Arts Management

To be completed by Examiner. Student Name: TUNG ZHIWEN JOHN Student ID Number: 11511 Title of Assessed Work: Pollock’s No.5, 1948 Learning Outcomes: o o o

Programme: Arts Management Module/ Component: AM 1101 (History of Visual Arts)

an understanding of the historical and contemporary context of the arts and its definitions; with knowledge of music, theatre, dance and visual arts history across different periods and regions. a working vocabulary of artistic and management terminology. the ability to find, select and use information on visual materials in their historical contexts. the knowledge and understanding of self-awareness, openness and sensitivity to diversity in terms of people and cultures. Submission Date: Total Marks (100%)


Deadline: 29 October 2009 Weightage: Examiner’s Name: Jeffrey Say Criteria (based on assignment brief) Content and strucrure: Research evidence, use of written and visual sources, relevance, structure and flow of information, introduction/conclusion Style and language Clarity, grammar, language and spelling Referencing Footnoting, bibliography Presentation Quality of visuals, layout, formatting Attendance & Participation Bonus for regular attendance + active class participation (Up to a maximum of 5 marks) To be considered at the end of the semester/year TOTAL Please underline where appropriate: %

Mark /100

Mark (%)




10 10

Irregular Attendance below 70%/ Late Submissions/ Resubmission (If any of the above has been underlined, the maximum mark for the assignment will be capped at 40 marks) All marks are provisional and subject to confirmation by the examination board Signature: Date: Verified by Programme Coordinator/Manager (Name/ Signature)

1999. Although also being influenced by the surrealist styles. 1948 – More Than a Dense Bird’s Nest In 1948. Jackson Pollock began his study of painting under the mentoring of the Regionalist painter Thomas Hart Benton in 1929 and hence working with the Regionalist style during the period of the 1930s with influence from Mexican muralist painters namely Orozco. . Articles and Reviews. Alfonso Ossorio. New York: The Museum Of Modern Art.TUNG ZHIWEN. 1948 (refer to index of images) with no knowledge whatsoever that the painting would become. 5. 1948 to be akin to a dense bird’s nest. 5. abstract expressionist artist and friend of Jackson Pollock would purchase No. A first in what 1 Jackson Pollock: Key Interviews. a wealthy Filipino.5. Rivera and Siqueiros.1 His experimentation with this entire avantgarde style of painting would lead to the creation of Full Fathom Five (refer to index of images) in the same year. The “drip and splash” style of painting would only emerge with much abruptness in 1947 when Pollock wanted to see if his pouring method could carry a painting on its own. many still view No. the most expensive painting ever sold. In spite of this. JOHN AM3A 11511 29TH October 2009 VISUAL ARTS RESEARCH PAPER Pollock’s No. in present times. it was not until the mid 1940s that he started working in a completely abstract manner.

”3 Pollock died as a result of an alcohol related driving accident on the 11th of August 1956.2 Pollock can be considered one of the most influential and controversial artists of the 20th century with his paintings as iconic as his fits of rage and alcoholism.808194-2. Furthermore. The lines of brown applied and finally fine trails of yellow that stand out strongly from the background of earthy colours. The application of layer upon layer of paint creates a sense of depth and volume in the painting. it’s what to do when you aren’t painting.http://www. Pollock is believed to have incorporated Carl Jung’s philosophy into his paintings.00. was a composition of oil. Being familiar with the writings of Jung as well. .9171. 1948. by covering the fiber board to ensure no identifiable parts or points of emphasis.time. Famed for saying “the problem isn’t painting. (accessed 29/10/09). Pollock’s name became 2 "2. 3 20. The size of the image can be considered immense in size though he had paintings of even larger scales. enamel and aluminum paints on a fiber board.html (accessed 29/10/09)." Monday. Feb. The painting in question.would be a series of paintings bearing his signature “pour technique”. The painting bears base layers of black and grays followed by fine lines of white drizzled over the fiberboard. His struggles with alcoholism and troubled marriage to Lee Krasner would lead to psychoanalysis by Jungian psychiatrists. 5 .jackson-pollock. 1956. His unique style of painting would later on lead to his moniker – Jack the Dripper.

