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Early Modern Migration Author(s): Roger Thompson Source: Journal of American Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Apr.

, 1991), pp. 59-69 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the British Association for American Studies Stable URL: Accessed: 06/09/2010 10:29
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of the Art

Early Modern ROGER



modern did and

a central nineteenth subtext of much century, writing " has been the debate about "modernization. When, period shed their traditional fatalism, superstition, parochialism, people the communitarianism and don such modern characteristics and seminal Gemeinschaft the individualism? works und internationalism,




and how why conservatism as rationalism, Following wide

entrepreneurship, Marx's epoch-making ranging Frederick discussion: Jackson


three contribution, Ferdinand T?nnies's Turner's "The Weber's


History" (1893) des Kapitalismus" and the chronology of uprooting Wilbert sociologist If one were development, must be freed feudal After harness and This

and Max

of Significance "Die protestantische

(1887), Gesellschaft in American Frontier und on der the 'Geist'



(1904-5).1 the process, people E. Moore:

Though differing fundamentally all that a of modernization agreed prerequisite In the words from ancestral and ways places.

causation was of

a one-word to attempt of the institutional for economic summary requirements consumer that word would be mobility. and laborers Property rights, goods from traditional bonds and restraints, from aristocratic traditions, quasi and other multi-bonded relations.2 arrangements, paternalistic World the War insights II and interest methods own in developing nations of anthropologists, led historians to seek to economists mentalities. domestic and

to their demographers to modernization fillip

of explorations studies popularized

sociologists, in change premodern of investigations

is a Reader in the School of English and American Studies, University Roger Thompson He would like to thank Professor Norwich Robert of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ, England. this article. A. Hassell and Dr. B. A. Holderness for help with Professor Smith Ashton, Short 1 Most titles only have been used in footnotes. York: 1956); Harper, 1963); George Ethic The Protestant and Braibanti (Durham, and NC:

in Community and Society (New easily accessible Heath, (ed.), The Turner Thesis (Boston: Taylor Rogers Un win, the Spirit (London: 1971). of Capitalism 2 of Economic "The Social Framework Development," J. Spengler University four (eds.), Press, Tradition, 1971), Studies, 71. 25 (1991), 1, 59-69 Printed Values and Socio-Economic

in Ralph Development

Joseph Duke

na I of American

in Great



Roger Fhompson
migration.3 historians in In England particular, and New it produced England. a colourful scholarly flowering

international among

II The career of Bernard immobility, mobility he Bailyn, as remarkable an during a excellent the last for its intellectual point years. called fertility for a brief as for survey in the its

geographical of early-modern Near Forming broadly intellectual its

provides studies published : Needs

starting thirty essay

beginning of American as the skills,



Society transmission

anthropologists was that from Turnerian environmentalism, partly of training and disciplining rendered children. Whereas elders incapable of old England, of doing traditional stable, static, ways nay society things to from generation altered the New climate, generation, England topography wilderness demanded of

school-provision fashioned extended-family derived answer, partly

and Opportunities education for Study} Defining one to the next of practical and from generation as his thematic the then extraordinary he took 1647 challenge an old from in Massachusetts. did shift law education Why from responsibility cultural to a new-fangled institutional one? His and like Margaret Mead5 frontier the initial Atlantic in the barely and

were These and mobility adaptation, experimentation. the young. lost their natural elders essentially Suddenly authority qualities a a or or sheared from having trimmed of superiority the confidence hedge sheep a beam more more a line or adzed often therefore and expertly. ploughed no different materials and unfamiliar it told. With longer Experience problems, a an asset. than could become rather Undermined the destabilized liability by society school, of as the frontier, parent, the older generation authority summoned and exacted the state to their where aid. The they no exerted obedience

longer 3 Excellent Harper,

proxy could.

