatter. C) carboncompounds. D) wateranditsinteractionwithotherkindsofmolecules. E) inorganiccompounds. 2) Theslightnegativechargeatoneendofonewatermoleculeisattractedtotheslightpositive chargeofanotherwatermolecule.Whatisthisattractioncalled? A) acovalentbond B) ahydrogenbond C) anionicbond D) ahydrophilicbond E) ahydrophobicbond SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion. ThefollowingquestionsrefertothemoleculesshowninFigure4.7.

2)

Figure4.7 3) Whichmoleculeisanalcohol? 3)

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion. 4) Whichmoleculescontainacarbonylgroup? A) AandB B) BandC C) CandD D) DandE E) EandA SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion. 5) Whichmoleculeiswatersolublebecauseithasahydroxylfunctionalgroup? 5) 4)

B1

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion. 6) WhatisthepHofasolutionwithahydrogenion[H + ]concentrationof10-8 M? A) pH2 B) pH4 C) pH6 D) pH8 E) pH10 SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion. ThefollowingquestionsrefertothefunctionalgroupsshowninFigure4.6. 6)

Figure4.6 7) Whichisahydroxylfunctionalgroup? 8) Whichisafunctionalgroupthathelpsstabilizeproteinsbyformingcovalentcross-links withinorbetweenproteinmolecules? 9) Whichisacarboxylfunctionalgroup? 10) Whichisacarbonylfunctionalgroup? 11) Whichisanaminofunctionalgroup? 7) 8)

9) 10) 11)

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion. 12) Differentatomicformsofanelementcontainthesamenumberofprotonsbutadifferentnumber ofneutrons.Whatarethesedifferentatomicformscalled? A) ions B) isotopes C) neutronicatoms D) isomers E) radioactiveatoms 12)

B2

13) IfthepHofasolutionisincreasedfrompH5topH7,itmeansthatthe A) concentrationofH + istwice(2X)whatitwasatpH5. B) concentrationofH + ishalf(1/2)whatitwasatpH5. C) concentrationofOH - is100timesgreaterthanwhatitwasatpH5. D) concentrationofOH - isone-hundredth(0.01X)whatitwasatpH5. E) concentrationofH + is100timesgreaterandtheconcentrationofOH - isone-hundredth whattheywereatpH5. 3 1 Hisaradioactiveisotopeofhydrogen.Onedifferencebetweenhydrogen-1( H)and 1
3 1

13)

14)

14)

hydrogen-3( H)isthathydrogen-3has A) onemoreneutronandonemoreprotonthanhydrogen-1. B) onemoreprotonandonemoreelectronthanhydrogen -1. C) onemoreelectronandonemoreneutronthanhydrogen-1. D) twomoreneutronsthanhydrogen-1. E) twomoreprotonsthanhydrogen-1. 15) Ifanatomofsulfur(atomicnumber16)wereallowedtoreactwithatomsofhydrogen(atomic number1),whichofthemoleculesbelowwouldbeformed? A) SH B) HSH C) H SH | H D) H | H SH | H E) HSH 16) Eachelementisuniqueanddifferentfromotherelementsbecauseofthenumberofprotonsinthe nucleiofitsatoms.Whichofthefollowingindicatesthenumberofprotonsinanatomsnucleus? A) atomicmass B) atomicweight C) atomicnumber D) massweight E) massnumber 17) Watershighspecificheatismainlyaconsequenceofthe A) smallsizeofthewatermolecules. B) highspecificheatofoxygenandhydrogenatoms. C) absorptionandreleaseofheatwhenhydrogenbondsbreakandform. D) factthatwaterisapoorheatconductor. E) inabilityofwatertodissipateheatintodryair. 15)

16)

17)

B3

18) Whichofthepairsofmolecularstructuresshownbelowdepictenantiomers(enantiomericforms) ofthesamemolecule? A)

18)

B)

C)

D)

E)

19) Calciumhasanatomicnumberof20andanatomicmassof40.Therefore,acalciumatommust have A) 20protons. B) 40electrons. C) 40neutrons. D) AandBonly E) A,B,andC

19)

B4

20) Carbondioxide(CO 2 )isreadilysolubleinwater,accordingtotheequationCO 2 +H2 O H2 CO 3 .Carbonicacid(H 2 CO 3 )isaweakacid.IfCO2 isbubbledintoabeakercontainingpure, freshly-distilledwater,whichofthefollowinggraphscorrectlydescribestheresults? A)

20)

B)

C)

D)

E)

B5

SHORTANSWER.Writethewordorphrasethatbestcompleteseachstatementoranswersthequestion. PleaserefertoFigure2.1toanswerthefollowingquestions.

