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TABLE OF TENSES Types of Tense 1. Present Indefinite (simple) Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous 2.

s 2. Past Indefinite (simple) Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous Future Indefinite (simple) Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous

3.

Structure of a Tense Subject +Helping Verb+ (not) + verb + Object


Type Of Sentence (+) ve Statement

Tense

Sentence Structure Sub + V1 + . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 4)

Examples He speaks. She speaks. I speak. You speak. We speak. They speak. He does not speak. She doesnt speak. I dont speak. You dont speak. We dont speak. They dont speak. Does he speak? Does she speak? Do you speak? Do they speak? What does he speak? How does she speak? When do you speak? Why do they speak?

Uses To speak about Daily/Regular Actions Frequent Actions, Habits Universal/General Truths Customs/Traditions Scheduled Activities

Examples

Simple (Indefinite) Present

(-) ve Statement

Sub + does/do + not + V1 + .

SIGNAL WORDS Always, every day, every month, every week, daily, never, normally, often, seldom, generally, sometimes, usually, frequently, occasionally, rarely, once a week, twice a month, once in two days, etc.

Yes/No Question

Does/Do + Sub + V1 +.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

She teaches Mathematics. I drink milk daily. The sun rises in the east. They speak English fluently. People celebrate Eid grandly. He visits his parents once a month. They often meet at the caf. I usually take rotis at night. Our boss rarely smiles. Barking dogs seldom bite. He never tells the truth.

The football match starts at 10 am tomorrow. Ali doesnt smoke. These children dont go to school. Does she sing well?

Wh Question

Wh word + does/do + Sub + V1 + .

Tense

Type Of Sentence

Sentence Structure

Examples

Uses

Examples

16) 17) 18) 19) 20)

Do you like old movies? What does he want? Why do you waste your time? How much does this cost? Who sends you money?

Present Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + is/am/are + Ving + .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4)

He is speaking. She is speaking. I am speaking. You are speaking. We are speaking. They are speaking. He is not speaking. She is not speaking. I am not speaking. You are not speaking. We are not speaking. They are not speaking. Is he speaking? Is she speaking? Are you speaking? Are they speaking?

To speak about actions going on now. To speak about temporary actions going on these days. To speak about pre-planned future actions.

1)
now.

He is speaking at the conference Sana is cooking in the kitchen.

2) 3) 4)

Jameel is always complaining about petty things. Dont disturb me. I am studying Listen! Someone is climbing up the Look! All are beating up the small We are planning to go abroad. They are visiting holy places. Im learning English these days. now.

(-) ve Statement

Sub + is/am/are + not + Ving + .

SIGNAL WORDS At the moment, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now, these days, nowadays, etc. VERBS NOT USED IN THE CONTINUOUS TENSE Agree, believe, doubt, forget, know, mean, recognize, recollect, remember, suppose, think, understand, want, wish, desire, need, see, smell, hear, taste, notice, like, dislike, love, hate, prefer, feel, forgive, appear, seem, deserve, depend, possess, contain, belong to, consist of, own, have (=own), etc. The above verbs are usually used in the Simple or Perfect tenses.

5)
stairs.

6)
boy.

Yes/No Question

Is/Are + Sub + Ving + ?

7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24)

Wh Question

Wh word + is/are + Sub + Ving + ?

1) What is he speaking? 2) Where is she speaking? 3) When are you speaking? 4) How are they speaking?

Nowadays, people are opting for overseas jobs. They are holding an exhibition here next week. He is not paying attention to the lecture. I am not working there now. She is not doing anything right now. They are not willing to come here. Is Suresh writing the exam? Are you going there now? What is the boy doing in the room? Where are you working? How far are they going? When are you meeting her? Why is the girl crying? Who is seeing you this evening? What is happening there?

Tense Present Perfect

Type Of Sentence (+) ve Statement

Sentence Structure Sub + has/have + V3 + .. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Examples He has spoken. She has spoken. I have spoken. You have spoken. We have spoken. They have spoken.

Uses

Examples

(-) ve Statement

Sub + has/have 1) He has not spoken. + not + V3 + . 2) She hasnt spoken. 3) I have not spoken. 4) You havent spoken. 5) We havent spoken. 6) They havent spoken. Has/Have + Sub + V3 + ? 1) 2) 3) 4) Has he spoken? Has she spoken? Have you spoken? Have they spoken?

To speak about actions completed in the immediate past. To speak about actions that completed in the past but have a connection with the present. To speak about actions those have not happened till now (in the negative).

