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Bluetooth Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range communications technology intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed

devices while maintaining high levels of security. The key features of Bluetooth technology are robustness, low power, and low cost. The Bluetooth Specification defines a uniform structure for a wide range of devices to connect and communicate with each other. Connections betweeen Bluetooth enabled electronic devices allow these devices to communicate wirelessly through short-range, ad hoc networks known as piconets. Piconets are established dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth enabled devices enter and leave radio proximity meaning that you can easily connect whenever and wherever it's convenient for you. Each device in a piconet can also simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices within that single piconet and each device can also belong to several piconets simultaneously. This means the ways in which you can connect your Bluetooth devices is almost limitless.A fundamental strength of Bluetooth wireless technology is the ability to simultaneously handle data and voice transmissions. which provides users with a variety of innovative solutions such as hands-free headsets for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronization for PCs and mobile phones,

Bluetooth technology operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec. The 2.4 GHz ISM band is available and unlicensed in most countries.

Class 3 radios have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet Class 2 radios most commonly found in mobile devices have a range of 10 meters or 33 feet Class 1 radios used primarily in industrial use cases have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet Bluetooth low energy technology has a range of up to 200 meters or 600 feet.

The most commonly used radio is Class 2 and uses 2.5 mW of power. Bluetooth technology is designed to have very low power consumption.

Data Rate

1 Mbps for Bluetooth low energy technology 1 Mbps for Version 1.2; Up to 3 Mbps supported for Version 2.0 EDR Up to 24 Mbps supported for Version 3.0 HS

USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a specification to establish communication between devices and a host controller. USB is intended to replace many varieties of serial and parallel ports. USB can connect computer peripherals such as mice, keyboards, digital cameras, printers, personal media players, flash drives, and external hard drives. For many of those devices, USB has become the standard connection method. The USB 1.0 specification was introduced in 1996. It was intended to make it fundamentally easier to connect external devices to PCs. The USB 2.0 specification was released in April 2000 and was standardized by the USB-IF at the end of 2001. A USB system has an asymmetric design, consisting of a host, a multitude of downstream USB ports, and multiple peripheral devices connected in a tiered-star topology. Up to 127 devices, including the hub devices, may be connected to a single host controller.USB devices are linked in series through hubs. There always exists one hub known as the root hub, which is built into the host controller. A physical USB device may consist of several logical sub-devices that are referred to as device functions. USB device communication is based on pipes (logical channels). Pipes are connections from the host controller to a logical entity on the device named an endpoint. A USB device can have up to 32 active pipes, 16 into the host controller and 16 out of the controller. There are two types of pipes: stream and message pipes depending on the type of data transfer. A stream pipe is a uni-directional pipe connected to a uni-directional endpoint that transfers data using an isochronous, interrupt, or bulk transfer. A message pipe is a bidirectional pipe connected to a bi-directional endpoint that is exclusively used for control data flow.. When a USB device is first connected to a USB host, the USB device enumeration process is started. The enumeration starts by sending a reset signal to the USB device. The speed of the USB device is determined during the reset signaling. After reset, the USB device's information is read by the host, then the device is assigned a unique 7-bit address. If the device is supported by the host, the device drivers needed for communicating with the device are loaded and the device is set to a configured state. If the USB host is restarted, the enumeration process is repeated for all connected devices. Signalling Rayes:

A low speed rate of 1.5 Mbit/s is defined by USB 1.0. The full speed rate of 12 Mbit/s is the basic USB data rate defined by USB 1.1. A hi-speed (USB 2.0) rate of 480 Mbit/s was introduced in 2001. A SuperSpeed (USB 3.0) rate of 4.8 Gbit/s.

Infrared IrDA IrDA is used to provide wireless connectivity for devices that would normally use cables to connect. IrDA is a point-to-point, narrow angle (30 cone), ad-hoc data transmission standard designed to operate over a distance of 0 to 1 meter and at speeds of 9600 bps to 16 Mbps .IrDA is mainly used in payment systems, in remote control scenarios or when synchronizing two PDAs with each other Wavelength Optical wireless communication using infrared light with a wavelength between 850 and 900nm Distance In general, the standards approximate a communication distance of 1m. However, taking into consideration the life of batteries for portable terminal equipment, a "Low Power Standard" was recently issued, defining a communication distance of 20cm. Low Power 20cm Standard 100cm Range In order to perform communications using infrared light, the communication area must be restricted. Communication is possible within the range of a 30 circular cone with respect to the axis of communication. However, according to the actual standard, the communication distance is defined by stipulating the relationship between the strength of the transmitted light and the reception sensitivity. Speed The communication speed is defined as follows for each of the standards. All of these standards are prescribed with backward compatibility. The standards are defined such that communication is first performed at 9.6kbps for third party device confirmation. SIR : 2.4k, 9.6k, 19.2k, 38.4k, 57.6k, 115.2kbps MIR : 0.576, 1.152Mbps FIR : 4Mbps VFIR : 16Mbps UFIR : 100Mbps(Standards under formulation) Disadvantages IrDA is not able to penetrate solid objects and has limited data exchange applications compared to other wireless technologies