are: The Dynamics introductions (New York: Cyril E. Black, ofModernisation : The D. Brown, Modernisation 1967); Richard Transformation of American Fife in Hill and Wang, and Social Change Bender, (New York: 1976); Thomas Community America Press, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University 1982). 4 a of North Carolina Press, essay opens with (Chapel Hill: University i960). Bailyn's of Edward synopsis saw which migrants identification with The Transit (Boston: Eggleston's of Civilisation 1900) Appleton, as to New conservative and tradition-bound. Its England generally the Herbert Baxter Adams school in led to its swamping "germ" seas. in Norman of emigrants be found C. P. Tyack, may Listings rising Turnerian to New 1660" of London from East Anglia Before (University "Migration England Ph.D. B; John Camden dissertation, Hotten, 1951), Appendix Original Lists of Persons who went to the American Plantations (Baltimore: of Quality Genealogical Publishing, 1962); England MifBin, 1637-39," Register Charles E. Banks, (Philadelphia: 1930); Charles Norfolk (NEHGR) Historic to New Topographical Dictionary of 288'/ English Emigrants Fleet Bertram, idem, The Winthrop (Boston: 1937); Houghton B. Jewson, of Passengers of Three "Transcription Registers

The New Historic 25 (1954). Society, England Genealogical The New of genealogical research. ) is a treasurehouse of 101 Newbury is sponsoring Street, Boston, England Society Genealogical to The Great Robert C. Anderson) Project (director Migration supersede James New England Little Brown, Savage, Genealogical (Boston: Dictionary 1860-62). of 5 And Keep Your Powder Dry Morrow, (New York: 1942). (1846-


Early Modern Migration

to of a lurch from tradition challenging depiction modernizing change, to to from caused enforced mobility, hierarchy anarchy, by stability to an alien set many to work. minds environment, young adaptation furiously a series The of the Bailyn thesis of justly famous local studies testing produced This from


by scholars like John Demos,

Smith, review They restless, American stable Richard articles respectfully disjointed Society, for the Bushman by John Murrin

Philip Greven,
and the James Bailyn society studies


Subsequently, evaluated



and Michael


pronounced and disordered most first of three the

Thesis posited found

a dead


synthesizing their findings.7 Far from the in the Forming extraordinarily of

in Education their townships


or four consensualism, generations. Corporatism, at their portraits. Elders seemed their typify adept using to was their in line. There financially keep juniors dependent capital or at the helm in town little sign of youth exerted government. colony Religion a to to counter the economic So the did temptation disperse. powerful the and of forest fear of Indians wilderness cover, impenetrable corrupting so far as to describe went Allen New David incivility. Grayson England planters as ultra-traditionalist, to in the wilderness like ways clinging English drowning men to flotsam. resembled the raj in India, more British than the British, They communalism, of control cohesion not the inventive, modernizer.8 research in book England seemed E. E. to Rich dig a had grave argued muster about to the corpse. bury in 1950 from the rolls, lay subsidy far more than the analysis of individualistic, opportunistic Turnerian frontiersman, the

archetypal Meanwhile, before Even evidence rolls myth 6

Bailyn's appeared, surnames in successive Elizabethan changing and heralds' visitations moved that English people Laslett of a static, traditional society suggested.9 of

and Harrison's

A Fittle Oxford Commonwealth Press, (New York: University John Demos, 1970); Four Generations Scott Press, (Ithaca: Cornell University 1970); Daniel Philip Greven, in Hingham MA and Society of Smith, 1635-1880," Family (University "Population, to Ph.D. From Puritan dissertation, California, Bushman, 1975); Richard Berkeley, A New England Kenneth Town (New Yankee Norton, (New York: Lockridge, 1970); York:

