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CHAPTER 1 S1

ROLE OF SIGNALLING IN RAILWAY OPERATION


1.1.1. Railway Signalling and Communication Technology, though evolved primarily for safe
working of trains, plays an important part in increasing line capacity with minimum investment.
With the advent of computers and extended communication network on the Railways, the scope
of Signalling Technology has widened to incorporate even automatic operation. The broad areas
of Railway Signalling and Communication Technology are:

1.1.2. Block Working: Trains are to be adequately spaced apart to prevent collision between
trains running in the same direction and prevent trains entering on the same track from the
opposite direction. This is achieved by block working between stations.

1.1.3. Interlocking: When trains are to be crossed or overtaken at stations, points and signals
are to be worked in proper sequence to make passage of trains safe and interlocking between
points and signals takes care of this. Simultaneous movements in stations are also safeguarded
by interlocking. Semaphore signals are worked by single wire, double wire or electric motors.
Colour light signals are provided for improved visibility, easier working and maintenance. Points
are worked by rod, double wire, pneumatic/hydraulic or electric power. Interlocking between
point levers and signal levers can be effected either mechanically by means of tappets or
locking electrically by means of electric lever locks or relays. With Route Relay Interlocking, a
complete route can be set by one operation and suitably safeguarded against conflicting moves.

1.1.4. Train detection: The presence of a train on a portion of track can be detected by track
circuits or axle counters and this information is used for controlling the signal, which in turn
controls the train movements.

1.1.5 Mechanisation of Marshalling Yards: Where trains are formed in Marshalling Yards,
classification, shunting and regrouping can be mechanised and computer controlled so that
operation is done in the quickest possible way and damage to the wagons is minimised.

1.1.6. Automatic Warning System: As an aid to the driver to know the condition of the signal
and to prevent accidents when the driver ignores the aspect of a stop signal, Automatic Warning
System is employed. If the driver, due to any reason, does not act upon a signal, the train is
brought to stop by automatic brake application.

In addition to warning and stopping, as explained above, the speed of the train is continuously
monitored and checked with the information as to the permitted speed, and if the actual speed
is different from the permitted speed, corrective action is enforced.

1.1.7. Centralised Traffic Control and Remote Control: Economy is achieved and efficiency
is increased by centralising operation of points and signals over a large area or a stretch of line.
Remote stations are controlled from a central location over a pair of lines using coded
techniques. Such centralised operation also leads to increased line capacity.

1.1.8. Train Describer: The designation and number of trains in a section or line can be
displayed to the central control office so that the controller is aware of the position and
designation of each train over the section monitored by him. The description is advanced from
section to section as the train proceeds. Such train describers are normally used with
centralised traffic control, remote control as well as in suburban sections.
CHAPTER2 S1

DEFINITIONS (GR 1.02)


In order that interpretation of various terms remain clear and unambiguous, it is
necessary to indicate their meanings precisely. This has been done in respect of common terms
used in railway signalling in chapter 1 of GR. Some of the important definitions are extracted
below.

1.2.1. ACT means the Indian Railways Act, 1989

1.2.2. ADEQUATE DISTANCE means the distance sufficient to ensure safety:

1.2.3. APPROACH LIGHTING means an arrangement in which the lighting of signals is


controlled automatically by the approach of a train;

1.2.4. APPROVED SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS means special instructions approved of or


prescribed by the Commissioner of Railway Safety;

1.2.5. AUTHORISED OFFICER means the person who is duly empowered by general or
special order of the Railway Administration, either by name or by virtue of his office, to issue
instructions or to do any other thing.

1.2.6. AUTHORITY TO PROCEED means the authority given to the Driver of a train, under the
system of working, to enter the block section with his train;

1.2.7. AXLE COUNTER means an electrical device which, when provided at two given points
on the track, proves by counting axles in and counting axles out, whether the section of the
track between the said two points is clear or occupied;

1.2.8. BLOCK BACK means to despatch a message from a block station intimating to the block
station immediately in rear on a double line or to the next block station on either side on a single
line, that the block section is obstructed or is to be obstructed;

1.2.9. BLOCK FORWARD means to despatch a message from a block station on a double line
intimating to the Block Station immediately in advance the fact that the block section in advance
is obstructed or is to be obstructed;

1.2.10. BLOCK SECTION means that portion of the running line between two block stations on
to which no running train may enter until Line Clear has been received from the block station at
the other end of the block section.

1.2.11. CENTRALISED TRAFFIC CONTROL means a system by which the working of trains
over a route, to which the system applies, is governed by fixed signals remotely controlled from
a designated place.

1.2.12. CHIEF COMMISSIONER OF RAILWAY SAFETY means an Inspector appointed to


exercise any functions under the Act, and includes a Commissioner of Railway Safety;

1.2.13. CONNECTIONS when used with reference to a running line, means the points and
crossings, or other appliances used to connect such line with other lines or to cross it;

1.2.14. DAY means from sunrise to sunset.


1.2.15. DRIVER means the engine driver or any other competent railway servant for the time
being incharge of driving a train.

1.2.16. DIRECTION OF TRAFFIC means

a) On a double line, the direction for which the line is signalled;


b) On a single line, the direction for the time being established, under the system of working, to
allow trains to move in that direction;

1.2.17. ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION INSTRUMENT means either a telephone or a Morse


Telegraph instrument;

1.2.18. FACING AND TRAILING POINTS: Points are facing or trailing in accordance with the
direction a train or vehicle moves over them. Points are said to be facing points when by their
operation a train approaching them can be directly diverted from the line upon which it is
running.

1.2.19. FIXED SIGNAL means a signal of fixed location indicating a condition affecting the
movement of a train and includes a semaphore arm or disc or fixed light for use by day and
fixed light for use by night.

1.2.20. FOULING MARK means the marks at which the infringement of fixed Standard
Dimensions occurs, where two lines cross or join one another.

1.2.21. INSPECTOR OF WAY OR WORKS means any Inspector or Assistant Inspector


responsible for the construction or maintenance of permanent way, points and signals, bridges
or other works connected therewith.

1.2.22. INTERLOCKING means an arrangement of signals, points and other appliances,


operated from a panel or lever frame, so interconnected by mechanical locking or electrical
locking or both that their operation must take place in proper sequence to ensure safety.

1.2.23. INTERMEDIATE BLOCK POST means a class `C' station on a double line, remotely
controlled from the block station in rear.

1.2.24. INTERMEDIATE BLOCK SIGNALLING means an arrangement of Signalling on double


line in which a long block section is split into two portions each constituting a separate block
section by providing an Intermediate Block Post.

1.2.25. ISOLATION means an arrangement, secured by the setting of points or other approved
means, to protect the line so isolated from the danger of obstruction from other connected line
or lines.

1.2.26. LAST STOP SIGNAL means the fixed Stop Signal of a station controlling the entry of
trains into the next block section.

1.2.27. LEVEL CROSSING means the intersection of road with railway track at the same level.

1.2.28. LINE CLEAR means the permission given from a block station to a block station in rear
for a train to leave the latter and approach the former; or the permission obtained by a block
station from a block station in advance for a train to leave the former and proceed towards the
latter.

1.2.29. MAIN LINE means the line ordinarily used for running trains through and between
stations.
1.2.30. MULTIPLE ASPECT SIGNALLING means a Signalling arrangement in which signals
display at any one time any one of the three or more aspects and in which the aspect of every
signal is pre-warned by the aspect of the previous signal or signals.

1.2.31 NIGHT means from sunset to sunrise.

1.2.32. OBSTRUCTION and its cognate expressions include a train, vehicle or obstacle on or
fouling a line, or any condition which is dangerous to trains.

1.2.33. POINT AND TRAP INDICATORS are not signals, but are appliances fitted to and
working with points to indicate by day or by night the position in which the points are set.

1.2.34. RUNNING LINE means the line governed by one or more signals and includes
connections, if any, used by a train when entering or leaving a station or when passing through
a station or between stations.

1.2.35. RUNNING TRAIN means a train, which has started under an authority to proceed and
has not completed its journey.

1.2.36. SHUNTING means the movement of a vehicle or vehicles with or without an engine or of
any engine or any other self-propelled vehicle for the purpose of attaching, detaching or transfer
or for any other purpose.

1.2.37. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS means instructions issued from time to time by the
authorised officer in respect to particular cases or special circumstances.

1.2.38. STATION means any place on a line of Railway at which traffic is dealt with, or at which
an authority to proceed is given under the system of working.

1.2.39. STATION LIMITS means the portion of a railway, which is under the control of a Station
Master and is situated between the outermost signals of the station or as may be specified by
special instructions.

1.2.40. STATION MASTER means the person on duty who is for the time being responsible for
the working of the traffic within station limits, and includes any person who is for the time being
in independent charge of the working of any signals and responsible for the working of trains
under the system of working in force.

1.2.41. STATION SECTION means that section of station limits:

(1) At a class `B' station provided with two-aspect signals, which is included -

(a) On a double line, between Home Signal and the Last Stop Signal of the Station in either
direction; OR

(b) On a single line –

Between the Shunting Limit Boards or Advanced Starters (if any), or


Between the Home Signals if there are no Shunting Limit Boards or Advanced Starters, or
Between the outermost facing points, if there are no Home Signals or Shunting Limit Boards or
Advanced Starters;

(2) At a class `B' station provided with manually operated multiple-aspect or modified lower
quadrant signals, which is included --
On a double line --

Between the outermost facing points and the last Stop Signal of the station in either direction, or
Between the Block Section Limit Board, where provided, and the last Stop Signal of the station
in either direction,
OR
(b) On a single line -

(i) Between the Shunting Limit Boards or Advanced Starters (if any),

OR

(ii) Between the outermost facing points if there are no Shunting Limit Board or Advanced
Starters.

1.2.42. SUBSIDIARY RULE means a special instruction, which is subservient to the General
Rule to which it relates and shall not be at variance with any General Rule.

1.2.43. SYSTEM OF WORKING means the system adopted for the time being for the working
of trains on any portion of a railway.

1.2.44. TRACK CIRCUIT means an electrical circuit provided to detect the presence of a
vehicle on a portion of track, the rails of the track forming part of the circuit.

1.2.45. TWO-ASPECT SIGNALLING means a Signalling arrangement in which each signal


displays at any one time either of the two aspects.

1.2.46. CLASSIFICATION OF STATIONS -

1. Stations, shall for the purpose of these rules, be divided into two categories - block stations
and non-block stations.

2. Block stations are those at which the Driver must obtain an authority to proceed under the
system of working to enter the block section with his train; and under the Absolute Block
System consist of three classes viz. `A', `B', `C', etc (see Chapter 14).

1.2.47. COLOUR LIGHT SIGNAL: A fixed signal in which the indications are given by the
colour of a light only.

1.2.48. EMERGENCY BRAKING DISTANCE is the distance travelled by train before coming to
a stop by sudden application of brake at one stretch.

1.2.49. IN REAR OF A SIGNAL means the territory over which an approaching train has to
pass before reaching the signal location.

1.2.50. IN ADVANCE OF A SIGNAL: A term used in defining a territory beyond a signal as seen
from the approaching train.

1.2.51. LINE CAPACITY means the maximum number of trains that can be run on any given
section during a calendar day of 24 hours.

1.2.52. OVERLAP means the length of track in advance of a stop signal, which must be kept
clear, either for clearing the stop signal next in rear or for the purpose of granting permission to
approach.
1.2.53. `ON' ASPECT means the most restrictive aspect of the signal.

1.2.54. `OFF' ASPECT means any aspect other than the `ON' aspect of a signal.

1.2.55. POSITION LIGHT SIGNAL: A fixed signal in which the indications are given by the
position of two or more lights.

1.2.56. SEMAPHORE SIGNAL: A signal in which the day indications are given by the position
of a semaphore arm.

1.2.57. SERVICE BRAKING DISTANCE is the distance required to stop the train running at the
maximum permissible speed of the line, at such a rate of deceleration that the passengers do
not suffer discomfort or alarm.
CHAPTER 3 S1

SIGNALLING CONCEPTS
1.3.1. Development of Signals: Railway vehicles move on Steel Rail Track and are provided
with flanged steel wheels. The rolling of the steel wheel on steel rail has the least friction and it
is, therefore, one of the most efficient means of locomotion.

1.3.2. Control over movement of Trains: The running of flanged vehicles on the steel track
has its own inherent problems unlike the road, sea or air transport where the movement is not
confined to a particular track. Since the vehicles are constrained to move in a fixed Railway
track, they cannot be steered away as in the case of other transports. They are required to
follow one another in the same direction on the length of track, as otherwise for every vehicle
separate parallel paths are to be provided. This is not practicable. If vehicles are expected
from the opposite direction another set of diversion track is required to be provided either for
overtaking vehicles moving in the same direction or for crossing the vehicles from the opposite
direction. Railway locomotion, therefore, though more efficient, brings in problems of "Control
over movement of Trains".

Basically, two types of controls could be catered for. If two separate tracks are provided for
trains running in opposite directions, then one set of control can be provided to space the
movement of trains running in the same direction so that adequate "interval" is available
between two consecutive trains. On the other hand, if a single track is used for movement of
trains in both directions, then another set of control is required to prevent a train in the opposite
direction from coming on the same track when a train is already occupying it.

1.3.3. Time Interval Method: Let us take the first case of spacing of trains in the same
direction. The spacing should be such that if a train stops, then, the following train driver
should be able to notice it and apply brake to his train so that it stops short of the preceding
train. The most important aspect is braking to a stop from the speed at which a train is running.
Where the speeds and weights are low, it is not difficult for a following train to stop short of the
train ahead which has stopped. This is how tramways operate even today, as the speed and
weight are low and a tram can be stopped from its running speed without colliding with a tram in
front. With higher speeds and heavier loads, as in the case of Railway train, the distance
required to stop a train is longer, and at this longer distance, the driver cannot definitely decide
whether a train in front has actually stopped or not. This is the case when trains follow one
another in quick succession. In actual practice, where interval between trains is longer, a
following train does not see the earlier train, and the driver has to continuously guess as to
where the earlier train will be. If all trains run at the same speed and are required to stop at the
same place for the same duration, a certain amount of control can be exercised by having a
definite time lag between the trains from one stopping place to another. This time lag should be
such that the train, which has a stop, is able to reach the next stop within this time. Thus by
having a time interval between trains, a certain amount of control can be achieved. But, in the
case of Railway, this is not practicable, as -

(a) Different types of trains like, Express/Mail, passenger, high-speed freight and low speed
freight shunting trains are run.

(b) The speeds of all the trains are not same

(c) The terrain of the country is not same everywhere

(d) The brake power, hauling capacity, load of train is not same for all trains; and

(e) The stopping places of all trains are not the same
Hence, it is not possible to control the movement of trains under the "Time interval method". A
better method of control is called the "Space Interval Method".

1.3.4. Space Interval Method: In this method of "Control over movement", the length of track is
divided into sections called "Blocks". The entry of a train into the ‘block’ is controlled in such a
way that only when it is free, a train can be allowed to enter it. This means that between two
consecutive trains, there is a definite space interval.

This space interval or block is controlled at the entry. This controlling point should know whether
the train, which had entered this space, vacated it so that another following train can be sent.
Since the length of a block is beyond the normal visual range, another controlling point is set at
the end of the block. This point can know whether the train has arrived and advise the
controlling point at the entry. So, with the two controlling points and intercommunication, it is
possible to control the entry of a train into a block only when it is vacant.

The information about the condition of this block is given by the exit point to the entry point, and
the entry point transmits this information to the driver of a train. The driver of the approaching
train must be able to know whether the next block is not clear, he should stop and wait. Here is
where "signal" comes in.

1.3.5. Signals: A "Signal", therefore, is a medium to convey a particular pre-determined


meaning in non-verbal form. Various methods are used to convey the meaning by "Signals" in a
non-verbal form as are used by Scouts, Policemen, road signs, Navy and Air Traffic Control,
etc., which convey a definite information. The chart below gives the various forms that could be
adopted.

1.3.6. Block Working: As explained earlier, the space interval system uses the block working
wherein the entry of train onto the block section is jointly controlled by the entry and exist points
of the block section. The driver is authorised to proceed into a section by the signal controlling
the entry to the section. This working could be a manual block system or automatic block
system. In any type before the train could be allowed to enter a section "PERMISSION" is
required to be obtained from the Exit end to the effect that the section is "CLEAR" of trains and
the train could be permitted. Different systems of working for getting this "PERMISSION TO
APPROACH" has been evolved on Indian Railways and are classified as "System of Working".
The details of system of working are explained in Chapter 13.

1.3.7. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the above general description of concept of
Signalling that the main purpose of Railway Signalling Systems is to maintain a safe distance
between trains on the same track.
CHAPTER - 4 S1

FIXED SIGNALS, KINDS, ASPECTS & INDICATIONS (GR.3.02-3.08)


1.4.1. In Chapter 3, a mention was made about the use of different types of visual and audible
signals, for controlling the movement of trains in all cases. No exceptions are allowed by
approved special Instructions:

1. Fixed Signals 2. Hand Signals 3. Detonating Signals 4. Flare Signals

1.4.2. The definition of "Fixed Signals" as given in the General Rules is "a signal of fixed
location indicating a condition affecting the movement of a train and includes a semaphore arm
or disc or fixed light for use by day and a fixed light for use by night”.

Semaphore signals used on the Railways are in the form of a rectangular or fish tailed arm fixed
to a vertical post. The arm is kept horizontal to the post to be easily distinguishable. By this
arrangement the arm can be seen from a long distance on a clear day. Whenever the signal is
required to convey some information:-
The arm can altogether be removed from the view of the driver by making the arm to disappear
in a slot provided on the post; or
The arm can be made to assume a mid-way position below horizontal; or
To assume a mid-way position above horizontal; or
To assume a vertical position parallel to the extended line of the post.

1.4.4. Method (a) was adopted in the early days and subsequently given up as the absence of
arm due to some reason other than its entering the slot in the post conveyed a wrong
information. Methods (b) and (c) above could be on the Right hand side or left hand side
of a Quadrant as shown below in (Fig.1.4.4). Fixed Signals can operate on any one of
the four quadrants of a circle as shown. Since `Left hand' rule is followed in India, the
"lower quadrant" and "Upper quadrant" of the left hand side is utilised in Indian
Railways. Based on this principle, signals are also generally located on the left side of
the track.

Fig. 1.4.4 Use of Quadrant

1.4.5. It can be seen in the figure above that an arm in a lower quadrant can have only two
positions, one at horizontal position and the other at midway position on the left-hand side. In
Upper Quadrant, three positions can be obtained, i.e. one at horizontal position, one at midway
position and the 3rd at vertical position in parallel with the extended line of post. Hence, we
have two systems of signalling, one called "Lower Quadrant Signalling" and the other called
"Upper Quadrant Signalling".

1.4.6. Two aspect Lower Quadrant Signalling:

(a) Stop-signal: The semaphore arm of the stop signal is square ended, painted Red with
White bar parallel to the square end in front and painted white with black bar in rear. As
explained, a lower quadrant signal can show only two different positions. One is
horizontal and the other lowered to midway position. They are called "aspects" of the
signals. The movement of the signal arm in lower quadrant is generally adopted by
countries where there is no snowfall or other external conditions which can result in the
arm remaining lowered without being operated. The arm in the horizontal position will
convey an aspect "stop" indicating "Stop dead". The arm lowered to midway position in
the lower quadrant will convey an aspect "proceed", indicating Proceed. Semaphore arm
can be seen during day and so can convey information during daytime. At night the
arm will not be visible. Hence, to convey information during night, fixed light signals are
used. Right from the early days, red lights were used to denote "Stop" and green lights
were used for "Proceed". Red light should, therefore, be exhibited when the arm is
horizontal and green light when the arm is inclined midway. A semaphore signal is a
combined integrated unit with an arm and light. The horizontal position of the arm
during daytime is considered as the `ON' aspect and the inclined position is the "OFF"
aspect of the signal. The corresponding light Red & Green during nighttime are `ON'
and `OFF' aspects respectively. The `ON' aspect of a signal is also referred to as the
most restrictive aspect. The figure 1.4.6(a) shown below will give the details of the
aspect and indications for two-aspect semaphore signal.

Fig. 1.4.6 (a) Two-Aspect Semaphore Stop Signal (Lower Quadrant)

(b) Warner Signal:

Two-aspect stop signal as explained above is the minimum required to safely space the trains.
This is adequate for low speeds and low density of traffic. Safety depends on the driver seeing
the signal in time under all conditions. This imposes an enormous strain on the driver who has
to be constantly on the look out, to pick up the signals. Any mistake or loss of attention can lead
to serious consequences. Otherwise drivers will play safe by running at lower speeds so that he
can stop at the signal even if he sees it at the last minute. With such low speeds, the time of
occupation of the block sections by the trains will increase, thereby reducing the number of
trains per day that can be run between the block stations.

One method of overcoming this problem will be to give advance information, or "WARNING" to
the driver about the presence of stop signal ahead and the aspect displayed by the stop signal.
This can be achieved in the form of another signal. This signal can precisely inform the driver
that he is approaching a stop signal and also that he is required to stop or proceed. The signal
which gives such warning about the condition of the stop signal ahead is called a "WARNER
SIGNAL".

Since the driver is not required to stop at the Warner Signal, as it is only giving an advance
warning about the presence of the stop signal ahead, this signal has to be different from the
stop signal. The day aspect, therefore, is characterised by a fish tailed arm instead of a square
ended arm. This is also a two aspect Lower Quadrant Signal.

