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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G.

2003

Term paper on:


Advanced Soil and plant Nutrition

By: Hailay Gebremedhin

Sumited to Pro??????????

Hawassa Ethiopia June, 2011

Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Table of content

page

List of tables..iii List of figures.iv 1. Introduction1 2. Disorder and Management of Nitrogen on Broccoli..2 2.1. Effects of Nitrogen on the yield of Broccoli plant......3

3. Effects of nitrogen on quality of Broccoli plant7 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. Effects of Nitrogen on Vitamin C content of broccoli8 Effects of nitrogen on chlorophyll content of broccoli leaves8 Effects of Nitrogen on Hallow Stem incidence of broccoli9

4. Effects of excess and deficient Nitrogen on broccoli production11 5. Management of Nitrogen For Broccoli Crop..12 6. Summery.13 Reference..14

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

List of Tables

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Table l. Analysis of variance for the effect of planting and nitrogen fertilization on vitamin C content, head diameter and head weight............................9

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

List of figures

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Figure.1.Marketable yield of broccoli under fertigation during 1998 in response to N treatments..4 Fig.2. Effects of urea application on yield of broccoli cultivar AG3317 and Ag3324.6 Fig.3. Effects of nitrogen on hallow stem of broccoli.10

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

1. Introduction

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) is a member of the Brassicaceae family as a wild form of this family, which found along the Mediterranean region (Decoteau, 2000). It is a delicious vegetable and more nutritious than any other vegetables of the same genus (Rashid, 1999). Broccoli is native to the Mediterranean area and Asia Minor and often reported as it has been popular in Italy since the days of the Roman Empire (Stephens, 2009, Rashid, 1999). However, records indicate this vegetable was unknown in England until a relatively recent few hundred years ago and it has become popular in the United States only during this century (Stephens, 2009).

It is well known that, broccoli has enormous nutritional and medicinal values due to its high contents of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B5, B6 and E), minerals (Ca, Mg, Zn, and Fe) and antioxidant substances which prevent the formation of cancer causing agents (Beecher, 1994).

Broccoli grows best on well-drained soils and is grown on a wide range of soil textures. It is a fast-growing crop, and the fertilization schedule should always be based on a soil test recommendation (McLaurin et.al, 2010). It is closely related to cauliflower and cabbage, and the cultural requirements for all are similar. They share similar characteristics in nutrient management primarily; all of them are heavy feeders of nitrogen. Obtaining the maximum production potential of a particular crop depends on the environment during the growing season and the skill of the producer in identifying and eliminating or minimizing those factors that reduce yield potential (Havlin et.al, 1999).

Inorganic nitrogen fertilization plays an essential role in increasing broccoli yield and quality. According to Castellanos et.al, (1999) report high yielding and high quality broccoli production requires careful nutrient management. From Yildirim et.al, (2005) investigation, the largest yields from field experiments were obtained with widely varying rates of N fertilizers.

Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Broccoli is relatively new to Ethiopia but there is a good starting on green house production under commercial farms for export for example Jitu Horticulture farm. Few of the major problems for the crop to produce in the country are: the exotic nature of the crop, expensiveness of the hybrid seeds, little or no research activities related to the crop agricultural information, fertilizer management, breeding, storage, and processing, marketing activities in the country.

Reviewing is one of the preliminary activity to harvest the over all information of the crop to transfer it to the step of production under the suitable agro ecology of the country. In line with philosophy of fact the objective of this term paper is to review the disorder and management of nitrogen on broccoli that helps to look the major problems related with nitrogen fertilizer management of this crop which may help for farther investigation and application of nutrient management for the new crop exploitation.

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

2. Disorder and Management of Nitrogen on Broccoli

Generally brassica vegetables are heavy feeders of nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilization plays an essential role in increasing broccoli yield and quality. The level of nitrogen fertilizer has more influence on the growth and yield of broccoli than any other single nutrient element especially in the areas where nitrogen deficiency is common.

Adequate nitrogen produces a dark green colour in broccoli leaves. Nitrogen deficient broccoli leaves are light green, eventually turning yellow and may be shed and excess nitrogen during hot, humid weather will increase the incidence of head rot of broccoli (Basel et.al, 2008). According to the authors idea, with good management practices a total of 130 to 150 kg/ha nitrogen per acre is usually needed for optimum production broccoli plant.

Method of application, time of application, season and type of the crop grown, and other environmental factors may modify the effects of the fertilizer on the yield and quality of a particular crop. Similarly, nitrogen demand is variable over time and each plant growth stage may have a specific N rate at which its growth stage is fastest (Nkoa et.al, 2001).