Peaceable Kingdoms Norton, Zuckerman, (New York: 1970); Michael Knopf, in Colonial Growth America: Susan Norton, MA," 1970); Ipswich "Population Studies, 25 (1971), 433?52. Population 7 and Theory, 11 (1972), "Review ; James Henretta, Article," 226-75 History John Murrin, 2 of New "The Morphology Journal of Interdisciplinary History, England Society," 8 379-98. (1971-72), "Review Article," Murrin, York: Oxford University Fischer, (New Growing Old in America in Early New "Old John Demos, Age Points in John Demos Boocock (London: (eds.), Turning England," "New of Chicago Press, 248-87; J. Crandall, University Ralph 1978), England's In English Second Great Migration," Allen, NEHGR, 349; David 133 (1975), Grayson Carolina of North Press, 1981); idem, "Both Englands," Ways (Chapel Hill: University New in David and David D. Hall Allen, (eds.), Seventeenth-Century England Grayson of Massachusetts, Colonial Society 1984). (Boston: 231 ;David Press, and Hackett 1977); Sarane E. E. Rich, 2 Series, Migration "The Population Cf. 247-65. (1950), in England before of Elizabethan E. J. Buckatzsch, 1800," Population England," Economic History Review, of Local "Constancy Populations Studies, 5 (1951) 62-69. 2nd and


Roger Thompson

censuses at the midland and of Clayworth local seventeenth-century parishes wrote: to show Of Clayworth, restlessness. seemed they Cogenhoe astonishing its "A could Stuart rural, settled, community ordinary change perfectly on over in a dozen in fact for well two-thirds, half, by getting composition were that the phenom conclusions E. A. Wrigley's Equally years."10 surprising have fed enal population of London between been 1550 and 1700 must growth must to the in eight people Isles. One from all over the British by immigrants city some have had of London life in the first half of the seventeenth experience century, The question restlessness This he claimed. truths had new been were This of received ; they of revolution in the allegedly than not and 1940s 1950s had been settledness reversed. The assumed the their exact opposites. The recently Peopling published reflects his vivid best portrayal was far more mobile simply of old present.11 called into worlds and

by replaced is clearly recorded His own

in Bailyn's prose

America. of British North of "Worlds in Motion": Nowhere limits pressure. The scale flow peopling of domestic of British to in this thinly population





yet people

did stable communities [England] approach Malthusian as moved there were such continuously though was of the an extension outward and an the in expansion trans-atlantic

North in the within

America lands


mobility be understood is one

the context fact that has

and immigrants' origins, of these domestic mobility emerged period from the past was a mobile

patterns. three decades, - a world it is in

If there that motion. Echoing

uncontroversial society of the


early modern


Rich, of



that, the familiar puritan of the as an exodus... puritan organized were normal emigrants Englishmen across the road journey journey was to be embarked. had ceased The Atlantic

In the context migration acting England a barrier was normally. ; their

the mobility of the time, Most remarkable.... nothing For troubles already some the worst when a become ceased

part they were highway.12

and had of

Instead this new


unchanging implied


orthodoxy traditional in this

peasants that habitual

hitting fidgets

the wilderness moved to America


wild, going for a rest. To

Emigration, into reverse. The other were like at

as a mobile looks like a contradiction in terms. society society new mould, to throw seemed the process of modernization sketched contention fits neatly with here, that English puritans Arminian innovations of the church, bowing in the

revolution scholarly

in mobility revisions. One

studies, example

roughly is the

conservative, Laudian, essentially reacting against at a railed-in altar at the east end communion taking the name to Jesus conserve the of or diminishing pre-Laudian the role faith of the purer, and

sermon. liturgy,

order 10 Peter

They to and in H. A. &

emigrated return to

and John Harrison, and Cogenhoe," "Clayworth to David Ogg (London: (eds.), Historical Essays Presented 11 E. A. Wrigley, "A Model of London's Simple Importance Laslett Ollard Society (New and Economy," York: Knopf, Past 1986), and Present, 17, 20, 25-6. 37 (1967), 45-63.