Woodward/White. Jackson Pollock: An American Saga. Pollock would first lay out the fiber board on the floor of his studio before he begun to drip and splash paint upon it.4 This broke Pollock away from traditional ideas on composition and relation between parts in a painting. incorporate himself better into the painting.jacksonpollock. Skira . Cody. not all were pleased with Pollock’s style. allowing him to work from all sides and hence. his motion was less restricted. While this style of painting was remarkably received by the press6 due to the challenge it posed towards traditional perceptions of painting. To do so. Furthermore. Pollock Painting. Bruno Alfieri made the following statement about Pollock’s works in general: “chaos/absolute lack of harmony/complete lack of structural organization/total absence of technique. Pollock used a combination of his pour technique in combination with his style of action painting so as to create No. 1948. Hans. To Pollock.shtml (accessed 29/10/09). 6 Alfieri. by laying the board on the ground.synonymous with the introduction of the All-over style of painting. 1951. Namuth.”7 4 5 Wyo. chaos.”5 Pollock felt that changing times required the emergence of new techniques to encapsulate accurately the spirit of the contemporary times. 5 .Bruno. Narration spoken by Jackson Pollock.Steven. 2002 7 Naifeh. 3 ed. however rudimentary/once again. . Jackson Pollock: The Irascibles and the New York School . this “method of painting was a natural growth out of need” arising from his desire to “express his feelings rather than to illustrate them. Like his other post-1947 works.

1948. While the study of chaos theory in mathematics emerged only more than ten years after the death of Pollock. 1998. To assume Pollock’s awareness of chaotic motion Incorporated. 1950 As seen in figure one. . Studies have shown that Pollock’s work progressively becomes more fractal-like along with Pollock’s career. breaking down nature’s very own blueprint and using it as a basis to create his own art – Fig 1. The same is also true for the prized No. Micolich and Jonas from the University of New South Wales Australia have determined that the chaos as perceived by Alfieri was created with mathematical precision. exploration into the nature of Pollock’s work has determined that some of the works displayed properties of mathematical fractals – in short. studies by physicians Taylor. the similarities are astounding. (Left) Section of snow on ground (Centre) Section of forest (Right) Section of Pollock’s One: Number 31. Fig 1.Yet despite Alfieri’s condemnation of Pollock’s work deeming it chaos. 5.

http://www. his manipulation of Jung’s symbols to be incorporated into his art may have been a mode in which Pollock was attempting to understand himself in a Jungian way. . the term 8 Taylor. Since Jung believed that the primitive man was more connected to this “collective unconscious” as compared to the “civilized” man. 14. (accessed October 28. 2009). His style of action painting was crucial in depicting the subconscious and bring the conscious mind to awareness of how it is shaped – a goal of Jungian analysis.phys. Richard.gogeometry. 9 _5_1948. "Pollock In PerspectiveFrontline 16.htm. "Fractal Expressionism Can Science Be Used To Further Our Understanding Of Art? Physics World (1999). Hans V.html. In fact. Hence from here it can be established that while Pollock’s work may have no meaning as a stand-alone. Pollock was also believed to have incorporated various visual symbols indentified by Jung which are thought to connect individuals in accordance to Jung’s principle of the “collective unconscious”. the process of painting was as crucial in its artistry as was the end product.10 This is further substantiated by the fact that Pollack himself did not label any of his techniques and styles 2009). (accessed October (accessed 29/10/09). the style of action painting in which Pollock moves around the canvas is reminiscent of Native American sand painting traditions where sand is trickled in thin lines to make a design on a horizontal surface.http://www. 8 9 To Pollock. http://www.may not be far fetched at all. 14 (1999).!/FRACTAL_EXPRESSIONIS M/fractal_taylor.hinduonnet. 10 Mathews.

Ossorio failed to realize that his purchase was merely the by-product of Pollack’s art which is the very action of painting No.“action painting” was coined by American art critic Harold Rosenberg in 1952. The Tradition of the New.”12 When Ossorio first received the painting he noticed that a 6-by9-inch portion of the painting had slid leaving what was described by Ossorio as a “non-descript smear amidst the surrounding linear clarity." http://www. Jeffrey. New York: G. To A Violent Grave: An Oral Biography of Jackson Pollock. 14 Potter. .P. Furthermore. Jackson Pollock: Response As Dialogue. in complete contradiction to the sentiments of Alfieri. 1959 "The Technique of Action Painting in Jackson Pollock Paintings. 1948 itself rather than the completed artwork. “It doesn’t make much difference how the paint is put on as long as something has been said. Carol C. Technique is just a means of arriving at a statement. 1985. he found “new qualities of richness and depth… a result of thorough but subtle overpainting. Ossorio dubbed the work “a masterful display of control and disciplined vision. Pollack’s touch up of the piece may be viewed as solely to please 11 12 Rosenberg. 5.. Puntnam's Sons.jackson-pollock.html (accessed 28/10/09). 13 Mancusi-Ungaro.Harold. New York: Horizon Press.”13 Yet. Ossorio’s statement pertaining to the touchup being “a wonderful example of an artist having a second chance”14 may be considered inaccurate according to Harold Rosenberg’s definition of the In light of this.” Pollack’s careful reconstruction of the painting had not only left the original concept entirely intact but re-affirmed it with greater complexity and “linear interplay”.11 Pollack himself had said.” The work was returned to Pollack for repair and when Ossorio saw it once more three weeks later.

