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Switch Vs Hub A. Switches are capable of VLAN configurations, but hubs are not. B.

Hubs are generally the least costly method possible to connect multiple devices together in a network. C. Switches forward broadcasts and multicasts, by default, to all ports within the same VLAN. Only routers block all broadcast traffic by default. D. Switches and hubs can be equally efficient in processing frames, in theory. In practice, switches are generally more efficient as they usually have more CPU and memory allocated to them, and are generally much more expensive than a simple hub. E. Switches increase the number of collision domains in the network. Switch Vs Bridge A. Switches are generally faster than bridges. Bridges also do not necessarily have fewer ports than switches. D. Both bridges and switches will forward broadcast and multicast traffic, assuming that the traffic remains in the same VLAN. E. The use of VLANs in a switch can decrease the size of the collision domain, by creating additional, smaller collision domains. B. A switch is a multiport bridge, C. Bridges and switches learn MAC addresses by examining the source MAC address of each frame received. Both bridges and switches forward Layer 2 broadcasts. Both bridges and switches make forwarding decisions based on Layer 2 addresses. Router Functions Packet switching Packet filtering Inter network communication The main function of a router is to connect different, separated networks together. In doing so, switching packets from one network to another is a primary function, along with providing for communication between networks. As an additional feature, routers are capable of providing filtering on a network address and application port level, Routers can indeed be used to segment a network separate a collision domain, since routers do not forward LAN broadcasts and multicasts to

other interfaces. However, routers alone can not prevent all collisions from occurring on any given LAN segment. Routers actually segment LANs into smaller broadcast domains. Routers do not forward broadcast and multicast traffic out the additional interfaces by default. Unless bridging or IP helpers are configured on the router, LAN broadcasts are blocked at the router level. The primary functions of a router are: Packet Switching and Path Selection. It is the routers job to determine the best method for delivering the data, and switching that data as quickly as possible.

To obtain the IP Address of a connected device in order to telnet to the device To verify Layer 2 connectivity between two devices when Layer 3 fails

WAN technologies generally function at the lower two layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer and the data link layer TCP/IP includes ICMP, a protocol designed to help manage and control the operation of a TCP/IP network. The ICMP protocol provides a wide variety of information about a network's health and operational status. Control message is the most descriptive part of a name. ICMP helps control and manage IP's work and therefore is considered part of TCP/IP's network layer. Layer 7 is the application layer, which is the highest layer in the OSI model. This layer describes the use of end user applications, such as

opening movie files (avi, mpeg, etc) used Microsoft Office applications, using WWW browsers, using Telnet, and using FTP. IP Addressing and IP routing resides on the OSI Network layer, which is layer 3. The Transport Layer: You can think of the transport layer of the OSI model as a boundary between the upperand lower protocols. The transport layer provides a data transport service that shields the upper layers from transport implementation issues such as the reliability of a connection. The transport layer provides mechanisms for:

The Network Layer: Layer three of the OSI model is the network layer.

To reconstruct a file in the host,

The sequence number in the TCP

header is required