E. Bell

and R. L. 1963). English

C. Black,

in Changing


Early Modern Migration



and social of New towns The could be stability discipline England as a reaction to and relief from the conflict and incoherence of old explained of erstwhile world life. Even the growing radicals could religious provincialism have arisen from the calm of colonial communities permanence "peaceable " ? to the contrast in sharp enthusiasms of modernizing, kingdoms metropolitan to take American at Is it so far-fetched the mother Revolutionaries country.14 their back own home valuation and as preservers, on brakemen custodians the of principles slide long to since jettisoned and selfishness


corruption?15 The discovery contemporary government, people's fashion rustics likewise manners and

of concerns

apparent more


and parliament restless movement, for the

satisfactorily. local justices with becomes satires about

volatility The

helps obsession


other explain shown central by with settlement, hobbling The Welshmen literary and vice, of social



comprehensible.16 Scotsmen,

picaresque, or broadsides in the big city fall into context.17 Again, and governmental fears as


about Puritan of disorder

invading lasses country campaigning could well

by urban corrupted for a reformation reflect heightened about the this adds

geographical instability,18 incidence and of melancholia the Great Migration

of portrayal from polluting 13 Robert

worries contemporary all disorder.19 Perhaps psychic as the of dyed-in-the-wool flight


rising to a up traditionalists

modernity. "Tradition British and Innovation


in the Great in J. G. A. Rebellion," Princeton Press, (Princeton: University 1980); The Anti-Calvinists To Nicholas Clarendon, (Oxford: 1987); T. D. Bozeman, Tyack, Five Ancient of North Fives Carolina Press, (Chapel Hill: University 1985). Ashton, (ed.), Pocock Three Revolutions T. H. Breen England," Fabrication and Stephen "Social Cohesion Foster, 60 (1973-74), History, Journal of American of Identity in Early America," William in Seventeenth-Century New "The 5-22; Michael Zuckerman, and Mary Quarterly 34 (WMQ),


University No. 4,"

Revolution Harvard (Cambridge: Bailyn, of the American Ideological Origins on the Canon "Dissertation and the Feudal Law, Press, 1967); John Adams, MA: in Robert 5 vols. J. Taylor (ed.), The Papers of John Adam, (Cambridge, on Conciliation with the Colonies, Burke," 1977), 2, 123-8; Edmund Belknap, Speech 22 March in F. G. Selby Macmillan, 1775," (ed.), Burke's 1895), (London: Speeches (London : Methuen, 198 5) ; J. F. Pound, 1979) Poverty and Vagrancy

(1977), Bernard



Longman, 1971). 17 : Macmillan, (London Unfit for Modest Ears Roger Thompson, :Constable, Merriments ; (London 1976) Margaret Pepys's Penny Pleasant Histories Methuen, (London: 1981). 18 Keith Wrightson, of Manners" "The Puritan Reformation Ph. D.

79-85. A. L. Beier, Masterless Men in Tudor England (London:


; idem, (ed.), Samuel Small Books and


of Cambridge (University Hutchinson, dissertation, (London: 1982); 1974); idem, English Society ij8o-i68o : : in an English Village and Poverty idem and David Levine, (London Terling Population in Protest and Social Change Paul Slack Academic Rebellion, Press, (ed.), Popular 1979); : Press, University 1984); Peter Clark and Early Modern England Cambridge (Cambridge Towns Paul Slack (London: 1974). (eds.), Crisis and Order in English Routledge, Robert Society Burton, Anatomy in theAge of Jonson Cambridge ofMelancholy (London University Drama and Dent, 1961); L. C. Knights, (London: :Chatto, Bedlams ; Macdonald, 1937) Michael Mystical Press, 1981).



Roger Thompson

Despite mobile alternative sources, of of early New such old satisfying world?stable coincidences, new has have the new not met one counter-modernization with universal synthesis Two of acceptance. to research sought question to the population just how mobile quantify has retested the alleged ; the other stability has them, these two revisionist groups

responses methods and modern Britain

developed: and conclusions, was actually Between and

complicated picture. with the use of is that they of any kind problem population listings are were at tell how communities constituted They simply snapshots. specific are moments we in time. Where there know where censuses, rarely subsequent come nor where faces in the group the new have faces from, missing photograph can we have the biographies of individuals by piecing Only together gone.20 answer move far and how like: How often did and why? Were questions they ? more some to than others ? How factors did other age groups prone moving ? affect economic, social, intellectual, political, religious, geographical mobility? How did mobility the individual, affect and society? community