Since the Warner Signal is not a stop signal and is exhibiting Red Light when `ON’ this should
be distinguishable from a Stop Signal during night. This is done by mounting the arm at a lower
level in the post and providing a separate additional fixed Green Light at 1.5 to 2.0 metres
above the arm. This combination of Green Light above a Red Light distinguishes a signal as a
Warner Signal in the `ON' position. When the signal is lowered to midway position, the Red
Light changes to green and the Driver sees two green lights one over the other. The aspect and
indications of the Warner Signal on a post by itself is shown in Fig.1.4.6 (b). Two precise
informations are given to the driver by the Warner Signal. When the arm is horizontal during
day and showing of a Green Light and Red Light below during nighttime indicates to the driver
that he can proceed, but must be prepared to stop at the next Stop Signal. Similarly, the
lowering of arm during day and showing of two Green Lights one below the other during night
indicates that he can proceed and can expect all the stop signals ahead of Warner for that
direction are OFF and he can run through.

1.4.7. A Warner signal must not be capable of being taken `OFF' for any line other than that
over which the highest speed is permitted and not until all the relevant signals have assumed
`OFF' aspect. The last of the stop signals will be the one controlling the entry of the train in the
block section ahead. Even if any one of the stop signals ahead is `ON' the Warner cannot
display `OFF' aspect.

1.4.8. Under certain circumstances a semaphore Warner signal is required to be placed on the
same post of a stop signal. In such cases, the Warner signal is placed below the Stop Signal,
and the fixed green light is dispensed with.
Fig.1.4.6 (b) Semaphore Two-Aspect - Warner Signal On A Post by Itself (Lower Quadrant)

1.4.9. The combination of two arms (Stop and Warner) on the same post gives the driver three
indications in the 2-aspect lower quadrant signalling. When both the Stop Signal, and the
Warner Signal arms are at horizontal position and the showing of two Red Light one below the
other gives an indication to the driver to `Stop dead' at this signal. The lowering of the Stop
Signal above the Warner or showing of a Green Light above a Red Light indicates that he can
proceed past the signal with caution and be prepared to stop at the next stop signal. A third
condition exists when both the arms are lowered to give two Green lights one below the other.
This indicates to the driver that he can proceed and can expect all the stop signals for that
direction are `OFF' and that the block section ahead is also clear. It is also made mechanically
impossible to lower only the Warner Signal when the stop signal above it is `ON'. In this way
showing of Green Light below a Red light is eliminated. The details of the signals and aspects
are shown in figure 1.4.9. below.

ASPECT: STOP PROCEED WITH CAUTION PROCEED


INDICATION: STOP PROCEED WITH CAUTION AND PROCEED
DEAD BE PREPARED TO STOP AT THE
NEXT STOP SIGNAL

Fig.1-4-9 Semaphore Two-Aspect - Warner Below A Stop Signal


1.4.10. A comparison between a Warner Signal on a post by itself and a Warner Signal below a
Stop Signal will reveal that -

(a) The night aspect of a separate Warner when `ON' is a green light above a Red Light. If the
Red Light gets extinguished for some reason or other, it will give only a Green Light to a
approaching driver and he can mistake the signal to be a stop signal in the `OFF' position and
can `Proceed' instead of going cautiously.

(b) On the other hand if the fixed green light gets extinguished, the night aspect will only be a
"RED" light exhibited which can be mistaken for a "Stop Signal" in `ON' position. This will be
noticed only when the driver comes nearer to the signal and he sees a Fish tailed semaphore
arm instead of a square ended arm.

(c) Pre-warning to the driver of an approaching train can be given only when a Warner Signal is
placed on a post by itself and this will enable the driver to control his train suitably.

(d) In the case of a Warner Signal placed below a Stop Signal the night aspect in the `ON'
position is showing of two Red Lights one below the other. Even if any one of the lights gets
extinguished, the other Red light will be available which will still indicate to the driver that it is a
stop signal. If the stop signal above the Warner, is lowered and the green light gets
extinguished then a Red Light of Warner will be visible. However, he could be governed by the
stop signal arm above the Warner arm as he comes near the signal, and be guided by it.

(e) In the case of a Warner Signal placed below a Stop Signal, no pre-warning is available for
the stop signal.

As explained earlier, the `ON' aspect of a Warner signal on a post by itself, tells the driver that
he should proceed cautiously and can expect the next stop signal is in the `ON' or `OFF'
position. Hence he is required to pass the signal at a reduced speed (when at `ON').

1.4.11. From the point of view of the driver, therefore, the `ON' aspect of Warner does not
signify positively anything about the signals ahead whereas if such information is available, he
can confidently approach the signal ahead. A system of warning about the condition of each
signal by a signal in rear is, therefore, very much necessary. This leads to the concept of more
than 2 aspects called "MULTIPLE ASPECT SIGNALLING".

1.4.12. Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant Signalling:

(a) Stop Signal: It has been mentioned in previous para that the semaphore arm can be made
to assume a midway position above horizontal and also another position in parallel with the
extended line of the post on the left hand Upper Quadrant. In this way, it is possible to
obtain more than 2 aspects in the Upper Quadrant region and hence, it is called "Multiple
Aspect (more than 2 aspects) "Upper Quadrant" signalling as distinct from "two aspect
Lower Quadrant Signalling" mentioned in previous paras.

The Semaphore Arm in Upper Quadrant is similar to 2-aspect lower quadrant square ended
arm, painted Red with white bar in the front and painted white with black bar in rear. Since the
signal is required to convey 3 aspects, the arrangements in the "spectacle" are such that 3
different colour glasses, namely, Red, Yellow and Green ROUNDELS can be fixed to convey the
night aspects of the signal. The arm in the horizontal position in day will convey `ON' aspect
indicating "Stop Dead". The night aspect of the horizontal position of the arm by showing of a
Red light. The raising of the semaphore arm to "45 degrees above horizontal" in the left hand
Upper Quadrant region will convey an aspect "Caution" indicating "Proceed with caution and be
prepared to stop at the next stop signal". The night aspect of the mid-way position by showing
of a yellow light. The raising of the arm to 90 degrees above horizontal in parallel with the
extended line of post in a vertical position will convey an aspect "Clear" indicating "Proceed"
and the next stop signal is also `OFF'. The corresponding night aspect is the showing of a
Green Light. The aspects and indications of a Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant Stop signal are
shown in figure 1.4.12(a) below:
ASPECT: STOP CAUTION PROCEED
INDICATION: STOP DEAD PROCEED AND BE PROCEED
PREPARED TO STOP
AT THE NEXT STOP SIGNAL

FIG.1.4.12(a) MAUQ - STOP SIGNAL

(b) Distant Signal: As discussed in the case of 2-aspect signalling when a driver approaches
the first stop signal he should be warned about its condition. Therefore, a signal similar to the
Warner Signal in the 2-aspect signalling is also a necessity in Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant
signalling. This pre-warning signal is called a "DISTANT" signal. The term `Distant' is used
here, as this is the farthest signal from the station on the approach side. The semaphore arm
will have 3 positions -- horizontal, 45 degrees above horizontal and 90 degrees above
horizontal. The arm is fishtailed similar to lower quadrant Warner signal. The front side facing
the train is coloured yellow with a black bar parallel to the end and the backside is coloured
white with a black bar. According to the convention adopted that the night aspect in the `ON'
position should correspond with the colour of the arm the distant signal exhibits a yellow light in
the `ON' position during nighttime. The yellow colour and the fish tailed shape of the arm
facilitate the driver in distinguishing a `Distant'
signal from a "STOP SIGNAL" from a longer distance.

The second aspect that is given by the distant signal is the arm raised to 45 degrees during
daytime. But for the night aspect, since the yellow aspect is already used for the `ON' aspect of
the signal, a special aspect is given by having `two yellow lights' one below the other. This
second yellow fixed light below the yellow aspect of the arm should not be visible in any position
other than the 45 degrees position. Hence, a mechanical arrangement is made in the working of
this signal such that the fixed yellow light gets `blanked out' in all other positions. In this way 2
yellow lights one below the other is exhibited in the 45 degrees positions only. The indications
conveyed to the driver are that the next stop signal is `OFF', but he should pass the next Stop
Signal at a restricted speed. This aspect of raising the distant arm to 45 degrees position in
daytime or showing of 2 yellow lights is the aspect called "ATTENTION". The third aspect given
by the distant signal is by raising the arm vertically to 90 degrees position, the night aspect
being "GREEN" light, which indicates to the driver that he can proceed and can expect the next
signal in the `OFF' is given in Fig.1.4.12 (b) below:
ON POSITION OFF POSITION

ASPECT: CAUTION ATTENTION PROCEED


INDICATION: PROCEED AND PROCEED AND BE PROCEED
BE PREPARED PREPARED TO PASS
TO STOP AT NEXT STOP SIGNAL AT
NEXT STOP SUCH SPEED AS
SIGNAL PRESCRIBED BY SPECIAL
INSTRUCTIONS
Fig.1.4.12 (b) MAUQ - DISTANT SIGNAL

1.4.13. The three positions of a Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant both of a stop signal and a
distant signal are horizontal for the `ON' position; raised to 45 above horizontal and raised to 90
Degrees above horizontal are the `OFF' positions.
1.4.14. It has been mentioned earlier as to how a two aspect stop signal and a Warner can be
combined to give 3 aspects. A similar case may occur in Upper Quadrant Signalling also where
a signal may have to exhibit 4 aspects, i.e. those of a stop and distant signal. However, the
need for such 4-aspect semaphore signals had not been felt very much and no design for such
signals had been evolved. Where light signals are used, it is possible to provide a signal
exhibiting 4 aspects by combination of lights, which are used in colour light signalling area.

1.4.15. So far we have discussed two types of signals i.e. Lower Quadrant 2-aspect and
Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant. The Warner/Distant Signals are not stop signals and,
therefore, "Permit" the approaching driver to pass the signal in the `ON' position. Hence they
are called "Permissive Signals". The stop signals in the 2 aspect and Multiple aspect cannot be
passed by the approaching driver in the `ON' position unless and until he is specially authorised.
Hence, these signals are called "Absolute Signals".

1.4.16. The above two types of semaphore signals as 2-aspect lower quadrant and 3-aspect
Upper Quadrant whether Permissive signals or absolute signals. The lights exhibited in the
nighttime are lighted by "Kerosene Wick Lamps" or by electric lamps and they are lit only during
the nighttime. In some areas, where the visibility of arm is very poor due to snow or fog, the
night aspects are required to be lit in the daytime also. The lighting of the lamps is left to the
operating staff.

1.4.17. Multiple Aspect Colour Light Signals:

Instead of having an arm by day and light by night it is preferable to have only lights as signals
for both day and night and such signals are called Colour Light Signals. These are mainly used
in busy suburban sections and main trunk routes, as these require electric power to operate
them. Use of colour light signals is essential in the Electrified sections.

Some of the advantages of Colour Light Signals over the semaphore signals are:

a) The day and night aspects are the same, therefore no confusion to the Driver.

b) The visibility can be obtained for longer range and the natural background adds to improve
the visibility, specially it is excellent in the nights.

c) The signals are placed at driver's eye level.

d) The drooping of signal arm due to snow or external force is completely eliminated.

e) A combination of 4 aspects can be obtained.

f) No mechanical transmission, no moving parts, so no wear and tear, and long range of
operation is feasible.

g) No kerosene is required and no necessity to depend on Operating Staff for lighting lamps.

The details of the aspects and indications of a Multiple Aspect Colour Light Stop Signal are as
shown in Fig. 1.4.17 (a) and Fig.1.4.17 (b) and distant signal in Fig.14.17 (c).
Note: Where "Distant" and "Inner Distant" signals are provided the Distant shall display only
"attention" or "proceed" aspect. (Ref.GR.3.07 & BD’s L.68/W3/SG/5/4 of 5/2/70)

1.4.18 Similarly the lower quadrant semaphore signals can also be replaced by colour light
signals. The aspects and indications in such cases are shown in Figure 1.4.18 (a), (b) and (c).
Aspect: Proceed With Caution Proceed
Indication: Proceed With Caution Proceed
and Be Prepared To Stop
at Next Stop Signal

Fig.1.4.18 (b) 2-Aspect Colour Light Warner On A Post By Itself


Aspect: Stop Proceed With Caution Proceed
Indication: Stop Dead Proceed With Caution Proceed
and Be Prepared To Stop
at Next Stop Signal

FIG.1.4.18 (c) 2-ASPECT COLOUR LIGHT WARNER BELOW A STOP SIGNAL

1.4.19. From the above, the aspect displayed by these signals and the indication given to the
approaching driver, it can be seen that

(a) In the case of 2-aspect lower quadrant, the driver is given only two precise informations at
the approach of a station. A Warner Signal at Green (OFF) indicates that he can proceed (run
through) at the normal speed and a Warner at `ON' indicates that he has to approach the next
signal cautiously, preparing to stop. (b) In the case of Multiple aspect signalling, the driver is not
given any precise information about run through at the approach of a station. The distant signal
at Green (OFF) indicates that he can proceed and expect the next stop signal to be OFF and
further Stop Signals ahead of this may or may not be OFF. (c) 4-Aspect Colour Light Stop
Signal at `OFF' with green light, indicates the driver to proceed, next stop signal is also `OFF.

Yellow aspect indicates caution and tells the driver to proceed with caution and be prepared to
stop at the next stop signal.

In addition to the above aspects, a 4-Aspect Stop Signal has an attention aspect by showing of
two yellow lights one over the other informs driver to proceed and be prepared to pass the next
stop signal at restricted speed. This may be on account of either the train has to negotiate a
turn-out ahead or the breaking distance is not being available between next signal at caution
and the signal in advance at Red, so that he could control the speed.

1.4.20.So far we have seen that a minimum of one stop Signal and a Permissive Signal is
necessary to provide the requisite space interval between the trains. Trains are normally dealt
with at stations for different purposes such as stopping for passengers, for loading, for servicing,
etc., in which case the stop signals are required to be located at different locations to cater to
the needs. Stop signals could be provided at the approach end of a station and/or at the
departure end of the station and/or at converging or diverging junction points at a station. This
involves the introduction of calling the stop signals by different names depending upon the
location and hence we come to the details of "DESIGNATION OF SIGNALS".
CHAPTER 5 S1

DESIGNATION OF SIGNALS
1.5. 1. At a block station it is obligatory to provide certain number of signals for controlling the
movements of trains. There we require some signals to deal with the trains approaching the
station and some to deal with Departure of trains from the station. When more than one stop
signals are used a difficulty to identify them from each other will arise. Hence it is necessary to
give some name to these signals.

1.5.2. Signals for Approaching Trains: Signals, which are governing the approach and entry of
trains into a station, are,

(a) PERMISSIVE SIGNALS: A "WARNEW' in case of 2-Aspect signalling can be placed below
the first stop signal or below the Last Stop Signal or can be on a post by itself with fixed green
light above. It is to warn the driver that be is approaching a stop signal or to warn him about the
condition of block section ahead. In multiple aspect signalling a "DISTANT" signal is provided to
indicate the driver about the condition of the stop signal ahead. If the sectional speed is 120
KMPH or above, two "DISTANT" signals shall be provided. In such cases, these signals are
called ‘DISTANT’ and ‘INNER DISTANT’ respectively.

(b) STOP SIGNALS: Minimum one permissive and one stop signal is sufficient for trains
approaching a station. When stop signal is taken 'OFF' it permits the train to enter the station,
this is called "HOME" signal of the station. At a station where two stop signals are provided in
the approach, the first one shall be called "OUTEW' and the next shall be "HOME". In some
cases where the distance between the Home signal and the Reception lines of the station is far
away, one more stop signal may be provided, as One Home signal will not be sufficient to
facilitate the reception. So a stop signal provided between Home and the Reception lines shall
be called a "ROUTING HOME".

1.5.3. SIGNALS FOR DEPARTURE OF TRAINS: At the departure end of the station, the stop
signals controlling the movement of trains leaving the station are;

1. STARTER SIGNAL: Where the departure of trains is controlled by only one stop signal, it is
called Starter Signal and is the Last Stop Signal of the station. If two or more converging lines
are there, the Starter shall be placed outside the connections on the line to which it refers.
Where advanced starter is also provided, the starter referring to any line is placed so as to
protect the facing point or fouling mark and shall not be less than 400m in advance of the Home
signal.

2. ADVANCED STARTER: Where departure of trains is controlled by more than one Stop
Signal, the Outer most starter signal shall be the Last Stop Signal of the station and is called
"Advanced Starter". Unless approved under special instructions an "Advanced Starter" shall be
placed outside all connections on the line to which it applies. It shall be placed not less than
180m in the case of two aspect and 120m in multiple aspect signalling from the outermost point
on single line. This distance shall be reckoned from the starter on double line. On special
nominated sections where frequent shunting involving main line takes place the "Advanced
Starter" signal may be placed at a distance of full train length beyond the trailing point and the
track between them shall be track circuited (Ref. C.slip No.2 for para 7.16.6 & 7.27.5 of 1988
SEM). Where an advanced starter is provided, the starter referring to any line shall be placed so
as to protect the first facing point or fouling mark; and shall not be less than 400m in advance of
Home Signal.
3. INTERMEDIATE/ROUTING STARTER: Intermediate Starter is provided between starter &
advanced starter where necessary, and is placed in rear of the point, which it protects. (Refer
Figs. 1.6.2, 1.63, 1.6.4 and 1.6.5 of the next chapter)

1.5.4. We have seen the aspects and indications of an individual signal. The following aspect
sequence charts give us the various combinations of signals, their aspect and indications
conveyed to the driver of an approaching train.

(Using light aspects)

Warner Outer Home Indication

R R R Stop at Outer Signal


R G G Enter the station. Stop at Starter of concerned line if 'ON’
G G G Run through via main line all signals ahead are 'OFF'

(a) Approaching Signals used in 2-Aspect Signalling

Distant Home. Indication

Y R Stop at Home Signal


YY Y Enter on Loop line. Stop at Starter if 'ON’
G Y Enter on main line. Stop at Starter
G G Run through via main line

(b) Approaching signals used in MAUQ1MACL

Distant Inner Distant Home Indication

YY Y R Stop at Home
YY YY Y Enter on Loop Line. Stop at Starter if 'ON’
G YY Y Enter on Main Line. Stop at Starter
G G G Run through via main line

(c)Using two Distant Signals in approach (MACL).

1.5.5. Aspect sequence chart of Stop signals used for departure of trains.

Starter Advanced Starter Indication

R R Stand in rear of starter


G R Shunt upto adv. Starter
G G Proceed line is clear

(a) Departure signals in 2-aspect signalling


Starter Advanced Starter Indication

R R Stand in rear of starter


Y R Shunt upto adv. Starter
Y/G G Proceed line is clear

(b) Departure signals in M.A Signalling

1.5.6. To control the through movement of trains to and from a station, it is sufficient to have
reception and despatch signals as explained above. But in some major yards, other special type
of signals and indicators are provided, (a) to control short moves within the yard; and (b) to
convey certain information to the driver (They are discussed in Chapter.7).
CHAPTER 6 S1

LOCATION OF SIGNALS
1.6. 1. Signal must be so located and aligned as to display the best possible view of their
aspects to the driver of approaching train and shall avoid as far as possible the possibility of
mistaking the aspect of one signal for the aspect of another, or confusion between the lights of
running signals and the lights of subsidiary signals or any other lights. Signals should be
normally on the left of or above the line to which they apply, unless there are special reasons to
the contrary. All signal arms must be fixed on the left-hand side of the post. The other important
considerations in locating the signals are that they should afford the required lighting distances
and it should be possible to work or operate them efficiently, and should not infringe the
schedule of dimensions. None of these considerations can be compromised. Signals should be
so designed, failure of which shall assume the most restrictive aspect. It shall be noted that the
adequate distances prescribed in these rules are minimum they may suitably be increased but
not decreased, unless authorised by special instructions.

1.6.2. LOCATION OF SIGNALS IN 2-ASPECT L.Q.SIGNALLING.

WARNER SIGNAL: a Warner signal may be placed either

(a) On a post by itself with a fixed green light by night 1.5 to 2 metres above it and shall be
located not less than. 1200 metres in rear of the first stop signal or Gate Stop Signal, unless
otherwise it is permitted by approved special instructions.

Or

(b) On the post, 1.5 to 2 metres below the arm of the outer signal.

Or

(c) On the post, 1.5 to 2 metres below the last stop signal of a station.

When placed below a stop signal the variable light of the stop signal shall take the place of fixed
green light of the Warner Signal, and the arrangement shall be such that the Warner cannot be
taken 'OFF' while the stop signal above it is 'ON'. The Warner signal must not be capable of
being taken 'OFF' for any line other than that over which highest speed is permitted, and it must
not be capable of being taken 'OFF, until the levers of all the relevant signals have been pulled.
Where it is necessary to provide unworked Warner Signal, it must be fixed at 'ON' position as
shown in Fig (d).

OUTER SIGNAL: In 2-aspect signalling where outer signal is provided, will be the first stop
signal of the station and shall be placed not less than 400 metres in rear of the point upto which
the line may be obstructed after the line clear has been given to the station in rear. On single
line there should be at least 580 metres between Outer and Home, so as to cater for BO and
SO i.e. (400 +
180m) where advance starter or SLB is provided for shunting facility in the face of an
approaching train.

HOME SIGNAL: The Home Signal shall be located in rear of all connections, and close to the
first set of facing points clear of lock bar, or the fouling mark (if the first point is trailing) so as to
protect the adjacent line. If it is found necessary to increase the distance between the signal
and the first facing point beyond 180 metres, other arrangements for route holding must be
made like lock retaining bar, with successive interlocking or track circuits or SM's route control.
ROUTING SIGNAL: A Routing Signal must be placed. in rear of the point, which it protects.

STARTER SIGNAL: The starter signal shall be placed at not less than 400 metres in advance
of the Home Signal. Where a starter signal is provided for each converging line, it shall be so
placed as to protect the adjacent running line or lines. Where only one starter is used for two or
more converging lines, it shall be placed outside the connections on the line to which it applies.