Generally, nitrogen fertilizer manegment is one of the most important agronomic practises for optimizing yield of broccoli as it affects many metabolic processes and involves in formation of many economic parts. Nitrogen influences yield of broccoli (Castellanos et.al, 1999) and quality of head (Yildirim et.al, 2005) like size and weight, stem quality like less hollowed stem (Moniruzzaman et al, 2007), vitamin content like vitamin C (Peter et.al, 1994). Excesses and deficiency of nitrogen may result unnecessary disorder on the crop. Strict management of fertilizer may help to obtain a maximum yield potential and with optimum quality. Therefore, all the disorder and management of nitrogen related with broccoli is reviewed here under for clear understanding on the effects of nitrogen on this crop.

2.1.

Effects of Nitrogen on the yield of Broccoli

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

It was repeatedly reported that N is main constituent of broccoli plant especially at the early growth stage. The early and rapid vegetative growth of the plant is necessary for soft and succulent head and stem for a quality crop that is influenced by the nitrogenous fertilizer (Nkoa et.al, 2001). Investigations carried out by different researchers have showed that the head yield of broccoli is greatly influenced by N application (Castellanos et.al, 1999, Nkoa et.al, 2001 and Moniruzzaman et.al, 2007). According to Castellanos et.al, (1999) there was a significant response to N above the level of 290 kg/ha and maximum yield was obtained with the treatment of 400 kg/ha of N (Figure 1). This is slightly above the fertilizer amount recommended by Everaarts and Willigen (1999) which reported as the amount of N recommend for optimum yield broccoli was of 270 kg/ha. The fertilizer which growers are going to be added may be better to calculate with its net profit they can obtaining because, yield increasing may not correlate with the quality aspect of the crop. Similarly, Castellanos et.al, (1999) proved that, increasing nitrogen level raises the marketable yield of broccoli indicating that the crop is highly dependent on N fertilization (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Marketable yield of broccoli under fertigation during 1998 in response to N treatments Source: Castellanos et.al, (1999)

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Not only the amount but also the method and time of nitrogen application have pronounced effect on the yield of broccoli. It may not be good news to hear about application of nitrogen reduces a plant dry matter. However, Yildirim et.al (2005) investigated that head dry matter and leaf dry matter contents of two cultivars of broccoli were negatively affected by mineral nitrogen treatment and foliar urea applications. Especially when the author tested on AG 3317 than AG 3324 broccoli variety, 1.0% urea application decreased statistically significantly the head dry matter content; indicating that effects of fertilization may also different for different kinds of cultivars( fig.2).

Time of N fertilizer application should also take in to consideration for exploitation of the fertilizer for better performance of broccoli with. Time of nitrogen application can be at the sowing date, after germination but immediately before transplanting or post transplanting application. In line with this fact, Yildirim et.al (2005) and Blec et.al, 2001 were analyzed and summarized as time of nitrogen application has significant effects on the marketable yield of broccoli. According to the former authors investigation the addition of mineral nitrogen or foliar urea application increases the total nitrogen content in leaves of broccoli plant. Similarly, Blec et.al, (2001) reported nitrogen fertilization five weeks after transplanting and immediately before transplanting were, respectively the two largest determinants of marketable yield.

Shoot dry weight varied with respect to cultivar and rate of nitrogen. Highest dry weight was obtained when nitrogen rate was 150 mg/l to 250 mg/l under green house trial. In addition to this, Yildirim et.al (2005) research findings showed that head dry matter and leaf dry matter contents of AG 3317 and AG 3324 cultivars of broccoli were negatively affected by mineral nitrogen treatment of foliar urea applications. From the three years successive research work, the author recommend that optimum yields of 0.61 and 0.96%

concentrations of urea sprays could be successfully used to obtain better growth and yield in broccoli cultivars AG 3317 and AG 3324, respectively (Fig. 3).

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Fig.2. Fig.2. Effects of urea application on yield of broccoli cultivar AG3317 and Ag3324

According to Everaarts and Willigen (1999) report band placement of nitrogen resulted in a respectively one and four percent higher number of heads harvested but Split application had no effect on the percentage of marketable heads harvested. In similar manner this also strengthens Blec et.al, (2001) idea that one method of application has not the same effects on the general performance of the crop under question.