produced A major

society. England a far more varied


John, simple complex Wrigley's travelled twenty servants and

the English
David Hey,

side, historians
Margaret picture at local so far distances. stood and

like Peter Clark, Julian Cornwall, Virginia

Peter Spufford have becomes demonstrated a that originally from Apart test of vast time,


kaleidoscopic when viewed model only miles, recently a move was has short

inferred level.21 the The

a knowable living-in domestics

neighbourhood. or farm hands journeymen

majority As

deal more great to London, where it has that most emerged people a radius within of stayed well movement today, students, young people, or by the year apprentices most restless.22 Marriage however, been put "settling truer into more the on

required down"

qualified one by the norm.

employed to be tended the wife. of

party, The

usually amount

Thereafter, movement has been shown,

The perspective. changes causes natural like birth


in Clayworth, death than

it has on



depended In



Chaytor, 27-34. (1980), 21 Peter Clark, "The Crisis and Order;



and Kinship: in Kentish Towns






in Clark and Slack (eds.), 1580-1640," : (eds.), English Towns in Transition (London Oxford Peter Clark Press, University (ed.), The Transformation 1976); of English Provincial Towns 1600-1800 of "Evidence Hutchinson, (London: 1984); Julian Cornwall, " in the Seventeenth Bulletin Population Mobility Century, of the Institute of Historical De John, "To Pass Beyond the Seas" 142?52; Virginia Research, 40 (1967), (University Migrant Peter Clark and Paul Slack of East Anglia

: M.A. Rural Community dissertation, Hey, An English 1978); David Leicester Press, (Leicester: Myddle 1974); Margaret University Spufford, Contrasting Communities Press, University (Cambridge: Cambridge 1974); Peter Spufford, "Popu in Seventeenth-Century lation Mobility Focal Population 4 (1970), Studies, England," 22 41-50. Ann Kussmaul, University Press, Servants 1981). inHusbandry in Early Modern England (Cambridge : Cambridge

Early Modern Migration

decade only one in twelve perhaps people only were newcomers or to to a the village and the Types towns

same of and

departed, proportion movers have been settled whom vagrant were often


Young specified. Peter what Clarke as vagabonds,

who people has called "Betterment were however, and discarded different kinds

nearby to moved

parish.23 nearby

authority workers, of

harried criminal relative villages

gangs, as

distinguished feeble pull attraction capitals magnet varied

magnetic only industrial

tramps of fields far or as

those Migrants"; "Subsistence Migrants," has women.24 John Patten of destinations, from the the through of provincial southeastward tenure induced

of market, like Norwich of London.25

or Bristol. Different too.

port Over kinds

neighbouring to towns all, of of


communities, broader field loomed and rank the land in


than of economic (because likely pressures) securer tenures and in the with by-employments cushioning or economic such as districts.26 Finally, fenland-edge depressions, wood-pasture on movements. effects occurred in the 1620s and 1630s, had short-term population to America from Wiltshire in the 1630s Salerno, Anthony surveying emigration and that for the young unmarried the usual concludes 1650s, voyagers English regions their counterparts safety closed the next valves, because the pasture economic areas, depression local had towns, already the or, were all London, ultimately, was led to saturation. America

migration more were


People to have to move

husbandry below yeoman


in betterment step as age, motives As well need groups occupational and entrepreneurs tenant literate than a wider like to in the farmers the area or

migration.27 and tenures, to be cloth

perspectives Gentlemen, have wider could to change and be


different graduate



distinguished. trade would They open

perspectives expected and more to likely

clergymen than semi be to more travel

labourers. more their

"modern" around

occupations, farmers had contacts of

professional or doctors, carpenters glaziers, to market. also Residence go

peasantry, in both


depended affects mind-set.