INTERMEDIATE STARTER: An Intermediate starter shall be placed in rear of the point or


fouling mark to which it protects.

ADVANCED STARTER: Unless approved under special instructions, an advance starter shall b
placed outside all connections on the line to which it applies. It shall be placed not less than 18
metres from the outermost point on single line. On double line this distance may be reckoned
from the starter if this is not adequate enough, may be from the outermost point or fouling point.

However in special cases where frequent shunting involving main line takes place, the advance
starter may be placed at a distance of full train length beyond the trailing points and the track
between starter and advance starter should be track circuited.

1.6.3. LOCATION OF SIGNALS IN MAUQ SIGNALLING:

DISTANT SIGNAL: On single line or double line, the distant signal shall be placed at an
adequate distance i.e. (NBD) in rear of the first stop signal of the station or gate stop signal,
which shall n be less than 1 km .

HOME SIGNAL: The Home signal is the first stop signal of the station normally placed at NBD
in rear of next stop signal and 180m in rear of the point upto which the line may be obstructed,
after the line clear has been given to the station in rear. To obtain maximum operational facility
on single line, shall be placed not less than 300m i.e. BO + SO (180m + 120m) in rear of the
first facing point if the facility of shunting in the face of an approaching train is desired, so that
BO is available between the Home and the opposite advance starter/SLB. Route holding is
achieved by providing Lock Retaining bar (LRB), or track circuit or SM's control (See Fig a.). On
double line the Home Signal may be located at a distance of BO (1 80m) in rear of the facing
point or BSLB (if first point in the approach is trailing or no point). Where two or more lines
diverge the signals shall be fixed on bracketed post, or gantry. The signal which refers to main
line shall be at higher level, than of the loop lines (see Fig b.).
FIG. 1.6.2. DESIGNATION AND LOCATION OF FIXED SIGNALS IN 2-ASPECT L.Q.
SIGNALLING
Fig : 1.6.3 DESIGNATION AND LOCATION OF FIXED SIGNALS IN MAUQ SIGNALLING
ROUTING SIGNAL: A routing signal must be placed just in rear of the points to which protects.
STARTER SIGNAL: Starter signals are usually placed in rear of the facing point or fouling ma of
the converging lines such that they should protect the adjacent running line or lines.

INTERMEDIATE STARTER: It shall be placed in rear of the point to which it protects.

ADVANCED STARTER: The advanced starter shall be placed outside all connections on the
line to which it applies, and shall not be less than 120 metres from the outermost point on single
line. On double line this distance may be reckoned from the starter. However, if this distance is
not adequate for working of trains may be reckoned from the outermost point or fouling mark
and in special cases upto a distance of full train length beyond the outermost point where
frequent shunting is involving the main line. In such cases the track between the starter and
advanced starter shall be track circuited

1.6.4. LOCATION OF SIGNALS IN (MLQ) MODIFIED LOWER QUADRANT SIGNALLING:


Modified lower quadrant signalling shall be provided only under special instruction issued by the
Railway Board. Nowadays it is not usually adopted. Where such signalling is permitted the
requirement of signals and their locations shall be as follows:

DISTANT SIGNAL: On single line or double line, the distant signal shall be placed at an
adequate distance in rear of the first stop signal which shall not be less than l km.

WARNER SIGNAL: It shall be placed on the same post as but 1.5 to 2 metres below the ma
Home Signal.

HOME SIGNAL: The Home Signal *shall be placed not less than 180m in rear of the point
upped which the line may be obstructed after the line clear has been given to the station in rear.

STARTER SIGNAL: It shall be placed on each converging line as to protect the adjacent line or
lines

ADVANCED STARTER: Placed outside all connections and not less than 120m from the
outermost points. If this distance is increased, the track between starter and advance starter
should be track circuited.

FIG.1.6.4. DESIGNATION AND LOCATIONS OF MLQ SIGNALS


Fig : 1.6.5
1.6.5. LOCATION OF SIGNALS IN COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALLING: The requirement of signals
and their locations in stations equipped with colour light signalling is same as it is for semaphore
signalling, whether 2-Aspect or Multiple Aspect. However when colour light signalling is to be
provided it is preferable to go for multiple aspect, because it is convenient and advantageous. In
the case of semaphore signalling the physical appearance of arm for permissive signal and stop
signal is different. Whereas in colour light, the signals look alike, to distinguish a permissive
signal from a stop signal a 'P' marker is provided on the post of a colour light Distant Signal. So
that the driver need not stop, and can pass this signal when it is found blank after seeing the 'P'
marker. Similarly providing separate Home signals on a bracketed post for each diverging line, a
common colour light stop signal with route indicators is used to indicate the driver as to which
route the line is set for him. Route indicator is provided only when the colour light signal is kept
common for more than one route for diverging lines and not provided for straight line and when
it is for one line. For example starter signals whether on loop line or main line are not provided
with route indicator since they are for only one line ahead (see Fig. 1.6.5).

1.6.6. COLOUR LIGHT SIGNAL IN AUTOMATIC BLOCK TERRITORIES: From the sequence
of aspects displayed by 3 aspect signals, as shown in figure 1.6.6, it would follow that NBD +
Reaction distance should be provided between a yellow and red. In the exceptional case where
NBD is not available, at least EBD should be provided. When in special cases distance between
two signals is less than NBD, the signal in rear is not permitted to display the green aspect. The
sequence of aspects in 4-aspect signalling is shown in figure 1.6.6.

It will be noted that in this case it would be sufficient if EBD + Reaction distance is provided
between double yellow and red. The double yellow aspect is being used not only to indicate a
turnout ahead of next signal but also where BD is not available between the next signal and the
signal in advance of the next.

It will be further noted that signals may be brought closer in 4-aspect signalling than what is
possible with 3-aspect signalling thereby reducing the headway between trains. Increasing the
number of aspects is, therefore, a method of increasing the capacity of a section.

Fig : 1.6.6
Fig : 1.6.6
CHAPTER 7 S1

SUBSIDIARY SIGNALS, REPEATERS, INDICATORS,


MARKERS & BACK LIGHTS
1.7. 1. In the previous chapters we have seen the signals authorising the drivers to enter the
station from a block section by the use of Reception Signals; and enter the block section from
the station by the use of Departure Signals. These signals were, therefore, being used for
"reception and despatch running trains. As per definition a "Running train" is a train which has
started under an authority to proceed and has not completed its journey whereas "a train" is an
engine with or without vehicles attached or self propelled vehicle with or without a trailer which
cannot be readily lifted off the track. The signals, which control the movement of trains within the
station section, are to be differentiated and convey different indication to the driver. These
signals are (a) Shunt signals and (b) Calling on Signals and are called "SUBSIDIARY
SIGNALS".

1.7.2. SUBSIDIARY SIGNALS: In addition to the reception and despatch of train from and to a
station some other movements of trains are required such as transfer of vehicles from one line
to another, attaching and despatching of vehicles to and from a train, to marshall a train so that
vehicles meant for the same destination are always in one line, etc. Such movements differ from
regular train moves in that the speeds are low as the movements are confined to a small area
and the line on which the movement is to be done may invariably be occupied by vehicles and
as such the driver has to exercise more caution. A running signal taken 'OFF' signifies that the
line on which the movement is to take place is clear whereas a shunt signal if taken 'OFF' may
authorise the driver to go past the signal at slow speed irrespective of whether the line is
occupied or not. These movements are also required to be controlled and 'NOT LEFT' to the
discretion of the driver. These movements can be carried out by the use of "Hand Signals"
exhibited by authorised persons to carry out the shunting. Where these movements are frequent
and regular then the use of separate signals called "Shunt Signals" have to be fixed. Naturally
the shunt signals are to be different from running signals as the information conveyed by them
when 'OFF' is different. Moreover, as the movement is done in a smaller area, the visibility of the
signal is not critical and low visibility is adequate. Also no pre-warning is necessary. Since
visibility required is less, smaller types of signals can be used compared to running signals.

1.7.3. SHUNT SIGNALS (GR 3.14):

i) Shunt signals authorise movement only at such slow speeds as to be able to stop short of any
obstruction and control shunting movements.

ii) Shunt signals can be placed on a separate post by itself close to the ground or can be placed
below a stop signal other than the first stop signal of a station.

iii) More than one shunt signal may be placed on the same post in which case the top-most
signal shall apply to the extreme left hand line and the second shunt signal from the top shall
apply to the next line from the left and so on.

iv) Shunt signal when taken 'OFF' authorises the driver to draw ahead with caution even though
the stop signal, if any, above it is at 'ON' position, and

v) The shunt signal shall be either

(a) Disc type shunt signal;

(b) Position Light Shunt Signals.


vi) Under special instructions, a shunt signal may be a miniature arm.

vii) When a Shunt Signal placed below a Stop Signal, it shall show no light in the "ON" position.

1.7.4. DISC TYPE SHUNT SIGNAL: Shunt signal of the 'Disc' type is a circular disc painted
white with red horizontal bar in the front and white with black bar in the rear. Disc type shunt
signal used in 2-aspect Lower Quadrant Signalling territory moves to the mid-position in the
Lower Quadrant when 'OFF' and moves to mid-position in the Upper Quadrant for the Multiple
aspect territory for the 'OFF' aspect. The night aspect in the LQ is 'RED' when 'ON' and Green
when 'OFF' and in the multiple aspect, it is 'RED' when 'ON' and yellow when 'OFF'. The disc
type shunt signal can also be placed below a Semaphore stop signal other than the first stop
signal in which case, the 'Red' indication in the 'ON' aspect (Red light) of the main signal will
prohibit the driver from passing the signal. However, the night aspect will continue to be Green if
the Shunt signal is taken 'OFF'. But, if shunt signal has to be located independently then the
problems arise. There is a view that a shunt signal is relevant only for a shunting train and not
for a running train. If so, a Red of an independent shunt signal does not mean anything to a
running train, and he can ignore it. But ignoring a Red aspect is bad in principle. So this is
overcome to some extent by doing away with red lights for shunt signals. The day and night
indications of the Disc type shunt signals is shown in Fig. 1. 7.4.

'ON'POSITION 'OFF'POSITION

IN TWO-ASPECT SIGNALLING

‘ON’ POSITION ‘OFF’ POSITION

ASPECT STOP PROCEED SLOW


INDICATION - STOP DEAD PROCEED WITH CAUTION FOR SHUNTING

Fig. 1.7.4 DISC TYPE SHUNT SIGNALS IN MULTIPLE ASPECT SIGNALLING


1.7.5. POSITION LIGHT SHUNT SIGNAL: A position light shunt signal provided generally in the
colour light signalling territory consists of a row of two white lights; one for the ON aspect and
one for the 'OFF' aspect. The position light shunt signal used in the 2-aspect lower quadrant or
multiple aspect Upper Quadrant is the same. Since this is also considered as a Colour Light
Signal the day and night aspect is the same. The two lights of the position light shunt signals will
be white. By day and by night, the lights of the position light shunt signal will be horizontal in the
'ON' position and 45 above horizontal in the 'OFF' Position. The aspects are shown in Fig. 1.7.5.

'ON’ POSITION 'OFF' POSITION

ASPECT STOP PROCEE SLOW-


INDICATION STOP DEAD PROCEED WITH CAUTION
FOR SHUNTING

Fig. 1.7.5. POSITION LIGHT SHUNT SIGNAL

1.7.6. MINIATURE SEMAPHORE ARM TYPE SHUNT SIGNAL: The semaphore arm of
miniature shunt signal is square ended. The front of the arm is painted Red with white bar and
the back of the arm is painted white with black bar. The day aspect is horizontal for 'ON'
position and lowered to mid position for 'OFF' position in the case of lower quadrant and raised
to 45 degrees above horizontal in the 'OFF' position in the case of upper quadrant. The showing
of 'Red' indication when the arm is horizontal constitutes the night 'ON' aspect, showing of
'Green' indication constitutes the night 'OFF' aspect for 2-aspect lower quadrant and showing of
'Yellow' indication constitutes the night 'OFF' aspect for multiple aspect signalling. The day and
night aspects of miniature semaphore shunt signals are shown in Figure 1.7.6. The provision of
miniature semaphore arm shunt signal is done only under special instructions.
'ON’ POSITION 'OFF' POSITION

ASPECT = STOP PROCEED SLOW


INDICATION = STOP DEAD PROCEED WITH CAUTION
FOR SHUNTING

Fig. 1.7.6. MINIATURE SEMAPHORE ARM TYPE SHUNT SIGNALS

1.7.7. SHUNTING MOVEMENTS AND SHUNT SIGNALS IN GENERAL: Shunt signals are
additional signalling equipment provided at stations where shunting movements are very
frequent and manual shunting is difficult to perform. Driver while busy in shunting movements
should not refer to running signals. The conditions for taking 'OFF' a shunt signal in an
interlocked station are the same as required for taking 'OFF' a running signal except that it does
not require signal overlap and isolation with another shunt movement due to slow speeds. A
shunt signal is generally not confined to one route/siding; it may read to any number of
diverging lines ahead to which it is accessible, with or without route indicators. It conflicts with
all running signals of the line to which the route of the shunt signal is set. Shunt signal is fixed
on a post closer to ground, as it does not require long range of visibility. On running lines where
starters and advanced starter are provided, the starters of the station can be used for shunting.
Where shunt signals are not provided, hand signals are used for shunting movements in such
stations.

SHUNTING PERMITTED INDICATOR:

At certain stations where uninterrupted shunting operation is required in both the directions (to-
and-fro towards the shunting neck or other connected lines), a Shunting Permitted Indicator
(SPI) may be provided. It is not a stop signal, but an indicator, which is operated by a ground
frame and works in conjunction with the stop signal such that either the SPI or the associated
stop signal can be taken off at a time. This is of two types:
1) Disc type: a black disc with yellow cross-painted on it.
2) Light type: Yellow cross light

Type When shunting is permitted When shunting is not permitted


Day Night Day Night
Disc type Black disc with yellow Yellow cross light Edge of the disc No light
cross painted on it
Light type Yellow cross light Yellow cross light No light No light

1.7.8 CALLING ON SIGNALS: A calling on signal is a subsidiary signal and has no independent
existence. It is provided below a stop signal governing the approach of A train. "CALLING ‘ON'
signal can be a miniature semaphore arm type or colour light type in two aspect or Multiple
aspect territory.

1.7.9. In the case of semaphore "Calling on" signal, it shall be miniature square ended arm
painted white with red bar in the front and painted white with black bar in the back. The bars are
parallel to the end of the arm. The Painting of a calling on signal with white is to distinguish it
from a shunt signal miniature arm. By day the arm must be (i) horizontal in the 'ON' position; (ii)
inclined downwards to the horizontal in the 'OFF' position in the 2-aspect signalling territory and
(iii) inclined upwards to the horizontal in the OFF position in the multiple aspect signalling
territory. By night the signal will display (i) no light in the ON position; (ii) a miniature yellow light
in the OFF position for 2-aspect lower quadrant; and (iii) a miniature yellow light in the OFF
position for multiple aspect territory [(Refer Fig. 1.7.9 (a) and (b)]. In the case of colour light
signalling a miniature yellow light with T' marker is used. Fig. 1.7.9 (c) and (d)

‘ON’ POSITION ‘OFF’ POSITION

DRIVER SHALL OBEY THE ASPECT OF INDICATION: STOP AND THEN DRAW
THE STOP SIGNAL. AHEAD WITH CAUTION AND BE
PREPARED TO STOP SHORT OF ANY
OBSTRUCTION

Fig. 1.7.9 (a) MINIATURE SEMAPHORE TYPE CALLING ON SIGNAL IN-2 ASPECT
SIGNALLING
TERRITORY
1.7.10. Calling on signals are used only for the specific purpose of indicating to the driver that
he is required to draw ahead when OFF and be prepared to stop short of any obstruction even
though the stop signal above it, is at ON. Calling on signals are taken OFF only after the train
has come to a stop. Calling on signals of the colour light type are provided with a marker plate
with letter 'C’. Under approved special instructions, a "calling on" signal may be provided below
any other stop signal except the last stop signal.

1.7.11. OTHER MISCELLANEOUS SIGNALS

CO-ACTING SIGNALS: All fixed. signals must have a minimum visibility to the driver of an
approaching train and it is also essential that the signal is continuously visible to the driver of an
approaching train. When it is not possible to get the minimum continuous visibility due to a foot-
over bridge or road-over bridge, or tunnel or any other partial obstructions, then co-acting
signals are required to be provided.

Co-acting signals are duplicate signals fixed below running signals on the same post; and are
provided where, in consequence of the obstruction as stated above, the main signal arm or light
is not in view of the approaching driver during the whole time the driver is approaching it.
Co-acting signals shall be fixed at such a height that either the main arm or light or the co-acting
arm or light is always visible. The main signal and the co-acting signal are rigidly connected and
they work together (Fig. 1.7.11).

Fig. 1.7.11. CO-ACTING SIGNALS

1.7.12. REPEATING SIGNALS: Normally any fixed signal shall be visible to the approaching
driver. However, due to the terrain of the land, a tunnel or bridge coming in between or any
other obstruction, then it may not be always possible to get a clear view of the signal from the
specified distance. To overcome this, repeating signals are provided, to repeat the condition of
the main fixed signal, at a place where the main signal is required to be sighted. The purpose of
repeating signal is to inform the driver of the approaching train about the aspects displayed by
the fixed signal in advance, which it repeats. A repeating signal shall be provided with a marker
'R' and shall be (a) a
square ended semaphore arm or (b) a banner type or (c) a colour light signal. Repeating signals
are required only for 2-aspect signalling. In the case of multiple aspect signalling, as every stop
signal is pre-warned, no repeater signal is necessary.

In the case of 2-aspect lower quadrant semaphore arm type, it is provided with a semaphore
arm square ended painted yellow with black bar in the front and painted white with black bar in
the rear. The horizontal position of the arm in the daytime and showing of a yellow light by night
constitute the ON aspect of the signal. The arm inclined to the lowered position in the daytime
and showing of the green light by night constitutes the OFF aspect. The banner type-repeating
signal is a disc, painted white with a rectangular bar painted yellow in the middle with black bars
on the top and bottom. The horizontal position is the ON position and an upward inclined
position is the OFF position. The banner type signal is not lit in the night. The aspect of the
colour light signal is yellow in the ON position and green in the OFF position. The details are
shown in the Fig. 1.7.12 (a), (b) and (c).

The semaphore arm type and Banner type repeaters are provided with marker plates with
letters 'R’ painted black on white disc and colour light repeaters are provided with 'R' marker
lights, which indicates to the approaching drivers that the main signal in advance is repeated by
the repeater signal. As can be seen the ON aspect of all type repeater signals is either yellow
arm or yellow light which is not a stop signal indication and the driver is required to draw ahead
upto the stop signal to which it repeats.

'ON’ POSITION 'OFF’ POSITION

(c) COLOUR LIGHT TYPE


INDICATION: SIGNAL WHICH IT SIGNAL WHICH IT
REPEATS IS AT 'ON' REPEATS IS AT 'OFF'
FIG. 1.7.12 REPEATING SIGNALS
1.7.13. DISTINGUISHING SIGNS: Sometimes the signals are provided with prescribed markers
to distinguish the signals. They will normally be fixed on the semaphore arm itself or in some
cases on the signal post below the signals as under

(a) SIGNS FIXED ON THE SEMAPHORE SIGNAL ARM:

i) Approach stop signals for goods running lines are provided with one black ring ‘O’ on
semaphore arm.
ii) Approach stop signals leading to Dock platforms are provided with letter 'D' in black on
semaphore arm.
iii) Any signal, permissive or stop or shunt signals, or colour light not in use are provided with
crossed bars on the semaphore arm. The details are shown in Fig. 1.7.13 (a).

APPEARANCE PROVIDED ON DESCRIPTION

Approach Stop One black ring on


signal for Goods semaphore arm
running lines only.

Approach Stop Letter 'D' in


black
signal for Dock on semaphore
arm
platform.

Signal not in use


Crossbars on an,

type of signal

(L.QX.QX.L,

Shunt etc.) such


signals shall not be lit.

Fig. 1.7.13 (a) DISTINGUISH SIGNS PROVIDED ON SEMAPHORE SIGNAL ARMS

b) MARKERS PROVIDED ON THE SIGNAIL POST:

i. Automatic stop signals of colour light type are provided with letter 'A' in black on white
circular disc to distinguish the signal as a full automatic signal.

ii. Semi-automatic stop signals of colour light type are provided with white illuminated letter
'A' against black background to distinguish the signal. when working as an automatic
signal.
Letter 'A' extinguishes when the signal is working as a manual signal.

iii. Colour light permissive signals on a post by itself are provided with letter 'P' in black on
white circular disc

iv. Gate stop signals are provided with letter 'G' in black on yellow circular disc.

v. Intermediate block stop signals are provided with letter 'IB' in black on white circular disc.

vi. Colour light calling on signals are provided with letter 'C' in black on white circular disc.

vii. Repeating signals of semaphore type are provided with letter 'R' in black on white circular
disc

viii. Repeating signals in colour light 2-aspect signalling territory are provided with white
illuminated letter 'R' against the black background. -

ix. Gate signals in Automatic Block territory are provided with a 'G' marker and a white
illuminated letter 'A' against black background. Letter 'A' shall be lit when the gate is
closed
and locked against the road traffic.

x. When a semi-automatic signal is to protect a level crossing gate and also points, the signal
may be provided with illuminated 'AG' marker in addition to the illuminated 'A' marker
(SEM 7.168.2 - 1988). Only one marker (either ‘A’ marker or ‘AG’ marker) can be lit at a
time. When the points protected by the signal are correctly set and the gate is also closed, ‘A’
marker shall be lit. If the points are correctly set but the gate is defective, then ‘AG’ marker
shall be lit. When both the markers are not lit, the signal shall be treated as manual stop
signal.
FIG. 1.7.13 (b) MARKERS PROVIDED ON SIGNAL POSTS
1.7.14. INDICATORS: Certain appliances are provided on the un-interlocked points to indicate
to the driver and Pointsman, whether the points are set for the straight line or for the diverging
line. These are called Point Indicators. Similarly, indicators are provided on the trap points to
indicate whether they are open or closed. These are called trap indicators. Point indicators/trap
indicators shall be provided at all points/traps on running lines, which are not interlocked with
signals unless the position of points/trap points is otherwise provided. The indicators must
display the same indication in both directions, whether the movement is in facing direction or in
trailing direction over the points. Point indicators and t ' rap indicators shall be of the target type.
They are provided with Day and Night indications are shown in Fig. 1.7.14 (a) and (b).

