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MODULE V The Role of the Youth in Nation Building: Good Citizenship for Letranites Introduction The youth, as a sector,

comprise a significantly large part of the population. Within educational institutions, they are the majority. They also possess certain strengths that are necessary in the process of change. They play a vital role in the society, exercising a significant influence to the other sectors. The roles they played in the past had caught the attention of the government and opened the eyes and minds of Filipino leaders and functionaries for needed reforms in the society. Today, the State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation building and reaffirms the expectation of our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal that the youth is the hope of the land. Part I. Recognizing the Vital Role of the Youth in Nation Building The Role of the Youth in Nation Building As can be seen from the activity, each card is to play a crucial role in the formation of the structure by supporting the other cards. By removing the card, the whole structure collapsed. Just as the structure collapsed with the removal of one card, the group or community where we belong would collapse even if one member, irregardless of his position in the hierarchy, would not do his part or maybe simply refusing to do what is expected of him. The importance of one card in building the structure should be taken into consideration. While it took a considerable amount of time for the structure to be put in place, it will only take a split second for the three-storey edifice to collapse once a card is removed. Along the same light, the constitution recognizes and acknowledges the role of the youth in nation building. It underscores the contributory effort of the youth to community building. But all must do its utmost best to live up to the recognition given by the state to the young people of this nation. Just as one card is very important so is the youth in nation building. No matter how small or insignificant is one individual he/she

can still contribute something, in his/her own little way, towards the achievement of the goal of our nation. According to statistics, our country is a very young country when it comes to age distribution in the population. Based on the 1995 census, the total youth population (those within 15-30 age-bracket) was approximately 20.7 million. This means that the youth at that time comprise almost 1/3 of the total Philippine population. What more at this present time? This is the reason why the Philippine Government has placed paramount importance on the significance of the youth in Nation Building. In 1870, our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal, in his message To the Filipino Youth, called the youth, The hope of the Fatherland and exhorted them to break free from the shackles that bound their hearts and minds so that they may soar to the heavens and attain their aspirations. Gregoria De Jesus, herself a great woman and the wife of another Philippine hero, Andres Bonifacio, also recognized the role of the youth in the society. And through her Decalogue of Filipino Youth, she reminded the youth of the 1800s of the Filipino values that propelled the nation to independence and preserved its timehonored tradition as a distinct race. A hundred years later, Filipinos continue to put great faith and confidence in its youth. The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of The Philippines clearly states that the countrys youth policy in Article II, Section 13: The State shall recognize the vital role of the youth in Nation Building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. Nation building is a dynamic, on-going, always becoming but never quite finished process of developing and strengthening the nation in the social, political, cultural, environmental, moral and cultural aspects of life founded on patriotism and nationalism. To translate this in concrete terms, the CWTSP provides the venues for the youth to be able to participate in this undertaking by encouraging the youth to contribute to the general welfare and the betterment of life of the community which many Letranites have done in the past. The Philippines is said to be a very young nation. We were under the Spaniards for 333 years, 45 years under the Americans and more than 3 years under the Japanese

imperial Army. It is therefore quite understandable that even up to now, we still consider the Philippines as a young nation. During those years many graduates of Letran have participated in the building of this nation. The idea that Filipinos should unite together as members of one and the same nation with a common past, present and destiny was triggered by the martyrdom of three noble and honored Filipino priests who were alumni of Letran famously known as the GomBurZa. During the time of the revolution many Letranites participated in our fight for independence, most notable of which are Marcelo H. Del Pilar, Emilio Jacinto, Emilio Aguinaldo, Apolinario Mabini and many others. In the first few years of Philippine Independence from Spain, Emilio Aguinaldo, Manuel Quezon, Sergio Osmea and Jose P. Laurel became the front-runners of building our nation by becoming presidents of our country. They are the pride of Letran. Still many others have followed in their footsteps in sharing themselves in the development of this nation. Just as they have given themselves, we, the present generation of Letranites are also challenged to continuously share our talents, time and treasure in helping build our nation to the best of our abilities. Part II. Good Citizenship in the Youth The Citizens of the Philippines Section 1 of the Philippine Constitution provides that the following are citizens of the Philippines: 1. 2. 3. 4. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution; Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine Citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. Rights of a Citizen

Human rights are the supreme, inherent and inalienable rights to life, to dignity and to develop ones self. During the Martial Law years, a lot of human rights both collective and individual were violated to serve not the people but the status quo. Our being human is the fundamental basis of human rights. Human rights are means to protect, affirm, promote and realize the value of being human. These are necessary conditions and situations for the unfolding and fuller development of life of being human as an individual and as a people. 1. Basic Characteristics of Humans Rights a. Human rights are inherent to or part of the human person. b. Human rights are inalienable; thus, they cannot be taken away from any body. c. Human rights are universal; they are not limited by boundaries but are recognized by all humankind. Human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. These rights are fundamental freedoms are the birth right of all human beings. It is the prime responsibility of the government to protect and promote these rights. Human rights are also laws or rules that bind citizens in a particular country or members of the international community that have consented to be bound to global treaties such as the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UN Covenants on Civil and Political, Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. In the Philippines, the legal framework for the protection of human rights is established, among others, by the Constitution, the Civil Code, the revised penal Code and the Child and Youth Welfare Code. The Commission on Human Rights has also established protective legal measures. The Ombudsman, meanwhile, functions to prevent the abuse of power by government officials and employees. 2. Basic Principles of Human Rights a. Equality - Human people are equal regardless of sex, religion, race creed/ political belief, etc. b. Collective Rights - Human rights are enjoyed by the whole society. c. State Guarantee - The government has the responsibility of protecting and defending human rights.

The universality of human rights does not mean the absoluteness of its application. Human rights are not absolute that can be upheld under all conditions simultaneously and for all eternity. They are limited by other human rights. They cannot be used as an excuse to violate other rights. They are relative in the sense that these are evolutionary and developmental. These means that a society advances and as human consciousness develop, new rights are recognized, old rights acquire new meanings, and fulfilled rights are institutionalized. 3. Classification of Human Rights a. Civil and Political Rights consist of specific obligations of conduct, thus, have very definite, measurable standards and could be precisely defined. These are the traditional rights stated mostly in Article III (The Bill of Rights) of the 1987 Constitution. Our Civil Rights Civil rights are those granted to private individuals for the purpose of securing the enjoyment of their means to happiness. These rights include the following: 1. Right to Privacy, Communications or Correspondence (Section 3,1) 2. Right Against Involuntary Servitude (Section18, 2) 3. Right Against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures (Section 2) 4. Free Access to Court (Section 11) 5. Right Against Imprisonment Depth (Section 20) 6. Non-impairment of Contracts (Section 10) 7. Liberty of Abode and Travel (Section 6) Our Political Rights Political rights are those rights of the citizen that empower them to participate directly or indirectly in the establishment or administration of the government. These include: 1. Right to Citizenship (Article IV) 2. Right to Suffrage (Article V, Section 1) 3. Right to be informed on Matters of Public Records and Documents (Section 7) 4. Freedom of Speech, the Press and Expression (Section 4) 5. Right to form Unions and Associations (Section 8)

6. Right to Petition the Government for Regardless of Grievances (Section 4) 7. Right to Participation at all Levels of Social, Political, and Economic Decision-making (Article XIII, Section 1) 8. Right to Sectoral Representation shall be included in Legislative Bodies as may be prescribed by Law (Article VI, Sections 5, 1 and 2: and Article X, Section 9) 9. Right of People to Propose Amendments to the Constitution through Peoples Initiative. (Article XVII, Section 2) b. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are rights that cannot be measured readily and are based on largely subjective judgments. Some of these rights are stated in Article XIII (Social Justice and Human Rights), Articles XIV and XV of the 1987 Constitution. Our Economic Rights These are rights intended to ensure the well-being and economic security of the individual. These rights include the following: 1. Freedom from Hunger 2. Right to Employment with Decent Living Wedges (Article XIII on Labor) 3. Right to Autonomous Economic Development (Article XIII, Section 2) 4. Right to Just Compensation for Private Property taken for Public Use (Article III, Section 9) 5. Rights to Form Unions, Association or Societies for Purposes not Contrary to Law (Article III, Section 8) Our Social and Cultural Rights Social and cultural rights pertain to a persons freedom to benefit from his capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. These rights include the following: 1. Right to Dignity (Article XIII, Section 1) 2. Right to Property (Article XIII, Section 2) 3. Right to Identify 4. Right to Self-determination (Article II, Section 7) 5. Right to Education (Article XIV, Section 1)