capacities. on mobility. The

Certain Even range of

on a in a city or an be greater would highway innkeeper town on an in a market and greater still than a servant than a weaver's maid's as recent the social minds down isolated farm. Finally affected scale, right religion and have shown. in of popular belief studies Puritanism, understanding particular, often Not widened did Puritan ministers travel only perspectives. frequently over 23 W. 24 25 wide areas to preach and and lecture, Change but the laity and 6 (1976), were New known England: 359?74. to Three to go up to twenty and

a craftsman

R. Prest, "

"Stability Journal

in Old History,


Dedham, Clark, John East

"Migrant "Patterns Patten, Anglian

of Interdisciplinary in Kentish Towns." of Migration

and Movement

of Labour


"Population 26 Geographers, Margaret Thirsk 27 University Anthony America," the centres

Towns," Distribution 65 (1975),

2 (1976), idem, 111?29; Journal Geography, of Historical in Norfolk and Suffolk," Journal of the Institute of British 45-65.

Spufford, The (ed.),

"Farm Labourers," in Joan Alan Everitt, Communities-, 7 vols. Agrarian History of England, (Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 1967), 4, 464?78. to Seventeenth-Century to "Social Salerno, Emigration Background out that author also points 31-52. The 19 (1979), Journal of British Studies, were radicalism. hotbeds of religious from which Wiltshiremen emigrated Contrasting

The Modern Republicans



Roger Thompson
to hear the sermons from of favourite either call For the divines. This kind of movement needs to to the urban into or the financial pull doubt the previous picture there would individuals

be distinguished These detailed British periods or for perforce, young normally migrants rootless. laws Isles when in

responding certainly ferment. stasis was

findings constant

push.28 of the be long

for instance, childhood, throughout came of married much life. Movement adolescence and, usually during for the few who achieved those who left home, it, old age. Furthermore, a trade, women or out of their who married parishes apprentices learning familiar It was the underclass of subsistence territory. stayed within only were who have numbers been may well (whose exaggerated) genuinely were or beaten to their home Even back tethered they by poor parishes local officials. and restatements also coincide For refinements of


most ? rule


more with the happily the concept of the instance, neighbouring and the phenomenon of traditional localism," county community "persistent seem can be more to which in the face of and volatility, fly instability easily was that most reconciled with the finding and small-scale.29 adolescent migration These conclusions scholars in fields. A long-term of stability of middle-aged married would likewise the couples explain and the maintenance control, family discipline Their of the population. by the great majority of the onset of-modernization.30 sign

persistence of relatively decline

strong community standards high moral taken as a clear

is often

IV Conclusions Bailyn about recognizes. of New Sumner Foster by the Despite England extent the of colonial agreement townships, rerooting several by others Linda were never on at so as clearcut, the essential conflicting Breen and dispersal, its that

scholars arrived

stability conclusions. Stephen especially 28 David

have Bissell,

Powell, John Demos, amounts uncovered considerable people.31 Reanalysis

Timothy and


of outmigration of Dedham's records


survey David

an excellent and Local History (London: Hey, Family History Longman, 1987) has and exhaustive of recent English research. See also Peter Clark and bibliography in Early and Society Modern Souden (London: (eds.), Migration England in Thirsk of Agricultural "The Marketing Hutchinson, Produce," 1987). Alan Everitt, 4, 467?537. (ed.), Agrarian History, account The is A. M. Everitt, classic pioneering Rebellion Leicester Press, (Leicester: University Leicester Press, (Leicester: University 1969). For The Community of Kent and the Great in the Provinces idem, Change 1966); the colonies, T. H. Breen, "Persistent



Localism," 3-28. 32 (1975), WMQ, in England," in Bastardy Peter Laslett and Karla Oosterveen, Trends "Long-term and Illicit Love Peter Studies, Laslett, 255?84; 2.7 (1973), Population Family Life "Bridal Press, 1977); P. E. H. Hair, (Cambridge: University Cambridge Pregnancy," Population Population Studies, Studies, 20 24 (1966), 233?43; 59-70; (1970), 1976); Lawrence idem, Edward "Bridal Further Examined," Pregnancy The Making Shorter, of theModern Family in England, The Family, Sex and Marriage Press, University to One Generation