FIG. 1.7.14 (b) TARGET TYPE TRAP INDICATORS

1.7.15. ROUTE INDICATORS AND JUNCTION INDICATORS: We have already seen in the
previous chapter that home signals of semaphore type can be provided one for each line either
on a bracketed post or on a gantry. Similarly, for colour light signals, one signal can be provided
for each line on a bracketed post or on a gantry. The number of colour light signals, one for
each line can be replaced by one common signal with Route Indicators or Junction Indicators.
Junction Indicators will be lighted along with the common colour light signal for all diverted
routes only. For straight line only the main signal will go to the OFF position.

The Route Indicator can be a stencil type or multi-lamp type wherein the number of the line
made out for the driver is exhibited either as a letter M for Main Line, B for Branch, etc. or as a
numerical figure as shown in Fig.1.7.15 (a). Junction Indicators are also provided which shows
a row of lights one for each line or route as shown in Fig. 1. 7.15 (b).

Types of Route Indicators to be provided, shall be as under:


(a) Two aspect colour light signalling section - any route Indicator of approved design
(b) Multiple aspect colour light signalling section -
(i) For speed in excess of 15 Kmph - Direction (Junction) type route Indicator
(ii) For speeds not exceeding 15 Kmph - Any route Indicator of approved design

FIG 1.7.15 (b) JUNCTION INDICATORS - ROW OF LAMPS

(b) STARTER INDICATOR: At certain stations where colour light signalling is provided a Starter
Indicator may be provided to repeat the aspect of the starter as an aid to the Guard to
enable him to know the aspect of the starter. This indicator is fixed at a convenient place. It
should show no light when starter signal is 'ON' and show a yellow light when it is 'OFF'
(Ref. 7.42.4).

1.7.16. BOARDS:

(a) SHUNTING LIMIT BOARD: It is a board rectangular in shape with "Shunting Limit” painted
black at the bottom with a cross in black on a yellow background on the side facing the station.
The board is fixed on a post, which is painted with black and white bands alternatively as shown
in fig. 1.7.16 (a). The shunting limit board is fitted with a lamp showing a white light on both
directions to mark its position by night. This is provided on a single line class 'B' station where
shunting in the face of an approaching train is permitted. The shunting limit board shall be
placed at such a shunting distance from the outer most facing point as the local conditions may
require, and shall not be less than 400m or 180m from the opposing first stop signal in 2-aspect
or multiple aspect signalling respectively.

(b) BLOCK SECTION LIMIT BOARD: These boards are provided on Double line in Multiple
aspect signalling territory or modified lower quadrant territory to distinguish the limit of the block
section. It shall be provided at a station where there are no facing points or the outer most
points at the approaching end are trailing. It shall be placed at distance not less than 180m from
the Home Signal and protect the fouling mark of the trailing point if any in the approach. It is a
board rectangular in shape with the words 'Block Limit' painted in a black at the bottom of the
Board with a cross painted in black in a yellow background on the side which faces the station.
The board is fixed on a post, which painted with black and White bands alternatively. The black
section limit board is fitted with a lamp showing a white light in both directions to mark its
position by night. This is as shown in Fig. 1.7.16 (b).

(c) 'S' MARKER: An intermediate siding taking off in the facing direction in passenger running
line outside station limits is provided with a 'S' marker to indicate to the driver that a siding is
taking off from the main line. It is a circular board with letter 'S' painted in black on a yellow
background. The board is fixed on a post, which is painted with black and white bands
alternatively as shown in Fig. 1. 7.16 (c).

(d) WARNING BOARDS: Warning boards are provided in rear of the first stop signal of the
station for the purpose of giving the driver adequate warning that he is approaching a stop
signal. Two types of warning boards are provided, one for the passenger trains and one for the
goods trains.

i) The warning board for the passenger train is a rectangular board painted black with yellow
stripes diagonally painted. The board is fixed on the post, which is' also painted with black and
yellow bands alternately, as shown in Fig.1.7.16 (d) (i). To draw the attention of the driver in the
night, self-reflecting sheets or plastic reflectors of approved design are fixed. Passenger
warning boards shall be located not less than 1 km in rear of first stop signal. Where distant
signals are provided passenger warning board is dispensed with.

ii) The warning board for the goods train is also a rectangular board painted black with two
yellow bands horizontally painted one at the top and one at the bottom, with a circular target in
the centre painted yellow. The board is fixed on a post, which is painted with black and yellow
bands alternatively as shown in fig.1.7.16 (d) (ii). To draw the attention of the driver in the night
selfreflecting sheets plastic reflectors of approved design are fixed. This Warning Board shall be
located not less than 1.4 km in rear of the first stop signal. The distance may be increased
suitably on falling gradients on approach to stations.

(e) INDICATION BOARDS: Indication boards are provided to give warning to the driver about
change in type of signalling or of block working etc. The board will have suitable legend like
"Approaching unwarned stop signal "Entering Absolute block territory"
"Entering token territory" "Entering Automatic block territory"
FIG. 1.7.16. INDICATION BOARDS
1.7.17. BACKLIGHTS & REPEATERS: Obviously, the aspects displayed by signals which are
operated or controlled manually should be visible from the place of operation or control and in
the case of block stations worked under the Absolute Block System also from the place where
block instruments are located (SM's Office).

Signal arms, which are not so visible, by day, are electrically repeated in cabins and SMs offices
as required. An exception to this principle is the double wire worked signal controlled by a clutch
lever, because such signals may be depended upon to respond correctly to lever operation so
long as the transmission is intact and in case it is not, the clutch would trip as soon as wire
tensions become unequal and operate an indicator.

Mechanical signals, the front lights of which cannot be seen, by night, from the place of
operation of the place where block instruments are located are provided with white back lights.
The back light, which is an integral part of the signal lamp, is blanked out by a screen bearing
on the spindle when the arm is moved beyond 5 degrees from the 'ON' position. This 5 degrees
adjustment of the screen is of very great importance as the ON aspect is verified by presence of
the backlights.

Back lights and screen of signals whose front lights are visible from the place of operation and
the place where block instruments are located or which are provided with light repeaters should
be removed not only for reason of economy, but because the fall, the lights fall in the line of
sight of drivers of approaching trains.

The electrical arm repeater wherever provided, is so adjusted for 2 aspect signals, that the arm
is shown to be in the correct 'ON' position when it is between -5 degrees and +5 degrees, (OFF)
when between 40 degrees and 60 degrees and defective when in any other position. In the
case of MAUQ signals, the 'ON' aspect is indicated when the arm is between 0 degrees and 5
degrees and when it is between 40 degrees and 90 degrees the 'OFF' aspect is indicated. It is
assumed that there will be no ambiguity in the 45 degrees and 90 degrees aspects displayed by
NUUQ signals and since such signals are worked by Double Wire the assumption is not
unjustified. In cases where it is important to distinguish between 45 degrees ' and 90 degrees
aspects of NMUQ signals such as the Homes and the distants, from the point of view of efficient
operation the repeaters indicate the two aspects separately.

A combined circuit and indicator are used for both arm and light repeaters for economy. An
audible warning is provided for the light out condition.

It is neither practicable nor desirable to provide colour or position light signals with backlights.
All such signals, which have a manual control on them and cannot be seen from the place of
operation of the controls, are electrically repeated. The repeaters take the form of miniature light
units or are included in the circuits for the indication of a correct route line up in the case of relay
interlocking. Where indication locks are used on lever type controls to prevent a lever being
restored to the position corresponding to the aspect unless and until the correct aspect has
been assumed by the signal, repeaters would not be required.
CHAPTER 8 S1

OVERLAPS
1.8. 1, The length of track in advance of a stop signal, which should be kept clear before the
signal next in rear can be taken 'OFF' is known as the signal overlap.

In other words, to take off a stop signal, the portion of the track not only upto the next stop
signal but also for an adequate distance beyond it has to be kept clear. This adequate distance
is known as signal overlap. Fig. 1. 8. 1 (a)

Fig. 1. 8. 1 (a)

The overlap provided for last stop signals in Absolute Block territories is greater than for other
stop signals and this is referred to as the block overlap. Block overlap, then, is the extra length
of track in advance of the first stop signal of a next block station, which should be kept clear
before line clear can be given to the station in rear. (these overlaps are being referred to as
adequate distances in the General Rules, the term adequate distance also being used to denote
the breaking distance in another context). Fig. 1. 8. 1. (b).

Fig. 1.8.1 (b)

Every stop signal must have an overlap, although the rules prescribe overlaps only for home
and last stop signals in Absolute Block and every stop signal in automatic block. Overlap
distances are a function of the number of aspects, Overlaps decreasing as the number of
aspects increases.

In 2 aspect signalling the block and signal overlaps are respectively 400 m and 180 m. These
two Distances are arbitrarily fixed based on experience and do not depend on speeds, gauge or
gradients.
The overlaps are reduced to 180 m and 120 m respectively in MAUQ, MACL and MLQ
signalling in automatic block there is no block overlap and the signal overlap is 120m as in
MAUQ.

1.8.2. A reduction in the overlaps in multiple aspect signalling as compared with two aspect is a
rational development as it serves to increase section capacity and the efficiency of operation of
signals without sacrificing safety. It can be proved that by increasing the number of aspects, the
overlaps can be progressively reduced but this will only be of academic interest at the present
time. The fact that safety margin is not reduced by the reduction of overlaps in MAS is shown in
the figure 1.8.2.

(d) BLOCK OVERLAP IN MAS

Fig. 1.8.2 – OVERLAPS

Please see figures (c) and (d) showing the block overlap required in 2-aspect and MAUQ
systems. In case of (d) the aspect of the stop signal is pre-warned by the signal in rear. The
distance between the obstruction and the indication of the obstruction in the case (c) is NBD +
400 m and in case (d) NBD+180m. The margin of safety is in fact greater in (d). As in MAUQ the
first stop signal displaying the 'ON' aspect is approached at cautious speed, but in 2 aspect it
may be approached at full speed. It may be argued that the block overlap in 2 aspect can be
reduced where a separate warner is used and this would be correct provided the warner is
completely reliable. But, so long as Warner is operated by single wire without reverser, the
irregular operation of the warner cannot be ruled out. When the Warner is 'OFF'. in an irregular
manner, conditions then obtaining would be worse than in 2-aspect class W. The 2-aspect
warner is by no means a repeater of the first stop signal but an MA distant is. Figure (a) and (b)
show the signal overlaps of a 2-aspect and MAUQ systems respectively. In figure (a), the first
stop signal displays the clear aspect whether or not the next signal is 'ON'. The ability of a driver
to stop at B depends entirely on the sighting distance of B being adequate and the driver
obtaining a view of the aspect of this signal in time. In figure (b) B is repeated on A, and since A
is displaying 'Caution' speed is reduced at A and the driver approaches B at cautious speed,
prepared to stop at B.

In MLQ Block overlap is reduced because a distant similar to MAUQ distant is provided and this
will display caution when the first stop signal displays the stop aspect. S.O. for the main home is
reduced because the warner is located below it and the aspects of the two taken together
correspond with the aspects of a MAUQ home. When starter is 'ON', the warner displays
caution. S.O. for loop homes is reduced because the speed over turnouts is restricted to 15
KMPH, the route being set for the loop is indicated by a separate signal placed at some
distance in rear of the turnout; also, the distant is held at caution. Therefore, the driver reduces
speed to the extent necessary, even before the distant is passed.

By increasing the number of aspects, the overlaps can be reduced without sacrificing safety.
This is because (1) the speed can be continuously regulated by signals, (2) signal aspects are
repeated by the signal or signals in rear in a rational manner, and (3) safety becomes less and
less dependant on the uncertain factor of sighting distance.
CHAPTER 9 S1

BRAKING DISTANCE
1.9. 1. INTRODUCTION: The distance travelled by a train after its brakes are applied is known
as the braking distance, and this is an important concept in signalling for determining the signal
sighting distance. There are two methods of application of brakes:

(i) A normal or service application which involves only the shutting off of power (steam to the
cylinders or electric power to the motors as the case may be) and the gradual application of
brakes; and

(ii) An emergent application in which shutting off of power and full application of brakes are done
without any loss of time

Braking distance is a function of speed and other factors, such as the brake power available,
gradient, rollability of wheels, and the state of rails (wet or dry), curvature of track and velocity of
wind, etc., which cannot be established very accurately.

As the only accurate method of ascertaining the Braking distance is to conduct trials at each
location which is impracticable, all that can be done is to prepare curves from test data obtained
from isolated test runs or devise a formula based on experience & in different situations and
trains.

1.9.2. RDSO TRIALS: Trials conducted by RDSO indicate that the EBD for full load passenger
trains on level gradient at 100 KMPH is about 1200m.
CHAPTER 10 S1

SIGHTING DISTANCE & VISIBILITY OF SIGNALS


1.10.1. Sighting Distance is the distance over which the most restrictive aspect of a signal is
visible from the driving compartment of an approaching train under normal conditions of
visibility. It is an inviolable rule of signalling practice that every signal should afford at least the
minimum sighting distance required of it. The minimum sighting distance required should be the
distance necessary for obeying the most restrictive aspect of a signal.

1.10.2. Minimum Sighting Distance: Consideration will show that the minimum sighting
distances required of signals will be as follows: -

2-ASPECT SIGNALLING:

OUTERS (not pre-warned): Normal Braking Distance + Reaction distance, Reaction Distance is
the distance travelled at permissible speed during time taken by driver to react to the aspect of
a signal.

OUTERS (Pre-warned): As the `ON' aspect of outer is pre-warned, sighting distance of outer is
not important.

HOME SIGNALS: The Home Signals shall be continuously visible from Outer Signal.

MAIN LINE STARTERS: The Main Line Starter shall be continuously visible from Home
Signals.

ADVANCED STARTER: Advanced Starter shall be continuously visible from the Starter Signals.

Signals, which indicate the route, should afford a sighting distance, which is sufficient for the
driver to control his train in the event the route is occupied. This principle especially will apply to
lines, which are not provided with track circuits or Axle Counters.

When the operation of outer and homes is not completely reliable, it may happen that an outer
is irregularly off. An Outer, which is `OFF' when all corresponding homes are `ON' is regarded
as a defective signal and cannot be passed. This would mean that the homes should be visible
from a point of Normal Braking Distance (NBD) in rear of the Outer unless the methods adopted
for the operation of the signals are rendered completely reliable.

WARNERS: The Warner is not a Stop Signal and the most appropriate point at which action on
the indication of a Warner should commence is the signal itself. Therefore, so long as NBD is
available between a Warner and the next Stop Signal, the actual sighting distance of the Warner
is unimportant. But when this distance is less than NBD, theoretical considerations would
indicate that the actual distance between the Warner and the next Stop Signal plus Sighting
Distance (S.D) of Warner should not be less than NBD + Reaction Distance. It would not be
good practice, however, to rely too much on the S.D. of Warners and, therefore, the distance
between a Warner and the next stop signal should not be less than at least the emergency
braking distance + reaction distance.

MULTIPLE ASPECT SIGNALS:

DISTANCE SIGNALS: For distant signals, obviously, the same principle as for a two-aspect
Warner should apply.
STOP SIGNALS: For Stop Signals, as the aspect of each is pre-warned by the signal in rear, no
sighting distance would be required provided Braking Distance is available between signals
displaying yellow and the signal next in advance displaying red. In the event this distance is not
available, the signal in rear is provided with a double yellow aspect, so that the braking distance
is available between this signal i.e., the signal having double yellow aspect and the signal
displaying red. The Revised Signal Engineering Manual stipulates that the distance between
two stop signals shall not be less than 1 kilometre. Where the distance between 2 Stop signals
is less than 1 KM, the signal in rear should display a double yellow aspect.
ADVANCED STARTER: In the case of advanced starters, sighting distance is not important as
the aspect is pre-warned on the homes. Notwithstanding these considerations, it is the usual
practice to ensure that stop signals are visible from the signals immediately in rear of them, so
that in the event a signal changes its aspect when a train is approaching, the train may regulate
its speed suitably.
1.10.3. Automatic Block Signals: So long as NBD + Reaction Distance is available between
signals, the signals do not require any sighting distance. But should the distance between any
two signals be less than NBD but greater than EBD, each signal should be visible from a
distance greater than NBD minus the distance between the signal and the next signal in rear +
Reaction distance. Should the distance between two stop signals be less than 1 KM., the signal
in rear should be prevented from displaying the green aspect when the second stop signal in
advance is exhibiting Red aspect. It should instead display the double yellow aspect if 4 aspect
signals are provided. If only 3 aspect signals are provided, it should display only yellow aspect.
1.10.4 It should be evident that Sighting Distance is a far more important consideration in 2
aspect territories than in Multiple Aspect. But sighting distance is an uncertain factor as it
depends on weather conditions, types of background etc. The superiority of M.A. Signalling lies,
inter alia in the fact that when properly located, signals do not require long sighting distances.
The aspect of every signal is pre-warned by the signal in rear and action on the indication of an
aspect may commence at the signal itself and not at an undefined point. In the case of 2 aspect
signalling, safety is dependent entirely on the red aspect being observed at SD in rear, but as
this point (SD in rear of the signal) is not defined on the ground, the problem is rendered more
difficult.

1.10.5. Where a stop signal cannot be seen by the driver of an approaching train from the
location at which he can control the speed of the train, in case the stop signal is at `ON', a
repeating is usually provided.

This repeating signal is provided in rear of the stop signal, which it repeats. It is usually
installed at such a location as to provide an adequate distance to the driver to enable him to
stop his train in rear of the stop signal in case it is at `ON'.

The use of Warning boards placed at SD in rear of a 2-aspect stop signal is of considerable help
to drivers. Such warning boards are in use for first stop signal where speeds exceed 72 KMPH
in BG and 48 KMPH in MG and for gate signals in 2-aspect territories. A more liberal use of
warning boards will be of advantage in 2-aspect territories. The warning board is not, of course,
by any means a substitute for S.D. Where a signal does not afford the sighting distance
required of it, it should be shifted to a better location if possible or a speed restriction imposed
or the signal provided with a repeating signal or the need for SD eliminated by using another
system of aspects. It should be remembered in this connection that shifting a signal in the rear
direction might sometimes have an adverse effect on the track capacity. Further, the extra time
taken for piloting of trains in case of failures, render shifting of signals away from station
undesirable.

1.10.6. As per Signal Engineering Manual (1988), the visibility of the signals is prescribed as
under:
i) TWO ASPECT SIGNALS:

Outer Signal: 1200 Metres in sections where the sectional speed is 100 KMPH or above. 800
Metres where sectional speed is less than 100 KMPH. Where minimum visibility as above
cannot be achieved, Warner may be separated. With the Warner separated, the minimum
visibility of Outer shall not be less than 400 meters.
Other signals:
Warner on a post by itself : 400 Metres
Home Signal : 400 Metres
Main Starter Signal : 400 Metres
All Other Signals : 200 Metres

Where adequate visibility of stop signals cannot be provided, repeating or co-acting signals
shall be provided to ensure combined visibility. In case the combined visibility is less than the
distances prescribed above, speed restrictions shall be imposed.

ii) MULTIPLE ASPECT SIGNALS:

Distant Signal : 400 Metres


Inner Distant Signal : 200 Metres where this signal is provided.
All Stop Signals : 200 Metres

If it is not possible to ensure 200 Metres continuous visibility of any stop signal while
approaching it, a suitable speed restriction shall be imposed.
CHAPTER 11 S1

ISOLATION

1.11.1. The term `Isolation' denotes the condition in which a line for a particular movement is
separated from all adjoining lines connected to it in such a manner that the isolated line cannot
be fouled or interfered with by any movement taking place on the adjoining lines. Rules for
isolation are laid down in Chapter VIII, Part III of “Rules for the opening of a Railway or Section
of a Railway for the Public carriage of passengers”. Isolation is compulsory in the following
cases.
a. A line on which train movements at speeds higher than 50KMPH are permitted should be
isolated from all connected lines.

b. Passenger lines should be isolated from all connected goods lines and sidings, whatever the
speed may be.

c. The isolation of goods reception lines from sidings is considered desirable.

d. It is unnecessary to isolate one goods reception line from another or one passenger line from
another when dealing with speeds of 50KMPH and less.

In view of the huge expenditure involved in the provision of isolation, which is not regarded as
essential in several other countries, isolation, which is not required by the rules or is in
consistent with safety should be avoided.
To maintain safety in through running lines, points or trap & sidings should not be inserted in the
main or through line. The exceptions to this rule, which may be adopted after obtaining special
sanction of the CRS are:
(1) where other means cannot be adopted, to permit simultaneous reception of trains on single
line sections, (2) to avoid a train being brought to a stand at a stop signal on a rising gradient
with the possibility of the train being unable to restart, (3) to trap vehicles running away from a
station, and (4) to avoid a train entering from Block Section to the station due to heavy falling
gradient.