Similarly, the methods of nitrogen application have an influence on harvesting time. According to Everaarts and Willigen (1999) investigation, band placement shortens harvesting time. But, this may be affected the quality especially accumulating of the important components like glucosinds and vitamins.

The amount of nitrogen applied for the broccoli production is not the same when different methods of application are used. This is due to the fact that different methods of application are differing in delivering the amount of fertilizer for the plant needed. According to Everaarts and Willigen, (1999) recommendation 270 kg of nitrogen per hectare minus mineral nitrogen at planting, applied band placed at planting, is to be is required for optimum yields of broccoli but, for broadcast application 275 kg of nitrogen minus mineral nitrogen is recommended, but yield with broadcast application is lower.

Method of nitrogen application also has an effect on cost of production of broccoli. The interest in foliar fertilizers arose due to the multiple advantages of foliar application

Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

methods such as rapid and efficient response to the plant needs, less product needed, and independence of soil conditions (Peter et.al, 1994). Urea, due to its intrinsic characteristics such as small molecular size, non-ionic nature and high solubility, is usually taken up rapidly through the leaf cuticle. It can be supplied to plants through the foliage, facilitating optimal nitrogen management, which minimizes nitrogen losses to the environment. Most plants absorb foliar applied urea rapidly and hydrolyze it in the cytosol (Schonhof et.al, 2007).

From Everaarts and Willilgen (1999) reported weight of the marketable heads which consider as on of the one of the target of the producer was significantly positively influenced by nitrogen application in five of the eight experiments. There for strict management of nitrogen is important for over all return of the crop. Synchronizing crop N demand with additional N fertilizer application as side-dressing or top-dressing is common for crops requiring high N input like broccoli. Organic N fertilizers applied as side-dress in addition to CO at the total rate of 112 kg/ha of N significantly increased broccoli leaf, stem, and floret yield (Moniruzzaman et al, 2007).

3. Effects of Nitrogen on Quality of Broccoli Plant

Post-harvest nutritional composition, physico -chemical characteristics and longevity (shelf life) of a product is considered by wholesalers, retailers and consumers to be a very important aspect of broccoli quality. Common quality parameters for broccoli which are affected by nutrient are hollowness of broccoli stem, head weight, head diameter, vitamin content, nitrate sap content etc. The importance of nitrogen fertilization in broccoli yield production has been studied in several growing regions but quit few information has been existed related to its quality aspect (Peter et.al 1994).

It has been reported that unlike that of yield, the method of application did not influence the quality of the harvested broccoli product. Everaarts and Willigen, (1999) point out that, method of application did not influence the quality of the harvested product. The authors

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

did a continues experiments for three growing season and reported as the portion of heads with a diameter of 12 cm or more, as a percentage of the number of marketable heads, strongly increased with application of nitrogen. Split application usually had no effect on quality (Peter et.al 1994).

3.1.

Effects of Nitrogen on Vitamin C content of broccoli

Broccoli is known to be rich in vitamin C which is an important component of its nutritional quality. It may possible to come up with broccoli yield having high content of vitamin C provided that all production requirements in general and nutrient management in particular are kept to the optimum. Peter et.al (1994) analysis of variance result indicated that Vitamin C showed significant response to nitrogen fertilization with low and high N rates producing heads with higher content (Table. 1). When the author applied an experiment with six rates of ammonium nitrate (0, 125,250,375,500 and 625 kg N ha-r) were applied in split application by broad cast method on broccoli the first half and at transplant and the second half two weeks later and obtaining that vitamin C, head diameter and head weight were affected significantly due to planting time with application of nitrogen range from 125 to 250kg/ha. This was again similar with Yildirim et.al (2005) report that increasing nitrogen application lowered the vitamin C content in broccoli and according to the authors report the highest vitamin C was obtained from controlled treatment. Therefore proper time of nitrogen application helps for good accumulation of vitamin C content in broccoli which makes the crop preferable by the consumer.

3.2. Effects of nitrogen on chlorophyll content of broccoli leaves

Nitrogen is the main component of chlorophyll of green plants. It is obvious to observe that a plant with yellow colour leaves at the base in the absence of disease and other nutrient deficiency or excessiveness is due to N deficiency. And there is no debate to agree on there observance of nitrogen deficiency first to occur at base of the leaves due to the fact that nitrogen is mobile element via the plant vascular tissue.

