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CLB 20703
Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics
Chapter 5:
Applications of Thermodynamics to
Flow Processes
Objectives of Chapter 5
The objective of this chapter is to apply
the knowledge of thermodynamics in
mass, energy and entropy balances to
specific processes, i.e. throttling process,
expansion and compression processes
Outline
Throttling process
Turbine (expander)
Compressor
Pump
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Throttling Process
When a fluid flows through a restriction
(such as a partly closed valve) without any
appreciable change in kinetic or potential
energy, the primary result is a pressure
drop in the fluid
Such throttling process produces no shaft
work and heat transfer, energy balance
becomes:
H = 0 or H
2
= H
1
(constant enthalpy)
Turbine (Expander)
A turbine (expander) consists of alternate
sets of nozzles and rotating blades where
vapor or gas flows in a steady-state
expansion process
The overall result is the conversion of
internal energy into shaft work
In turbine, potential energy change can be
omitted, heat transfer is negligible, the inlet
and exit pipes are sized to make fluid
velocities roughly equal
Turbine (contd)
Energy balance of turbine becomes:
or
If the fluid in turbine expands reversibly and
adiabatically, it is isentropic process, S
2
= S
1
( )
1 2
H H m H m W
S
= = & &
&
1 2
H H H W
S
= =
( )
S S
H isentropic W = ) (
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Turbine (contd)
|W
S
|(isentropic) is the maximum shaft work
can be obtained from an adiabatic turbine
Turbine efficiency is defined as:
where W
S
is the actual shaft work
( 0.7 0.8)
) (isentropic W
W
S
S
=
( )
S
H
H

=
Example 1:
A steam turbine with rated capacity of
56,400 kW operates with steam at inlet
conditions of 8,600 kPa and 500 C, and
discharges into a condenser at a pressure
of 10 kPa
Assuming a turbine efficiency of 0.75,
determine the mass flowrate of the steam
Compressor
Energy balance of compressor is:
or
If the fluid is compressed reversibly and
S
2
= S
1
( )
1 2
H H m H m W
S
= = & &
&
1 2
H H H W
S
= =
( )
S S
H isentropic W = ) (
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Compressor (contd)
|W
S
|(isentropic) is the minimum shaft work
required for compression of a fluid
Compressor efficiency is defined as:
where W
S
is the actual shaft work
( 0.7 0.8)
S
S
W
isentropic W ) (
=
( )
H
H
S

=
Compressor (contd)
For ideal gases with constant heat capacities,
|W
S
|(isentropic) can be calculated by:
This equation is not suitable for gases which
the ideal-gas heat capacities depend strongly
on temperature
( )

|
|

\
|
= = 1 ) (
/
1
2
1
P
C R
P S S
P
P
T C H isentropic W
Example 2:
Saturated-vapor steam at 100 kPa is
compressed adiabatically to 300 kPa. If
the compressor efficiency is 0.75, what is
the work required by the compressor?
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Pump
Energy balance of pump is:
or
If the fluid is pumped reversibly and
adiabatically, it is isentropic process, S
2
= S
1
( )
1 2
H H m H m W
S
= = & &
&
1 2
H H H W
S
= =
( ) ( )
1 2
) ( P P V H isentropic W
S S
= =
Pump (contd)
Pump efficiency is defined as:
Enthalpy and entropy changes of liquids:
where C
P
, V and are usually assumed
as constant values
( )
H
H
S

=
( ) P T V T C H
P
+ = 1
P V
T
T
C S
P
=
1
2
ln
Two-Phase Liquid/Vapor Systems
When a system consists of saturated-
liquid and saturated-vapor phases in
equilibrium, the relation for any extensive
property is:
where
M represents V, U, H, S, etc.
x is called the quality
( )
vap liq
xM M x M + = 1