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

I have just spoken to your father about it. He has just gone out. The members have just concluded their meeting. These students have already written the test. Dont pay him money. I have already paid him. I am happy now because I have won the case. He has not yet finished his work for the day. I havent met him till now. They havent informed us so far. So, we are worried. We have never been to the US. Have you finished lunch? Has Ahmad invited you to the party? Has he come? Have you ever been to Delhi?

SIGNAL WORDS Already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now, etc. NOTE: When the time of a past action is mentioned, use the Simple Past Tense and not the Present Perfect Tense.

Yes/No Question

7) 8) 9)

Wh Question

Wh word + has/have + Sub + V3 + ..

1) What has he spoken? 2) How has she spoken? 3) Why have you spoken? 4) Where have they spoken?

I have completed my degree in


2006. I completed my degree in 2006.

10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)

What have you done with this? It is not working. Why have you come late? Where have you been till now? I was waiting for you.

Present Perfect Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + has/have + been + Ving +

1) He has been speaking. 2) She has been speaking. 3) I have been speaking. 4) You have been speaking. 5) We have been speaking. 6) They have been speaking. 1) He has not been speaking. 2) She hasnt been speaking. 3) I have not been speaking. 4) You havent been speaking. 5) We havent been speaking.

For an action that started in the Past, continued over a period of time into the Present and is still going on. If such an action as stated above has been completed in the Present and does not continue at the time of speaking, we usually use the Present Perfect Tense.

18) Who has told you this? 19) How has your friend written his exam? 1) Ali has been speaking for an hour. 2) She has been working in the garden since
morning.

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

I have been trying to contact my friend for two weeks. We have been designing the program the whole week. Our neighbors have been living here since 1996. They have been calling us all day. We have been learning English for a month. They have not been answering our calls for two days. I havent been doing anything since morning. Aisha has not been attending classes regularly. Have you been using these medicines for long? Has your brother been coming home Has the boss been looking for me? late?

(-) ve Statement

Sub + has/have + not + been + Ving +

SIGNAL WORDS all day, for 6 years, since 2003, how long?, the whole week

10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

6)
Yes/No Question Has/Have + Sub + been +Ving + ..

They havent been speaking. Has he been speaking? Has she been speaking? Have you been speaking? Have they been speaking?

1) 2) 3) 4)

What have you been doing since morning? How long have they been living here?

Tense

Type Of Sentence Wh Question

Sentence Structure Wh word + has/have + Sub + been + Ving + ..

Examples 1) What has he been speaking? 2) How has she been speaking? 3) How long have you been speaking? 4) Since when have they been speaking?

Uses

Examples

16) 17) 18)

Since when has Shaheen been working in this office? How have you been handling this problem? How long has he been waiting for Why have you been shouting? her?

19) 20) 21) 22)

Where have they been learning animation? Who has been troubling her? What has been happening here? She spoke the truth. I met my cousin yesterday. They went out two minutes ago. We saw him at the theatre the other day. Meena did not meet her parents last Friday. These boys didnt write the exam. They didnt answer because they didnt know the answer. Did you ask him for money? Did the students protest against the college authorities? Did Kamala invite you yesterday? Why did you fight with your brother? Where did the children go? How did they perform at the competition? What did you do last week? When did she complete her degree? Who told you the truth? Who organized this function? What happened at the college yesterday.

Simple (Indefinite) Past

(+) ve Statement

Sub + V2 + .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

He spoke. She spoke. I spoke. You spoke. We spoke. They spoke. He did not speak. She didnt speak. I didnt speak. You didnt speak. We didnt speak. They didnt speak. Did he speak? Did she speak? Did you speak? Did they speak? What did he speak? How did she speak? When did you speak? Why did they speak?

(-) ve Statement

Sub + did + not + V1 + .

Yes/No Question

Did + Sub + V1 +.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 4)

Wh Question

Wh word + did + Sub + V1 + .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) NOTE: If such a past habit or daily/ 7) regular action continues even in the 8) present, use the Simple Present 9) Tense and not the Simple Past Tense. 10) 11) NOTE: Usually, when we talk 12) about past habits or daily/regular 13) actions in the past, we use 14) Used to + V1 instead of Simple Past Tense(V2). 15) 16) I used to visit my uncle daily 17) last year. 18) He used to smoke a lot. For an action that happened at a point of time in the Past. For a past habit. For daily/regular actions in the past. SIGNAL WORDS yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday, etc.

Past Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + was/were + Ving + .

