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Overview of Water and Sanitation in Asia

Asian Dialogue on Water and Sanitation 31 May 2007, Shanghai


Kallidaikurichi Easwaran Seetharam Principal Water Supply and Sanitation Specialist, Regional and Sustainable Development Department
The authors views do not necessarily represent the policies of ADB or its Board of Directors

Water and Sanitation Coverage in Asia and the Pacific

Good progress made, but significant gaps remain


Drinking Water Coverage Estimates for Subregions in Asia and the Pacific, 1990 and 2002 (in millions) 1990 Subregions Total East and Northeast Asia North and Central Asia Pacific South and Southwest Asia Southeast Asia Total 1,351 215 27 1,232 440 3,265 Population* Urban 446 140 19 345 141 1,091 Rural 905 75 8 887 299 2,174 Total 994 196 24 875 321 2,410 Served Population** Urban 445 135 19 310 128 1,037 Rural 549 61 5 568 194 1,377 Total 357 19 3 357 119 855 Unserved Population Urban 1 5 35 13 54 Rural 356 14 3 319 105 797

2002 Subregions Total East and Northeast Asia North and Central Asia Pacific South and Southwest Asia Southeast Asia Total 1,502 216 32 1,551 536 3,837 Population* Urban 631 135 23 481 220 1,490 Rural 871 81 9 1,070 316 2,347 Total 1,202 197 28 1,318 423 3,168 Served Population** Urban 591 133 23 457 201 1,405 Rural 604 68 5 871 226 1,774 Total 300 19 4 233 113 669 Unserved Population Urban 40 2 24 19 85 Rural 260 17 4 209 94 584

Increase from 1990 to 2002

572

399

173

758

368

397

(186)

31

(213)

Good progress made, but significant gaps remain


Sanitation Coverage Estimates for Subregions in Asia and the Pacific, 1990 and 2002 (in millions)
1990 Subregions Total East and Northeast Asia North and Central Asia Pacific South and Southwest Asia Southeast Asia Total 1,351 215 27 1,232 440 3,265 Population* Urban 446 140 19 345 141 1,091 Rural 905 75 8 887 299 2,174 Total 432 176 24 283 211 1,126 763 Served Population** Urban 318 128 19 201 97 Rural 106 48 4 76 117 351 Unserved Population Total 919 39 3 949 229 2,139 Urban 128 12 144 44 328 Rural 799 27 4 811 182 1,823

2002 Subregions Total East and Northeast Asia North and Central Asia Pacific South and Southwest Asia Southeast Asia Total 1,502 216 32 1,551 536 3,837 Population* Urban 631 135 23 481 220 1,490 Rural 871 81 9 1,070 316 2,347 Total 751 172 28 605 327 1,883 Served Population** Urban 468 123 23 334 181 1,129 273 50 4 266 163 756 Unserved Population Total 751 44 4 946 209 1,954 Urban 163 12 147 39 361 Rural 588 32 4 799 170 1,593

Increase from 1990 to 2002

572

399

173

757

366

405

(185.00)

33

(230.00)

Urban Water Supply Scenario


North and Central Asia

Azerbaijan, Russia

East and Northeast Asia

PRC
South and Southwest Asia

India, Sri Lanka, Turkey

Southeast Asia

Pacific

Thailand
Southeast Asia

Palau, Tuvalu
Pacific

Are countries Are countries on track to on track to meet MDG meet MDG Target 10? Target 10?

Indonesia, Philippines

Marshall Islands, Samoa, Vanuatu

Rural Water Supply Scenario


North and Central Asia East and Northeast Asia

Azerbaijan
North and Central Asia

PRC

Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
South and Southwest Asia Southeast Asia Pacific

Bangladesh, India, Nepal

Indonesia
Southeast Asia

Kiribati, Micronesia, Tuvalu


Pacific

Are countries Are countries on track to on track to meet MDG meet MDG Target 10? Target 10?

Philippines

Palau, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu

Urban Sanitation Scenario


North and Central Asia

Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
South and Southwest Asia

East and Northeast Asia

PRC Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka


South and Southwest Asia

Southeast Asia

Pacific

Turkey

Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam

Kiribati, Palau, Tuvalu


Pacific

Are countries Are countries on track to on track to meet MDG meet MDG Target 10? Target 10?

Papua New Guinea

Rural Sanitation Scenario


North and Central Asia East and Northeast Asia

Afghanistan

PRC
South and Southwest Asia

Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka


South and Southwest Asia

Southeast Asia

Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam


Southeast Asia

Pacific

Turkey

Cook Island, RMI, Palau, Tuvalu


Pacific

Are countries Are countries on track to on track to meet MDG meet MDG Target 10? Target 10?

Indonesia

Micronesia, Papua New Guinea

Access to drinking water in AsiaBig challenge


Number of people in region lacking access (millions) Share of all unserved living in indicated region (percent)

East Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Central Asia Pacific

300 233 113 19 4

28% 22% 11% 2% <1%

Total
Rest of the world
Source: Asia Water Watch 2015

669
378

65% 65%
35%

Access to sanitation in Asia A serious concern!


Number of people in region lacking access (millions) Share of all unserved living in indicated region (percent)

East Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Central Asia Pacific

751 946 209 44 4

29% 36% 8% 1% <1%

Total
Rest of the world
Source: Asia Water Watch 2015

1,954
634

79% 79%
21%

Water and Sanitation Crucial for Development


Indicator Correlation with water [No of economies] Correlation with sanitation [No of economies]

HDI-2003 F/M ratio in tertiary enrolment Infant mortality Under nourished population Per capita health expenditure

0.78 [150] 0.59 [127] -0.76 [150] -0.65 [121] -0.49 [149]

0.85 [140] 0.67 [118] -0.78 [140] -0.68 [113] -0.51 [139]

Benefits range from $3 to $34 for $1 invested Benefits range from $3 to $34 for $1 invested
Source: ADB. 2006. Strategic Thinking for Achieving the MDGs

Myths about Water and Sanitation Delivery


Myth
Progress in achieving water and sanitation outcomes is hampered by lack of funds

Reality
Progress can be made with political will and commitment Champions bring about success Good institutional arrangements sustain the success made by champions

Its time for Business Unusual What is it?

Time is of the Essence


A shift in products, business processes, and partnerships
3 key messages from ADB

Water is Food, Need, and Good


Drinking water is food (12 liters per capita per day) Water for essential use is a need (1020 lpcd; own source, back-up) Water for other uses is a good (24-hour supply; full cost recovery)
Deliver drinking water immediately to all

Sanitation? It means to clean Lavatory? It means to lather Toilet? It means to dress up Comfort Room? Ladies Room? Mens Room?
Can we coin a market-friendly word?

Affordable (pro-poor) Privacy (gender sensitive)

A N
Nature (environmentally safe)

A
Accessible (convenience)

A
Achievable (practical)

Aim for total sanitation coverage by communities

Partnerships
ADB other MDBs/ UNSGAB Policy

Government

Civil Society

ADB other MDBs/ UNSGAB

Financing

Service Delivery

ADB other MDBs/ UNSGAB

Private Sector
Move water and sanitation up on the national agenda

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