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1. Overview of Telecom Industry Worldwide 2. History of Cellular Technology 3. Indian Telecom Sector a. Overview b. History of Indian Telecom c. Major Breakthroughs in Indian Telecom Sector d. Major Policies 4. Ministry of Communication and Information Technology 5. Regulating Bodies a. Department of telecom i. Overview ii. Objective b. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India i. Overview ii. Objective c. Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal i. Overview ii. Objective iii. Scope of work d. Department of Information technology i. Overview ii. Objective iii. Scope of work 6. FDI in Telecom 7. Major players in Telecom Sector 8. Green Telecom 9. Internet and Broadband a. History of Internet b. Chronology 10. Broadband Policy 2004 a. Objective 11. Major Players 12. Ozone Networks Pvt. Ltd. a. 3CET b. SWOT Analysis


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13. Technology a. GSM b. GPRS c. 3G d. Wi-Fi e. Wi-max 14. Transition from 3G to Wi-Fi 15. Mobile Market Place 16. 20/ 20 Foresight of CMO


17. Segmentation of Mobile Telecom Market 18. Consumer Behavior 19. Competitive Mapping among major players 20. Study 21. Secondary Data analysis 22. Findings 23. Suggestions and comments 24. Conclusion + Modular Media 25. Key words frequently used in Telecom Sector 26. Bibliography


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Overview of Telecom Industry Worldwide

ASIA Operator
Indi C ina Japan Thailand Russia Saudi Arabia Pakistan Singapore Iran Bangladesh

Subscribers (in Millions)

752 859 120 69 237 51 102 7 67 68

No. of subscribers
900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
India China Japan

Thailand Russia Saudi Arabia

Pakistan Singapore

Iran Bangladesh




France Germany Greece Ireland Finland Italy Swit erland Turkey UK Poland

Subscribers (in Millions)

62 104 12 4 8 82 9 61 80 46

120 100
80 France Germany Greece

60 40 20

Ireland Finland
Italy Switzerland Turkey

UK Poland




Kenya Mauritius Tanzania Angola Egypt Libya South Africa Nigeria Ghana Congo

Subscribers (in Millions)

24 11 20 8 70 10 50 87 17 3

00 80 60 40 20 0



Mauritius Tanzania
Angola Egypt Libya

South Africa Nigeria Ghana




Brazil Argentina Chile Boli ia Peru Ecuador Uruguay Venezuela French Guinea Guyana

202 57 19 7 29 14 4 27 4 0.5


Brazil Argentina
Chile Bolivia Peru

200 150 100

50 0

Ecuador Column1

French Guinea Gu ana





United States Mexico Canada Cuba Costa Rica Panama El Sal ador

278 91 24 5 3 6.4 7.3

250 200

United States
Mexico Canada Cuba

150 100

0 United Mexico Canada States


Costa Rica Panama

Panama El Sal ador



Costa Rica

El Sal ador

Top 10 GSM mobil Operators (Around the world)



Subscribers Technology (in millions)

Operation in country

China Mobile (China) 1



China, Pakistan



India, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Romania, Greece, Portugal, Netherlands, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Poland, Egypt, Ghana, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique, India, Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, Nepal, Bhutan and China

Telefnica / Movistar / O2



Spain Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, , Uruguay, Venezuela, Ireland, United Kingdom, Isle of Man, Germany, Czech Republic, Morocco and Slovakia


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5 6




MTN Group (South Africa)

100 89

Bharti Airtel (India)

114 21


India & Sri Lanka


South Africa Afghanistan, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Republic of Guinea, Iran, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Uganda, Yemen

Orange / France Telecom (France)

125 50

TeliaSonera (Sweden)

139 40

China Unicom

142 80

T Mobile (Germany)

149 84





Telenor Group

168 00


Norway Sweden, Denmark, Hungary, Montenegro, Serbia, Russia, Ukraine, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia and India

Germany USA, United Kingdom, Poland, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Slovakia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands


Sweden Norway, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Spain, Russia, Nepal, Cambodia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Georgia, Moldova, Turkey and Ukraine

France United Kingdom, Switzerland, Poland, Spain, Romania, Moldova, Slovakia, Belgium, Austria, Liechtenstein, Israel, Egypt, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Cameroon, Botswana, Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, Mauritius, Runion, Martini ue, French Togo, Niger, Equatorial Guinea and Armenia



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istory of Cellular Technology

1947 Bell Laboratories introduced the idea of cellular communications with the police car technology. The basic concept of cellular phones began, when researchers looked at crude mobile (car) phones and realized that by using small cells (range of service area) with frequency reuse they could increase the traffic capacity of mobile phones substantially. However at that time, the technology to do so was nonexistent. AT&T proposed that the FCC allocate a large number of radio-spectrum frequencies so that widespread mobile telephone service would become feasible. The FCC decided to limit the amount of frequencies available, the limits made only twenty-three phone conversations possible simultaneously in the same service area AT&T and Bell Labs proposed a cellular system to the FCC of many small, low-powered, broadcast towers, each covering a 'cell' a few miles in radius and collectively covering a larger area. Each tower would use only a few of the total frequencies allocated to the system. As the phones traveled across the area, calls would be passed from tower to tower. The FCC reconsidered its position by stating "if the technology to build a better mobile service works, we will increase the frequencies allocation, freeing the airwaves for more mobile phones." The first call on a portable cell phone is made by Dr Martin Cooper, a former general manager for the systems division at Motorola, who is also considered the inventor of the first modern portable handset. AT&T and Bell Labs had constructed a prototype cellular system. A year later,








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1977 1979 1980

public trials of the new system were started in Chicago with over 2000 trial customers. The first commercial cellular telephone system began operation in Tokyo. Analog cellular telephone systems were experiencing rapid growth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia, United Kingdom, France and Germany. Each country developed its own system, which was incompatible with everyone else's in equipment and operation Motorola and American Radio telephone started a second U.S. cellular radiotelephone system test in the Washington/Baltimore area. FCC authorizes commercial cellular service for the USA. The Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Group Special Mobile (GSM) to study and develop a panEuropean public land mobile system. The proposed system had to meet certain criteria:
y y y y y y y

1981 1982


Good subjective speech quality Low terminal and service cost Support for international roaming Ability to support handheld terminals Support for range of new services and facilities Spectral efficiency ISDN compatibility

1983 1987 1990 1991

The first American commercial analog cellular service or AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) was made available in Chicago by Ameritech. Cellular telephone subscribers exceeded one million and the airways were crowded. GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), Commercial launch of cellular service based on GSM standard in Finland.


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The name Sam Pitroda rings a bell in the minds of millions of Indians, literally. For, he is considered the visionary behind the Indian telecom revolution, the man who made the country the second most populous nation in the world in terms of subscribers. Born in Titilagarh, Orissa, Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda went to the US to do his masters in electrical engineering, after which he got a job in GTE Inc, a Chicago-based company. In 1974, Pitroda quit his plush job and started a company, Wescom Switching. In 1984, Mr. Pitroda was invited to return to India by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. On his return, he started the Center for Development of Telematics C-DOT, an autonomous telecom R&D organization. He had previously become a naturalized US citizen, and renounced his US citizenship to take Indian citizenship again in order to work in the Government In . 1987, he became advisor to Mrs. Gandhi's successor, Rajiv Gandhi and was responsible for shaping India's foreign and domestic telecommunications policies.

In 1987 during his tenure as advisor to Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi , Mr. Pitroda headed six technology missions related to telecommunications, water, literacy, immunization, dairy and oilseeds. He is also the founder and first chairman of Indias Telecom Commission.