Figure2.1 21) Whichdrawingdepictstheelectronconfigurationofoxygen (


16 O)? 8

21)

MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion. 22) Themassnumberofanelementcanbeeasilyapproximatedbyaddingtogetherthenumberof __________inanatomofthatelement. A) protonsandneutrons B) energylevels C) protonsandelectrons D) neutronsandelectrons E) isotopes 23) Achemistwishestomakeanorganicmoleculelessacidic.Whichofthefollowingfunctional groupsshouldbeaddedtothemoleculeinordertodoso? A) carboxyl B) sulfhydryl C) hydroxyl D) amino E) phosphate 24) Acovalentbondislikelytobepolarwhen A) oneoftheatomssharingelectronsismuchmoreelectronegativethantheotheratom. B) thetwoatomssharingelectronsareequallyelectronegative. C) thetwoatomssharingelectronsareofthesameelement. D) itisbetweentwoatomsthatarebothverystrongelectronacceptors. E) thetwoatomssharingelectronsaredifferentelements. 25) Identicalheatlampsarearrangedtoshineonidenticalcontainersofwaterandmethanol(wood alcohol),sothateachliquidabsorbsthesameamountofenergyminutebyminute.Thecovalent bondsofmethanolmoleculesarenon-polar,sotherearenohydrogenbondsamongmethanol molecules.Whichofthefollowinggraphscorrectlydescribeswhatwillhappentothetemperature ofthewaterandthemethanol? A) 22)

23)

24)

25)

B6

B)

C)

D)

E)

26) Inasinglemoleculeofwater,twohydrogenatomsarebondedtoasingleoxygenatomby A) hydrogenbonds. B) nonpolarcovalentbonds. C) polarcovalentbonds. D) ionicbonds. E) vanderWaalsinteractions.

26)

B7

27) Threeorfourofthefollowingillustrationsdepictdifferentstructuralisomersoftheorganic compoundwithmolecularformulaC 6 H14.Forclarity,onlythecarbonskeletonsareshown; hydrogenatomsthatwouldbeattachedtothecarbonshavebeenomitted.Whichone,ifany,is NOTastructuralisomerofthiscompound? A)

27)

B)

C)

D)

E) Eachoftheillustrationsintheotheranswerchoicesdepictsastructuralisomerofthe compoundwithmolecularformulaC 6 H14. 28) Theatomicnumberofneonis10.Therefore,whichofthefollowingis correct aboutanatomof neon? A) Ithas8electronsinitsouterelectronshell. B) Itisinert. C) Ithasanatomicmassof10daltons. D) AandBonly E) A,B,andCarecorrect. 29) Acarbonatomismostlikelytoformwhatkindofbond(s)withotheratoms? A) ionic B) hydrogen C) covalent D) AandBonly E) A,B,andC 28)

29)

B8

ThefollowingquestionisbasedonFigure3.1:solutemoleculesurroundedbyahydrationshellofwater.

Figure3.1 30) Basedonyourknowledgeofthepolarityofwatermolecules,thesolutemoleculeismostlikely A) positivelycharged. B) negativelycharged. C) withoutcharge. D) hydrophobic. E) nonpolar. 31) WhatisthepHofasolutionwithahydroxylion[OH - ]concentrationof10-12M? A) pH2 B) pH4 C) pH10 D) pH12 E) pH14 32) Carbondioxide(CO 2 )isreadilysolubleinwater,accordingtotheequationCO 2 +H2 O H2 CO 3 .Carbonicacid(H 2 CO 3 )isaweakacid.RespiringcellsreleaseCO 2 .Whatpredictioncan wemakeaboutthepHofbloodasthatbloodfirstcomesincontactwithrespiringcells? A) BloodpHwilldecreaseslightly. B) BloodpHwillincreaseslightly. C) BloodpHwillremainunchanged. D) BloodpHwillfirstincrease,thendecreaseasCO 2 combineswithhemoglobin. E) BloodpHwillfirstdecrease,thenincreasesharplyasCO 2 combineswithhemoglobin. 33) Whatisthedifferencebetweencovalentbondsandionicbonds? A) Covalentbondsinvolvethesharingofprotonsbetweenatoms,andionicbondsinvolvethe sharingofelectronsbetweenatoms. B) Covalentbondsinvolvethesharingofneutronsbetweenatoms,andionicbondsinvolvethe sharingofelectronsbetweenatoms. C) Covalentbondsinvolvethesharingofelectronsbetweenatoms,andionicbondsinvolvethe electricalattractionbetweenatoms. D) Covalentbondsinvolvethesharingofprotonsbetweenatoms,andionicbondsinvolvethe sharingofneutronsbetweenatoms. E) Covalentbondsinvolvethetransferofelectronsbetweenatoms,andionicbondsinvolvethe sharingofneutronsbetweenatoms. 30)

31)

32)

33)

B9

34) About25ofthe92naturalelementsareknowntobeessentialtolife.Whichfourofthese25 elementsmakeupapproximately96%oflivingmatter? A) carbon,sodium,chlorine,nitrogen B) carbon,sulfur,phosphorus,hydrogen C) oxygen,hydrogen,calcium,sodium D) carbon,hydrogen,nitrogen,oxygen E) carbon,oxygen,sulfur,calcium 35) Whichtwofunctionalgroupsarealways foundinaminoacids? A) ketoneandaldehyde B) carbonylandcarboxyl C) carboxylandamino D) phosphateandsulfhydryl E) hydroxylandaldehyde 36) Youhavetwobeakers.OnecontainsasolutionofHClatpH= 1.0.Theothercontainsasolutionof NaOHatpH=13.Intoathirdbeaker,youslowlyandcautiouslypour20mLoftheHCLand20 mLoftheNaOH.Aftercompletestirring,thepHofthemixturewillbe A) 2.0. B) 12.0. C) 7.0. D) 5.0. E) 9.0.