(-) ve Statement

Sub + was/were + not + Ving + .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4)

He was speaking. She was speaking. I was speaking. You were speaking. We were speaking. They were speaking. He was not speaking. She was not speaking. I wasnt speaking. You were not speaking. We werent speaking. They werent speaking.

Yes/No Question

Was/Were + Sub + Ving + ? Wh word +

5) 6)

To speak about an action going on at a point of time in the Past. For an action going on when another action happened in the Past. (In such cases, we use the Past Continuous Tense for the action going on and the Simple Past Tense for the other action) I was writing the test when the inspectors came in. When two actions were going on simultaneously at a point of time in the past, we use the Past Continuous Tense for both the actions and combine them using while. Pradeep was studying while his friends were chatting.

Wh

SIGNAL WORDS when, while, then, at 5 o clock, etc.

1) We were listening to the radio all evening yesterday. 2) The light went out while I was reading. 3) When I saw him he was playing with some kids. 4) I was thinking about it when he called me. 5) Please dont take it seriously. I was just kidding. 6) The children were shouting when the teacher entered the class. 7) She was watching TV at 5 o clock last evening. 8) They were insulting him while he was serving them. 9) I was not doing anything when he came to my house. 10) Suresh was not practicing his lessons when I met him. 11) We were not copying when the invigilator saw us. 12) The boy wasnt talking to anyone then. 13) The students werent listening to the lecture

Tense

Type Of Sentence Question

Sentence Structure was/were + Sub + Ving + ?

Examples

Uses

Examples in the class. 14) Was he working there? 15) Were you speaking to the boss then? 16) Were the brothers quarrelling with each other last night? 17) Was it raining there yesterday? 18) What was she doing when you met her? 19) Why were you laughing while he was talking to you? 20) How were they playing when you saw them? 21) Where were the children going late last night? 22) When were they fighting? 23) Who was talking to you last night? 24) Who were quarrelling on the street at that time? 25) What was happening when you went there?

1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 4)

Was he speaking? Was she speaking? Were you speaking? Were they speaking? What was he speaking? Where was she speaking? Why were you speaking? How were they speaking?

Past Perfect

(+) ve Statement

Sub + had + V3 + ..

(-) ve Statement

Sub + had + not + V3 + .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4)
1) 2) 3) 4)

He had spoken. She had spoken. I had spoken. You had spoken. We had spoken. They had spoken. He had not spoken. She hadnt spoken. I had not spoken. You hadnt spoken. We hadnt spoken. They hadnt spoken. Had he spoken? Had she spoken? Had you spoken? Had they spoken? What had he spoken? How had she spoken? Why had you spoken? Where had they spoken?

Yes/No Question

Had + Sub + V3 + ?

For an action that had taken place before another action in the past. (In such cases, the Past Perfect Tense is used for the earlier action and the Simple Past Tense is used for the later action.) NOTE: If only one past action is stated or understood from the context, the Simple Past Tense should be used for that action and not the Past Perfect Tense. I had completed my work last night. I completed my work last night. SIGNAL WORDS already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day, etc.

Wh Question

Wh word + had + Sub + V3 + ..

1) She had already finished the work when I met her. 2) We had just completed our dinner when they came in. 3) The train had left when they reached the station. 4) Waleed had informed many people about it before we stopped him. 5) I had been there twice before last summer. 6) I could not meet her because she had gone to her mothers place. 7) They had dispatched the goods before we sent them a reminder. 8) She had not done anything when we went there. 9) They had not gone far when they met with an accident. 10) I hadnt finished my work when my friends dropped in. 11) Had she spoken to the boss when you met her? 12) Had they made all the arrangements before the boss came in? 13) Why had he come before his brother came? 14) Where had they spoken before they spoke at the university? 15) Where had she worked before she joined here? 16) Who had informed them about it before you did?

Simple (Indefinite) Future

(+) ve Statement

Sub + will + VI + .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

He will speak. She willl speak. I will speak. You will speak. We will speak. They will speak. He will not speak. She wont speak. I wont speak. You wont speak. We wont speak.

(-) ve Statement

Sub + will + not + V1 + .

To express the future as a fact. To say what we think or believe will happen in the future. (With expressions like I think, I believe, Probably, etc.) To speak about an action that we have decided to do at the time of speaking. SIGNAL WORDS in a year, next , tomorrow, later,

1) He will speak with the manager tomorrow. 2) You will need this money on your return journey. 3) I will call you later. 4) Sunil will be thirty in a week. 5) Ill wait for him. 6) I think, shell go to the party. 7) I believe everything will be fine soon. 8) Probably, they will call us tonight. 9) The board will announce the results next month. 10) I will not go there.