Mr Pitroda has been responsible for shaping Indias foreign and domestic telecommunications policies. He is largely considered to be responsible for the telecommunication revolution in India and specifically, the ubiquitous, yellow-signed Public Call Offices (PCO) that quickly brought cheap and easy domestic and international public telephones all over the country


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History Of Indian Telecom Sector

1992 Telecommunication sector in India liberalized to bridge the gap through government spending & to provide additional resources for the nations telecom target. Private sector allowed participating 1993 The telecom industry gets an annual foreign investment Rs 20.6 million 1994 License for providing cellular mobile services granted by the government of India for the Metropolitan cites of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata & Chennai. Cellular mobile service to be duopoly (i.e. not more than two cellular mobile operators could be licensed in each telecom circle), under a fixed license fee regime for 10 years. 1995 19 more telecom circles get mobile licenses 1995 Kolkata became the first metro to have a cellular network 1997 Telecom Regulatory Authority of India is set up 1998 1999 FDI inflow into telecom sector falls by almost 90% to Rs. 2126.7 million 1999 Tariff rebalancing exercise gets initiated 1999 National Telecom Policy is announced. 2000 FDI inflow drops further down to Rs 918 million coming 2000 Amendment of Telecom Regulatory Act Of India. Annual foreign investment in telecom stands at Rs 17,756.4 million.


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Major Breakthroughs in Indian Telecom Sector

Pri ate Players were allowed in Value Added Ser ices

National Telecom Policy was Formulated

Independent Regulator, TRAI was Established

Number Portability was introduced

3G policy was announced



2 6

2 8

Unified Access icensing regime was introduced calling party pay was introduced

Intra circle Guideliness were established Broadband Policy was introduced

Measure to boost rural technology FDI limit was increased from 4 to 74 percent

2 3

2 4

NTP -99 to migration from high cost fixed line license to low cost re enue sharing regime

BSN was established by DOT

I D ser ice was open to competition Reduction of icense Fees Internet Telephony was initiated



ICT India

NIC, under the Department of Information Technology of the Government of India, is a premier Science and Technology organization, at the forefront of the active promotion and implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions in the government. NIC has spearheaded the e-Governance drive in the country for the last three decades building a strong foundation for better and more transparent governance and assisting the governments endeavor to reach the unreached. NIC has leveraged ICT to provide a robust communication backbone and effective support for e-Governance to the Central Government, State Governments, UT Administrations, Districts and other Government bodies. It offers a wide range of ICT services. This includes NICNET, a Nationwide Communication Network with gateway nodes at about 53 departments of the Government of India, 35 State/UT Secretariats and 603 District collectorates to service ICT applications. NICNET has played a pivotal role in decentralized planning, improvement in Government services, wider transparency of national and local Governments and improving their accountability to the people. NIC assists in implementing ICT projects, in close collaboration with Central and State Governments and endeavors to ensure that state-of the-art technology is available to its users in all areas of ICT.


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National Telecom Policy : 1994

In 1992 the liberalization policy was adopted by government of India to improveIndia's competitiveness in the global market and rapid growth of exports. The second reason was to attract Foreign direct investment and to stimulate domestic investment. For all this telecommunication services of world class quality were necessary. It was therefore necessary to give the highest priority to the development of telecom Service industry.

The objectives of the 1994 Telecom Policy were as follows: a. The focus of the Telecom Policy was telecommunication for all and telecommunication within the reach of all. That means ensuring the availability of telephone on demand as early as possible. b. Another objective was to achieve universal service covering all villages as early as possible. What is meant by the expression universal service is the prov ision of access to all people for certain basic telecom services at affordable and reasonable prices. c. The quality of telecom services should be of world standard. Removal of consumer complaints, dispute resolution and public interface will receive specia attention. The l objective was to provide widest permissible range of services to meet the customer's demand at reasonable prices. d. Taking into account India's size and development, it was necessary to ensure that India emerges as a major manufacturing base and major exporter of telecom equipment.




National Telecom Policy : 1999

The objectives of NTP 1994 were not fulfilled. There were been far reaching developments in the telecom, IT, consumer electronics and media industries world-wide. Convergence of both markets and technologies were a reality that was forcing realignment of the industry. As in the case of most countries, separate licenses were issued in our country for basic, cellular, ISP, satellite and cable TV operators each with separate industry structure, terms of entry and varying requirement to create infrastructure. However this convergence now allows operators to use their facilities to deliver some services reserved for other operators, necessitating a relook into the existing policy framework. The new telecom policy framework was required to facilitate Indias vision of becoming an IT superpower and develop a world class telecom infrastructure in the country.

Access to telecommunications is of utmost importance for achievement of the country's social and economic goals. Availability of affordable and effective communications for the citizens is at the core of the vision and goal of the telecom policy. Strive to provide a balance between the provision of universal service to all uncovered areas, including the rural areas, and the provision of high-level services capable of meeting the needs of the countrys economy; Encourage development of telecommunication facilities in remote, hilly and tribal areas of the country; Create a modern and efficient telecommunications infrastructure taking into account the convergence of IT, media, telecom and consumer electronics and thereby propel India into becoming an IT superpower; Convert PCOs, wherever justified, into Public Teleinfo centres having multimedia capability like ISDN services, remote database access, government and community information systems etc.


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Transform in a time bound manner, the telecommunications sector to a greater competitive environment in both urban and rural areas providing equal opportunities and level playing field for all players; Strengthen research and development efforts in the country and provide an impetus to build world-class manufacturing capabilities Achieve efficiency and transparency in spectrum management Protect the defense & security interests of the country Enable Indian Telecom Companies to become truly global players.


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Ministry of Communication and Information Technology

The Ministry of Communication and Information Technology is an Indian government ministry. It contains three departments:

Department of Telecommunications Department of Information Technology Department of Posts





Telecom Regulatory Bodies Department of Telecom

The Department of Telecommunications (DOT) is responsible for policy formulation, performance review, monitoring, international cooperation, Research & Development and grant of licenses to operators for providing basic and value added services in various cities and telecom circles as per approved policy of the Government. The Department also allocates frequency and manages radio communications in close coordination with the International bodies. It is also responsible for enforcing wireless regulatory measures and monitoring the wireless transmission of all users in the country The Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing in the Department of Telecommunications, deals with the policy of spectrum management, wireless licensing, frequency assignments, international coordination for spectrum management and administration

1. Policy, Licensing and Coordination matters relating to telegraphs, telephones, wireless, data, facsimile and telematic services and other like forms of communications. 2. Promotion of standardization, research and development in telecommunications. 3. Promotion of private investment in Telecommunications.


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4. Financial assistance for the furtherance of research and study in telecommunications technology and for building up adequately trained manpower for telecom programme, including(a) assistance to institutions, assistance to scientific institutions and to universities for advanced scientific study and research; and (b) grant of scholarships to students in educational institutions and other forms of financial aid to individuals including those going abroad for studies in the field of telecommunications. 5. Procurement of stores and equipment required by the Department of Telecommunications 6. Telecom Commission. 7. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. 8. Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal. 9. Administration of laws with respect to any of the matters specified in this list, namely:a. The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 (13 of 1885); b. The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933 (17 of 1933); and c. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 (24 of 1997). 10. Indian Telephone Industries Limited. 11. Post disinvestment matters relating to M/s Hindustan Teleprinters Limited. 12. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. 13. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited 14. Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited and Telecommunications Consultants (India) Limited. 15. All matters relating to Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT).


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Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

TRAI's mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country in a manner and at a pace which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society.