6. Right to Health and Health Services (Article XIII on Health) 7. Right to a Decent Standard of Living (Article XIII on Labor) 8. Right to be with Ones Family (Article XV on the Family) 9. Right to Thought, Conscience and Religion (Article III, Section 5) 10. Right to an Autonomous Socio-cultural and Development (Article XIV on Arts and Culture) c. Collective Rights. Besides our rights as person, we also have our rights as a society, rights which belong to each of us individually but which we can exercise collectively. These are what we call the rights of the people, which are analogous to the rights of the person and which consist of three basic rights: to survive, to self- determination, and to develop as a people. The relation between individual and collective rights needs careful analysis of the objective conditions that exist within societies. Like in the time of war, collective rights should be the basis of a united struggle since individual rights are limited due to the subjugation of once society by another. Individual rights largely result from the enjoyment of collective rights. In turn, the enjoyments of collective rights guarantee the continued recognition and practice of individual rights. Individual rights are means for every person to be human and that collective or peoples rights are conditions for our humanity to develop or unfold. A Summary of Individual and Collective Rights:
INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS Life Health Own Property Work Form Trade Unions/To Strike Social Security Rest and Leisure Move Freely Marry (within the country, leave and return freely) Survival Peace Non-aggression Participate and Engage in International Trade COLLECTIVE RIGHTS

Establish a family Self-determination Equal Sovereign Affairs and International Affairs and International Organizations Freedom from all Forms of Racial Discrimination Political Independence Freedom from the following: Colonialism family, home and Neo-colonialism Alien domination and Intervention in national affairs Sovereignty over Natural Resources and Economic Activities Freedom to Choose or Change Social, Political, Economic and Cultural Systems

Exercise parental rights Dignity Recognition as a person Honor and reputation

Freedom of conscience, religion, and opinion and expression Seek, receive, impart information Peaceful assembly Equal treatment Privacy in correspondence Freedom from the following: Slavery, Torture, Cruel, Degrading, and In human, Punishment, Arbitrary arrest, detention, and Exile Presumed Innocent (of crime or wrong doing)

Fair trial Development Education Share in Cultural Life of Community Form Associations Live in National and International Order

Development Choose the Goals and Means of Development to Industrialize the Economy Social and Economic Reforms Benefit from and Contribute to Scientific and Technological Advances in the World Reparation and Retribution for Exploitation

(Source: Renato Pasimio, The Philippine Constitution, 2000) 60th Universal Declaration of Human Rights On the 60th Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the following rights are to be uphold in order to protect, affirm, promote and realize the value of being human: 1. All human beings are born free and equal. We should treat each other with a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

2. No discrimination. We are all entitled to all the human rights. (Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 3. Right to life, liberty and security of person. (Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 4. No slavery. (Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 5. No torture, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment. (Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 6. Were all equal and entitled to protection against discrimination. (Article 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 7. For violations, you have legal remedies. (Article 7 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 8. No arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 9. No arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 10. Right to fair trial. (Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 11. We are presumed innocent until proved guilty, by legal means. (Article 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 12. Right to privacy and to reputation. (Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 13. Right to freedom and movement and residence. (Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 14. Right to seek asylum. (Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 15. Right to nationality and change nationality. (Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 16. Right to marry. Marriage needs consent. Family is protected. (Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 17. Right to own property. No arbitrary deprivation. (Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 18. Right to freedom of thought and religion. (Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) Need legal cause. (Article 9 of the Need legal cause. (Article 8 of the

19. Freedom to expression and opinion. (Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 20. Freedom of peaceful assembly and association. (Article 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 21. Right to take part in government and equal access to public service. (Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 22. Right to social security and economic, social and cultural rights. (Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 23. Right to work, just and equal pay, form trade unions. (Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 24. Right to rest and leisure, holidays with pay. (Article 24 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 25. Standard of living, social services, protection for all children. (Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 26. Right to education. (Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 27. Right to cultural life, copyright. (Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 28. Right to a world where all rights can be realized. (Article 28 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 29. Everyone has duties to the community for human rights. ((Article 29 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 30. No one can take away your human rights. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) (Source: www.chr.gov.ph; Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2008) Duties and Responsibilities of a Citizen Every citizen is bestowed by rights guaranteed by law. Each right carries a corresponding individual and collective duty and obligation. Performance of social duties can be demanded from each citizen on the basis of the enjoyment of the rights. Therefore, it is only when the citizens freely exercise their rights that they faithfully perform their duties ideally for the common good and a better quality of life.

The natural rights bestowed to the human person are inseparably connected to many respective duties. Rights and duties find their source, their sustenance and their inviolability on the natural law that grants and enjoins them. For example, the right of every person to life is correlative to the duty of preserving it, the right to a decent standard of living with the duty of living it becomingly, and the right to investigate the truth freely, with the duty of seeking it, and if possessing it ever more completely and profoundly. The following, among others, are some of the more important duties and responsibilities of every citizen: 1. Love of Country How does one express love of country? Many of our heroes, like Emilio Jacinto, a Letranite have given up their lives to demonstrate the love for the country. Benigno Ninoy Aquino Jr. said: The Filipinos are worth dying for. One does not need to die to show love of country although one would not hesitate to do so in the event that it is necessary. Love of country can be shown in many ways. By appreciating the customs, traditions, languages and people. Filipino. Filipinos must develop a sense of nationalism. To patronize ones own products, speak ones own language. For centuries, we have been under colonial rule and the effects are telling. We prefer foreign goods in the belief that they are superior products than ours. We prefer our communications with English language. Our country is our extended self. It is our fulfillment of our personality, the perfection of our individuality. Therefore, we must love it and harbor its interest first foremost in our hearts. 2. Defense of the State Love of country is not only words but also deeds. In a situation where our national existence or survival is threatened or in peril, where our sovereignty as people and Nation is disrespected by unfair, deceptive and onerous treaties or agreements with other nations. As citizens, it is our fundamental and honorable duty to defend our nation against any By paying taxes on time. By following traffic rules. By maintaining clean surroundings. By helping those in need. By taking pride of being

aggression and exploitative relation. The State that we should protect consists of people, territory, government and sovereignty. Defending the State is a concrete manifestation of love of country. Hence love of country should not be an occasional virtue to be exhibited. It must be constantly and permanently etched in the hearts of every citizen so that it inspires them to serve and defend the country at all times and at all cost. Defending the State thus requires citizens to give voluntary service when needed. They must fight for the existence and self-preservation of the state. 3. Upholding the Constitution and Obeying the Laws The Constitution is the cornerstone by which all other laws conform and to which all persons including the president, must respect. If laws are inconsistent with the Constitution, the latter governs and the former becomes void. The 1987 Constitution, duly approved by the people, is the expression of the will of the people. Every citizen has the duty to defend the Constitution, especially against those who wish to emasculate the law for usurpation of power. 4. Contribution to the Development and Welfare of the Country The development and welfare of the country is a responsibility not only of the government but also of all people. The citizens can contribute to the development and welfare of the country by doing faithfully their obligations. By paying taxes honestly, willingly and promptly. By participating in civil activities and projects, e.g. peace and order, community cleaning, etc. By helping protect and preserve the countys natural resources. By promoting social justice and pursuing social policies and economic measures that are pro-people and pro-poor. People are duty bound to oppose any policies that exploit and deplete the national resources of the country to their detriment and that of the environment. Furthermore, people can contribute to development by doing away with colonial mentality and patronizing the countrys products. Colonial mentality drives the people to choose or prioritize products from other countries or imported products. It brainwashes the citizens that imported or brand name product is superior to the domestic or not known products, it betrays love of the country. 5. Cooperation with the Duly-constituted Authorities

We need authority to lead us; it is necessary for the common good and the unity of the State. When authority is exercised for the genuine development of the people or in accord with the moral law, it must be respected and obeyed. Citizens should cooperate with the people mandated to rein or run the government. It is the duty of a citizen not only to see to it that he does not violate any law, ordinance, rule and regulation but also to ensure that such laws are obeyed or observed by his fellow citizens. Constituted authorities dispose their executions within the bounds of the law. The law is the mass of obligatory rules established for the purpose of governing the relations of persons in society. It is a norm of human conduct in social life established and imposed for the observance of all. The law is powerless without the cooperation of the citizens. Authorities or officers of the law need citizens to prevent and be witnesses to crimes committed. Citizens should not allow crimes to be committed under their noses without even lifting a finger to prevent its execution. It is the duty of the citizens to ensure that officers of the law attend the enforcement of the law and properly perform their duties. Citizens should not tolerate or become accomplice to any wrong doing in the community. They should take any step in looking towards the eradication of graft, corruption and criminality in their community. A citizen must correct the distorted values that drive people to commit illegal activities. Cooperation with duly constituted authorities must always be geared toward the common good. If laws and treaties are inconsistent or are unconstitutional, then the people have the option not to cooperate with the authorities. Instead they have every reason to protest or petition such laws. True, citizens should in conscience obey constituted authorities but they are not compelled to obey commands that are morally wrong. Authority must not be used contrary to the moral law, especially when citizens are under oppression of public authority which over steps its competence. 6. Responsible Exercise of Rights and Respect for the Rights of Others