1.11.2. The provision of isolation does not apply to

i) running junctions, where two block section lines meet at the same end of a station equipped
with full complement of signals.
ii) stations where track circuits or other appliances have been provided to prove whether the
connected non-isolated lines are clear or occupied and the signalling shall be such that
distinctive aspect is given to the driver of run through train, restricting the speed to 50 KMPH
when the connected line is occupied.

iii) Catch sidings, and slip sidings, and sidings provided for isolation purpose only.
1.11.3. Means of Isolation:
Any one of the following methods of isolation may be adopted.

i) Connection to another line or siding (see figure (a))

ii) The provision of short dead and sidings (this siding should not be long enough to permit of
vehicles being stabled thereon) (see figure (b)).
iii) The provision of traps, viz., single or double derailing switches (see figure c&d).

The use of scotch blocks and Haye's derails are obsolete but existing installations are permitted
to remain. A scotch block is a triangular piece of metal placed on the running line and
padlocked in that position. For movements over the block it is lowered in the off side of the rail.
The action of the Scotch Block is not positive; cases of vehicles climbing the block and returning
to the rail have indeed occurred. It is not possible to operate Scotch Block which can be
connected to and worked from a lever frame and which if in good adjustment, can be depended
upon to derail a vehicle. It is important that wherever Haye's derails are in use, they are
lubricated periodically and maintained in good adjustment.

The single derailing switch commonly known as a trap is though inexpensive but dependable
derailing device. It is usually located with its heal in rear of the fouling mark, on the straight
portion of the track wherever possible and on the rail farther away from the line to be protected.
To guide derailed vehicles away from the line to be protected. It is usual to provide double
derailing switch with lead rails, but without crossing as shown in figure (d) or place a short
length of rail to serve as a guide as shown in fig. (e). The need for guiding derailed vehicles
becomes important when there is a possibility of their being pushed from some distance away.

Double derailing switches are sometimes used as traps to facilitate the use of standard facing
point layouts but following the design of a standard layout for single derailing switches; the case
for using a double derailing switch does not exist.

Traps, when located at signal overlaps should be closed before the corresponding signal is
taken off and similarly the points leading to short dead end sidings should be set against the
sidings and for the cross over. In cases where the short dead end siding has to be extended for
the purpose of stabling vehicles, the trap may be located at a distance of signal overlap (180m
or 120m as the case may be) away from the points leading to the main or through line and it is
ensured that before the signal for the admission of a train on to the running line is taken off, the
trap is set and locked against vehicles occupying the further part of the siding (see fig. (f)).

Sand humps when all other methods of isolation cannot be used GR 3.40 permits the use of
SAND HUMPS of approved design as a substitute for adequate distance. The length of siding
should be at least one rail length and the formation is made-up for a short distance beyond the
hump (See fig.g).

iv) Slip Sidings and Catch Sidings:

The gradient within the station yard has to be low in order to, that, the vehicles standing at the
station do not start moving automatically due to the effect of gravity. On Indian Railways for all
gauges the maximum gradient permitted is 1:400, whereas 1:1200 is usually allowed within the
station yard. No station yard should be constructed on a gradient steeper than 1:260 except
due to geographic condition where such a gradient cannot be avoided within the station yard,
previous sanction of Railway Board through CRS has to be obtained and special arrangements
like "Slip siding" has to be provided, where the gradient steeper than 1:100 falling away from the
station in its close neighbourhood. This is to prevent vehicles escaping from the station and
trying to enter into the next block section. Similar arrangements have also to be provided if the
gradient steeper than 1:80 falling towards the station. This arrangement is known as `catch
siding'. It is to trap vehicles coming uncontrolled from the block section and trying to enter into
the station."Slip siding" and `catch siding' points must be interlocked with the block instruments,
and such sidings should not be used for shunting or stabling purposes (see fig.h).
Fig.1.11.3 METHODS OF ISOLATION

CHAPTER 12 S1
SIMULTANEOUS RECEPTION AND DESPATCH OF TRAINS

1.12.1. In any interlocked yard, interlocking has to confirm to certain basic requirements. These
basic requirements are also referred as “Essentials of Interlocking” and are laid down in para
7.82 of Signal Engineering Manual – 1988. The essentials of interlocking are:
i. It shall not be possible to take off a running signal, unless all points including isolation
are correctly set, all facing points are locked and all interlocked level crossings are
closed and locked against public road for the line on which the train will travel, including
the overlap,
ii. After the signal has been taken off, it shall not be possible to move any points or lock on
the route, including overlap and isolation, nor to release any interlocked gates until the
signal is replaced to the on position,
iii. It shall not be possible to take off at the same time, any two fixed signals which can lead
to any conflicting movements and
iv. Where feasible points shall be so interlocked as to avoid any conflicting movement.

1.12.2. Taking off signals for more than one train at a time is detailed in GR 3.47. This para lays
down that when two or more trains are approaching simultaneously from any direction, the
signals for one train only shall be taken off, other necessary signals being kept at on, until the
train for which the signals have been taken off has come to a stand at the station, or has cleared
the station, and the signals so taken off for the said train have been put back to on. There is,
however, an exception permitted to this rule which lays down that where under special
instructions, the interlocking or layout of the yard renders it safe, signals for more than one train
may be taken off at the same time.

1.12.3. Taking off signals for different trains at the same time is called simultaneous reception of
trains. This will only be possible if for each and every one of the approaching trains, the line on
which the train is to be received is clear up to the point where the train is to come to a stand and
overlap distance in advance of it. On single line sections, track capacity will increase, if at all
crossing stations; the layout is such as to permit the simultaneous reception of two opposing
trains.

The rules recognise the use of a short sand hump siding (also known as snag dead end) (see
figure 1.11.3.g) in lieu the distance specified for the signal overlap. The points of the sand
hump siding when set for the sand hump would also serve as a good method of isolating the
adjacent connected line. Such sidings are more expensive, in first cost, and maintenance than
traps are therefore, used only when required for reception purposes.

Figure (a) shows a typical double line station. The two main lines are isolated by traps. Sand
hump sidings (as shown dotted) may replace traps at busy stations to facilitate reception on the
loop simultaneously, while a train is leaving from the main line in the same direction.

Figure (b) shows a typical layout of a single line station where simultaneous reception of trains
is permitted. It will be noted that the loops on which trains may be received simultaneously
shall be located on either side of the main line and the loops terminate at sand humps so that
any train may be received on any loop.

To economise on sand humps, some railways adopt the layout shown in Fig.`c'. But in this
case, only an UP train can be received on line B simultaneously with a Down train on line A.
Should the down train be a passenger train, platform will not be available for it. It would be
much more expensive to provide two platforms, one for each loop and a foot over-bridge in
comparison with two more sand hump sidings.
Simultaneous reception at a 2 line stations would involve the use of sand humps on the main
line as shown in Fig.d, but it is not desirable to place traps on fast lines.

Fig. 1.12.1. SIMULTANEOUS RECEPTION OF TRAINS


CHAPTER 13 S1

SYSTEMS OF WORKING
1.13.1. As explained earlier, the space interval system uses the block working wherein the entry
of trains into the block section is jointly controlled by the station masters at the entry and exit
points of the block sections. The driver is authorised to proceed with his train in to the section at
the entry point, either by a signal or by any other means under the system of working, after
ensuring that the section ahead is clear of all other trains.

1.13.2. For safe running of trains, different methods are adopted to control the train movement
between two given points, say between two stations, mainly to ensure that not more than one
train is permitted in to the block section at a time.

1.13.3. In Indian Railways, six systems of train working are adopted and they are:

(a) The Absolute Block System


(b) The Automatic Block System
(c) The Following Trains System
(d) The Pilot Guard System
(e) The Train Staff and Ticket System
(f) The One Train Only System

1.13.4. Out of the above six systems of train working, the Absolute Block System and the
Automatic Block System only shall be used, unless the adoption of other systems are especially
permitted by the Railway Board.

ABSOLUTE BLOCK SYSTEM:

1.13.5. The absolute block system is the most important system of train working for our study,
since it is the most widely used system on Indian Railways.

1.13.6. Para 8.01 of General Rules stipulates the essential requirements of the system as
under:

"Where trains are worked on the Absolute Block System.

a) no train shall be allowed to leave a block station unless Line clear has been received from
the block station in advance, and

b) On double lines, such line clear shall not be given unless the line is clear not only upto the
first stop signal at the block station at which such line clear is given but also for an adequate
distance beyond it.

c) On single lines, such Line Clear shall not be given unless the line is clear of trains running in
the same direction not only upto the first stop signal at the block station at which such Line
Clear is given but also for an adequate distance beyond it, and is clear of trains running in
the direction towards the block station to which such Line Clear is given.

1.13.7. The General Rule further states that the adequate distance referred above shall not be
less than 400 metres in case of 2 Aspect signalling and 180 metres in Multiple Aspect Upper
Quadrant Semaphore Signalling or Colour Light Signalling and modified lower quadrant
signalling. This is generally called the "Block Overlap" in signalling parlance. This distance can
be reduced in case of necessity but this can be done, only under "approved special instructions"
which means that sanction of Commissioner of Railway Safety is required to be obtained for
reduction in the adequate distance.

1.13.8. The sketch below will help us to study the essentials of Absolute Block Signalling as
mentioned above. For `B' to give Line Clear to `A' line must be clear of trains between `X` and
`Y'.

1.13.9. `A' and `B' are two block stations. Under the Absolute Block System controlling the
movements of train between `A' and `B' is such that, Station `A' can allow a train to leave his
station towards Station `B' only when the line clear is obtained from Station `B'. Station `B' is
supposed to give the "line clear" for a train to approach towards `B' only, when the whole block
section is clear of trains.

1.13.10. It can be seen from the above that a train despatched from Station `A' by obtaining line
clear from Station `B' can travel only upto 1st stop signal of B unless the Signal is taken `OFF'.
The Station Master at B shall ensure that once the line clear is granted portion ZY i.e. adequate
distance beyond the first stop signal (also generally referred to as Block Overlap) is in no way
obstructed. This in turn ensures that even if the approaching train overshoots the first stop
signal at `ON' due to any reason, the driver can still have this extra distance available for him to
control the train.

1.13.11. After allowing a train into the block section, the next train can be permitted to enter the
block section only when the previous train has cleared the block section and the adequate
distance ZY, therefore, if the rules governing the system are followed strictly the possibility of
collision between trains is completely eliminated. To make sure that the Station Masters on both
sides are able to follow the rules, provision of communication between stations under this
system is compulsory. An additional aids to Station Master, Block Instruments, Last Vehicle
Check Device etc., also may be provided according to the requirements.

1.13.12. The conditions for granting line clear are given in Chapter 8 of General Rules as
detailed below:

(a) Rule No.8.02: Conditions for granting Line Clear at Class `A' Station

(b) Rule No.8.03: Conditions for granting Line Clear at Class `B' Station

(c) Rule No.8.04: Conditions for granting Line Clear at Class `C' Station

1.13.13. In all the above cases, two most important points beside other things are stressed.
They are: -

(a) The whole of the last preceding train has arrived complete; and
(b) All necessary signals have been put back to `ON' behind the said train
1.13.14. The arrival of a complete train is checked either by physical verification (L.V.Board or
Tail Lamp) or by provision of a last vehicle check device or by having continuous track circuits in
the entire block section or by having Axle Counters in the Block section or by any other
approved means.

1.13.15. With regard to ensuring all necessary signals have been put back to `ON' after the
arrival of a train, these are proved by certain relays which ensure that the signals have been
restored to `ON' position before closing of the Block Instrument after the arrival of the train.

AUTOMATIC BLOCK SYSTEM

I. Automatic Block System On Double Line:

1.13.16. What is Automatic Block?

The main difference between absolute block and automatic block is that in the latter, space
intervals are secured automatically by the use of Track Circuits or Axle Counters while in the
former by human agencies in the form of 2 Station Masters located at the ends of a block
section.

1. 13.17 .The essentials of automatic block system are -

(a) The line shall be provided with Continuous Track Circuits or Axle Counters.

(b) The line between two stations may where required be divided into a series of section known
as "Automatic Block Signalling Section".

(c) Entry into each block signalling section is protected by a colour light Multiple Aspect Stop
Signal.

(d) Track Circuits or Axle Counters should controls the aspects of the Signal such that:

(i) It cannot display the `OFF' aspect unless the line is clear not only upto the next stop
signal but also for an adequate distance beyond it. Since the `OFF' aspect can be yellow,
double yellow or green, the `OFF' aspect of stop signal mentioned above can be only yellow
with the minimum clearance of one Block plus Overlap. The stop signal can exhibit green aspect
when the line is clear for 2 blocks and overlap in the one case of 3-aspect signalling or double
yellow in the case of 4-aspect signalling. The signal will go to green only when 3 blocks plus
one overlap are clear in the case of 4-aspect signalling (refer Fig.No.1.13.17).

(ii) The Signal is automatically replaced to `ON' soon after it is passed by a Train.

Note: Unless otherwise directed by approved special instructions, the adequate distance
referred above shall not be less than 120 meters.
Fig. 1.13.17. Automatic Change Of Sequence Of Aspect Behind The Train As It Passes

1.13.18. It should be obvious that any system, which complies with these requirements, is
deemed to be an Automatic Block System and worked accordingly.

Where 3-aspect signals are provided, the second yellow (provided on top) is dispensed with.

1.13.19. From the requirements, it should be clear that every running signal must be of the
multiple aspect colour light type, the red and yellow aspects being compulsory and others
optional. The aspects used are `RED', `YELLOW', `DOUBLE YELLOW' and `GREEN' and the
indications of these aspects are identical to the indication of corresponding night aspects of
multiple aspect signals used in the absolute block. The `Double Yellow' is used in the same
manner and for the same purpose as in multiple aspect signalling i.e. where a turnout is present
ahead of the stop signal in advance or the distance between the two consecutive stop signals in
advance is less than Braking Distance.

1.13.20. Signal will, however, carry only the aspects required; for instance, at a terminal it is
usual to use only the yellow and red, but each of the aspects always conveys the same
indication. If a signal unit consists only of green and red, the green will always mean proceed,
the next signal is `OFF' and if it should consist of the yellow and red, the Yellow will mean,
proceed with caution, preparing to stop at the stop signal next in advance.

1.13.21. The red is placed at Driver's eye level, the yellow above it, the green next above it and
the second yellow light above the green light. The two yellows are separated by the green to
provide a distinctive "Attention" aspect and the double yellow is chosen as the aspect less
restrictive than the single yellow, so that should any one of the two yellow lamps be fused, a
more restrictive aspect will result.

1.13.22. In accordance with the essentials, all running signals protecting the entry of trains into
automatic blocks should be replaced to `ON' automatically. Such signals must not display
`yellow' aspect unless the block and overlap in advance are clear, and double yellow (or green),
unless two blocks in advance and overlap are clear as proved by track circuits (see figure
1.13.17). Signals so controlled by track circuit or axle counter are known as Automatic Signals.

1.13.23. Where there is a choice of route or if required for any other special purpose, a manual
control is included in the circuits of the `OFF' aspects of signals, such signals may either behave
fully automatic signal or a manual stop signal, are called semi-automatic signals.

1.13.24. Signals in which the manual control of the proceed aspects is not always present i.e.
the manual control can be introduced or removed at will are known as "Semi-automatic
Signals", because they can be worked either as automatic signals or as Manual Signals.

1.13.25. As the aspect and indication of these three types of signals, viz., MANUAL,
AUTOMATIC and SEMI-AUTOMATIC are identical; it would be unnecessary to distinguish one
from the other under normal circumstances.

1.13.26 In the event of a failure, however, the procedure for passing the red aspect of a manual
signal must differ from the procedure for passing `RED' of an automatic signal. A written
authority or a pilot is required in the case of a manual signal, but in the case of an automatic
signal, not only is a person competent to issue this authority or pilot the train is not available or
even if he is available, he would, in no way be concerned with the operation of the signal and,
therefore, it would not be safe to rely on him. A special procedure which enables the driver to
pass the red aspect of an automatic signal when it has failed, under his own responsibility, has
been prescribed and, therefore, it is necessary for a driver to know whether the signal at which
he is held up is an automatic signal or not. For this purpose only, automatic signals are
provided with an `A' marker sign, letter `A' in Black on a white enamelled disc, signals with `A'
marker light in Semi-automatic signals which remains automatically lit during the period the
signal is working as an automatic signal. Signals with `A' marker lights which are unlit are
dealt with as Manual Signals.

1.13.27. Procedure for passing an automatic stop signal displaying the red aspect (on Double
line):

When an automatic stop signal with `A' marker is at `ON', the driver shall bring his train to stop
in rear of the signal. After the train has stopped he shall wait there for one minute by day and
two minutes by night. If after waiting for this period the signal continues to remain at ON, he
shall give a prescribed code of whistle and exchange signals with Guard and proceed slowly
exercising great caution so as to stop short of any obstruction. The `ON' position of an
automatic stop signal may be due to presence of a train in the automatic section ahead or due
to some obstruction on the track or broken/fracture of rail or any other cause. The train may
resume running only after passing the `OFF' aspect of the signal in advance.

1.13.28. As each signal is pre-warned, repeating signals are not required on automatic block
territories. Where the distance between two consecutive signals is so great that in the event
the signal in advance is in red, the train will be running on the yellow over a long distance, it
would be better to split this long block so that one or more stop signals are introduced in
between rather than repeat the signal in advance. The most appropriate location for the yellow
aspect is braking distance in rear of the red aspect in advance so that it not only warns the
driver that he is approaching a stop aspect but also indicates the place at which he must apply
the brakes.

1.13.29. Gate Signals:

Automatic Signals interlocked with level crossing gates are distinguished by the provision of `G'
marker yellow enamelled disc with a letter `G' in black, in addition to an illuminated `A' marker.
When a driver finds such a signal at `ON' he is permitted to pass it in the same manner as he
would and under the same procedure for an automatic signal displaying the red aspect,
provided the `A' marker light is lit. In such cases, it is essential that the 'A' marker light be lit
only if the gates are closed and locked against road traffic. In the event, the `A' Marker light is
extinguished, the driver is permitted to pass the signal after waiting for one minute by day and
two minutes by night, draw his train cautiously ahead and stop in rear of the crossing. After
ascertaining that the gates are locked against road traffic and on getting hand signal from the
gateman, the driver may then proceed cautiously upto the signal in advance.

1.13.30. Illuminated AG marker with illuminated `A' marker:

Automatic signals interlocked with level crossing gates and a point just ahead of gate are
distinguished by the provision of illuminated AG and illuminated `A' marker. When a driver finds
the signal at `ON', he is permitted to pass it with same manner as he would and under such
procedure for an automatic signal displaying the red aspect provided the `A' marker light is lit
whereas when he finds the signal at `ON', with `AG' marker is lit, he is permitted to pass it in
such manner as he would and under such procedure for an automatic signal displaying red
aspect with `G' marker below. If both the markers are not lit, the driver should treat this signal,
as an absolute stop signal, showing red aspect.

II. Automatic Block System On Single Line

1.13.31. Introduction:

The main object of introducing Automatic Block System on single line is to increase the section
capacity by reducing the `head way' between two consecutive trains moving in the same
direction.

1.13.32. This system is particularly suitable on single line section where the pattern of traffic is
such that trains follow one another in quick succession during certain parts of the day. Further
advantage can be had if Centralised Traffic Control is introduced in this section.

1.13.33. System:

In this system of working, the entire block section may, where required, be divided into two
or more automatic Block signalling sections each of which being controlled by a colour light stop
signal on both the directions. The movement of trains in the section is controlled by the stop
signals in the direction for which, direction of traffic is established, while the stop signals in the
opposite direction display `ON' aspect. This is to prevent movement of trains in opposite
direction at the same time. The entire block section is track circuited or provided with axle
counters.
1.13.34. Before despatching the first train of a series in any particular direction, the direction of
traffic for that particular direction is to be established by obtaining line clear from the station in
advance and for the following subsequent trains line clear need not be taken from other end.

1.13.35. To facilitate direction of traffic to be established and for the purpose of granting line
clear, one panel at each block station is provided generally.

1.13.36. Essentials Of Automatic Block System On Single Line:

Where trains on a single line are worked on the automatic block system -

(a) The line shall be provided with continuous track circuiting or axle counters.

(b) The direction of traffic shall be established only after line clear has been obtained from block
station in advance.
(c) A train shall be started from one block station to another only after the direction of traffic has
been established.

(d) It shall not be possible to obtain line clear, unless the line is clear, at the block station from
which line clear is obtained, not only upto the first stop signal but also for an adequate
distance beyond it.

(e) The line between two adjacent block stations may, where required, be divided into two or
more automatic block signalling sections by provision of stop signals.

(f) After the direction of traffic has been established, movement of trains into, through and out
of each automatic stop signalling section shall be controlled by the concerned Automatic
Stop Signal and the said Automatic Stop Signal shall not assume `OFF' position unless the
line is clear upto next Automatic Stop Signal, provided further that where the next stop signal
is a manual stop signal, the line is clear for an adequate distance beyond it, and

(g) All stop signals against the direction of traffic shall be at `ON'.

Unless otherwise directed by approved special instructions, the adequate distance referred to in
clause (d) and (f) of para 1.13.36 above shall not be less than 180 metres.

1.13.37. Minimum equipment of fixed signals in Automatic Block Territory on single line:
(a) Manual stop signals at a station: -
(i)A Home (ii) A starter

(b) An automatic stop signal in rear of the Home signal of the station.

1.13.38. Additional fixed signals in Automatic Block territory on single line:


(a) Besides the minimum equipment prescribed above, one or more additional Automatic Stop
Signals, as are considered necessary, in between block stations may be provided.

(b) In addition, such other fixed signals as may be necessary for the safe movement of trains
may be provided.