One of the main objectives of TRAI is to provide a fair and transparent policy environment which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition. In pursuance of above objective TRAI has issued from time to time a large number of regulations, orders and directives to deal with issues coming before it and provided the required direction to the evolution of Indian telecom market from a Government owned monopoly to a multi operator multi service open competitive market. The directions, orders and regulations issued cover a wide range of subjects including tariff, interconnection and quality of service as well as governance of the Authority

Scope of Work
1. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 the functions of the Authority shall be to-

a. recommend the need and timing for introduction of new service provider b. recommend the terms and conditions of licence to a service provider c. ensure technical compatibility and effective inter-connection between different service providers


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d. regulate arrangement amongst service providers of sharing their revenue derived from providing telecommunication services e. ensure compliance of terms and conditions of licence f. recommend revocation of licence for non-compliance of terms and conditions of licence g. laydown and ensure the time period for providing local and long distance circuits of telecommunication between different service providers h. facilitate competition and promote efficiency in the operation of telecommunication services so as to facilitate growth in such services;


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Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 was amended by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Amendment) Act, 2000. The amendments were brought about to remove certain difficulties that had arisen in implementation of the Act. The desired objectives of bringing about functional clarity, strengthening the regulatory framework and the disputes settlement mechanism were attained by bringing about a clear distinction between the recommendatory and regulatory functions of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) by making it mandatory for Government to seek recommendations of TRAI in respect of specified matters and by the setting up of a separate dispute settlement mechanism etc. By the Amendment Act an Appellate Tribunal known as the Telecom Disputes Settlement & Appellate Tribunal has been set up under Section 14 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 by TRAI (Amendment) Act, 2000 (hereinafter called the Act) to adjudicate disputes and dispose of appeals with a view to protect the interests of service providers and consumers of the telecom sector and to promote and ensure orderly growth of the telecom sector.

The functions of the appellate tribunal are to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any decision or order of TRAI, the appellate tribunal consists of Chairperson and two Members.


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Scope of work TDSAT can adjudicate any dispute between: (i) a licensor and a licensee, (ii) two or more service providers, (iii) a service provider and a group of consumers.

The following types of cases cannot be settled by TDSAT: (i) the complaint of an individual consumer maintainable before a Consumer Redressal Forum or a Consumer Disputes Redressed Commission or the National Consumer Redressal Commission established under section 9 of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986; (ii) the monopolistic trade practice, restrictive trade practice and unfair trade practice which are subject to jurisdiction of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Commission established under sub-section (1) of section 5 of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969; (iii) dispute between telegraph authority and any other person referred to in sub-section (I) of Section 7 B of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885;


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Department of Information Technology


Mission of the Department

e-Development of India through multi pronged strategy of e-Infrastructure creation to facilitate and promote e-governance, promotion of Electronics & Information Technology- Information Technology Enabled Services (IT-ITeS) Industry, providing support for creation of Innovation / Research & Development (R&D), building Knowledge network and securing India's cyber space.

Objective of the Department of Information Technology

y y y y y

e-Government: Providing e-infrastructure for delivery of e-services. e-Industry: Promotion of electronics hardware manufacturing and IT-ITeS industry. e-Innovation / R & D: Providing Support for creation of Innovation Infrastructure in emerging areas of technology. e-Education: Providing support for development of e-Skills and Knowledge network. e-Security: Securing India's cyber space.

Scope of work
y y

y y y y y y y

Policy matters relating to Information Technology, Electronics and Internet. Initiatives for development of Hardware / Software industry including knowledge based enterprises, measures for promoting Information Technology exports and competitiveness of the industry. Promotion of Information Technology and Information Technology enabled services and Internet. Assistance to other departments in the promotion of E-Governance, E-Infrastructure, EMedicine, E-Commerce, etc. Promotion of Information Technology education and Information Technology-based education. Matters relating to Cyber Laws, administration of the Information Technology Act. 2000 (21 of 2000) and other Information Technology related laws. Matters relating to promotion and manufacturing of Semiconductor Devices in the country. Interaction in Information Technology related matters with International agencies and bodies. Initiative on bridging the Digital Divide, Matters relating to Media Lab Asia.


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y y y y

Promotion of Standardization, Testing and Quality in Information Technology and standardization of procedure for Information Technology application and Tasks. Electronics Export and Computer Software Promotion Council (ESC). National Informatics Centre (NIC) All matters relating to personnel under the control of the Department.


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FDI in Telecom
In 1994 India recognized the importance of investment in the telecommunications sector and developed the 1994 New Telecom Policy (NTP). The policy contained several key features that would be necessary to improve Indias economic competitiveness. Overall objectives included providing quality telecommunications access on demand for all Indians, ensuring coverage of all areas of the country and developing a viable base to manufacture and export telecommunications equipment.13 Several specific goals were identified with the intent of achieving those goals by 1997. These targets included increasing the amount of telephone lines to 7.5 million. The 1994 NTP had mixed results. The 1994 NTP goal of 7.5 million phone lines were exceeded in a few years when installed phone connections reached 8.73 million. However, the rural areas lagged behind in their access to telecommunications. In 1999 India announced another NTP designed to further liberalize the telecommunications sector. The 1999 NTP was intended to build on the 1994 NTP and further promote the importance of telecommunications to the Indian economy. The 1999 NTP included the objectives of developing an infrastructure to handle media, information technology, telecommunications and other consumer electronics, improve efficiency and transparency, and strengthen telecommunications research and development and manufacturing to enable India to become a major global competitor. Foreign firms wishing to invest in the Indian telecommunications sector are currently limited to owning 74 percent of local companies that provide mobile telephone access, basic, long-distance telephony and other related services. Internet-related services are excluded from the 49 percent cap and can be funded via FDI up to 100 percent. Up to 100 percent of FDI is permitted for manufacturing activities. Chief management is required to be Indian residents. The new policy includes restrictions on subscriber privacy

Major Indian players in Telecom Sector


MTNL Stel Videocon 1% 1% 1% Loop Mobile Etisalat 0% Uninor 0% Aircel 4% 10% Bharti Airtel 28% BSNL 15%

IDEA 16%

Vodafone Essar 24%


AIRTEL Bharti Airtel Limited ,commonly known as Airtel, is an Indian telecommunications company that operates in 19 countries across South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands. It operates a GSM network in all countries, providing 2G or 3Gservices depending upon the country of operation. Airtel is the fifth largest telecom operator in the world with over 207.8 million subscribers across 19 countries at the end of 2010. It is thelargest cellular service provider in India, with over 164.61 million subscribers at the end of 2011 April.[2] Airtel is the 3rd largest in-country mobile operator by subscriber base, behindChina Mobile and China Unicom. Airtel also offers fixed line services and broadband services. It offers its telecom services under the Airtel brand and is headed by Sunil Bharti Mittal. Bharti Airtel is the first Indian telecom service provider to achieve this Cisco Gold Certification. To earn Gold Certification, Bharti Airtel had to meet rigorous standards for networking competency, service, support and customer satisfaction set forth by Cisco. The company also provides land-line telephone services and broadband Internet access (DSL) in over 96 cities in Ind It also acts as a carrier ia. for national and international long distance communication services. The company has a submarine cable landing station at Chennai, which connects the submarine cable connecting Chennai and Singapore.





Vodafone Essar, formerly known as Hutchison Essar, is a cellular operator in India that covers 23 telecom circles in India. It is based in Mumbai. Vodafone Essar is the Indian subsidiary of Vodafone Group. Formerly, 33% share in the firm was owned by Essar Group. Vodafone Group bought out the 33% stake of Essar Group for $5 billion to became the sole owner of the firm. It is the second largest mobile phone operator in terms of revenue behind Bharti Airtel, and third largest in terms of customers. Vodafone had about 134.5 million customers as of February 2011.


Idea Cellular, usually referred to as Idea, is a wireless telephony company operating in all the 22 telecom circles in India based in Mumbai. n 2000, Tata Cellular was a company providing mobile services in Andhra Pradesh. When Birla-AT&T brought Maharashtra and Gujarat to the table, the merger of these two entities was a reality. Thus Birla-Tata-AT&T, popularly known as Batata, was born and was later branded as Idea.


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Aircel group is a mobile phone service provider in India. It offers both prepaid and postpaid GSM cellular phone coverage throughout India. Aircel is a joint venture between Maxis Communications of Malaysia and the Reddy family of Chennai. Maxis has a 74% stake in Aircel and the remaining 26% is with Sindya Securities & Investments Private Limited (Sindya Securities & Investments Private Limited is promoted by P. Dwarakanath Reddy and Suneeta Reddy . It is Indias Seventh largest GSM mobile service provider with a subscriber base of over 51.83 million, as of January 31, 2011. It has a market share of 6.72% among the GSM operators in the country. As on date, Aircel is present in all 23 telecom circles (including Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar & Jharkhand, Chennai, Delhi & NCR, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Kolkata, Madhya Pradesh, Mumbai, North East, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Rest of Maharashtra & Goa, Rest of Tamil Nadu, Rest of West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh East, Uttar Pradesh West) as per the company plans to become a pan-India operator by 2010. Additionally, Aircel has also obtained permission from Department of Telecommunications (DoT) to provide International Long Distance (ILD) and National Long Distance (NLD) telephony services. It also has the largest service in Tamil Nadu.