In society where every member has his own interest, there would inevitably be clashes. Each one must not insist ones rights at the expense of the others rights but must work for the welfare of all. A citizen must be imbued with the sense of awareness that his fellow citizens have the same rights he has. He should not only be concerned about his rights but also about his obligations to his fellow citizens. In the exercise of rights and in the performance of duties, all citizens must act with justice and give everyone his due and observe honesty and good faith. It is not permissible to abuse ones rights to prejudice others. For instance, it is not right for the owners of a company to fire regular workers and then hire contractual workers in order to gain more profit at the expense of the workers right to tenure. Although this is now the practice of many companies and seemingly tolerated by government, this act is wrong and it violates workers rights. Citizens rights are not an unrestricted license to do exactly as one pleases. These rights must serve as means of enjoyment of our life. But these must be restrained under conditions essential to the equal enjoyment of the same right by others. 7. Engagement in Gainful Work Every citizen must work to assure himself and his family a life worthy of human dignity. It is the nature of the human person to work. It is through hard, gainful and sustained work that people and nations live and survive. It is the duty of the State to ensure the promotion of employment opportunities to its citizens. (See Article II, Section 9: and Article XIII, Section 3). But it is the responsibility of every citizen to look for work. Every citizen has an obligation to be useful and be a productive member of society because, first, work is his nature and source of his dignity and second, work is his contribution to the development of the country/State. 8. Election of Good Leaders to Government It is the constitutional duty of every citizen to register and elect qualified citizens to public office. This duty does not only mean registering and casting a vote. It includes the duty of using mature and free judgment, conscience and analysis of the integrity and fitness of the aspirants to lead the country and the people for genuine development when they hold public office.

Though elections in the country do not sufficiently provide citizens an opportunity to participate politically, they matter because the success or failure of the government, in a way, depends, directly or indirectly upon the voting population. Elected public officials enact and execute policies that affect the life of the people. Thus voters have to exercise their power to elect public officials who are pro-God, pro-poor, pro-people, and procountry. It is true that election today serve as mechanism to maintain and legitimize the leadership of the elite, but we can put a stop to this by advocating political and electoral reforms to give poor but qualified candidates chances to aspire for public office. (Source: Renato Pasimio, The Philippine Constitution, 2000) Becoming Good Citizens The Filipino people posses certain values, shared perceptions on what we hold dear, what we regard as important to us. These sixteen values are enshrined in the Preamble of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. These are unity, patriotism, faith in the Almighty God, respect for life, respect for law and Government, work, truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, peace, promotion of the common good, concern for the environment, and order. These values of the Filipino people serve as the guiding principles of our life as a nation and provide the underlying framework for all the provisions of the Constitution. We can become good citizens by living in accordance with these good citizenship values For an adult, his basic values can be seen in his outward manifestations as well as in decision-making. There is always a consistency in what he thinks and feels and what he says. Every Filipino child needs to be helped to form his own values consistent with basic Filipino values, if he is to grow into a citizen who is maka-Diyos, maka-tao, makabayan at maka-kalikasan. Every Filipino is enjoined to live the good citizenship values enshrined in the constitution: THE GOOD CITIZENSHIP VALUES (Based on the 1987 Philippine Constitution)

1. FAITH IN THE ALMIGHTY GOD Be God-fearing and live according to His will. Deepening Points Faith can move mountains If faith in God worked miracles for us during our EDSA I experiences, it can also work in our everyday lives. The kind of faith we professed at EDSA I was one that drove us into action (faith in action). Our Faith, which moved us to act, was the single biggest factor that made EDSA I work, one that indeed moved mountains. Faith in the Almighty is an innate trademark Filipino value. All of us have it. When the country was plunged into shock and misery brought about by the devastation of the 1991 earthquake, Filipinos consoled themselves and lifted each others spirit by crying sincere tears, a symbol of their bearing each others pains, and by praying together with an extraordinary faith to get through such a calamity. Such an attitude clearly defines the Filipinos unique regard for the value of faith in the Almighty. We should take pride in our faith and use it to improve our lives. More than ever, our faith as a people has proven to be stronger and more meaningful. We even face the prospect of sharing our faith with those who actually introduced it to us in the first place. Our faith is a call to conversion: turning away from graft and corruption, indolence, our desire for convenience rather than hard work, growing adherence to materialism at the expense of the loss of our values and integrity, and our sense of helplessness when confronted with adversity. We should learn how to pray from our hearts, not merely by our lips. We pray for more God-centered leaders who assume authority in the context of genuine services. We pray because without God we can do nothing. 2. RESPECT FOR LIFE Recognize the absolute value of human life and the human dignity of every person

Deepening Points Every persons life is a precious gift, no individual has the right to harm or destroy it. Terrorism is to be condemned in the most absolute terms because it shows complete contempt for human life and can never be justified. (Social Doctrine of the Church #514) Human life must be respected, protected and preserved from the moment of conception. Our body is Gods temple, we should take care of it and regard it as sacred. We should uphold and recognize each others dignity as a persons and grow to appreciate each others worth because there exist in the human person sufficient qualities and energies, a fundamental goodness. Gods decision to make man in his image and likeness gives the human being a unique dignity that extends to all generations and through out the entire earth. (Social Teaching of the Church #428) Every person is a gift in himself and deserves the opportunity to realize and share his own giftedness to society without fear of harm and persecution. Every person is safeguarded by basic human rights and is responsible for the rights of others. A just society can become a reality only when it is based on respect for the transcendent dignity of the human person. Every person should be given the opportunity and freedom to lead a values based and purpose-driven life. 3. ORDER Respect the human rights of one another and comply with your duties and responsibilities. Deepening Points Order is putting everything in its right place. God is our number one value, foremost priority, and source of all our motivations and inspirations.

Some simple ways of prioritizing or putting things in order include the following: Cleanliness and proper arrangement of things, belongings, living quarters, and workplace, time management (faithfully following an established routine/schedule), budgeting and expense allocation, resources management, prioritization/sorting of activities according to level of importance or urgency, and goal setting.

In doing first things first in the light of effecting change in our country, change/transformation should begin with us before it can proceed to a broader scale. The determination to develop the value on a wider scale towards national development should then evolve into a collective resolve by every citizen to live out the value and allow it to pervade into our peoples consciousness and culture.

Learn to be orderly in your work by establishing a system and routine. One of the advantages of being disorderly is that one is constantly making exciting discoveries. The value of order ensures all citizens of security (in the form of order established by laws), peace (when order is maintained by law enforcement agencies of the government and other sectors of society), harmony (as a result of the social contract borne out of the implications of the law and basic understanding of ethics and values) and progress (as the value of order constantly seeks to promote efficiency and effectiveness in a persons work, job or routine).

Disorder triggers situations of panic, unrest, confusion, havoc, chaos, and anarchy. Order is so essential to us that we even have to follow a particular order in loving God, country and family. Basic values like diligence and cleanliness stem from the value of orderliness. Order entails the discipline of the mind, emotion and action. Some virtues/values that may be required when one wish to develop the value of Order are prudence, temperance, discipline, humility, diligence, patience and resilience.

God follows order in the first story of creation (Cf. Gen. 1)

4. WORK Be diligent and earn an honest living; do not engage in crime and corruption.

Deepening Points The family is simultaneously a community made possible by work and the first school of work within a home, for every person. Man is destined to work, it is in his nature. But he must see to it that he works to make a life not just a living. He must find time for relaxation. Discuss the Filipino culture of and with regard to, the following: kapit sa patalim, ningas-kugon, manana habit, pwedeng-pwede na, bahala na. Job and Work must be defined and differentiated. Achievement is getting things done well while activity is a matter of merely staying busy. Avoid acting like busy bodies doing nothing. Our country will progress if every Filipino puts value in honest hard work. Our character is our fate. Every Filipino should strive towards self-reliance. Learn to invest your God-given talents in your work, for work is Gods provision to prosperity. Dont settle for mediocrity, aim for excellence. Well done is better than well said-Benjamin Franklin Do your best and God will take care of the rest. Pray and work: Pray as if everything depended on God and work as if everything depended on you. Living within your means is spending less than what you earn. Living within ones means is a key element of success and progress as it encourages the values of discipline, frugality, prudence and the virtue of temperance. Things done in haste will usually end in waste. Small deeds done are better than many things planned.

What counts in the end is not the volume of work but the love that we put into our work.

