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P RAMANATHAN BE BGL AEE GRT METTUR

ramanathangobi@yahoo.com

Introduction

Storage Battery Storage Battery

Electro chemical source of current

Supplying it as electrical energy

Capacity of- accumulating and storing energy

BATTERY TYPES

BATTERY TYPES

Lead Acid

Nickel Cadmium

Nickel Iron

Silver Oxide Zinc

FUNCTIONS

Indication: Indicating lamps, fascia. Alarm For energizing the protection schemes.

For power supply to communication

For emergency DC lighting

Back up of computers For energizing control schemes

BATTERY CONSTRUCTION BATTERY CONSTRUCTION

Positive plates: Positive plates are made out of lead antimony alloy. LEAD DIOXIDE (PbO2) dark chocolate brown in colour

Negative plates: Negative plates are also made in the same way but they will be lighter in design and will be filled up with SPONGE LEAD (Pb) Bluish gray in colour. .

Separators: Separators are provided in between both plates. Separators should have insulating property porous enough to allow gas bubbles to pass through and inactive to acid and lead. Separators are made out of wood, hard rubber, glass fiber, micro porous plastic materials.

BATTERY CONSTRUCTION BATTERY CONSTRUCTION

Electrolyte It is DILUTE SULPHURIC ACID (H2SO4) which fills the cell compartment to im-merse the plates completely . It is approximately 3 parts water and one part Sulphuric acid (H2So4). A solution of specific gravity 1.21 or near about.

Container Jars of lead acid cells are made of ebonite moulded plastic, ceramics, glass. Main criteria is that the container should be acid proof. Normally ebonite is made out of rubber 60% and sulphur 40%. Enough space will be left at the bottom for active material to fall down prevent it from touching the plates.

Principle of operation

DURING CHARGING

Specific gravity of H2So4 is increased There is a rise in voltage

Energy is absorbed by the cell

DURING DISCHARGING

Specific gravity of the acid decreases due to formation of water Voltage of the cell decreases

The cell gives out energy

Battery Room Battery Room


Separate room well ventilated and free from fumes. Ensure that the space around the battery is adequately ventilated. Wooden racks are provided for raising the battery to a convenient level for battery inspection and they also serve as insulation for the battery.

Insulators of Glass or porcelain are inserted between the stand and battery stand and flooring. Cleanliness is very important. Remove traces of corrosions promptly by cleaning with washing soda solution . All contact surfaces should be clean and give a thin coat of Vaseline. The illumination is very important to examine all cells . Light fitting provided inside the battery room should be explosion proof. These should be installed on the side walls and not on the ceiling.

Battery Room Battery Room

No naked flame should be permitted in to the battery room since hydrogen released may cause an explosion if ignited by heat. Exhaust fans shall be provided for proper ventilation in order to prevent the formation of explosive concentration of hydrogen and sulphuric mist, which is dangerous to the health of the operating personnel. The inlet air should be free from pollutants such as chlorine, acetic acid and other such gases. Never should the entrance door be kept closed, as this will lead to a negative pressure developing in the battery room due to the continuous operation of the exhaust fans. The battery room floor and walls up to a height of one meter should be covered with acid resistant paint / tiles.

TEST EQUIPMENTS TEST EQUIPMENTS

Hydrometers Thermometer Cell testing voltmeter Rubber gloves Goggles and face shields

- 2 Nos - 1 NO - 1 No - 2 Sets - 1 No - 1 No

Protective aprons

PRECAUTION AND SAFETY PRECAUTION AND SAFETY

Electrolyte on the skin must be washed with plenty of soap and Water Electrolyte on the skin must be washed with plenty of soap and Water Electrolyte on cloth may be neutralized with dilute ammonia Electrolyte on cloth may be neutralized with dilute ammonia Electrolyte on the wood or insulators should be wiped clean and dry Electrolyte on the wood or insulators should be wiped clean and dry Electrolyte on the floor could be neutralized with powdered chalk. Electrolyte on the floor could be neutralized with powdered chalk. It electrolyte gets into the eyes wash with plenty of clean water It electrolyte gets into the eyes wash with plenty of clean water and get immediate medical attention and get immediate medical attention