Uninor is a mobile telephony and network operator in India. The company holds a pan-India UAS licence to offer telecommunications services in each of Indias 22 circles. It has also received spectrum to roll out these services in 21 of the 22 telecom circles. Uninor is subsidiary of Norwegian telecom giant Telenor Group (67.25%) and Unitech Group (32.75%). Uninor has started mobile services in India at the end of 2009, focusing on the GSM technology.


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Tata Teleservices Limited (TTSL) is a subsidiary of the Tata Group headquartered in Navi Mumbai, an Indian conglomerate. It operates under the brand name Tata Indicom in various telecom circles of India. In Nov 2008, Japanese telecom giant NTT Docomo picked up a 26 per cent equity stake in Tata Teleservices for about Rs 13,070 crore ($2.7 billion) or an enterprise value of Rs 50,269 crore ($10.38 billion). [1] In Feb 2008, TTSL announced that it would provide CDMA mobile services targeted towards the youth, in association with the Virgin Groupon a Franchisee model basis. Tata Teleservices Provides mobile services under 3 Brand names:

Tata Indicom (CDMA Mobile operator) Tata DoCoMo (GSM Mobile operator) Virgin Mobile (CDMA Mobile operator) Virgin Mobile (GSM Mobile operator)

Tata Indicom in April 2009, crossed the 35 million subscribers mark in the wireless category with an overall subscriber base of over 36 million. Tata Teleservices is no. 2 slot in terms of Market Share in Delhi NCR region with a subscriber base of 5 million. Tata Teleservices, in October 2007 launched Tata Zone, an infotainment portal on Tata Indicom BREW-enabled mobile phones, in Hindi. This service has applications, pricing details, downloads and browsing instructions in Hindi. The rationale behind this was simple: - 66% of all Indians speak Hindi, while less than 5% understand English.


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Under its VAS bouquet, TTSL offers services such as News, Games, Faith and Prayers, Ringtones, Streaming TV, Fun Shows, Video Zone, Song Download Express, Cricket, Internet Surfing, Astrology, and Mobile Office among others.

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is a state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi, India. BSNL is one of the largest Indian cellular service providers, with over 87.1 million subscribers as of April 2011, and the largest land line telephone provider in India. However, in recent years the company's revenue and market share plunged into heavy losses due to intense competition in Indian telecommunications sector.[4][5] BSNL is India's oldest and largest communication service provider (CSP). It had a customer base of 90 million as of June 2008.[6] It has footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi, which are managed by Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL). As of June 30, 2010, BSNL had a customer base of 27.45 million wireline and 72.69 million wireless subscribers.

Reliance Communications Limited (commonly called RCOM is a major Indian telecommunication company headquartered in Navi Mumbai, India. It is the 16th largest operator in the world with more than 128 million subscribers. RCOM, founded by Dhirubhai H Ambani (19322002), is the flagship company of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. t ranks among the top 5 telecommunications companies. Retrieved 2010-04-14. in the world by number of customers in a single country. Reliance Communications corporate clientele includes 2,100 Indian and multinational corporations, and over 800 global, regional and domestic carriers. The company has established a pan-India, next-generation, integrated (wireless and wireline), convergent (voice, data and video) digital network that is capable of supporting services spanning the entire communications value chain, covering over 24,000 towns and 600,000 villages. Reliance Communications owns and operates the nextgeneration IP-enabled connectivity infrastructure, comprising over 190,000 kilometers of fiber optic cable systems in India, USA, Europe, Middle East and the Asia Pacific region.


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Green Telecom
With increase in demand for telecom services, the energy consumption has also grown significantly and poses an environmental challenge in terms of larger carbon footprint of the telecommunication industry. The total global carbon footprint of the ICT industry as a whole is in the order of 8003 million ton CO2 which is approximately 2 percent3 of global emissions. Of this, the contribution from global telecommunication systems - mobile, fixed and communications devices are around 230 million ton CO2 or approximately 0.7percent3 of global emissions. The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from the mobile industry arise mainly from sources like: Energy consumed by the network operation Emissions of the embedded network equipment, Energy consumed by mobile handsets and other devices, when they are manufactured, distributed and used India is ranked 5th amongst the countries in the list of global GHG emission, contributing 4.7 percent6 of the global emissions. In December 2009, the Minister of State for Environment and Forests announced the Indian Governments commitment to reduce 20-25 percent of carbon intensity from 2005 levels by 2020. Indian Government is already providing various incentives for the initiatives involving the use of renewable energy resources. Government has also offered the Universal Obligation Services Fund (USOF) support to encourage operators to opt for green energy and Bio- fuel as an alternative for powering base stations. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has also initiated a consultation process in May2010, requesting inputs from players across the telecom value chain to provide recommendations on framework and implementation for Green Telecom in India


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Steps taken by telecom Operators and Manufactures

Mobile operators and players across the value chain are working on a number of initiatives to develop energy efficient networks and energy-efficient handsets. Examples of these activities include: Designing low energy base station sites Deploying base-stations powered by renewable energy Implementing infrastructure sharing Reducing mobile device life cycle emissions through recycling Other initiatives Community power and low power handsets.

Low energy base station sites

Considerable improvements in energy efficiency of base stations have been realized in recent years. For example10,Ericsson has reduced the annual direct CO2 emissions per subscriber in the mobile broadband base stations from 31kg in 2001 to 17 kg in 2005 and eventually to 8 kg in 2007. Nokia Siemens Networks in 2009 developed a new cabinet based BTS with a power consumption of 790 W, versus 4,100 W in 2005. Alcatel-Lucent has also developed innovative techniques such as the dynamic power save feature for mobile network, which reduces power consumption when the traffic drops with no impact on service quality. This enhancement reduces average power consumption by 25-30 percent.

Base stations powered by renewable energy

With increase in price of diesel and environmental concern about GHG emissions, operators have begun experimenting with solar and wind powered base stations in both remote off grid areas and in on-grid areas prone to blackouts. There are various technology options for reducing dependence on diesel generators as an alternative source of energy and thereby reducing the carbon footprint. These include:


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Solar Energy - Solar energy can be used to power telecom towers. Solar energy solutions would be the optimal choice for alternative energy in remote sites that are not connected to the power grid directly, thereby reducing the need for prolonged use of diesel generators Wind Energy There are solutions under various stages of development which convert wind energy into electrical energy which could power telecom towers Fuel Cells One of the widely emerging alternate energy solutions is the use of fuel cells for powering telecom towers. These cells rely on hydrogen and other hydrocarbons and have close to zero emissions

Internet and Broadband

History of Internet
The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching, which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking, but also showed that the telephone line's circuit switching was inadequate. Kleinrock's packet switching theory was confirmed. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for ARPANET. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet. The Internet, then known as ARPANET, was brought online in 1969 under a contract let by the renamed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) which initially connected four major computers at universities in the southwestern US (UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah). The contract was carried out by BBN of Cambridge, MA under Bob Kahn and went online in December 1969. By June 1970, MIT, Harvard, BBN, and Systems Development Corp (SDC) in Santa Monica, Cal. were added. By January 1971, Stanford, MIT's Lincoln Labs, Carnegie-Mellon, and Case-Western Reserve U were added. In months to come, NASA/Ames, Mitre, Burroughs, RAND, and the U of Illinois plugged in. After that, there were far too many to keep listing here.