A typical layout is shown below:


Note:
`X' - Automatic Block Signalling Section
Direction of traffic last established in down direction

1.13.39. Description Of Panel:


A control Panel is provided at every station of the Automatic Signalling Section. Each station
controls all the movements of one adjacent section as given below:

Station A controls all movements between A & B


Station B controls all movements between B & C
Station C controls all movements between C & D
and so on.

The Figure No.1.13.39 shows a typical control panel. The control panel consists of two parts;
one part is termed as `Controlling side' and the other as `Controlled side'.
In the panel, the following switches and indications are provided:
(a) Illuminated arrows: Two arrows for each direction are provided on both sides of the panel.
Only the arrow corresponding to the direction of traffic established would be illuminated and the
other arrow will not be lit. White light appears when relevant block section is clear and changes
to Red when the block section is occupied or due to failure of track circuits/Axle Counters.

(c) Signal normal: (White indication): This is provided on either side of the panel. When
illuminated indicates that the signals of that side of the station are at `ON'

STATION `A'
(c) "Permission from . . . . . . .(Green indication): This is provided at the controlling side of the
panel only. When illuminated, indicates that the push button of controlled station in advance has
been pressed, permitting controlling station to establish direction of traffic towards "controlled
side" station.

(d) Direction switch: A two position switch is provided on the controlling side of the panel to
enable the controlling station to establish direction of traffic from station A to Station B or vice-
versa.

(e) SM's lock up key: This key when removed will keep the panel locked in the last operated
condition to prevent inadvertent or unauthorised operation of panel.

(f) Permission button: This is provided on the controlled side of the panel which when pressed
grants permission to controlling station to establish direction of traffic from controlling station A
to the controlled station B.

(g) Emergency Push Button: Two push buttons are provided: one on the "controlled half" and
the other on the "controlling half" of the panel. When it becomes necessary to change the
direction of traffic under track circuit/axle counter failure, the button pertaining to that section
shall be pressed at controlling station is turned to the required position, for permitting a
movement in emergencies.

(h) Counters: Each operation of emergency push button registers next higher digit on the digital
counter of the respective half of the panel.

1.13.40. Establishing of direction of traffic movement:

Let us take a case of stations A and B on a single line section provided with Automatic
Signalling

and let us assume that station A is the controlling station for any movement of train between
A&B.

Station `A': Controls all movements between `A' & `B'

Station `B': Controls all movements between `B' & `C' and so on.

1.13.41. Let us assume that the direction switch at Station `A' is in "UP" direction by a previous
operation, the "UP" arrow is illuminated white (which means that the Block Section AB is clear)
and Station `A' has a train to despatch.

1.13.42. Station `B' will press the push button provided on the `controlled side'. This will cause
lighting up of a `green' indication in the panel at `A' signifying the receipt of "Permission" to
despatch a train to Station `B' from Station `A'. After getting this green indication, the SM at
Station `A' will turn the direction switch to "DOWN" and establish the direction of traffic. This will
cause the "DOWN" arrows at both the stations to be lit to white and extinguish the light of the
`UP' direction arrows at both the stations. The white indication of `DOWN' arrows will turn to red
when the trains enter the section.
1.13.43. For despatching an UP train from Station B to Station A all that the SM at the
controlling station A has to do is to turn the `Direction Switch' to the `UP' position provided the
whole section is clear of train. This will cause the `UP' arrows at both the stations of the
controlled section to be lit white, extinguishing the white lights of "DOWN" arrows. The white
lights of the "UP" arrows will turn to `Red' when the train enters the section.

1.13.44 Rules for passing the Automatic Stop Signal at `ON': (On single line)

(a) When a Driver finds an Automatic Stop Signal with an `A' marker at `ON', he shall bring his
train to a stop in rear of that signal and wait there for one minute by day and two minutes by
night.

(b) If after waiting for this period the signal continues to remain at `ON', and if telephone
communication is provided near the signal, the Driver shall contact the Station Master of the
next block station or the Centralised Traffic Control Operator of the section where Centralised
Traffic Control is provided, and obtain his instructions. The Station Master or the Centralised
Traffic Control Operator, as the case may be, shall, after ascertaining that there is no train
ahead upto the next signal and that it is otherwise safe for the Driver to proceed so far as is
known, give permission to the Driver to pass the signal in the `ON' position and proceed upto
the next signal, as may be provided under special instructions.

(c) If no telephone communication is provided near the signal or if the telephone communication
provided near the signal is out of order and cannot be made use of, the Driver shall give the
prescribed code of whistle and exchange signals with the Guard and then proceed past the
signal as far as the line is clear, upto the next Stop Signal in advance, exercising great caution
so as to stop short of any obstruction.
CHAPTER 14 S1

CLASSIFICATION OF STATIONS - COMPARISON OF A, B & C


1.14.1. For the purpose of rules, stations in absolute block system are classified as shown
below.

CLASS `A' STATIONS: Where line clear may not be given for a train, unless the line on which it
is intended to receive the train is clear for atleast 400 metres beyond the Home Signal, or upto
the starter.

CLASS `B' STATIONS: Where line clear may be given for a train before the line has been clear
for the reception of the train within the station section.

CLASS `C' STATIONS OR BLOCK HUTS: Where permission to approach may not be given for
a train unless the whole of the last proceeding train has passed complete at least 400 metres
beyond the Home Signal and is continuing its journey. This will also include an Intermediate
Block Post.

1.14.2. As the classification is laid upon the minimum signalling equipment provided, in each
direction for class of stations are shown below. Stations in automatic block territories are not
classified, as from the point of view of the operation of trains, the stations as such have no
significance.

Class of Station Minimum Additional Equipment


Equipment
A. Two Aspect Signalling:
1) A Warner, Home, Or under approved special instructions an outer, Warner
Starters behind outer and starter
2) B- Single Outer, Home Warner if trains run through at speeds exceeding 50
Line kmph without stopping. Advanced starter or SLB where
shunting in the face of an approaching train is required.
3) B- Double Outer, Home and Warner if trains run through at speeds exceeding 50
Line Starters kmph without stopping.
4) C Warner, Home
5) D (These are non- block stations)
B. Multiple Aspect Signalling:
6) B Distant, Home, Advanced Starter or SLB on single line where shunting in
Starters the face of an approaching train is required. Starters on
double line.
Block section limit board where there are no points or
outermost point at the approach end is in trailing direction
on double line.
7) C Distant, Home

Class of Station Minimum Equipment Additional Equipment


C. Modified Lower Quadrant:
Distant, Home, Warner MLQ Signalling may be used only where it is
8) B below main Home & expressly sanctioned by a special order of the Rail
Starters Board
9) C Distant & Home
1.14.3. On the double line, starter signals are included in the minimum equipment for A & B
class as entry into the next block section is controlled by signal indications alone without the use
of a tangible authority in the form of a tablet, token, etc. Warners are provided for high-speed
operation to indicate the run-through condition and to provide the means for adequate
interlocking. Starter signals are not used in `C' class working because trains are not booked to
stop at such stations.

In all those types of stations, before permission to approach is given, the line must be clear upto
the first stop signal and the block overlap beyond it and before a signal is taken off, it should be
ensured that the line is clear upto the next stop signal and the signal overlap is reckoned from
the trailing points (GR.38) and often from the opposing home which provides a more convenient
point of reference to staff.

COMPARISION OF CLASS A, B AND C STATIONS WITH MAUQ & MLQ OPERATION

1.14.4. Class A & B Stations:


In class `A' operation, the block section extends from the last stop signal of one station to the
home signal of the next and the block overlap from the home to the starter signal. On normal
single line layouts, therefore, shunting in the face of an approaching train cannot be performed
and when two trains are approaching the station simultaneously from opposite directions the
first train as well as the second in most cases will have to be stopped at the home, unless
separate signal overlaps are available. Hence, class `A' working is adopted on the single line
only for special reasons such as for instance (1) trains cannot be stopped at the first signal
because of rising gradients or (2) the sighting distance of the first signal would be inadequate if
it was a stop signal. In such cases, loops terminating on snag dead ends are provided on
either side of the main line so that independent signal overlaps for the homes are available for
the direct reception of two opposing trains, one on each of the two loops.

On the double line, the only advantage of class `B' over `A' operation is that more trains can be
dealt with on a given section. In Class `B' there can be at a given time, one train on each
reception line of the station and one train in each block section, but in class `A' if all reception
lines are occupied there cannot be any trains in block section. This disadvantage can be
overcome by providing one more loop at each station or by berthing a train at the advanced
starter or by locating the home at Block overlap in rear of nearest fouling mark. From the
safety point of view, class `A' is to be definitely preferred especially on high-speed heavy density
sections.

Safety in class `B' operation is too much dependent upon the sighting distance of the outer
which is an uncertain factor and the correct operation of outers and homes which are difficult to
ensure with single wire operation. The point beyond which the line may be obstructed, after
permission to approach is given, is protected by 2 stop signals in the case of class `A' but by
only one in the case of class `B' station where shunting in the face of an approaching trains is
permitted. It may be argued that by separating the Warner from the outer and placing it at NBD
in rear of the outer, the margin of safety can be increased and there is no denying this
argument. But by so doing section capacity is reduced as the Warner at ON may mean stop on
main, or "run through over loop", and the driver on seeing the Warner at ON at once reduce
speed and be prepared to stop at the outer. As the aspect of separate warners can be picked
up when approaching trains are between 2 to 3KM away from the stations, the loss of capacity
will be considerable.

From the point of view of speed class `A' is better as there is no outer at which a train may be
detained and drivers can approach such stations with more confidence than they do stations
with an unwarned outer.

1.14.5. From the above para 1.14.4 the comparison of class `A' and class `B' of 2-Aspect
signalling is as follows:
Class ‘A’ Class ‘B’
1. Class `A' stations are only in 2-Aspect in Class `B' stations can be in 2-Aspect or Multiple
signalling. Aspect.
2. Provided under special circumstances like Normally most of the stations are Class ‘B’
a) Sighting distance is not adequate
b) Due to steep rising gradient in approach
c) Presence of long Bridge in approach.
3. There is no station section There is station section.
4. Shunting in the face of approaching train is Shunting in the face of approaching train is
not possible. possible within station section.
5. Line Clear cannot be granted No such problem for granting line clear.
simultaneously for trains from either side,
unless special arrangements like separate
overlap for each reception line is provided.
6. If all reception lines are occupied, these can No such problem more trains can be dealt with.
be no train in the block sections. Unless
train is drawn ahead between starter &
advanced starter on double line.
7. Obstruction is protected by two stop signals, Obstruction is protected by one stop signal,
so more safe. safety depends on sighting distance.
8. Driver is approaching with more confidence Driver is approaching with less confidence, if
as FSS is prewarned. adequate sighting distance is not available, so
takes more time to clear the block section.

1.14.6. Class `C' Stations:

Class `C' working is mainly intended to serve the purpose of splitting double line block sections
in an economical manner, such stations are employed on the single line either for a special
purpose or where there is a pre-ponderence of traffic in one direction over long periods of the
day such as, for instance, near terminals. It should be remembered that the only stop signal
available is the home and when a train is held up at the home, a stop signal is not available to
protect the train. It is for this reason that trains cannot be booked to stop at such stations and
the stations should not normally be provided with a loop or siding class `C' stations are usually
so located that the time taken to clear the section on either side of it is nearly the same. When
permission to approach is given soon after train has been dealt with, it is not enough if the line
is clear upto the home and block overlap beyond it; it should also be ensured that the last
preceding train is continuing its journey. This additional precaution is taken because the limit of
block overlap is not defined by a signal as in the case of A&B and class `C' stations, not having
loops cannot deal with more than one train at a time.

1.14.7. Multiple Aspect Signalling (M A S) :


MAS combines the advantages of Class A & B working. As there is station section between the
two advanced starters or SLBs shunting may be permitted in the face of approaching trains.
There is a separate distant signal which not merely repeats the home but also distinguishes
between reception on the main line, reception on the loop and stop at home. When a train is
being received on the main, it may run at normal speed upto the home, as BD is available
between the home and the starter. When a train is to be received on the loop, the speed is
reduced, just before passing the distant, to the extent necessary for taking the loop at 15KMPH.
When a train is to be stopped at the home, it has its brakes applied again at the most
appropriate point viz. BD in rear of the train. It is thus possible to control the speed of trains
within the station limits in such a manner that unnecessary speed reductions are avoided. The
resulting increase in capacity as compared with class A & B will be considerable on sections
which are near the saturation point.
The reduction in overlaps enables quicker crossings. In Class `B' the opposing starter is at a
distance of 580m + length of cross overs from the outer while in MAS, this distance can be
reduced to 300m+length of cross overs. The loss of time at class `B' stations on this account
would again be considerable when a whole section is considered. The use of a distant and the
location of the first stop signal closer to the facing points than the location of an outer allows
more time for obtaining permission to approach for a second train which is to run through the
station after the arrival of the first train in the opposite direction.

From the safety and speed points of view, MAS, is superior to both class A & B. In MAS, signals
repeat the signals in advance and when correctly located, eliminate the problem of sighting
distances, repeating signals, etc. Thus when a fast train is approaching a distant, the driver is
spared from the strain of picking up the aspect of the signal from a distance. When he is close
to it, he would pick up the aspect of the signal comfortably; if it is at 90 degrees he proceeds at
normal speed, if it is at 45 degrees he knows, he will be entering a loop and begins to reduce
speeds, if it is at 0 degrees, he has to stop at the home and therefore makes a normal brake
application. When he is close to the home, if the main home is at 45 degrees, he makes a
normal brake application to stop at the starting.

It is the policy, therefore, to provide MAS signalling on all main line sections.

1.14.8 MLQ: MLQ provides the same operational advantages as MAS except that it does not
distinguish between reception on the loop and stop at the home. From the safety point of view,
however, it is inferior to MAS, as the indication of the green aspect on the distant signals and
the Warner are widely different.
CHAPTER 15 S1

STANDARDS OF INTERLOCKING
Obviously in the interests of safety, train speeds should depend upon the Signal &
Telecommunication equipment provided. Four standards of interlocking are actually prescribed.

Zero Uninterlocked for speeds up to 15 km.p.h.


One Standard I for speeds upto 50 km.p.h
Two Standard II for speeds upto 75 km.p.h
Three Standard III for unrestricted speed.

The term unrestricted speed may not be taken literally. It is being increasingly realised that an
unwarned first stop signal should not be employed in high-speed sections. Generally speaking,
two aspect system in which safety is dependent on sighting distances of signals, is not
conducive either to efficiency or safety of operation because the sighting distances required
would become too long.

The minimum equipment prescribed is based on considerations of safety alone. Thus a large
station at which all trains stop may well be left uninterlocked. But since considerable delays to
train movements would occur and number of operating staff required would be large, it is usual
to interlock such stations. In fact from the points of view of efficiency and staff economy, it
would be best to work all points from a central location. The complement of signals and the
number of aspects provided should again conform to the requirements of operation and safety,
subject to the minimum equipments prescribed for each standard: -.

Minimum Un- interlocked Standard I Standard II Standard III


Equipment (15 KMPH) (50 KMPH) (75 KMPH) (unrestricted
speed)
I Points
1) How Gauge is A Gauge tie plate where steel sleepers are not provided
maintained
2) How Operated From a Frame
May be worked locally where Point &
Signal levers are
grouped.
3) How Locked Bolt & Cotter A key lock of A Plunger type of A plunger type of
fitted to each approved type FPL locking each FPL worked from
switch rail and locking each switch indepen- the frame
padlocked or switch dently, which may
clamp to hold independently* be hand
switches and (in most operated.
padlock to lock installations the
them in position. type of lock
prescribed for
Standard II is
used)
4) How switches No special An arrangement in which a key is Lock bar/ or TC or
are prevented arrangements used to release signals which cannot such other
from being be brought back to the points until means.
unlocked under a signals have been replaced to ‘ON’.
train.
5) Switch Not required A means for detecting each switch
detection independently should be provided **
6) Lock detection Not required Not required Yes, if plunger is
hand operated or
is of the economi-
cal type.
II. ISOLATION
1) Isolation of Not required Not required Required Required
main line
2) Isolation of Required Required Required Required
passenger lines
from good lines &
sidings

Note:

* Although the two switches of a turnout are invariably coupled by at least two stretchers &
operated together, wherever a lock is provided, each switch is to be locked independently to
safeguard against the possibility of both stretchers being broken at the same time.

** For the same reason and in order to ensure that the switches are not bent or broken,
detectors, where provided, also detect each switch separately and independently.

Minimum Class of Uninterlocked Standard I Standard II Standard III


Equipment working (15 KMPH) (50 KMPH) (75 KMPH) (unrestricted
speed)
III. Signals:
Two Aspect A (Not usually Warner,
adopted) {see Home,
Discussions} Starters.
Two Aspect B Outer & Outer & Outer Outer
Common Bracketted Bracketted bracketted
home (the home Warner home Warner Home, Warner
home may be in MG only if should and Starters
omitted if considered interlock with
traffic is very necessary block
light) Starters are instruments if
optional starters not
provided
Two Aspect C (Not usually Warner &
adopted) Home
MAUQ & B Distant Home Distant Home Distant Home Distant Home
MACLS & Starter & Starter
MAUQ & C (Not usually Distant Home
MACLS adopted)
MLQ (Not Distant
prescribed) bracketted
Homes,
Starter,
Warner below
main Home
IV Grouping Not required Signal levers Point & Signal
of Levers should be levers should
grouped & key be grouped.
provided to
enable SM to
lock up frame
V NIL Indirect by Indirect Direct
Interlocking means of key interlocking between
locks. Warner should be points &
should extended to signals &
interlock all trailing where there
trailing points. points direct are different
Direct locking locking locations SMs
between between supervisory
signal levers. signal levers control should
or as be provided.
prescribed for
Std. III

NOTE:

1) Common Homes may be used for contiguous loop lines if TCs are provided to prove that
route set is clear or for a group of goods loop lines.

2) Minimum equipment of signal for MAUQ uninterlocked is not prescribed; hence, the same
equipment as for Standard I. In this case, the distant should not carry the green aspect.

3) In case of Standard I interlocking, on sections with light traffic, Outer Signal may be
operated from a separate location near the facing points. But arrangements should be
provided to ensure that outer signal cannot be taken OFF unless the Home Signal is taken
OFF.

4) For speeds above 72 KMPH on broad gauge and 48 KMPH on meter gauge, a warning
board should be provided at full breaking distance, not less than 1 KM in rear of the 1st stop
signal. The Passenger Warning Board at 1 KM need not be provided where the first stop
signal is preceded by a Permissive Warner/Distant Signal, if the distance between the
Permissive Warner/Distant Signal and stop signal is 1 KM or more.

5) Where sectional speed is 120 KMPH or above, two distant signals shall be provided. In such
cases, these signals are called ‘DISTANT’ and ‘INNER DISTANT’ signal respectively.

6) Unrestricted speed may be allowed over indirectly interlocked siding points taking off from
the main line within the station limits where

(i) The equipment provided at the points is in accordance with the requirement of the speed
over 75 KMPH (Para 144 of IRSE Manual).

(ii) A control for operation of points is transmitted through `E' type of key transmitters
manufactured as per IRS design or lever lock and circuit controllers.

(iii) A control for operation of points is transmitted in conjunction with electrically speaking
instruments and special instructions have been laid down for the operation of points.

(iv) Route holding is provided to ensure the integrity of the points till the signalled movement
over the same is completed.

DISCUSSION:
It will be noted that the main difference between standards I and II is that isolation is not
required in Standard.I. Starter signals are compulsory in Standard III, as they are required for
high-speed operation. Standard I and II are not usually employed on the double line, where train
densities are usually high. But should they be used on the double line, starter signals should be
used, as the general rules requires that starter signals cannot be dispensed with on the double
line except in the case of ‘C’ class stations. The main difference between Standard II and III is
that the latter does not permit indirect locking with keys between points and signals and
compels the use of starter signals. The view that indirect locking with keys is less safe than
direct locking is not correct, except that it does not permit higher speed.

There cannot be an uninterlocked `A' class station as the use of Warners is prohibited in
uninterlocked working (and also Standard I on the B.G.). The reason for permitting a Warner in
MG Standard I and not in BG Standard I, perhaps is that the maximum permissible speed in MG
is 75 KMPH which is close to the Standard I speed of 50 KMPH, while in BG. it is 110 KMPH
which is more than double the Standard I speed permitted. The Warner is regarded as a high-
speed signal and is not used for comparatively low speeds or where speeds are restricted.
However, since there is no other method of indicating the run through condition, the use of
Warners in Standard I BG is being authorised in some individual cases. A better solution of
course is to provided isolation and adopt standard II instead of Standard I in BG.

It will be noted that in Standard I, the Home Signal need not be interlocked with trailing points,
but this interlocking is essential in Standard II. In Standard I, therefore, when two opposite
trains are approaching a single line station at which the two trains cannot be received
simultaneously, it is usually to set the Up facing points for the Up train and Dn facing points for
the Dn train, take off signals for the first train first and then immediately after second train.
Under such circumstances, trailing points incorrectly set are not deemed to be an obstruction in
so far as the overlap for the home is concerned. Under similar conditions, in case of Standard
II, the second train would be considerably delayed, as prior to signals being taken off for its
reception; (1) the signals for the first train must be replaced to On, (2) the point keys carried
from the platform frame to the points at both ends of the yard. (3) Both near and far endpoints
reset and locked and (4) point keys again carried to the frame.

Large stations where main line isolation is not provided because all trains stop, but which may
comply with Std.III requirements in all other respects should be classified Standard.I.

CHAPTER 16
CONSIDERATIONS, INVOLVED IN THE OPERATION OF POINTS
Points, which are used to divert trains from one line to the other, will become a source of danger
unless adequate precautions are taken, points are said to be facing when they are approached
from the toe end.