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

According to Yildirim et.al (2005) three year research findings, leaf nitrogen content and chlorophyll content was positively correlated as it was taken from SPAD chlorophyll meter readings. Broccoli with an insufficient nitrogen supply having the same number of leaves exhibit lower growth and had lighter colour leaves (Schonhof et.al, 2007). Table l. Analysis of variance for the effect of planting and nitrogen fertilization on vitamin C content, head diameter and head weight

Source: Yildirim et.al, (2005)

To produce broccoli in the field with higher crop quality and overall product, knowing the plants optimal S and N nutritional status is of crucial importance in terms of crop management (Schonhof et.al, 2007). The main glucosinolate of broccoli is gluoraphanin followed by glucobrassicin. The higher alkyl glucosinolate concentration was reached at low N supply, independent of sulphur supply but reduced with increasing N supply (Schonhof et.al, 2007).

3.3. Effects of Nitrogen on Hallow Stem incidence of broccoli

Hollow stem is a quality defect in broccoli, which shows this disorder in the stem extending from below the head or curd when the stem is normally cut. It is an abiotic disorder, which becomes an important quality factor, particularly for fresh market broccoli because the hollow stem area is visible at the base of the stem when displayed at the produce center (Rashid, 1999). Unless this characteristic is kept to the minimum it is less preferable by the

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

consumer and there may be potential for infection and spoilage after harvest in the walls of the cavities of hollow stem. In order to reduce this quality parameter management of broccoli nutrition is mandatory such as high nitrogen fertilizer, wide spacing, warm weather, adequate moisture and, B deficiency (Rashid, 1999). There are some contradict findings with related to N fertilizer in most research finding reports. It is common to apply nitrogen fertilizer to increase yield of broccoli but with increasing the amount of fertilizer conversely there is an increasing the chance of stem hollowness which is a reduction in quality aspect.

From Moniruzzaman et al, (2007) investigation significantly maximum area of hollowness was recorded from the application of 200 kg N/ha compared to 100 kg N/ha (fig.3). Conversely, application of 200 kg N/ha gives significantly maximum values for all the growth parameters viz. plant height; number of leaves/plant, length and width of the biggest leaf and plant spread over 100 kg N/ha observed. So the to paradox can be come in on to straight idea and most economic benefit by extended continues research of nutrient management on the broccoli plant. Similarly, Blec et al, (2007) research finding showed that hollow stem incidence increases in response to supplemental nitrogen applications. Beside this, Moniruzzaman et al, (2007) investigation showed that combination effect of nitrogen and boron with 1.5 kg B and 100 kg N per hectare is required for maximum quality head production of broccoli in AEZ-29 variety of broccoli. This is to optimize the yield as well as quality aspect of this high value crop which makes competitive in the world market or the consumer.

Fig 3. Effects of

nitrogen

on

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

hallow stem of broccoli 4. Effects of excess and deficient Nitrogen on broccoli production It is important for growers to obtain optimum broccoli yield and quality, with a minimal negative impact on the environment and minimum cost of production. The high demand for nitrogen and short growth period for broccoli make the timing and method of N application critical. Excess nitrogen application not only poses an environmental risk, but also affects the yield and quality of the broccoli. Both excess and insufficient nitrogen applications may cause either yield reduction or some physiological disorders like hollow stem, and some pathological problems like head rot in the broccoli crop (Belec et al. 2001 cited Yildirim et.al , 2005 ).

5. Management of nitrogen for broccoli crop

Method of fertilizer application could result different yield on brassica vegetables. Band placement of nitrogen fertilizer has been referred to as a possible method of nitrogen application on Brassica vegetables. From Everaarts and Willigen, (1999) investigation, band placement resulted in higher yields, but no linear relation was found between optimum nitrogen application rates in each experiment and the amount of mineral nitrogen at planting. Split application is more preferable than broadcast method as nitrogen is more mobile element.

Time of application should also get a due attention with nitrogen management. Most of the time nitrogen fertilizers are applied at the time of planting, applying prior to time of application may be advantageous with organic mater as sources of nitrogen as decomposition is necessary for releasing the nutrient.

Broccoli can be grown better in soil amended with organic fertilizer but application rate and availability of all minerals should be considered and studies are needed to determine optimal rates of organic for proper growth and production of broccoli. Excesses or deficiency of the nutrient should strictly manage otherwise yield and quality of this crop is highly affected as it is heavy feeder of nitrogen. Nitrogen less than 100kg/ha is

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

highly affected the yield of the crop (Blec et al, 2007) and above the 400kg/ha also decreases quality of the broccoli below the acceptable level (Castellanos et.al, 1999). The optimum level of fertilizer for broccoli ranges from 200kg/ha to 300kg/ha for optimum yield and quality (Basel et.al, 2008). Therefore, management of nitrogen fertilizer to the optimum value is crucial for the grower in order to meet his or her objective of production.