If the electrolyte is consumed by mistake, take a drink of soap If the electrolyte is consumed by mistake, take a drink of soap Suds and backing soda in a glass of water Suds and backing soda in a glass of water

NEW BATTERY INSTALLTION NEW BATTERY INSTALLTION

UNPACKING

Carefully lift the cell by holding it at the bottom and top. Do not lift cell/battery by the terminals. Carefully examine for any damage in transit. Cells must be stored in a cool and dry place, protected from the sun, rain and dust. The electrolyte should be stored in a separate place in the stores. All items must be stored only inside the building.

ACID PREPRATION

To prepare 1.190 acid


Approximately 4.68 parts of water with 1part of 1.830 acids by volume Approximately 1.2 parts of water with 1 part of 1.400 acids by volume While mixing: Always add acid to water

Acid to cool down to 30 degree Centigrade During cooling: Stir the acid at frequent intervals Store diluted acid in clean plastic jars

FILLING FILLING

Fill dilute sulphuric acid to each cell through the vent hole, till the black ring on the float stem is just visible over the crown of the float plug.

Do not over fill. Allow the cell to cool down for 12 to 18 hours and not more than 24 Hrs. Add more electrolyte as required to restore level.

FIRST CHARGE

Open circuit voltage of every cell to be check

First charging current to be set as per manufacturer instruction.

Example: 60 AH at 10hrs rate battery Normal voltage - 2V Volume of acid - 2 litters approximately. Specific gravity of sulphuric acid - 1.190 0.005 at 27deg C. First charge: current rate - 2.4 amps Minimum no of hours - 80 hours.

REVERSE CONNECTION: REVERSE CONNECTION:

Possibility Manufacture defect Wrong coupling

Fault is discovered within the first twelve hours the plates may be recovered If fault is not discovered even after a longer period (say 50 hours) it will usually break the negatives and depreciate the positives.

CHARGING STEPS CHARGING STEPS Take individual cell voltage, specific gravity and temperature reading every four hours and record. Electrolyte temperature should not be allowed to rise above 40 C In case of power shut down or any other unforeseen exigencies, the total time shall be suitably extended Electrolyte level should be maintained at the specified limit by adding 1.190 Spec. Gravity acid When fully charged, 1) All the cells gas freely 2) Voltage and specific gravity approx constant for 3 conse-cutive hours. 3) The voltage reaches a final value of 2.5 to 2.55 V per cell and the specific gravity to 1.200 0.005.

CHARGING STEPS CHARGING STEPS

In any case the charge must not be terminated until the specified ampere hour input is fed in to the battery, even if the voltage and specific gravity readings exceed those values. This is important for better performance of the battery. Electrolyte is to be adjusted to 1.200 0.005 at 27 C If specific gravity is above 1.205 add distilled water. If specific gravity is below 1.195 add 1.400specific gravity acid. Once again charge for a couple of hours and check the gravity again.

TEMPERATURE CORRECTION TEMPERATURE CORRECTION

By adding 0.0007(7 points) to the hydrome-ter readings for every 1 centigrade temperature rise above 27 centigrade and Deducting 0.0007 for every one degree centigrade temperature decrease below 27 centigrade of the electrolyte SG 27 = SGt + (t 27) x 7 _ 10000 Where SG 27 is specific gravity at 27 deg C SGt is specific gravity at t deg C t is temperature of the electrolyte.

FIRST DISCHARGE

After completion of the first charge, the battery should be allowed to stand on open circuit for not less than 12 hours. Discharge should commence within the 24 hours Arrange load can be varied to maintain a constant current discharge equal to the rating of the battery at the selected rate. Read and record cell voltage and specific gravity every hour Maintain the discharge rate until the battery terminal voltage decrease to a value 1.85 volts of each cell (or) when the voltage across any one cell has fallen to 1.70 V, whichever is earlier. Check the capacity requirements After completion of discharge, the battery shall be recharged at normal current rate immediately.