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The Internet matured in the 70's as a result of the TCP/IP architecture first proposed by Bob Kahn at BBN and further developed by Kahn and Vint Cerf at Stanford and others throughout the 70's. It was adopted by the Defense Department in 1980 replacing the earlier Network Control Protocol (NCP) and universally adopted by 1983.

. President Eisenhower requests funds to create ARPA. Approved as a line item in Air Force appropriations bill. . Len Kleinrock, Professor of Computer Science at UCLA, writes first paper on packet switching, "Information Flow in Large Communications Nets." Paper published in RLE Quarterly Progress Report. J.C.R. Licklider & W. Clark write first paper on Internet Concept, "On-Line Man Computer Communications." Len Kleinrock writes Communication Nets, which describes design for packet switching network; used for ARPAnet . Paul Baran writes, "On Distributed Communications Networks," first paper on using message blocks to send info across a decentralized networktopology(Nodes and Links)

1 958




. First Network Experiment: Directed by Larry Roberts at MIT Lincoln Lab, two Oct. 1965 computers talked to each other using packet-switching technology. Dec. 1966 . ARPA project begins. Larry Roberts is chief scientist. Dec. 1968 . ARPANet contract given to Bolt, Beranek & Newman (BBN) in Cambridge,


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Mass. Sept. 1, 1969 Oct. 1, 1969 Nov. 1, 1969 Dec. 1, 1969 . First ARPANet node installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center. Kleinrock hooked up the Interface Message Processor to a Sigma 7 Computer. . Second node installed at Stanford Research Institute; connected to a SDS 940 computer. The first ARPANet message sent: "lo." Trying to spell log-in, but the system crashed! . Third node installed at University of California, Santa Barbara. Connected to an IBM 360/75. . Fourth node installed at University of Utah. Connected to a DEC PDP-10.

March 1970 . Fifth node installed at BBN, across the country in Cambridge, Mass. July 1970 . Alohanet, first packet radio network, operational at University of Hawaii.

. First basic e-mail programs written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN for ARPANET: March 1972 SNDMSG and READMAIL. "@" sign chosen for its "at" meaning. . First ARPANET international connections to University College of London March 1973 (England) and NORSAR (Norway). . Intelreleases the 8080 processor. Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection," which details the design of TCP. . Apple Computer founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Queen Elizabeth II sends out an e-mail. . Vint Cerf joins ARPA as program manager. . TCP split into TCP and IP. . Bob Metcalfe and others found 3Com (Computer Communication Compatibility). . Tim Berners-Lee writes program called "Enquire Within," predecessor to the World Wide Web. . IBM announces its first Personal Computer. Microsoft creates DOS. . Cisco Systems founded.


1976 1978 1979 1980 1981 1983

. Domain Name System (DNS) designed by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Nov. 1983 Craig Partridge. .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net, and .int created. 1984 March 15, William Gibson writes "Neuromancer." Coins the term "cyberspace". Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh on January 24th. . Symbolic.com becomes the first registered domain.


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1985 1986 . 5000 hosts on ARPAnet/Internet. 10,000 hosts on the Internet. First Cisco routershipped. 25 million PCs sold in US. 100,000 hosts on Internet. McAfee Associates founded; anti-virus software available for free. Quantum becomes America Online. . ARPAnet ends. Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web. "Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly. . Mosaic Web browser developed by Marc Andreesen at University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. . InterNICcreated. Web grows by 341,000 percent in a year.


1989 1990 1992


. Netscape Communications founded. Jeff Bezos writes the business plan for Amazon.com. April 1994 . Java's first public demonstration. Dec. 1994 Microsoft licenses technology from Spyglass to create Web browser for Windows May 23, 1995 . Sun Microsystems releases Java.

August 24, 1995 . Windows 95 released. 1996 1997 . Domain name tv.com sold to CNET for $15,000. Browser wars begin. Netscape and Microsoft two biggest players. . business.com sold for $150,000. . Microsoft reaches a partial settlement with the Justice Department that allows personal computer makers to remove or hide its Internet software on new versions of Windows 95. . Netscape announces plans to give its browser away for free. . US Depart of Commerce outlines proposal to privatize DNS. ICANNcreated by Jon Postel to oversee privatization. Jon Postel dies. AOL buys Netscape; Andreesen steps down as full-time employee. Browsers wars declared over; Netscape and Microsoft share almost 100% of browser market. Microsoft declared a monopoly by US District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson. Shawn Fanning creates Napster, opening the possibilities of peer-to-peer file
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January 1998 1998



sharing and igniting a copyright war in the music industry. . Fixed wireless, high-speed Internet technology is now seen as a viable alternative to copper and fiber optic lines placed in the ground. . The Dot-Com Bubble bursts. A majority of the dot-coms ceased trading after burning through their venture capital, often without ever making a net profit.


January 10, AOL Merges with Time-Warner. AOL shareholders take 55% stake in newly 2000 formed company. February 2000 . A large-scale denial of service attack is launched against some major Web sites like Yahoo! and eBay, alerting Web sites to the need for tighter security measures. . 10,000,000 domain names have been registered.

September . There are 20,000,000 websites on the Internet, numbers doubling since February 2000 2000. . A federal judge rules that Napster must remain offline until it can prevent copyrighted material from being shared by its users. . The Code Red worm and Sircam virus infiltrate thousands of web servers and email accounts, respectively, causing a spike in Internet bandwidth usage and security breaches.

July 2001

. The European Council adopts the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet. November . First uncompressed real-time gigabit HDTV transmission across a wide-area IP 2001 network takes place on Internet2. January 2002 January 2003 . .name begins resolving . The SQL Slammer worm causes one of the largest and fastest spreading DDoS attacks ever, taking only 10 minutes to spread worldwide. . The Internet celebrates its 'unofficial' 20th birthday.

September . The RIAA sues 261 individuals for allegedly distributing copyright music files 2003 over peer-to-peer networks . The Research project "How much information 2003" finds that Instant messaging December generates five billion messages a day (750GB), or 274 Terabytes a year and that e2003 mail generates about 400,000 terabytes of new information each year worldwide. 2005 2006 . YouTube.com launches . There are an estimated 92 million Web sites online

. A massive DDOS assault on Blue Security, an anti-spam company, is redirected by Blue Security staff to their Movable Type-hosted blog. The result is that the May 2006 DDOS instead knocks out all access to over 1.8 million active blogs.


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August 2006 October 2006 January 2007 February 2007

. AOL announces that they will give for free virtually every service for which it charged a monthly fee, with income coming instead from advertising. . There are an estimated 92 million Web sites online (some stats say over 100 million) . Google Inc. acquires YouTube for $1.65 billion in a stock-for-stock transaction. . Microsoft launches its various consumer versions of Microsoft Vista. . Apple surpasses one billion iTunes downloads.

March 2007 . 1.114 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Stats. . Search engine giant Google surpasses Microsoft as "the most valuable global April 2007 brand," and also is the most visited Web site.

Broadband Policy 2004

In a bid to encourage high speed Internet growth in the country and to address the demand of application requiring more bandwidth, TRAI came up with its consultation on Accelerating Growth of Internet and Broadband Penetration in November 2003 and submitted its recommendations to DoT on 29th April 2004. Department of Telecom issued Broadband Policy thereafter.

As per Broadband policy broadband is defined as An `always-on data connection that is able to support interactive services including Internet access and has the capability of the minimum download speed of 256 kilo bits per second (kbps) to an individual subscriber from the Point of Presence (POP) of the service provider intending to provide Broadband service where multiple such individual Broadband connections are aggregated and the subscriber is able to access these interactive services including the Internet through this POP. The interactive services will exclude any services for which a separate license is specifically required, for

example, real-time voice transmission, except to the extent that it is presently permitted under ISP license with Internet Telephony.

YEAR ENDING 2005 2007 2010

INTERNET SUBSCRIBERS 6 Million 18 Million 40 Million

BROADBAND SUBSCRIBERS 3 Million 9 Million 20 Million


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COMPANY IntroductionLOGO

Ozone Networks Pvt Ltd was incorporated in 2007 in New Delhi, with the aim of providing wireless internet and mobility solutions to the masses across India. Working as a neutral host , the company has tied up with Airtel, Aircel, Idea, Vodafone in order to provide Wireless Broadband facilities across India , using Ozone s unique login Platform.