5. CONCERNS FOR THE FAMILY AND FUTURE GENERATIONS Look after the welfare of your family and future generations. The future of humanity passes by way of the family. Our family is threatened daily by many issues that tend to destroy its sanctity, unity and harmony. We should be vigilant and possess the resolve to always value our family as our most precious gift after our own lives. A family is strengthened by the love, understanding and mutual respect among its members. A family is the best place of refuge, strength, inspiration, example and source of love for todays youth at risk and couples whose values and virtues are challenged daily by the ways of the world of covetousness and materialism. More than ever, as parents, we should work harder to teach and guide our children in the ways of good values and responsibility as they are more vulnerable to negative influences brought about by the advent of high technology and materialism which gives them freer access to activities that potentially undermine their good values and virtues. Giving due respect to our elders and caring for them is a testament of our enduring value of respect for our family as people and confirms our love and deference to the people from whose lives and labor we owe our own; Our family is worth more than any worldly gain. Make it a point to spend quality time with your family as this will unite you more closely and bind you in understanding and love The family can survive the challenges of the times only if it is armed with sound principles and values that promote love and life: Responsible parenthood. 6. LOVE Look after the good welfare of one another. Deepening Points

Deepening Points Love is the value from which the other values that form a good person develop. Love is a decision here, now and forever. Love is a commitment to action, an intellectual and thoughtful decision. Love entails responsibility, sacrifice and service; it is simply doing good for others. If love is real it never stops reaching out. Real Love is one that shares, trusts, cares, respects, accepts and forgives. Love is the key to our nation progress. It will encourage our people to be committed to serve and be concerned for each others well being, making true the pledge of mamamayan muna bago sarilimamamayang hindi makasarili. A giant step to national progress is national reconciliation not national resolution. Reconciliation is focused on relation while resolution is focused on problem. What lasts in the end is relation of love. Love cures people-both the ones who give it and the ones who receive it (Karl Menninger) The Law of Love surpasses every other law. The true measure of love is, loving without measure. Love till it hurts no more. Love is a gift from God and God himself. He who lives in love lives in God. The new commandment of love is the fundamental law of human perfection, and consequently of the transformation of the world. (cf. Mt. 22:40) The commandment of mutual love, which represents the law of life for Gods people, must inspire, purify and elevate all human relationship and in society and in politics. (Social Doctrine of the Church # 33) 7. FREEDOM Assert your right to be able to do the right things. Freedom is the power to act or not to act, and so to perform deliberate acts of ones own. Deepening Points

According to Dr. Jose P. Rizal, Nations win their freedom by deserving it, by loving what is just, what is great to the point of dying for it. The value of Freedom is never without the virtue of responsibility. Freedom is a gift freely given, thus, it should be something freely shared. Freedom without responsibility results to anarchy. Freedom should be practiced with a clear understanding of its bounds, a sense of discipline and the virtue of charity. A man worst difficulties begin when he is able to do, as he likes. Our sense of Freedom should lead us to love our fellowmen, understand their plight and do what is good and right while avoiding what is wrong and evil. The dream of freedom is not just of one man but should be of every human heart. The fruit of freedom is cultivated by a peoples genuine sense of cooperation and desire to be responsible for their actions for the benefit of the common good and common destiny.

The basis of freedom lies in the individuality of human person who is capable of thinking, caring and relating with other human beings. Freedom is the highest sign in man of his being made in the divine image, and consequently, is a sign of the sublime dignity of every human person.

8. PEACE Live and work together in harmony; avoid violence as a way of settling disputes. Peace cannot be attained through violence or other ways that do not promote order. Some examples of situations by which the end of peace cannot be reached by the means of violence and disorder: - Physically harming children as a method of disciplining them - Airing ones sentiments on government and societal issues by way of a mutiny or coup detat. - Resorting to fights and other violent displays to settle disputes/ disagreements Deepening Points

- Stealing to pay-off a debt - Resorting to acts of corruption to attain financial security The Four Pillars of Peace: Love, Freedom, Truth and Justice. The Two keys to peace: Solidarity with the Poor and Sustainable Human Development. Peace can be attained and sustained when people develop a deep consciousness of their faith in God, concern for their fellowmen, loyalty to their country, and respect for the environment. Peace cannot thrive in a world where people do not live in dignity. Peace is founded on the primary relationship that exists between every human being and God himself. There can be no lasting peace if the nations of the world prosper at the expense of other nations. Peace is attainable thru forgiveness and reconciliation. Peace is the fruit of justice, love and order. There is a peace, which no amount of trouble can take it away, that is doing the will of God (Ten Commandments) and follows the rule of law. 9. TRUTH Stand-up for the truth; avoid intrigue and mudslinging. Deepening Points Truth is important to a society because it is a condition for freedom. Truth entails transparency, honesty, integrity, sincerity and humility. The most essential quality for leadership is not perfection but credibility: Being truthful. Identify the fruits of a culture of truth as against the negative effects of a culture of lies. The truth entails sacrifices and effort but is a worthy cause that highlights our own capacity as persons to do good and live with integrity.

When in doubt about a certain issue that tends to challenge ones integrity, look towards the Absolute Truth that is God. Honesty should be applied in all our roles in life, be it as a spouse, parent, child, sibling, teacher, colleague, superior, subordinate, public servant, etc. No one has a monopoly on truth. In the end, the truth always prevails.

10. JUSTICE Give everyone his due; do not oppress or take advantage of anyone.

Deepening Points Justice consists in the firm and constant will to give God and neighbor their due. The Justice system is important as it ensures that all people, regardless of any form of distinction, will receive the full benefit and protection of the law. Justice is important in the life of a person because it ensures that society fosters an atmosphere of human dignity, security and one that allows every person equal opportunity to pursue prosperity, development and happiness. Justice delayed is Justice denied. Reflect on the implication of this statement on our present judicial system and processes. Reflect on how the media can aid in the justice process and how it can impede/diminish justice when people are subjected to trials by publicity. Explain why there is a high level of distrust or lack of faith in the Philippine Justice System by citing instances and drawing participants responses and ideas of common practices contributing to such. The Philippines has in its history a legacy of people taking justice into their own hands (e.g. NPA, MILF and MNLF Insurgencies, Coup detats, Mutinies, and instances of liquidation of suspected or known criminals); what are the causes of this tendency and its implication to our nations justice system and the promotion of social justice?

Justice is important because it is the basis by which people are moved to charity towards their fellowmen. Justice is the key to progress, the foundation of freedom and the bedrock principle of unity and equality among all men.

11. UNITY Work together and share with one another.

Deepening Points The supreme model of unity is the Divine Trinity. Significance of the statement, United we stand, divided we fall in the context of the activity and its applicability in our present national setting. The importance of amicable dialogue as a means of resolving conflicts/disagreements and the preservation of unity. Unity is solidarity in the service of humanity: entering into ones life and be ready to be disturbed. Unity is about sharing a common vision and values, working together towards the same dream of social justice, prosperity and happiness. The implication of Unity in Diversity: gifts, cultures, beliefs etc. History is a testament of our peoples legacy of strength when we are united. A sense of Unity will lead our people to feel each others needs and deepest sentiments and will lead them to share in the fruits of each others progress. In the fight against poverty, graft and corruption, injustice, decadent values and violence, Unity is the key by which we can triumph over all these. There is indeed strength in numbers. If our people are together to really work sincerely towards making themselves good citizens, how can such evil elements thrive in our society? But this fight is won by the collective effort and resolve of our people. We should not allow one of our members to fail of falter as we view the failure and success of one of our countrymen as that of our own.

In every bout of our country with social ills and challenges, we must be able to say to our countrymen: We are in this together, We will raise each other up, and We will triumph!

12. EQUALITY Treat one another as brothers and sisters being children of one God and one nation. Deepening Points God shows no partiality, since all people have the same dignity as creatures made in his image and likeness. As we come from the same Maker, we share in the same Destiny to live happily, in dignity, in peace and harmony. It is a universally accepted truth that all men are created equal, gifted with reason and freewill. This is the basic principle on which our own fundamental rights (Bill of Human Rights) are based. Every citizen is assured of Equality if his basic human rights are ensured. Every person should be given equal opportunity to develop himself, be a better person and pursue happiness in his lifetime. Thus, all agencies of society, the family, school, government and community should respect this right and aid the person in his pursuit. No man is over and above the law. The laws provide fairly for everyone without distinction. Justice is blind when it metes out justice. It does not judge based on prejudices but only on the basis of facts and the truth. The value of Equality should move every citizen to look after and care for the less fortunate, the poor, and the oppressed. When lived by everyone, the value of Equality is every mans assurance that he can live a life of worth and dignity, free from insecurity and injustice no matter what his circumstances in life are. Truly, the value of equality is a key by which man is set free.