Stone, Collins, (London: 1j00-1800 and Nicolson, Weidenfeld (London: 1977). 31 Puritan Sumner Chilton Powell, (Middletown: Village Wesleyan Fittle Linda Auwers "From Commonwealth; Bissell, 1963); Demos,

Early Modern Migration

statistical living Stephen question frontier appearance than of their greater rootedness was entirely due to its inhabitants studies thrown of fishing by



Daniel Innes, the utopianism, towns. Exploitation seems much

Clayworth Vickers and corporateness of land, more the of witchcraft within New Village saw of

Community counterparts.32 Christine have Heyrman and sea order and of even Christianity

by into and

entrepreneurs the long-term explain nests of grudges and associated modernizers.34 exacerbated conflict.35 from by The

poorer neighbours the day.33 Researchers have

capitalist seeking hornets' to

causes feuds


the vendetta John different volume fleet

at Salem Walters levels of and people

towns. Boyer England with conflict between transplanted to English as another

dislodged and Nissenbaum traditionalists



regional source of beginning

rivalries, new-world with eighty claims of

the Arbella and many boat

returning after swelling made with for the the

England, also 1640, colonists.36

challenges According of having one.37


contentment Delbanco, apocalyptic New-world Hingham, Hingham, Magistrates Massachusetts practice.38 incumbents, impressive The

settledness were too beset

to Andrew missed the

by hastily boarding has been conservatism questioned in English Norfolk, might respond radical reforms also MA, genuine and townsmen legal colonies ecclesiastical innovations to code were represented dispensed courts set with and a not a

sense frustrating the transatlantic

too. from Although migrants to local in ways challenges in New occurred England. elected leap in forward England. from lay These past. The The English of were may

usually giant church

hierarchies, pluralism. to the

patronage changes puritans

clerical clinging


T. H. Breen and Stephen CT," WMQ, Foster, 31 (1974), 79-110; to the New World," 30 (1973), 189-222. "Moving " " WMQ, 32 and Change. Prest, Stability 33 :Princeton in a New Fand: Press, Innes, Fabor (Princeton University Springfield Stephen "Work and Life on the Fishing of Essex County MA, Daniel Vickers, Periphery 1983) ; D. Hall and David Allen New in David 1630-75," Grayson (eds.), Seventeenth-Century Another: Windsor of Massachusetts, Christine Colonial (Boston: Society Heyrman, 1984); Communities and Culture: Maritime 1690-ijjo (New of Colonial Massachusetts York: Norton, 1984). 34 MA: and Stephen Salem Possessed Harvard Paul Boyer Nissenbaum, (Cambridge, in the Witchcraft," Themes Press, University 1974): cf. John Demos, "Underlying American Historical Satan Review, idem, Entertaining 75 (1970), 1311?26; (New York: England Commerce Oxford 35 36 Community John 351-70. Harry and Watchfulness' Press, "'Holy University Roger Thompson, " 1982); New England Quarterly 504-22. Conformism, (NEQ), 56 (1983), 1 (1967?68), MA 1631? 61," Journal of Social History, J.Walters, "Hingham, S. Stout, Men of Remigration: New University England Morphology 10 (1975), American 151?72. Studies, of " 18 "The Puritan Errand Re-Viewed, Studies, Journal of American : Harvard Press, idem, The Puritan Ordeal (Cambridge University 1989). : of Georgia Criminal Justice in Colonial America (Athens, GA University "The B. Warden, "Law Reform in England and New England," WMQ, 3-2 35

1640-60," Journal 37 Andrew Delbanco, 38 (1984), 343-60;

Bradley Chapin, Press, 1983); G. (1978), 668-90.