Management Team

CEO and Founder :- Mr.Sanjeev Sarin O-Zone Networks was founded by Mr. Sanjeev Sarin who is an international executive with 20 years of experience in the Telecommunications sector across Europe, North America and Asia. Bobbys most recent role was the Group Operating Officer of The Cloud, the largest WIFI Broadband mobile operator in Europe where he was responsible for sales, markets, products, strategy, operations, IT & Marketing. He was also a member of the board and managed the investors, journalists, fund raising and external communications.

CFO and Co-Founder: Mr.Dharmendra Amin Prior to joining O-Zone, Dharmendra was the Director and Chief Administration Officer of Merrill Lynch's Global Markets and Investment Banking division in Switzerland and helped growth the business from $1.2 to $2 Billion in assets over a 3 year period. He was also a member of the Executive Management Committee of the Swiss Bank, working closely with the Board of Directors. Dharmendra was with Merrill Lynch for 11 years, holding a number of roles in the UK, Germany and Switzerland


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General manager

National head Marketing

National Head Finance

Organization Structure Of O-zone Networks Pvt Ltd.

Capital Structure O-Zone Networks is backed by Access Industries which is a privately -held, U.S.-based industrial group with long-term holdings worldwide. Its industrial focus spans three sectors: Natural Resources and Chemicals, Media and Telecommunications, and Real Estat . The e combined revenue of the businesses in which Access has major investments exceeds $100 billion. Access Industry has 33% of stake in the company , rest of 67% is in hold with Mr. Sanjeev Sarin. Apart from that company is planning to raise the equity from Indian market in coming years.

Departments within the Company Marketing :



Marketing Executi e 1

Marketing Executi e 2

Finance Mananger1

Finance manager 2

Finance manager 3


The company has outsourced entire operations to other core partners. The company is only engaged in marketing. Considering the marketing Mix 4P Product: Wi-Fi Service to the people across the country by implementing WiFi hot spots. Price : Company has different Pricing strategies for different hot spot owners as suitable for them. At some of the regions they have implemented Customized Pricing Models Place: In initial phase company is targeting metro cities and Tier -2 cities. Promotion Company has collaborated with brands like CCD, McDonalds, Subway . etc. they have not engaged themselves in any other promotional activity such as advertisement etc.

Operations: The company has outsourced its entire operations to the company named Alcate Lucent and Elite Core. . The long-trusted partner of service providers, enterprises, strategic industries and governments around the world, Alcatel-Lucent is a leader in mobile, fixed, IP and Optics technologies, and a pioneer in applications and services. Alcatel-Lucent includes Bell Labs, one of the world's foremost centres of research and innovation in communications technology. With operations in more than 130 countries and one of the most experienced global services organizations in the industry, Alcatel-Lucent is a local partner with global reach. The Company achieved revenues of Euro 16 billion in 2010 and is incorporated in France and headquartered in Paris.

Security and Network : Elitecore Technologies Private Limited is an Information Technology Products and Software Solutions Company headquartered in India with a vision to create Platform for Innovators. Elitecore is the dynamic player with expertise in IP-based technologies having a sales and distribution channel in over 75 countries to provide critical business solutions to IT innovators. The company was started by New York based Technocrats- Hemal Patel and Ben Casado, with a backing by equity investment from The Carlyle Group, Washington DC Based Private Equity firm.


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Elitecores divisions include Cyberoam, the leading innovator of Identity-based Security solutions, Cyberoam iView, an open source solution for logging and reporting, CRESTEL Billing & Revenue Management Solution that meets the OSS/BSS requirements for voice, Video & Data services offered by Telecom Operators /Service Providers, EliteAAA The Next Generation AAA-Radius and 24online offering a billing and bandwidth management solution to hotels, hotspots and Internet Service Providers

CUSTOMERS A number of market opportunities for Wi-Fi technology are emerging as the Indian economy continues to grow above 8% per year. The upcoming retail revolution, expansion in organized manufacturing and the hospitality sector including medical tourism are some key sectors. Yet another opportunity for Wi-Fi could arise from innovations being attempted to drive the overall costs of computing down. Indian youth continue to drive the needs especially in the media/entertainment vertical. Cell phones are particularly popular, and have become devices not just for communication but for value added services like gaming, music, mobile chats, and m-commerce. Entrenched experience in mobility from cell phone usage, will continue to drive the need for access to high speed wireless Internet services not just for business needs but also for entertainment needs for the younger generation. The high growth economy has created a huge demand for business hotel rooms and conference centers. The hotel industry is only beginning to wake up to the Wi-Fi opportunity. The top hotels do provide Wi-Fi connectivity but it is the large-medium and upper-medium range hotels that are now beginning to look at wireless Internet connectivity. Brand new hotels, which had no prior infrastructure, are capitalizing on this new need for Internet connectivity for business travel. Many of them are now installing new Wi-Fi networks.


Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL)/Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd (MTNL), a public sector company and Indias largest operator, share is about 70% with the rest accounted for by private operators like SIFY, Reliance and Tata Group, Airtel Vodafone. But the Share what the previous companies have its in private network zone i.e. connection provided for personal use in offices and residents. Talking about the concept of Public Wi-Fi communities and installation of Hot Spots in the country , not major companies are in competition. Telecom companies such as Airtel ,Aircel, Vodafone, Tata Indicom Tata Docomo, Relaince are in the race for 3G services and for Wimax technology. In public Wi-Fi business , major competitors to Ozone Networks


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are Tata Indicom and Reliance . Other potential competitors who can enter the market are Spidigo, Tikkona, Vodafone etc. Considering the present situation for pan India the major players are Ozone networks and Tata Indicom. The chart below shows the rough estimate of No. of Hot spots of both the companies.


60 Ozone ne Tata Wifi




In metro cities and in Tier-2 cities, Tata is providing Wi-Fi services to Hotels and Cafes on revenue sharing Pricing model. Owing with the brand name, its easier for them to capture the niche market and collaborate with the chains such as Barista , Mocha, Pizza Hut. In order to capture the Market share Ozone has collaborated with Caf Coffee Day , Mc Donalds , Subway , Trident hotels, Radisson Hotels, Fortis Hospital etc.


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ENVIORMENT The macro-economic trends in India are also driving increase in the adoption and consumption of Internet data, voice and video in various forms. In the following subsections, we describe the usage of Wi-Fi based Internet at home, in the enterprise, public hotspots, city/municipal networks, campus networks and rural deployments. The overall Wi-Fi market is growing at an even bigger pace and promises to take off as a whole host of professional and customization services are beginning to grow. In addition to existing Wi-Fi IP products and services, testing and certification, custom IP build-out, licensing revenues from specialized IP targeted at global verticals (such as the automobile industry, the retail segment, transport and logistics) are all beginning to be built in India for the global market


Security Security is a key concern on any network. The Wi-Fi Alliance mandates support for WPA2 in equipment pursuing certification since March 2006, and this is considered the very latest generation of security standard for Wi-Fi networks. In Indias hotspots however, Wi-Fi security solutions are not being deployed because of usability (key distribution) issues. Most systems integrators have confirmed to us that only 1020% of their hotspot installations were running security of any kind. The primary issue seems to be that users want to connect seamlessly, and security is not as much a felt need here. But after Mumbai attack case, govt has made mandatory to have as secured network and hence Ozone emphasis on layer 2 Security and AAA system. Only those person can access the internet network who have mobile phones and are authenticate owners of the numbers.

Billing Integration The billing integration process helps the user to facilitate the prepaid accounts with multiple logins and long validity of surfing time all around other hot spots. The roaming free facility also provides an edge.