Tense

Type Of Sentence Yes/No Question

Sentence Structure

Examples 6) They wont speak. etc.

Uses

Examples 11) I wont do it again. 12) She will not write this test. 13) Deepak wont visit his parents again tis month. 14) Will you attend the meeting? 15) Will he finish the work in time? 16) Will they wait for you? 17) Will your parents be happy with your performance? 18) What will you do now? 19) Where will she go now? 20) How will they come here? 21) How much money will you pay them? 22) Why will they misunderstand us? 23) Who will tell you the right way there? 24) Who will become the next Prime Minister of India? 25) What will happen next? 26) What will happen to your aged parents if you leave them now? 1) Dont come to my house at 11 o clock tomorrow morning. I will be watching the serial then. 2) He will be speaking at the conference tomorrow. 3) I must leave now. My brother will be waiting for me. 4) Dont call him now. He will be talking to the Director. 5) Zarlish will be leaving for Mumbai next week. 6) I will be visiting a doctor at that time. 7) Hamid will not be attending the meeting on Monday. 8) They wont be coming with us to the party. 9) Dont worry. They wont be waiting for us. 10) I wont be doing anything then. 11) Will they be coming with us? 12) Will she be speaking at the meet? 13) What will you be doing tomorrow morning? 14) Why will they be meeting the officer? 15) Where will Bilal be giving her lecture this Friday? 16) Who will be entertaining the guests?

Will + Sub + V1 1) Will he speak? +. 2) Will she speak? 3) Will you speak? 4) Will they speak? Wh word + will + Sub + V1 + . 1) 2) 3) 4) What will he speak? How will she speak? When will you speak? Where will they speak?

Wh Question

Future Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + will + be + Ving + .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

He will be speaking. She will be speaking. I will be speaking. You will be speaking. We will be speaking. They will be speaking.

(-) ve Statement

Sub + will + not + be + Ving + .

1) He will not be speaking. 2) She wont be speaking. 3) I wont be speaking. 4) You wont be speaking. 5) We wont be speaking. 6) They wont be speaking. 1) 2) 3) 4) Will he be speaking? Will she be speaking? Will you be speaking? Will they be speaking?

For an action which will be going on at a time in the future. For actions in the future which are already planned but are less definite as they are expected to happen in the normal course of things. (As a routine or casual event.) For an action that the speaker thinks is happening now.

SIGNAL WORDS next week, tomorrow, then, at that time, etc.

Yes/No Question

Will + Sub + be + Ving + ?

Wh Question

Wh word + will + Sub + be + Ving + ?

1) What will he be speaking? 2) Where will she be speaking? 3) When will you be speaking? 4) Why will they be speaking? 1) We will have finished our syllabus by the 20th of this month. 2) The team will have completed the project by next Wednesday. 3) I will have written the test by then. 4) They will have lived here for five years by the end of this month. 5) She will have worked here for 3 months by this week-end. 6) The Directors will have finalized the deal in a week.

Future Perfect

(+) ve Statement

(-) ve Statement

Sub + will + 1) He will have spoken. To speak about actions which have + V3 + .. 2) She will have spoken. will be completed by a certain 3) I will have spoken. future time. (Usually, with by 4) You will have spoken. + a future time expression) 5) We will have spoken. 6) They will have SIGNAL WORDS spoken. by Monday, in a week, by the 15th , etc. Sub + will + not 1) He will not have + have + V3 + spoken. . 2) She wont have

Tense

Type Of Sentence

Sentence Structure

Examples spoken. 3) I wont have spoken. 4) You wont have spoken. 5) We wont have spoken. 6) They wont have spoken.

Uses

Examples 7) She will not have done the work by Tuesday. 8) The children wont have finished their lunch by then. 9) Will they have completed the job by tomorrow morning? 10) Will she have made all the arrangements by the time the guests drop in? 11) How long will you have stayed here by next March? 12) How many projects will the students have done by the end of the course? 13) How many years will you have worked here by this year-end?

Yes/No Question

Will + Sub + 1) Will he have spoken? have + V3 + ? 2) Will she have spoken? 3) Will you have spoken? 4) Will they have spoken? Wh word + 1) What will he have will + Sub + spoken? have + V3 + .. 2) How will she have spoken? 3) Why will you have spoken? Where will they have spoken?

Wh Question