Summery

Nitrogen is one of the most important nuitrent which requires continues research work for optimum yield. This is due to the fact that nitrogen is involved in many metabolic processes of the plant. Since nitrogen is required in huge amount than any other nutrient by brassica vegetables like broccoli due to short growing and fast growing time, special attention should be given for the management of this especially related with method of application, time and rate of application.

Almost all methods of factors related with the nitrogen fertilizer affects yield of broccoli, but little influence on quality of broccoli is observed due to the methods of application. So in order to maximize the quality like increasing vitamin content, reducing halloweness, increasing head weight and head diameter as well as deep green color of the fresh produce , focuses should be giving to time and rate of nitrogen application.

Overall extended nutrient related research is required to increase the yield and enhance the quality broccoli especially in Ethiopia as this crop is relatively new to the country and area specific researches area more accurate for overcoming soil related problems like nutrient.

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Reference
Basel.A. Ouda and Mahadeen .2008. Effect of Fertilizers on Growth, Yield, Yield Components, Quality and Certain Nutrient Contents in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Plant Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mu'tah University, Al-Karak, Jordan: Pp 627-628

Beecher, C. (1994). Cancer preventive properties of varieties of Brassica aleracea: A Review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59: 116-1170.

Blec1.C., Villeneuve.S., Coulombe J. , and Tremblay .N. 2001. Influence of nitrogen Fertilization on yield, hollow stem incidence and sap nitrate concentration in broccoli, Horticultural Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada

Castellanos .J., Lozano .I. Baldibia. A. , Badillo .V., and Villalobos.S. 1999. Nitrogen Fertilization and Plant Nutrient Status Monitoring the Basis for High Yields and Quality of Broccoli in Potassium- Rich Vertisols of Central Mexico Vol. 13, No. 2, Pp 25-27

Everaarts .A.P.,* Willigen .P. DE.1999. The effect of nitrogen and the method of application on yield and quality of broccoli Research Institute for Agrobiology and Soil Fertility (AB), Wageningen, Netherlands Pp 123-132 Decoteau, D.R., 2000. Vegetable Crops. Upper Rever Company. New Jersey, U.S.A

Havlin,J.L.,J.D.Beaston,S.L.Tisdaleand W.L.Nelson.1999.Soil fertility and fertilizers. Prentice Hall, New Jersely.

McLaurin.Wayne J., Barber. James M., Colditz. Paul. and Granberry .Darbie M. .2010. Broccoli. Commercial Vegetable Production, the University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State University, Pp 760-764

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Hawassa university. Soil Plant Nutrition Term Paper Hailush G. 2003

Moniruzzaman, M., Rahman, S. M. L., Kibria, M. G., Rahman, M. A. and Hossain, M. M. 2007. Effect of Boron and Nitrogen on Yield and Hollowstem of Broccoli. J .Soil .Nature .1(3): 24-29

Nkoa, Roger, Coulombe. Jean, Desjardiins. Yves and Termblay Nicolas, .2001.Towards optimizing of growth via nutrient supply phasing: nitrogen supply phasing increases broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italica) growth and yield. Agriculture of Canada, Canada Pp 821-826

Peter M. A. Toivonen, B. J . Zebarth, and P. A. Bowen .1994. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on head size, vitamin C content and storage life of broccoli (Brassica oleraceavar. ltalica) Ag-r icutture and Agri-Food Canada. Pp 607-610

Rashid, M. M. 1999. Shabjibiggayan (In Bengali). Rashid Publishing House, 94, Old, DOHS, Dhaka- 1206. p. 241.

Schonhof.Liona., Blankenburg. Dirk. Muller.Siegfriend., Krumbein Angelika. 2007. Sulfur and nitrogen supply influence, product appearance, and glucosinolate concentration of broccoli. Institute of vegetable and ornamental crops, Univeresty of Applied Science Department of Horticulture, Leipzig, Germany. Pp 2-8.

Stephens. James M.

(2009) Broccoli. Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group) university of

Floridia Gainesville FL 32611 Pp 1-2.

Yildirim .E., Guvenc2.I.,Turan2 .M., Karatas. A. (2005). Effect of foliar urea application on quality, growth, mineral uptake and yield of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., var. italica), Atatrk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Pp 120-127

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