CAPACITY TEMPERATURE CORRECTION CAPACITY TEMPERATURE CORRECTION

%Capacity at 25 degree centigrade = Ta / Ts * 100 Ta : actual time of test Ts : rated time of test

The capacity corrected to 27 deg C by the following formula ,

Capacity at 27 deg C = C1 + C1 X R X (27 t) 100 Where C1 = Observed capacity at t deg C R = Variation factor t = average electrolyte temperature deg C

Capacities and final cell voltage at various rates of discharge Capacities and final cell voltage at various rates of discharge Sl no Rate of discharge Capacity Final cell voltage

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10

50.0 63.3 71.7 78.2 83.3 87.9 91.7 95.0 97.9 100.0

1.75 1.78 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.83 1.84 1.84 1.85

FIRST RECHARGE FIRST RECHARGE

The cells are to be charged once again at the normal charge rate up to gassing point (starting current of C/10 rate) and at reduced recharging current after gassing (finishing current of C/20 rate). The cells are considered to be fully charged when all cells gas freely and the cell voltage and specific gravity remains constant for 3 consecutive hours.

EFFICIENCY

Ah efficiency =

Amp hr discharge ---------------------Amp hr charge Normally between 90 to 95%

Working hour efficiency =

Ah efficiency X Average volts on discharge -------------------------------------------Average volts on charge Normally between 72 to 80 %

PUT INTO SERVICE

If the capacity obtained on the first discharge is less than the rated capacity, repeating the discharge / charge cycle 2 to 3 times is recommended, even if the rated capacity is obtained

If the battery is to stand idle, first give a full charge and disconnect it from circuit. Give a freshening charge once in a month during the idle period and also before connecting for service.

CHARGING SYSTEMS CHARGING SYSTEMS

Trickle charge (constant current method)

Float charge (constant voltage method)

Floating trickle (constant current & voltage method)

CHARGING MODES CHARGING MODES

ROUTINE CHARGE

BOOST / FRESHENING CHARGING

EQUALISING CHARGE

BOOST / /FRESHENING CHARGING BOOST FRESHENING CHARGING

Charging voltage per cell

Length of charge in Hrs

2.48 2.39 2.36 2.33 2.30 2.27

3 4 6 8 11 16

to to to to to to

8 12 16 24 34 48

Freshening charge will be given once in 3 months at half to full Freshening charge will be given once in 3 months at half to full normal rate current normal rate current

EQUALISING CHARGE

Float voltage per cell 2.2 2.15 2.10 2.08

Interval in months 12 3 2 1

The charging current for this operation is maintained at about 4% of the rated 10 hour capacity.

END CELL CUTTING SCHEME

EFFECT OF OVER CHARGING EFFECT OF OVER CHARGING

Buckling of plates

Sedimentation

Grid corrosion

Effect of under charge

SULPHATION TEERING HYDRATION

TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE

It is not advisable to work batteries above 40 degree centigrade. It is not advisable to work batteries above 40 degree centigrade. Increase the chemical reaction Increase the chemical reaction The plates distort, deteriorate and become brittle The plates distort, deteriorate and become brittle Excessive evaporation of the water in the electrolyte Excessive evaporation of the water in the electrolyte

Decrease the lifetime of the battery Decrease the lifetime of the battery

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE

MAINTENANCE OF BATTERIES MAINTENANCE OF BATTERIES

Monitoring DC leakage promptly Monitoring DC leakage promptly

Daily check of specific gravity and voltage of pilot cell Daily check of specific gravity and voltage of pilot cell Inter cell connector joints should be checked weekly once Inter cell connector joints should be checked weekly once

Specific gravity and voltage of all cells should be checked weekly once Specific gravity and voltage of all cells should be checked weekly once

The trickle charging current and voltage may be adjusted if neces-sary The trickle charging current and voltage may be adjusted if neces-sary in every hourly in every hourly