13. RESPECT FOR LAW AND GOVERNMENT Obey the laws of the land and support government programs.

Deepening Points The law is not meant to curtail freedom; it is meant to ensure that citizen acts responsibly while exercising his freedom. The law and government are not meant to enslave people; thee meant to establish order in society, and by their duly constituted free people from the bondage of poverty, ignorance, insecurity and disregard. The law and government should not serve the interests of especially those who are in positions of power and authority. Rather Law and Government must give preferential option to serve and pay the interests of the poor and less-fortunate members of society. Law and Government should lead all citizens to be charitable especially those in most need of help, support and protection. The nature of laws is to provide sanctions for the irresponsible of freedom. For every policy, there exists a corresponding implication. Thus, the need for punishment/penalty as a disciplinary measure with policy/law is violated. In the final analysis, laws and the government meant to institute order in a society that has a tendency to freedom and trample on the rights of the weak. Their roles form societys effort to form its members into responsible, conscience dignified and charitable persons. Love is the perfection of the Law. Fear and intimidation should our motivations when we obey the law and respect the mandate government. Rather, we should find it in ourselves to love the Law, the Government as they seek to protect our rights and dignity as person. Our own respect for the Law and Government should stem from the ultimate law of the heart: that of mutual respect, charity and love for others. Our respect for the law and government means obeying the rule of law, the rule of the mob. Our historical experience of going out to the for a quick fix of a system is our best teacher. In the final analysis, we really need during this trying time is not change

of a system or at the helm, but change of heart, individual conversion: a adoption of correct values in governance from the president down into barangay officials. (Ref. Arch. Angel Lagdameo, CBCP) Law is the embodiment of the moral sentiment of the people. Responsible authority must recognize, respect and promote essential human and moral values. 14. PATRIOTISM Place the good of the country above ones own.

Deepening Points Patriotism is a call for every citizen. Our country needs people who are committed to serve the interest of the nation no matter who are seated at the helm of the government. Our countrys heroes, the ones who will move our country to greater heights are not found in pedestals or pinnacles of power and prestige; they are found in the hearts and deeds of ordinary people seeking to be good citizens in their everyday lives. (Consistency vs. One-shot-deal There is such a thing as unsung heroes but none whose deeds do not touch the life of at least one person. Patriotism is about loving ones country by being a steadfast good citizen in ones daily encounter of the challenges of life and society. Leaving ones country is turning his back to his very own family. Patriotism inspires a citizen to respond to the call of service to his nation and look after his fellowmen in need. Patriotism is every persons sense of duty and responsibility to contribute in the development of his country, the protection of her integrity, and the upholding of the rights and dignity of his people. Patriotism means obedience and respect of the law and government not because of duty or fear of punishment or compulsion but because of love of country.

Patriotism is a love for anything to do with our native land: its history, its tradition, its language, and its natural feature. Nationalism is a firm sense of community and shared fate, a capacity to feel compassion for countrymen.

15. PROMOTION OF THE COMMON GOOD Put the welfare of the greater number of people above ones own.

Deepening Points Common good means the sum total of social conditions, which allow people, either as groups or as individuals, to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily. The common good concerns the life of all. The common good requires the social well-being and development of the group itself. Some essential elements needed for the holistic development and progress of the common good are food, shelter, clothing, education, work, opportunity to improve ones self, ability to be free from fear, insecurity and injustice, and an atmosphere of sharing and fraternal charity. Put the welfare of the greater number of people over ones own. We should always consider the welfare of the Common Good or of other people when we make decisions or when we act on something. The value of promoting the Common Good should move us to share and reach out to others in need. The principle of universal destination of goods requires that the poor, the marginalized and in all cases those whole living conditions interfere with their proper growth should be the focus of particular concern. To this end, the preferential option for the poor should be reaffirmed in all its force. (Social Doctrine of the Church # 182)

We should all vigilant and steadfast in guarding our human rights as these ensure the general welfare of the common good. Work towards things that promote the greater good of the many vs. personal gain or benefit of a select few. All of creation should be made available to all men. Therefore, enterprises, individuals and other entities should be mindful of the way they treat the environment, profit from other people and deal with the rights and dignity of individuals. The blessings of creation are meant for the enjoyment of all and should benefit everybody.

National interest should prevail over individual interests. In the Government, this quote captures the essence of a public servant who desires the Promotion of the Common Good in his work amidst the demands and temptations of politics.

16. CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT Keep your surroundings clean and conserve our natural resources.

Deepening Points Man being created in Gods image, received a mandate to subject to him the earth and all that it contains, and to govern the world with justice and holiness. We should develop a sense of urgency in the way we treat our environment. Let us learn to respect for the integrity of creation because every person has the right to a safe and healthy environment. Every persons mission of stewardship demands that he be more conscious of his actions when he relates with the environment. The social doctrine of the Church reminds us that the goods of the earth were created by God to be used wisely by all. They must be shared equitably, in accordance with justice and charity. (4481) Treat Mother Nature as your own mother. In every sense of the word, she feeds, sustains our life, treats us kindly and lovingly by providing for us faithfully, not

even anything in return other than respect and love. As her children, we have despoiled her and given her less than the respect that she deserves. As a parent, has a way of disciplining her children lest they abuse. Thus, we have floods and calamities. Ang kalinisan ng ating kapaligiran ay ating kalusugan at kaunlaran ng bayan. (Good health is our wealth) (Source: Modules on Good Citizenship Values 2006 by the Good Citizenship Movement) Part III. Promoting Good Leadership in the Youth Defining Leading and Leadership Leading is defined as: 1. Influencing others to take action toward specific goal. 2. Guiding and directing on a course, and as serving as a channel. A leader is someone who has commanding influence. Leadership is defined as: 1. It is the process of influencing and directing activities of members toward goal accomplishment. 2. It is about ordinary people who care. People who care enough to get extra ordinary things done. 3. It is the capacity and will to rally men and women to a common purpose and the character, which inspire confidence. 4. It is simply not an art (emotional/instinctual) or a science (rational/acquired). It is a blend of the rational and emotional, the innate and acquired, the ideal and practical. (Source: Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001) Leadership Styles Let us compare leadership styles. We can do this best by contrasting two opposite styles of leadership: the authoritarian and the democratic (or participate) style. 1. The Authoritarian Style shows certain characteristics and we can sum them up by saying that leaders falling under this category: are generally strong-willed, domineering, and to some extent, aggressive.

must have their own way, which for them, seems the only way. look upon subordinates more as functionaries than as persons, and the best subordinates, in their estimation, follow directions without question. ordinarily are not ready to listen to views and suggestions of others (although they may pretend to), if they offer different opinions. not encourage equal relationships (i.e. adult to adult with underlings. As a rule, they do not allow themselves to get close to employees. They do not like to see employees get close to one another, for such cliques, as authoritarian leaders perceive them, might endanger their authority.

have business-like and task-oriented attitudes. The job comes first. generally blame poor results on the inability of others to carry out instructions correctly.

The following self-talk describes the attitudes of authoritarian leaders: I know best what is to be done here. After all, I am better trained, more experienced, and better informed on the matter than anyone else here. The others in the group expect as much of me. This is after all, my job as their leader. Because I cannot do everything myself, I need their help, not their ideas and plans, to implement what needs to be done. I can take care of the thinking, and I do more than my share of the doing too, but I shall need their help here. I suppose Ill have to listen to them. These days, they expect that much of me. But I dont expect to hear anything new. Im quite confident that we will end up doing it my way. Of course, Ill handle the proceedings during the meeting and Ill manage to control the pace of things as well. After all, the agenda is mine and Ive thought each point through already. Ill also dispose of any disputes that may arise, since the task is the thing that counts, and we cant be held up by any petty personal squabbles. That would be a sheer waste of time. Better that we all keep our feelings to ourselves anyway. As a member of this leaders group, one might see things this way, whether one likes it or not: The leader is the real spokesman of the group. He usually does most of the talking and all of the actual planning and only wants our approval and

cooperation. In fact, his credentials are good. He does have more experience and competence than I have and he seems to have our best interests at heart. During the meetings, he doesnt like to waste any time. While hes not a very personable man, hes always ready to help any of us, whatever the hour and however serious the problem. In one way, Im happy that the leader takes all the responsibility of the group upon himself. That leaves me to do more or less what I want, just as long as I do the job he asks me to do. And he is generous with his praise of my work I guess, because this reflects well on his leadership in the eyes of outsiders. But at the same time and probably for the same reason, he comes down hard when we make mistakes or he feels that we have let him down. I sometimes resent being so uninvolved and feeling so unimportant. I would like to speak out and even disagree with the leader for he is not right all the time, but Im not sure how this would go over with the others in the group. While we spend a lot of time talking about the boss and his ways outside meetings, we tend to turn into lambs when he is around. I guess it is because we would not like to hurt and upset him. So things keep going on in the usual way. 2. Democratic or Participative Style Characteristics of democratic leaders can be summed up in the following: They are generally as concerned with maintaining group effectiveness as with completing the task to be done. They encourage members in their groups to express their ideas and feelings, because they believe that such a climate leads to greater creativity and commitment. If they encounter resistance or conflicts, they allow them to surface and they seek the help of their groups in removing the resistance or resolving the conflicts. They encourage joint decision-making as well as shared goal setting. They rarely set policies without explaining the reasons and proposing them to their groups, when they can, for suggestions and criticism.