RS232 RS-232 is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. RS-232 was first introduced in 1962.The original DTEs were electromechanical teletypewriters and the original DCEs were modems..Later personal computers started to make use of the standard so that they could connect to existing equipment. For years, an RS-232-compatible port was a standard feature for serial communications, such as modem connections, on computers Limitations The large voltage swings and requirement for positive and negative supplies increases power consumption of the interface and complicates power supply design. Single-ended signaling referred to a common signal ground limits the noise immunity and transmission distance. The handshaking and control lines of the interface are intended for the setup and takedown of a dial-up communication circuit; in particular, the use of handshake lines for flow control is not reliably implemented in many devices. No method is specified for sending power to a device. While a small amount of current can be extracted from the DTR and RTS lines, this is only suitable for low power devices such as mice. The 25-way connector recommended in the standard is large compared to current practice. Standard details In RS-232, user data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits, the interface can operate in a full duplex manner, supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding. Timing Signals Some synchronous devices provide a clock signal to synchronize data transmission, especially at higher data rates. Two timing signals are provided by the DCE on pins 15 and 17. Pin 15 is the transmitter clock, or send timing (ST); the DTE puts the next bit on the data line (pin 2) when this clock transitions from OFF to ON . Pin 17 is the receiver clock, or receive timing (RT); the DTE reads the next bit from the data line (pin 3) when this clock transitions from ON to OFF.. Again, data is changed when the clock transitions from OFF to ON and read during the ON to OFF transition. TT can be used to overcome the issue where ST must traverse a cable of unknown length and delay, clock a bit out of the DTE after another unknown delay, and return it to the DCE over the same unknown cable delay. Since the relation between the transmitted bit and TT can be fixed in the DTE design, and since both signals traverse the same cable length, using TT eliminates the issue. The DTE or DCE can specify use of a "high" or "low" signaling rate. The rates as well as which device will select the rate must be configured in both the DTE and DCE.

Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance that may be used with certified products that belong to a class of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Because of the close relationship with its underlying standard, the term Wi-Fi is often used as a synonym for IEEE 802.11 technology. The Wi-Fi Alliance is a global, non-profit association of companies that promotes WLAN technology. Today, an IEEE 802.11 device is installed in many personal computers, video game consoles, smartphones, printers, and other peripherals, and virtually all laptop or palm-sized computers. Wi-Fi uses both single-carrier direct-sequence spread spectrum radio technology (part of the larger family of spread spectrum systems) and multi-carrier orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) radio technology. The term Wi-Fi suggests Wireless Fidelity, compared with the long-established audio equipment certification term High Fidelity or Hi-Fi Uses Uses include Internet access, Campus-wide Wi-FiCitywide Wi-Fi,Direct computer-tocomputer communications. A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a personal computer, video game console, mobile phone, or personal digital assistant can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet. Wi-Fi certification Specifically, the certification process requires conformance to the IEEE 802.11 radio standards, the WPA and WPA2 security standards, and the EAP authentication standard.

*Spectrum assignments and operational limitations are not consistent worldwide. *Wi-Fi networks have limited range. A typical wireless router using 802.11b with a stock antenna might have a range of 32 m (120 ft) indoors and 95 m (300 ft) outdoors. *Data security risks *Channel pollution-Wi-Fi pollution, or an excessive number of access points in the area, especially on the same or neighboring channel, can prevent access and interfere with the use of other access points by others, caused by overlapping channels in the 802.11g/b spectrum, as well as with decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between access points.

Embedded systems
Wi-Fi availability in the home is on the increase.Examples of remote monitoring including security systems and tele-medicine. In all these kinds of implementation, if the

Wi-Fi provision is provided using a system running one of operating systems mentioned above, then it becomes unfeasible due to weight, power consumption and cost .Increasingly in the last few years embedded Wi-Fi modules have become available which come with a real-time operating system and provide a simple means of wireless enabling any device which has and communicates via a serial port. This allows simple monitoring devices to be created.