TRICKLE CHARGE CURRENT BASED ON AGE

AGE IN YEARS

CURRENT IN mA / Ahr

1 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 6 6 - 8 8 - 10

1 2 3 4 5

MAINTENANCE OF BATTERIES MAINTENANCE OF BATTERIES

The charger should be cut off while taking the reading of specific The charger should be cut off while taking the reading of specific gravity and Voltage gravity and Voltage

Load test This is carried out for 1 minute duration to ensure that Load test :: This is carried out for 1 minute duration to ensure that the battery condition once in 15 days the battery condition once in 15 days

During boost charging the float plug and vent plug or any one should be During boost charging the float plug and vent plug or any one should be in open condition in open condition

Adding of distilled water During the normal service operation water Adding of distilled water :: During the normal service operation water evaporates from the electrolyte considerably due to gassing. The level of the evaporates from the electrolyte considerably due to gassing. The level of the electrolyte should be maintained a mark 10mm above the top of the plates. electrolyte should be maintained a mark 10mm above the top of the plates.

TESTING OF DISTILLED WATTER TESTING OF DISTILLED WATTER

In a bowl mix 50ml of silver nitrate ( Ag No3 ) with 50 ml of distilled water ( tested already ) and keep the solution free from sunlight. Whenever any new distilled water is to be tested, take 100 ml of the distilled Water under test and add few drop of the above solution . Pure distilled water will not form any precipitation on adding the solution. If any precipitation is found it is clear that the water is not pure.

NEGLIGENCE OF MAINTENANCE AND REMEDY NEGLIGENCE OF MAINTENANCE AND REMEDY

SPECIFIC GRAVITY UN-UNIFORM SPECIFIC GRAVITY UN-UNIFORM

When it is found that the specific gravity is not uniform, discharge the battery bank for a short duration of 15 min to 30 min at 10 hour rate current or even less and recharge thereafter at equalizing charging current, with a current equal to 4% of the AH capacity and voltage applied could go up to 2.35 to 2.40V per cell. A specific gravity adjustment may be done at the end of this equalizing charge, using only distilled water

RECMMENDATION RECMMENDATION

For batteries operating constantly on float / trickle charge system it is recommended that a discharge the battery at the 10 Hrs rate current for 2 Hrs and recharge at normal / finishing current until specific gravity stabilies at 1.200 at 27 degree.

LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY

When a battery is not charged sufficiently (or) when a battery is in continuous under charged condition for a longer duration it leads, to the positive or negative plates containing more sulphate, thus reducing the battery capacity. In such cases, the lead sulphate undergoes a physical charge. Plates affected in this way become lighter in colour, gas prematurely on charge. This is called plate sulphation. Such plates can not be satisfactorily reconditioned but some improvement may be effected by prolonged charging at a low rate. When the battery is left unattended in this condition the sulphation becomes permanent and very often irreversible. Fully charged specific gravity is 1.200 or 0.005 at 27 degree centigrade. Voltage reading should not fall below 1.85 volts Specific gravity reading should not fall below 1.600 [fall by 40 points]

LIMITATION

The DC bus voltage is about 10% higher than the rated voltage; The DC bus voltage is about 10% higher than the rated voltage; it is acceptable for most applications it is acceptable for most applications

The drop in the DC control and protection circuits, particularly, the breaker trip circuit must be well within 5% of rated DC voltage. The total loop burdens of CT cable leads are to be preferably around 1ohm Voltage drop = e = 2xRxI or

=2xLxI Kxq Where e = Voltage drop in volts R = Resistance in ohm (lead one way) I = Line current in amps L = Length in meter (lead one way) q = Conductor cross-section in sq-mm K = conductivity (for cu = 56, Al = 35)

LIMITATION

Output voltage value stable within + or 1% of the rated dc supply voltage throughout the dc load variation from 5% to 100%

Ac supply fluctuation of + or 10% frequency variation of + or 5% and combined voltage and frequency fluctuation of 10%.

A rectifiers comprising thee-phase bridge has inherently low ripple content of the order of 5%

CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEM

Earth leakage shouldnt exceed 6 to 10 milliamp and if the leakage exceeds, a warning signal should be connected

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