They believe that responsibility for getting a job done depends as much on the group as upon themselves. They try to have this attitude shared by all group members.

They allow group members a good deal of freedom in their work, once they have shown their ability to do it. They keep looking for better ways to do things and are open to change when convinced that such changes seem called for and would lead to greater effectiveness.

They believe in the effectiveness of group work. They also believe that groups of committed individuals working together have greater potentials than when those same members work as individuals.

When we characterize the attitudes of such leaders in the following bit of selftalk: I place a high value on sound and creative decisions that emerge from real understanding and searching within a group of committed people who take their life together seriously. I listen for, and try to elicit, ideas and opinions that differ from my own. I have clear convictions, but I am also open to change in the face of sound ideas and reasoning. I realize that, however, competent and experienced I am, I may not have all the information needed, and definitely lack the experience of others in the group. I am always ready to learn. When conflicts arise in the group, I do my best, with the groups help, to identify the issues involved and to uncover their resources. When aroused by someone or something, I try to contain myself and stay in touch with whatever might be going on inside of me. I try to maintain a sense of humor to keep things in perspective. I put a lot of energy into group work, because I firmly believe in the effectiveness of teamwork. As a member of this leaders group, one might see things this way: I find the other members of the group quite friendly and cooperative, including the leader of the group. We all seem to have a common stake in what we are doing and in the group we belong to. We have developed a true team spirit, along

with initiative and creativity. We keep looking for new better ways and our leader encourages us to do so. As far as possible, we make decisions and set goals as a result of group consensus. We all share in the success or failure. In our working together, as a group, we have experienced a circle of success more than once. That same group member might reflect on the circle of success this way: A shared commitment to the group and its task leads to interdependent efforts from its members to find the best way to complete those tasks, which in turn lead to a degree of shared success in achieving those targets, and this accomplishment leads to confidence in the groups potential and back to renewed commitment to the group and to its ongoing tasks. You like the atmosphere, and you find your own role both interesting and rewarding. 3. Another type of leadership style is the laissez-faire. This is a leader in name only. He fails to provide any direction for his group. Members are left the responsibility of leading and directing. (Source: Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001) Indispensable Qualities of a Leader The following are the indispensable qualities of a leader: 1. Character How a leader deals with circumstances of life tells you many things about his character. Crisis does not make character, but it certainly reveals it. It is more than talk. Anybody can say that he has integrity, but action is the real indicator of character. Your character determines who you are. It is a choice. It is said that talent is a gift but character is a matter of choice. The beginning of character repair comes when your face your flaws, apologize and deal with the consequences of your action. 2. Charisma

Most people think of charisma as something mystical, almost undefinable. They think its a quality that comes at birth or not at all. But thats not true. Charisma, plainly stated is the ability to draw people to you. And like other character traits, it can be developed. In order to gain charisma, one should love life. People enjoy leaders who enjoy life. Think of the people you want to spend time with. How would you describe them? They are celebrators and not complainers. They are passionate about life. If you want to attract people, you need to be like the people you enjoy being with.

3. Commitment It separates the doers from the dreamers. If you to be an effective leader you have to be committed. True commitment inspires and attracts people. It shows them that you have conviction. They will believe in you only if you believe in your cause. It starts in the heart. Most individuals want everything to be perfect before they are willing to commit themselves to anything. But commitment comes before achievement. It is an antecedent. If you want to make a difference in other peoples lives as a leader, look into your heart to see if you are really committed. It is one thing to talk about commitment. But it is another to do something about it. The only real measure of commitment is action. As quoted by Arthur Gordon: Nothing is easier than saying words. Nothing is harder than living them day after day. 4. Competence Responsible people show up when they are expected. But highly competent people take it a step farther. They dont show up in body only. They come ready to play everyday despite of what they feel, what kind of circumstances they are in, or how difficult to expect the game to be. Like Benjamin Franklin, All highly competent people continually search for ways to keep learning, growing, and improving.

Performing at high level of excellence is always a choice, an act of the will. As leaders, we expect our people to follow through when we hand them the ball. Constituents expects that and a whole lot more form their leaders.

5. Courage It begins with an inward battle. Every test you face as a leader begins within you. The test of courage is no different. As quoted by the psychotherapist Sheldon Kopp: All the significant battles are waged within self. Courage is not the absence of fear. It is doing what you are afraid to do. It means letting go of the familiar and forging ahead into something new. 6. Passion Researchers spend a lot of time trying to figure out what makes other people successful. They often consider a persons credentials, intelligence, education, and other factors. But what goes beyond those is what we call passion. Your burning desire determines your destiny. Think of great leaders, and you will be struck by their passion: Gandhi for human rights, Winston Churchill for freedom, Martin Luther King Jr. for equality, Bill gates for technology. Anyone who lives beyond an ordinary life has great desire. Its true in an any field: weak desire brings weak results, just as a small fire creates little heat. The stronger your fire, the greater the desire and the greater the potential. 7. Problem Solvers Effective leaders always rise to a challenge. That is one thing that separates winners from winners. While others complain, leaders rise above predicaments with creativity and tenacity. No matter what field a leader is in, he will face a problem. Leaders with good problem-solving ability demonstrate five qualities. 1. They anticipate problems. Since problems are inevitable, good leaders anticipate them. Anyone who expects the road to be easy will continually find himself in trouble. 2. They accept the truth. People respond to problems in these ways: they refuse to accept them; they accept them and put up with them; or they

accept them and try to make things better. Leaders must always do the latter. Effective leaders face up to the reality of the situation. 3. They see the big picture. Leaders must continually see the big picture. They cannot afford to be overwhelmed by emotion. Nor can they allow themselves to get so bogged down in the details of the problems that they lose sight of whats important. 4. They handle one thing at a time. Effective leaders never try to solve all the problems at once because they know it would be a ceaseless striving. If you are face with lots of problems, make sure you really solve the one you are working on before moving to the next one. 5. They dont give up a major goal when they are down. Effective leaders understand the peak-to-peak principle. They make major decisions when they are experiencing a positive swing in their leadership, not during the dark times. To improve your problem-solving skills, do the following: 1. Dont avoid hassles/problems. If you have been avoiding them youll never have the opportunity to solve them. Youll only get better if you gain experience dealing with them. 2. Develop a method. Some people have a hand time solving problems because they dont know how to tackle them. Try using the TEACH process: T IME E XPOSURE A SSISTANCE C REATIVITY H IT 8. Team Player If you get along, theyll go along. Leaders should have a contagious cheerful and positive disposition. They should be able to create an atmosphere of oneness. spend time to discover the real issue. find out what others have done. have your team study all angles. brainstorm multiple solutions. implement the best solution.

According to Mr. John Maxwell, people dont care how much you know, until they know how much you care. It is true the ability to work with people and develop relationships is absolutely indispensable to effective leadership. People truly want to go along with people they get along with. And while someone can have people skills and not to be a good leader, he cannot be a good leader without people skills. 1. Have a Leaders Head Understand people The first quality of a relational leader is then ability to understand how people feel and think. As you work with others, recognize that all people, whether leaders or followers, have some things in common. They like to feel special, so sincerely compliment them. They want a better tomorrow, so show them hope. They desire direction, so navigate them. They want success so help them win. Love people According to the President and CEO of Definitive Computer

2. Have a Leaders Heart -

Services, Henry Gruland: Being a leader is more than just wanting as lead. Leaders have empathy for others and a keen ability to find the best in peoplenot the worstby truly caring for others. 3. Extend a Leaders Hand Help people People respect a leader who keep their interest in mind. If your

focus is on what you can put in at people rather than what you can get out of them, they will love and respect you and these create a great foundation for building relationships. 9. Visionary You can seize only what you can see.

Vision is everything for a leader. Because vision leads the leader. It paints the target. It sparks and fuels the fire within. Show me a leader without a vision, and Ill show you someone who is not going anywhere. To get a handle on vision and how it comes to be a part of a good leaders life, understand these things: 1. Vision starts within. If you lack vision, look inside yourself. Draw on your natural gifts and desires. Look to your calling if you have one. 2. Vision draws on your history. Vision is not some mystical quality that comes out of a vacuum, as some people seem to believe. It grows from a leaders past and the history of the people around him. Talk to any leader, and youre likely to discover key events in his past that were instrumental in the creation of his vision. 3. Vision meets others Needs. True vision is far-reaching. It goes beyond what one individual can accomplish. And it has real value, it does more than just include others; it adds value to them. 4. Vision helps you gather resources. One of the most valuable benefits of vision is that it acts like a magnet attracting, challenging, and uniting people. It also rallies finances and other resources. The greater the vision, the more winners it has the potential to attract.