34)

35)

36)

B10

37) Whichoneoftheatomsshownwouldbemostlikelytoformacationwithachargeof +1? A)

37)

B)

C)

D)

E)

38) Amoleculeofcarbondioxide(CO 2 )isformedwhenoneatomofcarbon(atomicnumber6)is covalentlybondedwithtwoatomsofoxygen(atomicnumber8).Whatisthetotalnumberof electronsthatmustbesharedbetweenthecarbonatomandtheoxygenatomsinordertocomplete theouterelectronshellofallthreeatoms? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5

38)

B11

39) OneofthebuffersthatcontributetopHstabilityinhumanbloodiscarbonicacidH 2 CO 3 . Carbonicacidisaweakacidthatwhenplacedinanaqueoussolutiondissociatesintoa bicarbonateion(HCO3 - )andahydrogenion(H+ ).Thus, H2 CO 3 HCO 3 - +H+ IfthepHofthebloodincreases,onewouldexpect A) adecreaseintheconcentrationofH2 CO 3 andanincreaseintheconcentrationofH 2 O. B) anincreaseintheconcentrationofH 2 CO 3 andadecreaseintheconcentrationofH 2 O. C) adecreaseintheconcentrationofHCO 3 - andanincreaseintheconcentrationofH 2 O. D) anincreaseintheconcentrationofHCO 3 - andadecreaseintheconcentrationofH 2 O. E) adecreaseintheconcentrationofHCO 3 - andanincreaseintheconcentrationofboth H2 CO 3andH2 O.

39)

Figure4.3 40) ThetwomoleculesshowninFigure4.3arebestdescribedas A) enantiomers. B) radioactiveisotopes. C) structuralisomers. D) nonisotopicisomers. E) geometricisomers. ThefollowingquestionsrefertoFigure2.3. 40)

Figure2.3 41) WhatresultsfromthechemicalreactionillustratedinFigure2.3? A) acationwithanetchargeof+1 B) acationwithanetchargeof-1 C) ananionwithanetchargeof+1 D) ananionwithanetchargeof-1 E) AandD 41)

B12

42) Whichofthefollowingeffectsisproducedbythehighsurfacetensionofwater? A) Lakesdontfreezesolidinwinter,despitelowtemperatures. B) Awaterstridercanwalkacrossthesurfaceofasmallpond. C) Organismsresisttemperaturechanges,althoughtheygiveoffheatduetochemicalreactions. D) Watercanactasasolvent. E) ThepHofwaterremainsexactlyneutral. 43) ThalidomideandL-dopa,shownbelow,areexamplesofpharmaceuticaldrugsthatoccuras enantiomers,ormoleculesthat

42)

43)

A) haveidenticalthree-dimensionalshapes. B) aremirrorimagesofoneanother. C) lackanasymmetriccarbon. D) differinthelocationoftheirdoublebonds. E) differintheirelectricalcharge. 44) Whichofthefollowingstatementsisfalse? A) Atomsofthevariouselementsdifferintheirnumberofsubatomicparticles. B) Allatomsofaparticularelementhavethesamenumberofprotonsintheirnuclei. C) Theneutronsandprotonspresentinthenucleusofanatomarealmostidenticalinmass; eachhasamassofabout1dalton. D) Anatomisthesmallestunitofanelementthatstillretainsthepropertiesoftheelement. E) Protonsandelectronsareelectricallychargedparticles.Protonshaveoneunitofnegative charge,andelectronshaveoneunitofpositivecharge. 44)

Figure4.4 45) WhatisthenameofthefunctionalgroupshowninFigure4.4? A) carbonyl B) ketone C) aldehyde D) carboxyl E) hydroxyl 45)

B13

Figure4.1 46) ThetwomoleculesshowninFigure4.1arebestdescribedas A) opticalisomers. B) radioactiveisotopes. C) structuralisomers. D) nonradioactiveisotopes. E) geometricisomers. Refertothefollowingfiguretoanswerthefollowingquestions. 46)

47) Themoleculeshownherecouldbedescribedinchemicalsymbolsas A) CH4 . B) H2 O. C) C2 H3 . D) C4 H4 . E) CH2 O. 48) Asolutioncontains0.0000001(10 -7 )molesofhydroxylions[OH - ]perliter.Whichofthefollowing bestdescribesthissolution? A) acidic:H+ acceptor B) basic:H+ acceptor C) acidic:H+ donor D) basic:H+ donor E) neutral 49) Aminoacidsareacidsbecausetheyalwayspossesswhichfunctionalgroup? A) amino B) carbonyl C) carboxyl D) sulfhydryl E) aldehyde

47)

48)

49)

B14

ThefollowingquestionsrefertothestructuresshowninFigure4.5.

Figure4.5 50) Whichofthestructuresisanimpossiblecovalentlybondedmolecule? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E 50)

B15