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The Wi-Fi Alliances WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) program is derived from 802.11e and is based on prioritizing different data streams with support at the 802.11 MAC layer. WMM allows a network owner to setup different priorities on Wi-Fi equipment for four predominant types of network traffic. - The highest priority is typically given to voice - The second highest to video - The third priority is for browsing, email and other best effort applications - The lowest priority may be used for background applications like printing.


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SWOT Analysis- Regarding the consumer behavior

y y y y y

y y y y

The company is fully DOT and TRAI complaint. Tie up with Airtel gives them an added advantage The security management of the company provides a safe surfing experience and tension free business opportunity for Hot spot owner Tie up with HP and Cisco. It provides world class equipments Companys policy to work as a neutral host, provides an opportunity to enjoy the brand value of Airtel, Vodafone and Idea. Thus company is not competing with any of the major players. Tie up with Caf Coffee day, Mc Donalds, Barista; DLF gives an opportunity to show their presence nation wide at one Stretch. Agreements with international operators, gives opportunity to foreign customers to use the services. Layer 2 security and AAA integration, provides Using Wi-Fi technology , which is cheap and affordable to middle class people, thus opening a vast pool of customers for the company.

y y y y y y y

There is no promotional activity planned by the company. There is no awareness about Ozones name in the market No market research is being done by the company for different geographical areas. Company is not aware about its competitors Pricing model in Ahmedabad. Unique Selling Proposition i.e. enhanced internet Security is not providing enough strength to business. Awareness about the company in almost zero No promotional hot spots are established for demo


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y y y y y y y

Since company has entered in the business at the same time , when government is supporting the IT sector , it has ample opportunities . A good advertising strategy can help company to get higher market share. Since browsing charges are low, they can attract tier-2 as well as tier 3 cities. PPP strategy can help the company to grow at faster rate. Tie up with Hotel chains, Hospital chains can give the company a boost. Internet facility to commercial buildings especially in Ahmedabad BRTS corridor expansion will help company to grow its public network

y y y y y

Brand value of Tata can hinder the market growth. Non customized plans would not help the company to grab the market share in different geographical areas. Companies like Spidigo, Tikkona can center the Public Wi-Fi business any time. Companies like Tata Communications have their own broadband services. It helps them to grow at faster rate. Companies like Reliance Communications can enter the market with very low prices as they did in telecom sector.


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Page 56



The GSM story began in the early 1980s, when European countries struggled with no fewer than nine competing analog standards, including Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), Total Access Communications Systems (TACS), and so on. In order to put the rise of GSM in context, it is important to note that the climate of economic liberalization and opening up of new markets in Asia, Latin American and Eastern Europe helped boost analog system subscriber numbers throughout the 1990s. The roll-out of a multinational global communications standard faced several formidable barriers. Operators were concentrating on new methods for expanding old analog networks, using methods like NAMPS (Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service) by Motorola; unsurprisingly, there was resistance to the prospects of a digital launch. Pan-European roaming was nothing more than a distant dream at that point, and capacity was a particularly difficult issue. Europeans recognized the need for a completely new system a system that could accommodate an ever-increasing subscriber base, advanced features and standardized solutions across the continent. Because of the shortcomings and incompatibility issues associated with analog systems, a completely new digital solution was instituted. The new standard, Groupe Spciale Mobile (GSM), was built as a wireless counterpart of the land-line Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) system. Although GSM initially stood for Groupe Spciale Mobile, named after the study group that created it, the acronym was later changed to refer to Global System for Mobile communications. This transition as well as other key aspects of GSM history are elaborated upon in subsequent sections. Phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990. Finnish mobile network operator Radiolinja completed the first GSM telephone call in July, 1991.[5] 1992, the first short messaging service (SMS or "text message") message was sent and Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the first international roaming agreement. Work had begun in 1991 to


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expand the GSM standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the first 1800 MHz network became operational in the UK in 1993. Also in 1993, Telecom Australia became the first network operator to deploy a GSM network outside of Europe and the first practical hand-held GSM mobile phone became available. In 1995, fax, data and SMS messaging services became commercially operational, the first 1900 MHz GSM network in the world became operational

in the United States and GSM subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In this same year, the GSM Association was formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM subscribers passed 100 million in 1998

Technical Specifications
GSM networks operate in a number of different carrier frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM networks operating in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Where these bands were already allocated, the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead


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General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (GSM). The service is available to users in over 200 countries. GPRS was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies. It is now maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).[1][2] GPRS usage charging is based on volume of data, either as part of a bundle or on a pay-as-youuse basis. An example of a bundle is up to 5 GB per month for a fixed fee. Usage above the bundle cap is either charged for per megabyte or disallowed. The pay as you use charging is typically per megabyte of traffic. This contrasts with circuit switching data, which is typically billed per minute of connection time, regardless of whether or not the user transfers data during that period. GPRS is a best-effort service, implying variable throughput and latency that depend on the number of other users sharing the service concurrently, as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection. In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56-114 kbit/second.[3] 2G cellular technology combined with GPRS is sometimes described as 2.5G, that is, a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony.[4] It provides moderate-speed data transfer, by using unused time division multiple access (TDMA) channels in, for example, the GSM system

GPRS extends the GSM Packet circuit switched data capabilities and makes the following services possible:

"Always on" internet access Multimedia messaging service (MMS) Push to talk over cellular (PoC) Instant messaging and presencewireless village


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Internet applications for smart devices through wireless application protocol (WAP) Point-to-point (P2P) service: inter-networking with the Internet (IP) Point-to-Multipoint (P2M) service: point-to-multipoint multicast and point-to-multipoint group calls

If SMS over GPRS is used, an SMS transmission speed of about 30 SMS messages per minute may be achieved. This is much faster than using the ordinary SMS over GSM, whose SMS transmission speed is about 6 to 10 SMS messages per minute.

3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.[1] Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internetaccess, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. In 2008, India entered the 3G arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile and Data services by Government owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (BSNL). Later, MTNL launched 3G in Delhiand Mumbai. Nationwide auction of 3G wireless spectrum was announced in April 2010. In 2008, India faced a great crisis with corruption poisoning its Telecom sector and exposing the 2G spectrum scam. The trial of the scam is being conducted by the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) with the help of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). Many companies and politicians are being questioned and accounts of many companies are under the scanner. The first Private-sector service provider that launched 3G services is Tata DoCoMo, on November 5, 2010. And the second is by Reliance Communications, December 13, 2010. Vodafone Launched their 3G by mid of March,2011 . Then, Bharti Airtel launched their 3G services on 24 January 2011 in Bangalore and also launched in Delhi & Jaipur on March 4, 2011(not GSM but only USB estick). Aircel also launched 3G in Kolkata in the month of February. Idea also launched its 3G services in mid April. Other providers like Virgin are expected to launch 3G services by Q1 2011. All the operators provide 3G services on the 2100 MHz band. As of now, the Government owned BSNL is the most successful company with the subscribers of 3G service. It has more than 3 million subscribers of its 3G service. It also has the widest coverage with around 700


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cities across the country. The private operators like IDEA and Reliance are increasing their 3G coverage as well as the number of subscribers. The 3G service is used by the minority users in the country who own 3G handsets and the prices of the 3G services are currently out of reach of the pockets of most Indians. This led to the slow adoption of 3G. but the scenario is changing quickly with the introduction of cheap 3G handsets.