(Source: Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001) Movie Review: Batas Militar President Ferdinand E. Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972 accordingly to save democracy. The following 14 years, he ruled as a dictator. He put to jail all his political enemies, closed the Congress, disabled the Supreme Court, cut the freedom of the press and sent the military and police to control the country. "Batas Militar" is a comprehensive video about the Martial Law. It shows the testimony of the different persons involved especially the victims. This movie showcases the heroism of the Filipino people who fight against the dictatorship and joined hands together as one for freedom, the phenomenon known to world as the People Power. Towards Transformational Leadership

Societys transformation requires transformational leadership (Stephen Covey, 1992), transforming people and organizations in a literal sense to change them in mind and in heart, enlarge vision, insight, and understanding, clarify purposes, make behavior congruent with beliefs, principles, or values, and bring about changes that are permanent, self-perpetuating and momentum building. Transformational leadership for Covey basically means that we change the realities of our particular world to more clearly conform to our values and ideals. It focuses on the top line and is principle-centered, thus it: builds on mans need for meaning is preoccupied with purposes and values, morals and ethics transcends daily affairs is oriented toward meeting long term goals without compromising human values and principles separates causes and symptoms and works at prevention values profit as the basis of growth is proactive, catalystic, and patient focuses more on mission and strategies for achieving them makes full use of human resources identifies and develops new talent recognizes and rewards significant contributions designs and redesigns jobs to make them meaningful and challenging releases human potentials models love leads out in new directions aligns internal structures and systems to reinforce over arching values and goals Leadership is the ability to influence others towards desired goals, but transformational leadership includes doing the right things. The following virtues are considered as the foundation of transformational leadership:

1. Prudence the habit which enables man to direct his actions to human lifes goals of knowing the right thing to do and applying it. 2. Justice the habit of giving each one his due with constant and perpetual will; gives stability which man needs to work without fear and anxiety in the search for happiness. 3. Fortitude the habit of overcoming the difficulties and pressures of life in the pursuit of good. 4. Temperance the habit of bringing the desires and natural inclinations of man under the control of right reason. 5. Industry the habit of working hard and working under pressure. 6. Loyalty the habit of remaining true to your friends and to your principles (goals) inspite of difficulty. 7. Responsibility the habit of being accountable for ones actions, duties, obligations; readiness to answer to the consequences of our actions. 8. Cheerfulness the habit of being optimistic, positive, always seeing the bright side of things. 9. Generosity the habit of sharing the good that one has with other people; thinking first of the people around him and looking for ways he can help and serve them. 10. Magnanimity the habit of having great ideals and ambitions of doing good; being concerned with doing great deeds of service to others by devoting his life to serve his country or to help people. Covey identifies the following characteristics of principled-centered leaders: 1. They are continually learning: constantly educated by their experiences read, seek learning, take classes, listen to others, learn through both their eyes and their ears continually expand their competence and ability to do things develop new skills, new interests make and keep promises or commitments increase their personal worth as they elevate themselves to the next level of challenge and make their self-mastery grow 2. They are service-oriented:

see life as a mission not as a career yoke up every morning, think of others and put on the harness of service in various stewardships believe that the effort to become principled-centered without a load to carry simply will not succeed have a sense of responsibility, of service, of contribution cheerful, pleasant, happy attitude is optimistic, positive, upbeat, enthusiastic spirit is hopeful, believing have an energy field or an aura that charges or changes weaker, negative energy fields around them attract and magnify smaller positive energy fields tend to either neutralize or sidestep the negative energy they come into contact with wisdom gives them a sense of ho strong the negative energy source is and a sense of humor and timing in dealing with it

3. They radiate positive energy: -

4. They believe in other people: do not overreact to negative behaviors, criticism or human weaknesses realize that behaviors and potentials are two different things; believes in the unseen potential of people feel grateful for their blessings dont carry grudges refuse to label other people, to stereotype, categorize and prejudge seek the oak tree in the acorn and understand the process of helping the acorn to become a great oak create a climate for growth and opportunity intellectually active, having many interests 5. They lead balance lives: -

healthy sense of humor, particularly laughing at themselves and not at others expense open their communication, simple, direct, and non-manipulative their actions and attitudes are proportionate to the situation-balanced, temperate, moderate, wise live sensibly in the present, carefully planning the future and flexibly adapting changing circumstances genuinely happy for others success and do not feel in any sense that these take anything from them see success on the far side of failure; the only real failure for them is experience not learned from

6. They see life as an adventure: savor life because their security comes from within instead of from without see old faces freshly, old scenes as if for the first time, rediscover people each time they meet them like courageous explorers going on an expedition into unchartered territories their security lies in their initiatives, resourcefulness, creativity, will power, courage, stamina, protection, and abundance of comfort zones in their homecamps completely present when they listen basically unflappable and capable of adopting virtually to anything that comes along 7. They are synergistic: as changed catalysts, they improve almost any situation they get into in team endeavors they build on their strength and strive to complement their weakness with strength of others in negotiating and communicating with others in seemingly adversarial situations, they learn to separate the people from the problem focus on other persons interests and concerns rather than fight over positions

together they arrive at sybergetic solutions, which are usually much better than any of the original proposals, as opposed to compromise solutions wherein both parties give and take a little

8. They exercise for self renewal: regularly exercise the four dimensions of the human personality, physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual exercise their minds through reading, creative problem-solving, writing, and visualizing emotionally, they can make an effort to be patient, listen to others with genuine empathy, show unconditional love, accept responsibility for their own lives, make decisions, and reactions (Source: V. Gonzales, Values Integration and Promotion, 1997) Letranite Profile: A Community Builder and Leader The ideal of a Letranite is nobility, generosity and discipline of the Knight of Old. It draws its inspiration from God himself who guides his conduct and orients it towards Himself. The Letranite is also man-for-others. His relationship with other people is marked by fairness and generosity that flows from the nobility of his heart. A Letranite is a faithful witness to the gospel message empowered by his strong relationship with the Lord and the teachings of his alma mater. He lives his faith based on sound catholic doctrines. Inspired by love of God and love of neighbor, he practices charity and justice to promote peace. Called to share in the prophetic role of Christ, he continuously propagates and defends the tenets and traditions of the church. The Letranite is devoted to the Mother of God, whom he reveres and honors. His devotion to Our Lady is manifested in more ways than one, the more popular being the Rosary. Following a long-standing tradition, the Letranite always carries the rosary, which he prays alone, with his peers and with his family at home. The Letranite is stirred by constant search for truth. Inspired by the Holy Spirit, he possesses the ability to think critically, analyze, synthesize and form right judgment. He has uncompromising passion for truth. Instilled with the Dominican spirit, he acts with reason and insight.

The Letranite is a dynamic leader imbued with a strong desire to be of service to humanity. Inspired by the example of St. Dominic as light of the world and salt of the earth, he is formed to be a catalyst of changeone whose actions are always directed towards the betterment of the lives of others, and whose aspirations are meant for the building of progressive Christ-centered communities. The successful Letranite excels and is recognized in his chosen field of endeavor. He is armed with professional competence to advance the national interest and global competitiveness. In his dealings, he practices fairness at all times. He maintains high dignity and integrity in the exercise of his profession. (Source: Output of the Strategic Development Committee, 2007) MODULE VI Letran Community Involvement Program: Letranites Dynamic Builders and Leaders of Communities Introduction The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) specifically emphasizes extension service as one of the basic functions of a college or university, the two others are instruction and research. It is therefore the primordial concern of a college or university to provide a comprehensive program of extension to be participated by all members of the academic as well as non-teaching personnel and the students. Part I. The Community Involvement Program of Colegio de San Juan de Letran History of Letrans Community Involvement Program In 1989, Rev. Fr. Rogelio B. Alarcon, O.P., then rector and president of the Colegio, thought of introducing a program that makes use of a community as an educational resource. He initiated the practicum program (on-the-job-training) or application of what the Letran collegiate students learned from their academic subjects like Sociology, Theology, Marketing, Accounting, etc. The initial stage was an immersion of the students by bringing them to Tala Leprosarium community and matching the class with economically deprived families for learning-partnership. The program was intended to be a long-range plan that would establish a lasting relationship between the students and the community.