Points should be correctly set for trailing movements, but even if they are not, the probability of
an accident to a train is remote, but the points themselves will certainly be damaged. Points are
said to be trailed through or burst when a movement in the trailing direction takes place with the
points incorrectly set. The points are then unsafe for facing movements until repaired (these
remarks do not apply to trailable points).

Even a casual study of points will indicate that for movements in the facing direction more
precautions should be taken. The points should be correctly set, i.e., the closed switch should
be housed correctly against the stock rail and the open switch should be well clear of the
corresponding stock rail. A large gap between the closed switch and its stock rail or an
insufficient clearance between the open switch and its stock rail will cause a serious accident to
the train. The switches should be held in position by an external force, and/or a lock, if not, the
vibrations set up by the movement of trains over them may cause the closed switch to open or
the open switch to close. The points should be prevented from becoming unlocked during the
passage of a train.

Points must be so located that movements over them shall be within view of the cabin or other
location from which they are worked, unless an approved alternative for direct vision by cabin
man, e.g., electric indication, is provided.

The distance at which points may be worked by rodding is stipulated in section 2 of chapter VIII
of “Rules for opening a railway” and must not exceed 320m except where the stroke at the lever
tail is not less than 200 mm in which case the above distance may be increased to 460m. These
distances are also indicated in SEM-1988 para 7.61. Unless otherwise permitted under
approved special instruction, rodding must be used throughout for the mechanical working of
points and also for bolting them when required.

The correct setting of switches should be proved or detected before a signal can be taken off for
a movement in the facing direction. This is performed either by the signal wire (or wires) itself or
by a separate wire (or wires) operated by an independent lever in the case of mechanical
signalling and by electrical detection in the case of power signalling. In India the two switches
are coupled together by at least two flexible stretcher bars to flex equally in the normal and
reverse positions.

It is important that gauge at all points and crossings are correct. A metal gauge tie plate is used
for this purpose where the points are laid on wooden sleepers.

The maximum gap permitted between the closed switch and the stock rail is 5mm, but it is usual
to ensure that the points cannot be locked or detected with a 3.25mm obstruction, placed 150
mm (six inches) from the toe, between the switch and stock. The switches are coupled together
and, therefore, the detector checks only the independent movement of each of the two switches
over the correct stroke of 115 mm in Broad Gauge and 100 mm in Metre Gauge. But so long
as the gauge is correct, it will mean that the switches are correctly set with reference to stock
rails and it is for this reason among others, that the gauge should be frequently checked. The
frequent checking of the gauge will serve as precaution against worn stock rails, which is not
checked by interlocking.
The speeds permitted over facing points set for the straight road is dependent on the extent to
which these precautions are taken.

Points in which the only equipment is a gauge tie plate and a padlock for locking them in
position, and which may or may not be locally operated are said to be uninterlocked. A speed
restriction of 15 KMPH is imposed over them in the facing direction and of 50 KMPH in the
trailing direction. Unrestricted speed in the trailing direction is, however, permitted on the
straight road if the points are interlocked with signals, even though locking and detection are not
provided.

On points interlocked to standard I requirements, a speed of 50 KMPH is permitted in the facing


and unrestricted speed in the trailing direction when the points are set for the straight. When set
for the turnout, speed will be further restricted by the curvature of the turnouts (15 KMPH in the
case of 1/12) in both facing and trailing directions.

On points interlocked to standards II, III speeds of 75 and 100 KMPH are permitted in the facing
direction respectively and unrestricted speeds in the trailing direction on the straight road.
When set for the turnouts speeds will be further restricted by the curvature of turnouts (15
KMPH in the case of 1/12 and 10 KMPH for 1 in 8 1/2 turnouts).

The restriction of 15 KMPH should not be confused with a corresponding restriction over
turnouts. The restriction of 15 KMPH over 1 in 8 1/2 and 1 in 12 turnouts is on account of
curvature (super elevation cannot be provided on turnouts) is applicable both in the trailing and
facing directions for movements over turnouts. Actually, a higher speed may be permitted over
1 in 12 than over 1 in 81/2 as the former has a greater radius but this is not being done. There
should be no change in gradient within 30 m for BG, 15m for MG. from points and crossings.
CHAPTER 17 S1

INTERMEDIATE SIDINGS
1.17.1. Introduction:

Sidings taking off from running lines and located between block stations known as outlying or
intermediate sidings. The most frequent justification for siding is either a ballast or stone quarry
when the siding is used for departmental purposes or to serve an industry located too far away
from a block station when it is known as an assisted siding.

The problem is to afford adequate protection to the siding points inserted on the running line.
Working the siding as a block station is the simplest and the best solution from the safety point
of view, but is at the same time the most expensive initial as well as recurring costs. This
solution is, therefore, adopted only where movements over the siding are too frequent and/or in
the case of double line sections in which access into and out of the sidings have to be provided
from both main lines Up and down. In this context, it may be mentioned that the switching out
of block stations when not in use during certain portions of the day is comparatively easier in
double line than in single line, a subject which will be dealt with separately.

An outlying siding location is not, for reason of economy manned. The responsibility for
movements into and out of sidings and most important of all, after such operations are
completed, for ensuring that the running line or lines are clear and then the correct re-setting of
the points to the normal position (i.e. for the running lines) is placed on the guard of the train
entering or coming out of the siding. In U.K. the use of track circuits to prove that running lines
are clear is compulsory but not yet in India. Therefore, the points of outlying siding whether
facing or trailing, whether in double line or single line, is not permitted to remain uninterlocked.

1.17.2. Minimum Equipment:

The minimum equipment prescribed for points is as for Standard I without detection (since the
provision of fixed signals is not compulsory) as shown below: -

Facing Points, Single and Double Line: A gauge tie plate where steel sleepers are not provided,
a facing point lock, or equivalent mechanism, the plunger of which shall lock each switch
independently. The control of the points shall be by means of key or other suitable device which
must secure the bolting mechanism of the point in the plunged or locked position when the
points are set and locked for the running line.

A speed restriction of 50 KMPH is imposed for all movements on the running line over facing
points. Where the section speed is higher than this, the restriction is indicated by a `S' marker at
the points, Speed indicator placed not less than 30m in rear of the marker, A caution and
termination indicators. (See figure) neither of which need be lighted.

Where the sanctioned speed of the section does not exceed 50 KMPH, the marker at the points
and the indicators need not be provided. (SEM-1988 para 7.75.3).
ON DOUBLE LINE

Fig. 1.17.2: Facing Point of Outlying siding, minimum requirements using 'S' marker and speed
indicator for speed higher than 50 KMPH

1.17.3. Trailing points, double line: A gauge tie plate where steel sleepers, are not provided, a
suitable type of key lock or equivalent mechanism, the key of which can only be extracted when
the points are set and locked for the running line, an `S' marker at the points which need not be
lighted. No speed restriction is imposed as points are trailing. See figure.

Fig.1.17.3: Trailing Points of outlying sidings Double line provided with minimum equipment
(No speed restriction)

1.17.4. Equipment for speeds over 50 KMPH:

If the speed restriction of 50 KMPH over facing points is to be avoided the point equipment
should conform to Standard III requirements and a stop signal adjacent to the points detecting
each switch and facing point lock or equivalent mechanism provided. A Warner or Warning
Board should also be provided at minimum B.D. in rear of the stop signal in the case of 2 aspect
signalling and a distant in the case of MAUQ.
Fig. 1.17.4: Facing points of outlying sidings Single or Double line signalling for speed above 50
KMPH.
1.17.5. Points control through Block Instruments:

The rules stipulate that the points should be controlled through the block system in use only in
the case of facing points on the single line over which there is no speed restriction. It also
recommends, as a desirable practice for a similar provision in the case of facing points over
which a speed restriction of 50 KMPH is imposed, as well as, in the case of double line trailing
points. In actual practice, however, wherever single line block instruments are available, the
points which are normally set and locked for the running line are released by token and in the
case of trailing points on the double line, railways device their own methods of controlling the
points through the block instruments of the section. Where block instruments are not in use,
approved special instruction describing the working and control of the siding, are included in the
working rules of the adjacent station (known as the parent station) which controls the
movements into and out of the siding.

In the case of sidings located on busy sections, in which shunting has to be performed, it would
be of advantage to provide means for clearing the section after a train has been berthed in the
siding. On the double line as the Lock & Block instruments cannot be restored to the normal
position until and unless the train has actuated a treadle or T.C. located near the Home Signal of
the receiving station, the section cannot be cleared with the train berthed in the intermediate
siding. Interlocking may, however, be provided between the block instruments and the points
so that the points cannot be unlocked without the block instruments being in the T.O.L position.
Should the facility of clearing the block section with a train berthed in the intermediate siding be
considered necessary, the intermediate siding is worked as block station and switched out when
the use of the siding is not required. There are, however, double line block instruments which
provide for an occupation key to enable trains to enter Block Section in the right direction and
return to the same station. This occupation key when removed from the instrument locks the
instruments in the normal position. In such cases the occupation key may be exploited for
sending trains into intermediate siding and clearing the section after the train is berthed in the
siding. This train can only return to the station from which it entered the block, travelling in the
wrong direction. The arrangements in force in one railway on sections fitted with Carson's
instruments are shown in the figure.

In the case of single line sections. Two alternative methods are available for clearing the block
section with a train berthed in the intermediate siding, which are briefly dealt below:

1.17.6. Based on the use of token/key interlocking boxes and electrically transmitted keys.
Please see figure. Block Section is X - Y with a siding between stations X & Y. At station X a
token key interlocking box with a spare token locked in it and at the siding, a similar box, but
with the points key locked in it are provided. An HKT circuit is provided between Station X and
the siding, a key is locked in the HKT at X and, therefore, there is no key in the HKT and at the
siding. A train proceeds from X or Y with a token and is stopped at the siding and the token is
exchanged for the points key on the token key interlocking box, the points key is used to unlock
the points the train then enters siding. The points are then reset in normal; and after ensuring
that the running line is clear, the key is transmitted to X. The key is exchanged at X for a token
(in the token exchanger at the Station) which is used to clear the section. When the train has
to come out of the siding, the guard informs X on the telephone of the fact, X obtains a token,
exchanges it for the key and transmits the key to the siding. The key is used for unlocking the
siding points, the train enters the running line, the points are reset to normal and the key
released from the points exchanged for the token originally deposited in the token key
interlocking box. The train proceeds with the token to either X or Y. This system allows of a
train either from `X' OR `Y' using the siding and the train from the siding proceeding to either `X'
or `Y'. The disadvantages are (1) only one train can be dealt with in the siding at a time and (2)
at least two line wires one for HKT circuit and the other for telephone are required between X
and the siding.

a) Points key from token/key interlocking box releases lock on lever No.2 which works SPL &
Signal FPL can be plunged when points are for the Main line Telephone provided between
siding and station ‘Y’
b) Single line section using token/key interlocking boxes electrically transmitted keys.
Fig.1.17.6 Points Control Through Block Instrument (Intermediate Siding)

1.17.7 Based on the use of two auxiliary block instruments:

Fig.1.17.7 Points Control Through Block Instrument (Intermediate Siding)

A separate auxiliary block instrument circuit is established between station X and the siding, the
instruments being of the same type as used in X and Y, but arranged to be out of phase so that
a token cannot be extracted from either of the two. A token key interlocking box in which the
points key is normally locked is provided at the siding.

A train from either X or Y may proceed to the siding. On arrival at the siding the token is
exchanged for the points key. After the train enters the siding and the running line is ensured to
be clear, points are reset and locked normal and the key exchanged for the token. The token is
then inserted into the block instrument which brings the pair of auxiliary instruments in phase
and enables a station X to extract a token from the auxiliary instrument at his station. This
token is then used for clearing the section on the block circuit X-Y. The auxiliary instruments are
now again out of phase. A similar procedure is adopted for coming out of the siding. This
system permits any number of trains being berthed in the siding but requires an extra line wire
for the extra pair of block instruments.
Fig.1.17.8 Control of Siding within Station Limit of Un-Interlocked Station

1.17.8. General:

As a precaution against unauthorised interference, all bolts, studs pins, etc of apparatus used
for locking and control of siding points are rivetted over or otherwise adequately secured.

In view of the rule that all passenger running lines must be isolated from goods and stabling
lines, isolation must be provided and the isolating traps locked for all movements on the running
lines at all outlying sidings. A trap indicator has to be provided but it is not lit during night hours.

CHAPTER 18 S1
INTERCABIN CONTROL

1.18.1. Principles of Slotting: The term `Slotting' has come to mean in signalling paralance the
control of a signal by source or sources other than the operating source. The control of signals
by more than one source is much more frequent than in the use of points.

Signals, for convenience, are worked from the nearest source, but when the control lines which
extend into adjoining territories, they are slotted from cabins or stations located in all such
contiguous territories. A slotted signal cannot be taken `OFF' unless the controls from all remote
locations have been operated, but it should be possible for any one of the controlling agencies
to replace the signal to its most restrictive aspect.

The purpose of slotting is two fold:

(i) To ensure that the points located on the line controlled by the signal including the
overlap are set correctly and facing points locked and the line is clear, before the signal
is taken off and

(ii) These conditions are maintained until the train movement is completed. In other words,
no other conflicting or fouling movement is allowed to take place and the points are not
altered until the train movement is completed.

Because a slotted signal can be replaced to its most restrictive aspect by any one of the slotting
agencies, it follows that other signals which are dependent upon or released by the slotted
signal, should also be similarly slotted so that the aspects displayed by all these signals are in
correspondence.

These principles are best understood by a reference to the Fig.1.18.1. Homes 3,4 & 5 are
worked from Cabin A for convenience but they read into territory controlled by B cabin. The
block instruments are located in the SM's office and the SM has overall control over movements
and is responsible for line nomination. Before the Homes can be taken off the line must be clear
upto the far end trailing points and the S.O. of 180 m beyond it. The signals are therefore,
controlled from B cabin as well as by the S.M. Because the loop lines terminate into sand
humps and the far end points can be set either way, it may be argued that the loop homes need
not be controlled by B cabin. This argument is only partially true, i.e. only in so far as the setting
of the far end points for the overlap is concerned, but unless, slots are provided. B cabin cannot
be held responsible for the maintenance of the line `clear' until the train movement is completed
nor will be in a position to replace the signals, which lead into his territory in the event of an
emergency occurring in his territory.

The outer signal No.2 is released by any one of the homes and, therefore, it should also be
slotted so that it returns to the `ON' position as soon as the Home is returned to the `ON'
position by B cabin or by the SM, so that any one of them can replace it and it can be ensured
that

(1) the main line is clear,


(2) all points are set and locked for the main line
(3) permission to approach from the next station in advance has been received and
(4) all main line signals have been taken off, before the Warner can be taken off and
(5) these conditions are maintained until the train movement is completed.

1.18.2. Types of Controls Slots:

The following types of Controls/Slots are in general use in mechanical installations:


1) The mechanical "3-lever" type slot

2) The mechanical lever lock worked by key transmitted electrically

4) The electric lever lock

5) The electric signal reverser post type

The design, construction and maintenance of the various types of slots are dealt with
elsewhere.

1.18.2 -- TYPES OF SLOTS


CHAPTER 19 S1

LEVEL CROSSINGS
1.19.1. Introduction: When road traffic crosses rail traffic over a bridge or under a bridge at a
different level no signalling arrangements are required. When road traffic crosses the rail traffic
at the same level they are known as level crossings and signalling arrangements at such
crossings may be required if they are busy. A road rail crossing at different levels is, of course,
the best arrangement as it is completely safe and the movement of road traffic is then
unrestricted but in view of the high initial cost of bridges, such crossings are employed only
where road and rail traffic are both heavy.

In level crossings, the roadway is brought upto the level of rail tables and guard rails provided to
contain the roadway clear of wheel flanges.

Level crossing gates are either of the swing type with one or two leaves on each side depending
on the width of roadway, or of the barrier type. There are two types of barriers, the movable and
the lifting. The movable barrier is superior to the swing type gate because they can be quickly
operated and since they move parallel to the track they are not obstructed by road traffic as may
happen with swing gates opening away from the track. However, in view of the difficulty involved
in keeping the bearing rails free from dirt etc. They are not popular and are obsolete now.

The use of lifting barriers constitute the best arrangement from the points of view of quick
clearance and the control can be local or remote or automatic as required. In lifting barrier
operation, it should be ensured that the road vehicles are not trapped over the tracks. When the
barriers are controlled manually either from site or from a remote location such as from a nearby
cabin, the operator must be able to see that the crossing is clear of road vehicles before signals
for a train are taken off. In the event of a good view of the level crossing being not available to
the operator in the cabin, closed circuit TV is employed, in the continent, for the surveillance of
roadways. In U.K. all automatic barriers are of the half barrier type (see figure 1.19.1.) to
eliminate the possibility of road vehicles being trapped over tracks. But in the case of manually
operated barriers, it is the practice that they shall be of the full barrier type; because manual
barriers may remain closed for longer durations than necessary. When this happens frequently,
the road users may be tempted to take the risk of zigzagging their way through the closed half
barriers.

Fig.1.19.1. LIFTING BARRIERS – HALF BARRIER TYPE


In U.S. there are several level crossings in which gates or barriers are not provided, the road
traffic being entirely controlled by road signals. Although this practice eliminates expenditure on
staff, accidents take place occasionally and, therefore, the present trend is to provide lifting
barriers worked automatically or controlled remotely.
All level crossings in this country (except cattle crossings) are provided with gates of one or the
other type, or at least chains and the vast majority of them are manned. In Europe and USA, it
is very common to provide only signals (and no physical barriers) at level crossings to warn
road users of approaching trains. However, this arrangement is not practicable in India.
Therefore, manning of level crossings becomes necessary even though it is expensive. Remote
operation (using closed circuit television for surveillance of the roadway over and near the
crossing) .is a possibility but has not so far been tried either with full barriers or with half
barriers.

Where lifting barriers are operated from the nearest cabin, the distance from the cabin to the
L.C. is limited to 150 meters. It is necessary that the operator have a clear view of the L.C. and
approach road on either side to ensure that speedy vehicles do not damage the lifting barriers
or get trapped between the barriers. To prevent speeding vehicles damaging the barriers at the
time of closing, the present directives are to provide humps or speed breakers on both sides of
approach of level crossings.

1.19.2. Classification: The classification of level crossings, as under, is settled by the


Engineering Department in consultation with the local Government authorities after conducting
the level crossing census.

Special class )
A Class ) For road vehicles
B Class )
C Class )

D Class for cattle crossings

Detail Special A B C
(1) Normal Open to Open to Closed to road traffic. Can be Same as for B
position of Road Road kept open to road traffic
Gate traffic traffic provided either gates are
interlocked with signals and
provided telephone
communication with adjacent
station/cabin or when the
following conditions are
satisfied:
i. LC should not be
located in suburban
section
ii. LC should not be in
automatic block
signalling territory.
iii. Should be provided
with lifting barriers
iv. Should have a
telephone connection
with the nearest station
with exchange of
private numbers
v. Visibility at the level
crossing should be
good
vi. Should be provided
with Whistle boards on
either side at adequate
distance to enjoin the
drivers of approaching
trains to give audible
warning of the
approach of the train to
the road users.
vii. As long as the level
crossing gate is kept
open to road traffic, a
red flag by day and red
light during night
should be displayed
towards approaching
trains on either side of
level crossings
(2) Interlocking Should Same as Should be interlocked with Should be interlocked
of gates be for signals:- with signals:-
with signals interlock special i. In suburban sections 1. within station limits
if gates are ed with ii. In non-suburban where operated
within station sections where form cabin
station signals operated from cabins 2. in automatic
limits iii. In automatic signalling signalling territories
territories
(3) Interlocking Should Same as To be interlocked To be interlocked in
of gates be for i. In suburban sections automatic signalling
with signals interlock special ii. In automatic signalling territories
if gates are ed with territories
outside gate
station signals
limits
(4) Telephone Telecom Same as Same as special Telecommunications
communica municati special with ASM’s office to be
tion from ons with provided in case of
the gate ASM’s manned level crossings
lodge if office to
gate within be
station provided
limits
(5) Telephone Telecom Same as Telecommunication with Same as B class
communica municati special adjoining station to be
tion from on with provided on :-
the gate ASM’s a. All level crossings on
lodge if office of Rajdhani route;
gate adjoinin b. On suburban sections; and
outside g station c. On curve obstructing the
station to be view of the level crossing
limits provided from approaching train and
vice versa
(6) Warning Should Should Same as for A class Same as for A class
bell be be
operated by provided provided
approachin where where LC
g train LC is is outside
outside station
station limits in
limits all
suburban
sections
and on
non-
suburban
sections
provided
with
automatic
signalling
territories
Note:
1. The level crossing inside station limits should be beyond the advanced starters or beyond the
limits upto which shunting is normally carried or at an adequate distance of atleast 250m
ahead of the starters and trailing points of the station where advanced starters/shunting limit
boards are not provided
2. In case of level crossings falling on suburban section they may be considered for upgradation
to B class in the event of their not qualifying for upgradation to special or A class and when so
upgraded to B class the facilities as indicated for B class should be provided
3. In the case of level crossings located outside station limits, protected by signals where the
sighting of the signal by the engine driver is inadequate a warning board should be placed at
not less than emergency breaking distance in rear of the gate stop signal.
4. Where level crossing is situated outside station limits in close proximity thereof, the clear
distance between the LC and an outer signal should not be less than a full train length
5. In cases where communication with ASM is stipulated, the connection may be given to the
switchman in the cabin as per the local condition.
6. Provision of warning bells operated by approaching trains should be confined to interlocked
level crossings only.

It will be noted that in accordance with the rules, the interlocking of gates with signals is
compulsory only in the case of the most important category, viz., special class and in the case of
A class only if located within station limits. However, in accordance with the instructions issued
by Railway Board, all special and A class gates are interlocked and B class if the gates are
operated from the cabin.