3.5 G


Data Rate

Up to 46 Mbps

Up to 20 Mbps

Up to 14.4 Mbps

Up to 4.9 Mbps

Typical coverage Mobility

3-10 Km

30 meter

1-4 km

1-4 Km

Middle -high





Already started in developed countries

Commonly and fully deployed


Full in most of the countries


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The term Wi-Fi suggests Wireless Fidelity, resembling the long-established audio-equipment classification term high fidelity (in use since the 1930s[6]) or Hi-Fi (used since 1950[6]). Even the Wi-Fi Alliance itself has often used the phrase Wireless Fidelity in its press releases[7][8] and documents;[9][10] the term also appears in a white paper on Wi-Fi from ITAA.[11] However, based on Phil Belanger's[note 1] statement, the term Wi-Fi was never supposed to mean anything at all.[12][13] Wi-Fi enabled device such as a personal computer, video game console, smartphone or digital audio player can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet. The coverage of one or more (interconnected) access points called hotspots can comprise an area as small as a few rooms or as large as many square miles. Coverage in the larger area may depend on a group of access points with overlapping coverage. Wi-Fi technology has been used in wireless mesh networks, for example, in London, UK. [16] In addition to private use in homes and offices, Wi-Fi can provide public access at Wi-Fi hotspots provided either free-of-charge or to subscribers to various commercial services. Organizations and businesses - such as those running airports, hotels and restaurants - often provide free-use hotspots to attract or assist clients. Enthusiasts or authorities who wish to provide services or even to promote business in selected areas sometimes provide free Wi Fi access. As of 2008 more than 300 metropolitan-wide Wi-Fi (Muni-Fi) projects had started.[17] As of 2010 the Czech Republic had 1150 Wi-Fi based wireless Internet service providers.[18][19] Routers that incorporate a digital subscriber line modem or a cable modem and a Wi-Fi access point, often set up in homes and other premises, can provide Internet access and internetworking to all devices connected (wirelessly or by cable) to them. With the

emergence of MiFi and WiBro(a portable Wi-Fi router) people can easily create their own WiFi hotspots that connect to Internet via cellular networks. [20] Now iPhone, Android,Bada and Symbian phones can create wireless connections. One can also connect Wi-Fi devices in ad-hoc mode for client-to-client connections without a router. Wi-Fi also connects places that would traditionally not have network access, for example kitchens and garden sheds.

WiMAX is the next-generation of wireless technology designed to enable pervasive, highspeed mobile Internet access to the widest array of devices including notebook PCs, handsets, smartphones, and consumer electronics such as gaming devices, cameras, camcorders, music players, and more. As the fourth generation (4G) of wireless technology, WiMAX delivers low-cost, open networks and is the first all IP mobile Internet solution enabling efficient and scalable networks for data, video, and voice. As a major driver in the support and development of WiMAX, Intel has designed embedded WiMAX solutions for a variety of mobile devices supporting the future of high-speed broadband on-the-go.

The only network optimized specifically for mobile broadband Internet, WiMAX is based on a set of global standards covering fixed, portable, and mobile deployments on an open network that will help drive and leverage the openness of the Internet, as opposed to prior generation's closed systems.

The low-cost, all-IP network architecture and backwards compatibility with existing 2G and 3G cellular network deployments makes WiMAX easier and more cost-effective to deploy and operate than current mobile wireless data solutions. As a result, it has already garnered broad support from leading operatorsboth wireline and wirelessand device manufacturers around the world. WiMAX provides two to four times the performance of 3G solutions today, with the ability to scale to ten times the performance in the future. As a driving force in collaboration with industry leaders, Intel is working towards further expansion and support of WiMAX through technology advancements such as the Intel Centrino Advanced-N + WiMAX Series, the world's first integrated WiMAX/WiFi module for laptops withIntel My WiFi Technology (Intel MWT) and supporting global 2.3GHz, 2.5GHz, and 3.5GHz WiMAX frequencies. Laptops and netbooks with Intel Centrino Advanced-N + WiMAX 6250provide performance and reliable connectivity in a fully integrated solution.

Transition from 3G to Wi-Fi

The use of smart phones and other mobile devices is changing how we access the Internet. Gone are the days when you had to go to the home office, boot up the PC or laptop, get a cup of tea, login, go for a second cup while the computer started all essential and non-essential services, come back and finally launch your preferred browser to access the Internet

Furthermore, the way we consume content over the Internet is changing. The Internet is feeding us with bits of information such as low resolution videos designed to fit on smaller screens. Social networking sites allow us to post messages including pictures and short videos. Many major content providers have a web-site that automatically adapts the content to smaller screen sizes and for everything else we go to the App Store or equivalent.

In short, many drivers are pushing Internet users towards mobile devices and these changes in consumer behaviour are having an impact on mobile networks and the companies who run these networks. These trends will dramatically increase mobile data traffic, requiring a lot of additional resources to satisfy the demand for instant mobile data access. Most of the research


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reports are predicting an increase of mobile data traffic by a factor of 30 in the next 5 years (2009-2014). Here are few numbers that put this trend into perspective: Cisco forecasted that

Global mobile data traffic will double every year through 2014, increasing 39 times between 2009 and 2014. The number of mobile-only data users will increase from 12.8 million in 2009 to 635.8 million in 2014. This number only takes the top 13 countries in the world into account, but it shows the tremendous increase in mobile data traffic that is expected over the next 4 years. Global mobile data traffic will increase from 0.09 exabytes in 2009 to 3.6 exabytes per month by 2014. 1 exabyte is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes = 1018 bytes = 1 billion gigabytes = 1 million terabytes. 66% of worlds mobile data traffic will be video by 2014. AIB Research forecasted that 48% of mobile data will be off-loaded by 2015. Additionally, mobile data traffic will grow by a factor of 30 meaning off-loading will expand by 100-fold by 2015.

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Mobile Network Operator Data Offload Strategies

Most of the mobile operators have introduced and started to implement a mobile data offloading strategy. In other words they will have to find complementary technologies for delivering data originally targeted for 3G/4G networks. The capacity to carry large volumes of traffic over radio waves is the most challenging aspect. It would be possible to increase the capacity for large mobile cells. However, costs, environmental aspects and especially radio interference issues will make this option less attractive. For this reason the operators are introducing very small radio cells to deliver the required capacity and coverage. These cells are characterized by transferring large volume of data over a very short distance. We are talking here about a distance of 10 to 40 meters.

WiFi Offloading
The following figure provides a simplified view of networks and nodes that play key roles in handling mobile data traffic using traditional 3G communication and the WiFi access network to off-load traffic from the 3G access network.


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On the left side of figure 1 we show a mobile device and two wireless access networks, a WiFi access network and a 3G access network. These networks are available to the mobile phone user for accessing the Internet. In general the mobile user will select the WiFi access network to communicate with the Internet because it offers a higher bandwidth and it is also beneficial to the mobile operator because the traffic is off-loaded from the 3G network that has limited resources. The 3G network is only used if the WiFi network is not available. This approach is already used by many mobile users when they connect to the Internet. However, in most of the cases the WiFi access network communicates with an Internet Service Provider (ISP, not shown in this diagram) meaning the mobile operator looses the control over the mobile user and can not offer premium services to the mobile user nor charge for the data transfer. In other words revenue is lost from the mobile user and from the content provider. The middle part of the diagram depicts the mobile operator infrastructure that is required to integrate the access networks with the backend system. The 3G infra -structure is illustrated by the SGSN and GGSN nodes. The bottom part shows the new I -WLAN nodes that allow the mobile operator to establish a controlled communication channels between the WiFi user and the content provider. The new I-WLAN nodes are explained in further detail below. Both approaches may or may not share the same infrastructure for authent ication, charging and Quality-of-Service (QoS).




WLAN Access Gateway

The WLAN Access Gateway is responsible for routing the data to/from the WLAN Access Network and the Packet Data Gateway. It is the first node that interacts with the WiFi network. The WLAN has many functions. The most important are listed below:
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Makes sure that packets are routed to the PDG. Supports QoS mechanism if they are applied. This would allow operators to guarantee bandwidth if the users purchased such a service. Discards data packets that shall not be forwarded to the PDG. This will reduce the load on the PDG and the packet data networks.

Packet Data Gateway (PDG)

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Responsible for the authentication of a mobile device and the authorization to select services. Resolves and assigns an IP address for the mobile device. Maintains routing information for the mobile device. Filter out unauthorized traffic. Generates charging information related to the user data traffic. Applies QoS mechanisms that allow operators to provide policy-based control for different users and traffic types. Routes traffic to/from packet data networks. Premium service (e.g., high definition video) may use the high-quality network while less demanding services (e.g., reading email) will use the best-effort Internet.


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