In 1992, the predecessor of Fr. Alarcon, Rev. Fr. Ramon Cercado, O.P., formalized the creation of the office which will be in-charged of the outreach program of the Colegio, the Extension Services Office. Fr. Cercado likewise believed that the academe must include a feature, which would enable the Letranites to connect with the community and to learn altruism. In 1999, a new rector and president were elected, Rev. Fr. Edwin A. Lao, O.P. He shared the same dream as his predecessors. He envisioned of making the Colegio known for its academic excellence with social relevance, that is to promote the importance of the extension services in realizing the Vision-Mission of the school. The community service area of the Colegios Extension Services was expanded to include not only the immediate residents of Intramuros where the Colegio is located, but also to other poor communities in Metro Manila and as far as the Babuyanes Group of Islands. In the year 2004, as the Colegio played a vital role in social development, the name Extension Services was changed to Center for Community Development. The Colegio is seen here as an institution committed to freely devoting its resources for the sake of others through its community involvement program directed towards the promotion of sustained improvement of the quality of life of the Filipino Poor. The BuidHope Program Development cannot be limited to mere economic growth. In order to be authentic, it must be complete: integral, that is, it has to promote the good of every man and of the whole man. As an eminent specialist has very rightly and emphatically declared: We do not believe in separating the economic from the human, noir development from the civilizations in which its exists. What we hold important is man, each man and each group of men, and we even include the whole of humanity quoted from Populorum Progressio on the Development of Peoples, Encyclical Letter of Pope Paul VI promulgated on March 26, 1967. The Colegio de San Juan de Letran is an educational institution with a peripheral interest in community and extension services. As it envisions itself to be a model Christcentered institution, a community of persons permeated by Christ, Letran expresses love

of God and love of neighbor by freely devoting its resources for the sake of others through its community involvement program. As Letran remains resolute in its institutional core values, Spirituality-Love of God, Patriotism-Love of Country, Letranism-Love of Letran, it provides the Letranites the experience vital in the integral formation of the human persons. The Letran BuildHope Program, Letrans community involvement program, is a values-oriented community education program that provides opportunities to Letranites to actively participate in the affairs of the Church and society. The BuildHope Program concretizes the Letran creed as it sends Letranites outside the walls of the school to actively participate and to live the mission of building dynamic Christ-centered communities, as part of the learning process that leads to their development to become dynamic builders and leaders of the Filipino society. Faithful to its commitment as steward and salt of the earth, Letran participates in the redemptive work of Christ as it stands to fight for justice, promote and protect human dignity. The Letran BuildHope Program is also a community-based education program that integrates values education and capability building to effect empowerment and holistic development of persons in the marginalized communities. Through the BuildHope Program, Letran responds to the Gospel message - preference for the poor, the goals of the Dominican-Justice, Peace and Care of Creation (Dominican-JPCC), and the United Nations-Human Rights (UN-HR) call for the adherence to the Millennium Development Goals - 1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, 2) achieve universal primary education, 3) promote gender equality and empower women, 4) reduce child mortality, 5) improve maternal health, 6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, 7) ensure environmental sustainability, 8) develop a global partnership for development. The Letran BuildHope Program seeks to deploy Letrans resources in ways that will help deliver sustainable solutions to social problems through different community development programs - to give hope, to build hope for those who have less in life. Through community education, Letran adopts the World Health Organizations life-skills approach to empower communities, teaching-learning approach where active-learning and cooperative learning are employed. Under the Letran BuildHope Program are two community development programs aim to assist in the development of Letrans partner

communities through rehabilitation and social services, spiritual and values-based formation, social entrepreneurship and livelihood sustainability: 1. The BuildHomes Program The BuildHomes Program is Letrans adopt-a-barangay program. Through the BuildHomes Program, Letran expresses its utmost desire of extending its sphere of influence to contribute to the formation and growth of families in every community - to build families in different community barangays. As the frontline of development within the city or municipality, the barangays become the critical areas for change. Thus, the interventions of Letran to the poor families of the community barangays through its community-based programs hope to contribute to the national program of the government in relation to poverty alleviation and sustained development. The BuildHomes Program aims to build capabilities of the Filipino poor through community education directed towards the promotion of a sustained improvement of a quality life. It aims to empower the disadvantage and the underprivileged through conscientization, values formation and skills development leading to a holistic community development. The following are the program components of the BuildHomes Program: 1. Spiritual Formation to build a Christ-centered community animated and nurtured by the Dominican charism and Letran tradition. 2. Socio-economic Development to promote the sustained improvement of the quality of life in the community. 3. Environment Preservation to make the community an advocate of the protection and care of their environment. The following are the different projects under the Buildhomes Program which aim to build the morals and capabilities of the community in the different partner barangays: 1.1. The TeachFaith Project As a Catholic institution, Letran is the most potent instrument in the renewed evangelization of Jesus Christ. As a Dominican institution, Letran is guided by the consecration to the truth from which springs the mission to live and proclaim the value of Gods kingdom. Inspired by the special devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and the rosary, Letran continues the task of molding a Christian community. This project aims to

educate the people in the communities about Christian values, doctrine, moral and worship towards the development of community of persons who embody a life of constant witnessing to the gospel message of Christ. Activities include: 1. Catechism (for children) 2. Family Catechism 3. Sacramental Services 4. Values Formation (for the youth) 5. Creative Parenting Seminars 1.2. The TeachLife Project As less and less can be gotten out of nature, people move out in all directions. Direction of their own movement is dictated by the offer of better economic opportunities elsewhere. From the economically exhausted agricultural lowlands, they move up to public forestlands, or move down to the coast. Others migrate to the urban canters. Many of them end up as squatters in the new found haven and have to depend on an already impoverished environment because many others have been there much ahead of them. The out-migration from depressed provinces continue to add to the swelling urban squatter population that may already consist of fourth and even fifth generation squatter families. This project aims to develop the capability of the people in the communities through the promotion of basic literacy, skills training, alternative learning and formal education towards the promotion of a sustained improvement of a quality life. Activities and various training include: 1. Basic Literacy (3Rs for children) 2. Scholarship Grants (for formal education for intellectually capable students) 3. Alternatives Learning System (for out of school youth) 4. Skills Training on Basic Computer Applications 5. Skills Training on Home Business-Crafts 6. Skills Training on Home Business-Food 7. Skills Training on Basic Financial Management 8. Skills Training on Basic Marketing 9. Skills Training on Small Business Management 10. Skills Training on Cooperative Management

1.3. The TeachHealth Project Environmental imbalance or simply pollution is present in the environment - air, water, and land - if waste material which the environment cannot handle, degrade, disperse or diffuse and that it becomes unclean and unhealthy. It is also the result of depleted coastal resources, degraded forest and mineral resources and the disregard for the integrity of nature. Continuing damage to the environment, particularly to land and marine resources, have marginalized many families dependent on farming and fishing. Being concerned of this present situation of the environment, this project aims to promote the protection and care of the environment in the communities leading to a balanced ecosystem for a healthy life. Activities include: 1. Seminars/Fora on Health and Environmental Issues 2. Medical Services 3. Home-urban/Backyard Gardening 4. Ecological Waste Management 2. The BuildSchools Program The government is trying its best to lessen illiteracy rate in the country by providing cheaper, if not free, education for the benefit of the poor through the public schools. The efforts of the government to make education available to all are coupled with problems of limited budget. Even the latest text books cannot be provided for students use and the latest technology has not been introduced both to the teachers and students. It is in this context that Letran is extending its resources and expertise to effect change and assist in the formation and continuing education of students and promote the continuing professionalism of teachers of public educational institutions. The BuildSchools Program is Letrans adopt-a-school program. The BuildSchools Program aims to assist in the formation of the students in different partner public schools of Letran through community education leading to their holistic development. It aims to develop values in students and enhance their capabilities for learning - to build future leaders of our communities. The following are the program components of the BuildSchools Program: 1. Values Formation - to build a high degree of responsibility in the students of the partner public schools.

2. Students Supplementary Learning and Teachers Continuing Professionalism - to supplement learning of students and promote the continuing professionalism of teachers in the partner public schools. The following are the different projects under the BuildSchools Program which aim to develop values and enhance capabilities of the community in the adopted schools: 2.1. The TeachValues Project The culture of silence and indifference, the deterioration of traditional value system and the condition of neglect for the lives of the great majority of the Filipinos lead to so many social ills such as poverty-related illnesses and low income, prostitution, sex-exploitation of women and so much graft and corruption causing gross negligence and inefficiency in government service. This project aims to develop the students in public partner schools with the right sense of moral values, attitudes and motives to enable them to participate in the building of a just and humane society. Activities include: 1. Basic Catechism (for students) 2. Values Formation (for students) 3. Creative Parenting Seminars (for teachers and parents of students) 2.2. TeachSkills Project As an institution of higher learning, Letran has the responsibility to assist public schools in the development of students and teachers who lack the opportunities and the facilities. This project aims to provide the students more opportunities for learning and the continuous professionalism of the teachers of public schools through training and seminars. 1. Scholarship Grants (for intellectually capable students) 2. Training on Basic Computer Applications (for students and teachers) 3. Training on New Teaching Methodologies (for teachers) (Source: The BuildHope Program, 2008)