continued study into his artworks would shed greater light on the human condition." New York Times. . Carol.. Available from http://www.nytimes. "A Pollock Is Sold. the painting has passed through many a different collector/museum including Samuel Irving Newhouse 15 "2.html? _r=1&adxnnl=1&ref=arts&adxnnlx=1163031599-revbGMuaIhdTP4qLonq8BA. 5. an esteemed publishing morgul.http://www. 16 Vogel. Possibly for a Record Price.808194-2. Pollack’s No. The most recent transaction of the painting is believed to be between David Geffen. founder of Geffen Records and David buyer. should this deal be factual.16 It is thus evident that the understanding and appreciation of Jackson Pollock’s work has increased greatly over time and even though the works of the abstract expressionist painter may still hold mysteries to be solved. 1956. 15 Since the sale of No.00. a Mexican financier. While the deal was believed to be brokered by Sotheby’s auctioneer Tobias Meyer for $140 million dollars to Martinez. Internet. Rosenberg would spend the next two decades redefining the art as an act as opposed to an object. 5. Yet while the present owner of the painting remains a mystery. Martinez claims no ownership of the painting presently.9171. 1948 would be at present the world’s most expensive painting overtaking Gustav Klimt’s Adele Bloch-Bauer I which was sold at a price of $135 million. 20. the Museum of Modern Art. 1948 to Ossorio in 1948." Monday. accessed 28 October 2009. amongst others.html (accessed 29/10/09). Feb.time. Pollock Painting. Woodward/White. Cody.html (accessed 29/10/09). "Fractal Expressionism Can Science Be Used To Further Our . Incorporated. Namuth.html (accessed 29/10/09). New York: The Museum Of Modern 3 Feb. 1999.Works Cited Jackson Pollock: Key Interviews. 1951. Jackson Pollock: An American Saga. Skira .9171. 1956. 20. Wyo.shtml (accessed 29/10/09). 2002 Naifeh.00. Jackson Pollock: The Irascibles and the New York School .http://www. http://www. "2. Articles and Reviews. Alfieri.Steven. Hans. Taylor.808194-2.time. Richard. Narration spoken by Jackson Pollock. 1998." Monday.Bruno.

com/fline/fl1614/16140700.hinduonnet. 2009).com/2006/11/02/arts/design/02drip. "The Technique of Action Painting in Jackson Pollock Paintings. To A Violent Grave: An Oral Biography of Jackson Pollock.Understanding Of Art? Physics World (1999).. 14 (1999). 2009). 1956. Jackson Pollock: Response As Dialogue.http://www. Carol. Carol C. Hans V. The Tradition of the New.!/FRACTAL_EXPRESSIONIS M/ New York: Horizon Press. 20. (accessed October 28.html (accessed 29/10/09). Puntnam's Sons.9171. "Pollock In PerspectiveFrontline 16. 1985. 2008..phys.jackson-pollock.html. Rosenberg.html (accessed 28/10/09). http://www.unsw. Possibly for a Record Price. Available from http://www. New York: G. Vogel. http://www. Mathews.P. Potter. .nytimes.00. Jeffrey.gogeometry.time.htm. accessed 28 October (accessed October 28." http://www.html (accessed 29/10/09). "A Pollock Is Sold. 14. "2. Feb. Sept." New York Times.808194-2.html? _r=1&adxnnl=1&ref=arts&adxnnlx=1163031599-revbGMuaIhdTP4qLonq8BA.http://www. Internet." Monday.

Index of Images 1. .

.No. 1948 Jackson Pollock (1948) Oil. Enamel and Aluminum Paint on Fiber board 2. 5.

coins. Oil on canvas with nails. tacks.Full Fathom Five Jackson Pollock (1947) First painting to utilize pour technique. etc . buttons. cigarettes.