Roger Thompson
despaired of the achieving more did much

but while still in England, they desired cleansing than merely cry in the wilderness. we and economic ferment the enormous slight religious political, at least, new was of the first generation. New new, and, theoretically England are much more to The Massachusetts and change. debate open places experiment, was out of It was Charter almost within four years of arrival. adapted recognition so easy or Thomas as in old to silence not in New Williams Roger England or a host or clerical and Cotton of other Hooker lay radicals.39 John these prophets Nor should However, for motives Migration the balance has been New the Atlantic. back towards recently tipped seems to cast doubt research traditionalist on the Great

Norman within England. migration Kenneth David Selement, Anderson, Tyack, Cressy, George Virginia Shipps, cases all make Breen Foster the religious and Stephen for reasserting Timothy as the main cases court Evidence from church westward.40 urge spur to voyage and from arrived for church underlines the recently applicants membership being of betterment New England Netherlands toleration and a

crossing an extension

or established or minor that to artisans yeomen argument gentry more than betterment. The economic detriment would likely spell across the North few hours Sea would both provide religious economic greater opportunities, a threatened society god-centred migrants The pending narrative and and carried is Herbert the new to vitality risk of all modern Frank it is claimed. could have Only moved a burning mission

to conserve middle-aged new and

middle-class, is confirmed a

in the wilderness. early migration Thistlethwaite's from view studies Dorset the west that cultural by

publications. of the Mary old-world to its ultimate Baxter world, shapers

Pilgrims, country baggage This Seed.

then Windsor that

and John migrants confirms the CT, outlooks in David survived Hackett

finely to Dorchester weighed

crafted MA heavy is

the sea-change.41 Fischer's Albion's in modern English dress.

interpretation "seed" Fischer's the impact

Adams's Fischer of colonial

"germ" traces four New

Minimizing as the "folkways" the Delaware




Their backcountry. legacy Appalachian of a voluntary in the United States society today." of this ambitious if it were less hidebound study with 39 the Edmund Robert Press, 40 Press, Norman English background.42 My

Virginia, "remains

distinguishing and the Valley the most determinant powerful One would be more confident its thesis of and more over familiar 2,000 East




S. Morgan Ideas (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, (ed.), Puritan Political 1965); : The Crucial Decade E. Wall, Massachusetts Yale University 1640-jo (New Haven: a The Character Yale University 1972); T. H. Breen, of Good Ruler (New Haven: " The Humbler Puritans of East and the New Anglia England of Minds," Selement, "Meeting to the New World"; De Virginia in Early New and Settlement

1970). C. P. Tyack, Movement," NEHGR, WMQ, John 41 (1984), Anderson, NEQ, NEQ,

England," Motivation," Cambridge 41 42 England:

(London: (New York:

with of Allen "Matrix responded Over David 408-18; Cressy, (New York: (1986), Coming to New A. Shipps, "Puritan Press, University 1987); Kenneth Emigration on Motivation," A New Source NEHGR, 135 (1981), 83-97. Barrie and Rockliffe, 1989). 59 Oxford University Press, 1989).

138 (1984), 79-106; George and Foster, 32-48; Breen "Moving and Motives: "Migrants Religion David ; 58 (1985), 339-83 Grayson

Early Modern Migration

Anglian majority grounds. by their longevity emigrants come had The moving in New trauma almost to New from of England long-settled uprooting exclusively and by of the of the during ancestries and transatlantic by sinking their of 1630s and has found that the

great back

personally relocation

stable was and

minimized residential They were, a zest aim of

literally, quite for modernization. their errand

England settlers. Few

in groups, their rapid different

personal roots there.

Preservation into the wilderness. have holds moved With been

occupational norms traditional

groups and values

betrayed was the

Mobility present New England

studies consensus


the move people distances studies of the

that most only short new state

the last during above the destitute and remained

thirty in rooted



and England in familiar may doubt

neighbourhoods. whether this will 43 Virginia of 1987 important completed this year. De

major remain the Anderson's

in the art for

pipeline, long.43



John is expected

Ph.D. dissertation University adaptation an of 1991; Susan Hardman Moore is completing of remigration between has Fender 1660; 1640 and study just Stephen a to be later study of the rhetoric of early migration, by Cambridge published in the spring

of her Harvard