In all busy level crossings, the gates on each side should be coupled so that they may be
closed quickly. Wicket gates are provided at all special, A and B class crossings so that slow
moving pedestrian traffic (which may be depended upon to exercise due caution, is not
unnecessarily detained. For similar reasons, V shaped traps, which enable cycles being
carried across the gates closed, are also provided where necessary.

All level crossings, irrespective of their classification, must be interlocked if they fall in sections
provided with automatic signalling. `B' class gates falling in Suburban Sections shall also be
interlocked. Further interlocking shall be provided for all `B' and `C' class gates if they are
operated from the Cabin.

1.19.3. LOCATION: Level crossings should not be located fouling reception or stabling lines or
within the signals overlaps at stations. In the case where a level crossing is located within signal
overlap, it is to be ensured that the signals are taken off only after the gates are closed against
road traffic and the crossing is clear of road traffic. Level crossings do not, however, constitute
an obstruction in so far as block overlaps are concerned and may, therefore, be located in them.
(This is consistent with the practice of level crossings being permitted in block sections).
Level crossings between stations located in block section should as far as possible, provide an
uninterrupted view to drivers of approaching trains. Where visibility is not available due to
sharp curves or deep cuttings, a telephone connection with the adjacent station is required to be
provided.

1.19.4.PROTECTION: Figure below shows two methods of interlocking the level crossing
gate located outside the station limits i.e in the block section:

Fig (a) 2 - ASPECT

Fig (b) MAUQ

Note: Goods Warning Board to be provided if the speed of Goods train exceeds 72 KMPH

Fig. 1.19.4. PROTECTION OF LEVEL `X' INGS OUTSIDE STATION LIMITS


In case of two aspect territories, a stop signal at 400 m from the gate with a `G' marker and a
warning board at 1 K.m in rear of the gate signal shall be provided.

In case of multiple aspect territory, both colour light signalling and upper quadrant, a stop signal
at 180 metres from the gate with a `G' marker and a distant signal at 1 k.m in rear of the stop
signal shall be provided.

In the case of MLQ territories the same procedure as in multiple aspect may be followed.

Where the speed of goods trains exceed 72 KMPH, a second warning board also should be
provided at a distance of 1.4 kms in rear of the stop signal in all types of signalling.

A lever frame or some other operating device is provided for the control of the gate lock and
signals and to provide the interlocking.

1.19.5. Warning Arrangements: A warning arrangement is provided at all Special class level
crossings located outside station limits and `A' class level crossings falling on suburban sections
and Automatic Signalling Sections. It is also desirable at other `A' class level crossing when
justified on account of local conditions. This may consist of a bell worked by trains when they
pass over track circuits or treadles located at adequate distances in rear of the level crossings.
A telephone must be provided at all special and `A' class level crossings in addition to the
warning bell arrangement. A telephone is also required at `B' and `C' class/level crossings
located within station limits or on suburban and Rajdhani routes.

An automatic warning arrangement in the form of a bell controlled by the trains is mandatory in
automatic signalling sections. This is ideal at suburban sections where the frequency of trains is
high and the trains are of identical types. If this were employed at locations where train densities
are low and different classes of trains (fast express and slow goods) are in operation, road
traffic will be unnecessarily detained in the case of goods trains, as the treadle or track circuit
controlling the bell has to be located at a fixed distance in rear of the signal protecting the
crossing adequate for the fastest train. Although comparatively more expensive, the automatic
bell is the most dependable warning system; even if there is a failure the bell will ring.

In some countries, a speed detection device is employed in conjunction with the automatic
warning system so that the period the gates or barriers remain closed is not excessive, when
dealing with slow trains, as compared with the faster trains or, in the other words, the warning is
on a fixed time basis rather than on a fixed distance basis.

1.19.6. Protection of level crossing inside the station Limits: In the case of level crossings
located inside the station limits of block stations worked under the absolute block system, the
stop signals on either side of the level crossing are utilised to function also as gate signals by
providing interlocking between them and the level crossing gates or barriers. But, if stop signals
are not available for the purpose, a new signal or signals is/are installed for protecting important
level crossings.

In the case of the automatic block system, the question of inside or outside station limits does
not arise; stop signals on either side of the level crossing if available at appropriate distances
from the level crossing are made use of to function also as gate signals. In the event the stop
signal on one or the other side of the level crossing is not located at the correct distance, the
signal or signals as the case may be, are shifted to new positions, but if this cannot be done for
operational reasons, new signals are provided. Some specific cases of gates or barriers located
inside station limit will now be considered: -

Class B Stations: There are three possible positions for level crossings inside the station limits
of stations on the single line: -

(1) Between outer and home not infringing the signal overlap
(2) On the signal overlaps
(3) On reception lines.
Although (2) and (3) are undesirable positions, they unfortunately exist.

In the case of (1) assuming the L.C. gate is between down outer and up advance starter (as
shown fig. below). The outer signal shall also work as gate signal, which must be placed
minimum 400 metres in rear of the L.C. gate. For quick opening of gate after train has passed
it. The gate should be interlocked only with down outer (instead of Dn. Homes) and with
upadvance starter for up direction trains.
In the case of (2) if the L.C. gate is on the signal overlap i.e. between up advance starter and
down homes (as shown in Fig. below) no signals are required to be shifted whereas the
interlocking will be extended upto up home signals in addition to the Down Homes, up advance
starter and starters.

Fig : 1.19.6 (A) LEVEL CROSSING IN CLASS ‘B’ STATIONS

In the case of (3) if the L.C. gate is interlocked with up and down Home signals. This may be
noted that in all the above cases the signal controlling L.C. gate are not provided with `G'
Marker.

The L.C. gate located inside the station limits of a double line class `B' are protected in a similar
way.

CLASS `A' and `C' STATIONS:

CLASS `A': Taking the case of a level crossing located between the DN Warner and the DN
Home of a Class `A' station the interlocking arrangement should be as shown in Figure below.

In the Dn direction, a gate stop signal has to be provided at not less than 400m from the level
crossing. This signal may be provided on the same post of the Warner as shown in figure (i) or
on a separate post by itself and the Warner shifted as shown in figure (ii).

In the Up direction, the gates are interlocked with the starter signal and where the distance
between the starter and the level crossing is less than 180m. the interlocking should be
extended to the Up home signal also.

CLASS `C': In the case of a Class`C' station, where the gate is in a similar location as above
the Interlocking of the gate in the Up direction should be achieved by the Up home signal as
there is no starter signal in Class `C' station.
* Necessary when the speed of the Goods train is more than 72 KMPH
@ If the distance is less than 180m interlocking should be extended to Up Home Signal

Fig.1.19.6 (b) Level Crossing situated between Warner and Home at Class ‘A’ station.

1.19.7. Level crossing located within station limits in MAS signalling:

A typical layout with MAS signalling as shown in Fig. 1.19.7, may have a level crossing at any
location it is possible within the station limits is marked as (1) (2) & (3).

Fig.1.19.7

(a) In the case of (1) if the gate is located on signal overlap i.e. between the up advance
starter and the outer most trailing points on single line, as shown in fig.1.19.7 above the
location of signals need not be changed as shown below. The gate shall be interlocked
with down Homes, up starter, up advance starter and up Homes.

On double line the down Home signal, which is 180 metres from the facing point or BSLB, will
now be shifted at 180 m from the L.C. gate. Consequently the distant signal at 1km from Home.
The interlocking arrangements will be same as shown for single line above.
b) In the case of (2) of Fig.1.19.7, if the L.C.gate is between the down Homes and up advance
starter on single line or double line. The down Home signal only need to be located at 180m in
rear of the L.C.gate and the down distant at 1km in rear of the down Homes. The gate should
be interlocked with down Homes and up advance starter only (see fig.below).

(c) In the case of (3) where the level crossing is located between down Homes and the down
Distant, the interlocking arrangement may depend upon the vicinity of gate from the Home
signal. If the gate is just in rear of the Homes the Home may be shifted at 180m in rear of the
gate and the distant at 1km. in rear of the Homes, as in the case of (b) above whether single
line or double line.

(h) But if the L.C.gate is little away from the down Homes say less than a train length (approx.
300 to 400m), it is better to provide the Home Signal at 180m in rear of the gate and a
routing Homes near the points as shown in the Fig. below.
(i)

The gate shall be interlocked with down Home signal and the up advanced starter and with
routing homes if required. The Home signal as permitting the entry of trains into the station shall
be interlocked with routing homes and shall not have `G' marker.

(ii) Another situation is that when the L.C. gate is located more than a train length in rear of the
Homes and less than BD. (1km) between gate signal and Homes. The gate stop signals in
both directions have to be provided with `G' marker at 180 m in rear of the L.C.gate as shown in
fig. below.

(ii)
At that time the up advanced starter shall work as advanced starter cum gate distant, capable of
showing red, yellow and green (0-45-90). The gate cum distant for down home will have red,
yellow and green.

(iii) If the L.C.gate is just ahead of the Distant Signal and far in rear of Homes as in the case of
(3) of Fig. 1.19.7. The gate stop signals with `G' markers are provided on either side of the L.C.
gate at 180 metres, similar to that of (ii) above. The down distant will have only yellow and
green aspects, the YY (attention) aspect can be dispensed with, since the distance between the
down gate signal and the down Home is more than BD. The interlocking arrangements will be
the same as mentioned for (ii) above.
Owing to these reasons, the distant signal is being shifted to a very long distance from the place
of operation, so this can be a motor operated, or under approved special instructions this can be
a colour light, while all other signals at the station are semaphore signals.

Introducing a gate stop signal capable of showing stop, caution and clear aspects and shifting
the down distant signal so as to have BD in rear of the gate stop signal. The arrangement
shown in fig. (ii) & (iii). This may be noted that the Distant signal shall show all the three
aspects in the case of (ii) and shall show only caution and clear aspects in the case of (iii) since
BD is available between down gate and down Home.

The aspects required for condition obtaining in Fig. (iii) are shown below: -

Distant: (Y) 0 degrees for stopping at the down gate signal.


(G) 90 degrees for stopping at the down Home.

Gate Signal: (R) 0 degrees for stopping at the signal (level crossing open for road traffic)
(Y) 45 degrees for stopping at Home and for entering loop.
(G) 90 degrees for entering main on the assumption that BD between Home and the Starter
exists.

The aspects required for conditions obtaining in Fig. (ii) are shown below:

Distant: (Y) 0 degrees for stopping at the down gate signal.


(YY) 45 degrees for stopping at down Home.
(G) 90 degrees for stopping on Main or Loop

Down Gate Signal: (R) 0 degrees for stopping at the signal.


(Y) 45 degrees for stopping at down Home and for entering loop.
(G) 90 degrees for entering Main Line.

1.19.8. Protection of level crossings inside station limits in MLQ signalling: In this case
when a level crossing is situated between the DN Distant and DN Home Signals, a separate
gate signal may be provided at 180 metres in rear of the crossing and the DN Distant Signal
shifted so as to be at BD in rear of the gate signal.
Level crossing between distant and home signal of a station
equipped with MLQ signalling.

NOTE: Distant will be released by gate stop signal and main Home signal when Route is set for
Loop, Distant will be at `Y' but gate signal at `G'. This is another anomalous condition inherent
in M.L.Q.

1.19.9. Control of level crossings in Automatic Signalling sections:

BOARD'S DIRECTIVE: (Board's letter No.77/W3/SG/LX/2 dated 16.3.79).

1. All level crossing gates shall be interlocked irrespective of the classification.

2. All level crossings shall be provided with warning Bells operated by the approaching trains.

3. Approach locking should be provided on the control lever of the level crossing so that, only
when the portion of the track/tracks between the level crossing and the signals protecting
the level crossing are clear, can the gates be opened.

4. Flashing lights to be provided.

It may be seen from the above that all the Level Crossings in Automatic Signalling sections shall
be interlocked, provided with Warning Bells and approach locking. In addition, as per extant
directions in vogue, lifting barriers are to be provided.

The lifting barriers at the Level crossings can be operated locally either by winches or by electric
motor. In busy sections where automatic signalling is provided, the lifting barriers are
electrically operated for quicker operation thereby eliminating the mechanical wire transmission
required for operating barriers from the winches.

Interlocking: Interlocking of Level Crossing gates in automatic signalling territory is compulsory


for protection of Rail and Road traffic. Signals at adequate distance from the level crossing
shall be provided on either side and the signals can be cleared only after the Level crossing is
closed and locked against road traffic.

The gate signals thus controlled by Level Crossings have `A' Marker lights in addition to `G'
Marker disc. The `A' Marker light will be lit only after the Level crossing is closed and locked
against road traffic. Normally no train shall pass a signal at `ON' without proper authority when
`A' Marker light is extinguished. But where `A' Marker light is provided in conjunction with `G'
Marker disc and `A' Marker light is not burning, the driver is authorised to pass the gate signal at
`ON’ after stopping the train at the signal for one minute by day and two minutes by night and
then proceed cautiously to stop short of the Level Crossing to ascertain the cause. If the Level
Crossing gate is closed, the driver may start the train and proceed cautiously upto the next
signal and then obey the aspect of the next signal. If, however, the Level Crossing is not
closed due to gateman not being available or for any other reason, the driver will ensure the
closing of the Level Crossing gates against road traffic before passing the Level Crossing and
arrange for opening the Level Crossing for road traffic after passing the Level Crossing
completely.

If however `A' Marker light is lit, with the Signal at `ON' the driver need not stop at the Level
Crossing but proceed as per the normal rules pertaining to automatic signals.

WARNING BELLS: Provision of Warning Bells is compulsory at all level crossings in Automatic
Signalling sections. The Warning Bells shall be operated by approaching trains and, for this
purpose teadles or track circuits are used. The treadles or track circuits are provided at
appropriate distances from the Level Crossing to enable the gateman getting the warning of the
approaching train well in advance so that the Level Crossing can be closed and locked
immediately and gate signals cleared. The warning distances shall be so judiciously chosen
that

(a) The level crossing is not closed too early; affecting the road traffic

(b) The clearance of the signal is not delayed affecting the train traffic

APPROACH LOCKING: Directives stipulate that all the Level Crossings in automatic signalling
sections are approach locked. Generally a single lever frame is provided at the Level Crossing
for operating the lifting barriers. The lever when reversed feeds the electric motor of the lifting
barrier and causes the Lifting barrier to lower across the road. When the boom is lowered, the
circuits for clearing of signals are completed and the signals are cleared.

When it is necessary to raise the lifting barrier for road traffic to pass over the crossing, the lever
must be placed to its normal position. This can only be done if there is no train in the immediate
vicinity. If a train has approached as near as to have passed beyond the service braking
distance i.e. a point of hundred metres on the approach side of the signal at which the first
warning aspect is given, the lever can only be replaced to their normal check lock position and it
should not be possible to restore it to its full normal position. The lifting barrier will, therefore,
remain locked although the protecting signal aspects may have been returned to `ON'.

Flashing Lights are provided at the Level Crossing with lifting barrier to warn the Road Traffic
when a train is approaching the level crossing with gates open. When the gates are closed, the
flashing lights become steady.

Note:
1. All level crossing gates irrespective of classification, on Automatic sections Single/Double,
Treble and Quadruple lines shall be interlocked and provided with warning bells operated by
approaching train. In addition, Approach locking to be provided on control levers.
2. Flashing lights to be provided, where power supply is available, at all important level
crossing gates provided with lifting barriers.

EXCEPTION: Non-interlocked `B' and `C' class gates with heavy traffic can be kept normally
open to Road Traffic provided the following conditions are satisfied: -

I. The level crossing should not be on a suburban section.

II. The section concerned should not have automatic block signalling.

III. Level crossings should be equipped with lifting barriers.

IV. The level crossings should be provided with a telephonic connection with the Station
Master and should have a system of exchange of private numbers.

V. The Railway track at the level crossing should be straight on either side to afford a clear
view of an approaching train.

VI. As long as the gate is kept open to road traffic a red flag by day and red light (by using
Trolley Lamp) during night should be displayed towards the approaching trains on either
side of the level crossings.

VII. The level crossing shall be provided with whistle Boards on either side at adequate
distance to enjoin the drivers of approaching train to give audible warning of the
approach of the train to the road users.
REFERENCES:

1. Rly.Board's letter No.77/W-3/SG/LX/2 dated 16.3.79.


2. -do- -do- dated 01.11.80.
3. -do- No.83/W1/LX/16 dated 26.02.83.
4. RAIC 1968 para 121 (Board's letter No.77/W3/SG/LX/2/0 dated 17.7.80

CHAPTER 20 S1

SECTION CAPACITY

1.20.1. The maximum number of trains that can be dealt on a given section of Railway during
the period of twenty four hours, is called the Section Capacity. This is calculated as number of
trains that can be run each way on single line during this period. On double line sections it is
worked out separately. A train takes some amount of time to run between two block stations.
This is called "Running time of the train". In addition to this time there is little more time is
required for the purpose of closing the section by normalising the signals and points behind the
train and reporting to the station in rear, granting/receiving line clear for the next train, setting
route taking `off' signals etc. This additional time is taken as 5 minutes and is called the "Block
Operation Time". For calculating section capacity, total time of 24 hours is divided by "Running
Time" of any slowest train over this section, plus "Block Operation Time".

Scott's formula is the simplest for this purpose which is as under:

Scott’s FORMULLA:

C = 1440 X E X 1/2
T+t

where C = Section Capacity


T = Running Time of slowest train
t = Block operation time
E = Efficiency factor (80)

Calculating the section capacity on the basis of above formula taking into consideration of
slowest train on the section which would generally be a goods train. EX GIP Railway, refined
this formula further and calculated the available capacity for running of goods train. In this
formula the total time consumed in running of passenger trains is deducted from the total time
available to calculate how many trains that can be run in the remaining time. The formula is as
under:

Cg = 1440 - (Tp + t) X K x 1/2


Tg + t

In this formula efficiency factor (K) is taken as 50% as number of gaps between passenger
trains may not be usable for running of goods trains. South Eastern Railway had employed once
an American consultant to suggest more accurate formula for working out the section capacity.
This formula is known as STEINBECK's formula which is as under:

C= 1440 x y
S

Where S = Ta + Tb + 0 + W
Ta = Running time on `a' side
Tb = Running time on `b' side
0 = Block operation time for two trains
W = Waiting time for next train
y = Efficiency factor (70)

All these formulas are however, theoretical and do not take into consideration of physical
features over the entire section.

Indian Railways therefore adopt charting method which is the most practical way of assessing
section capacity. For this purpose, running of trains is plotted on time-distance graph relating to
the section. The time of all scheduled passengers trains are plotted on the graph and in the
gaps between different scheduled trains as many goods trains are inserted as possible to give
the maximum section capacity.

1.20.2. Section capacity mostly depend upon proper evaluation and detailed study of present
and future traffic requirements to obtain the optimum utilisation of fixed assets. On single line
section the line capacity can be augmented by improving `T' and `t' of Scott's formula, as well as
the `E' factor, T can be reduced by

(a) Reducing the length of block section by providing additional crossing stations.

(b) Increasing speed by in proving mode of traction, tracks, rolling stocks and signalling.

`t' may be reduced by introducing

(a) Higher standard of interlocking


(b) Tokenless block instruments
(c) Panel interlocking
(d) CTC and Automatic signalling
`E' (Efficiency factor) can be improved by proper time tabling, punctuality, staff efficiency,
upkeep of equipments efficient operation, adequate number of loop lines, suitable length of
block section by spacing of block posts or stations and IBS on double line, etc. Simplification of
rules, training of staff are also the factors to improve the operating efficiency.

1.20.3. The ultimate objective of increasing section capacity is to carry more traffic, not merely
to increase number of trains, but to effect more reliable source of remuneration as well.

CHAPTER 21 S1

PRINCIPLES OF SIGNAL ENGINEERING

1.21.1 Safety of passengers and efficiency of operation being the twin purposes for which fixed
signals are installed, in no other field of technology is the formulation of principles and their
observance of greater importance than in the field of Signal Engineering. A consideration of its
role and functions will indicate that the following may be regarded as its fundamental principles:
-

1. Each and every apparatus and circuit employed in a signalling system shall be so designed
that a failure occurring in any of all the component parts of the system results in the signal or
signals controlled by the system displaying their most restrictive aspects.

Explanation: This principle is being widely observed but there are exceptions. For instance,
when the front contacts of a relay stick or the broken wire lock of a double wire points
mechanism fails to function, unsafe failures would results, but to minimise the effect of such
failures, other precautions are taken. In the case of track relays, it is ensured that relay is
operating satisfactorily by making use of both its front and back contacts in vital circuits having a
close time sequence. In regard to broken wire locks, the detector is used also to function as a
lock. A constant endeavour is being made to comply with this principle by improving upon the
techniques employed.

2. Reliability, simplicity and expansive capabilities shall be important consideration in the design
of apparatus, circuits and systems.
Explanation: The specifications for signalling apparatus employed in vital circuits are far more
exacting then the specifications for similar apparatus employed in other fields. Unless maximum
reliability is provided, frequent failures will cause serious delays to the movement of trains and
in cases where the first principles cannot be complied with lead to serious accidents. Simplicity
is essential to facilitate easy maintenance without having to interrupt traffic and affecting quick
repairs. As traffic density grows, the size of the signalling system will correspondingly increase.
It should be possible to begin with a system of small size and extend it to meet changing
conditions. Only if the system originally employed has expansive capabilities, will it serve the
interests of economy.

3. The aspects of fixed signals shall be distinctive and unambiguous.

Explanation: Aspects of fixed signals should obviously, be capable of being readily and
unmistakably determined. There should be no possibility of one aspect being mistaken for
another.

Signals are, as far as possible, located to the left of and adjoining the track to which they refer.
In the case of converging roads, there is a separate signals for each line located in rear of the
fouling point to afford maximum protection to opposing movements. In the case of diverging
junctions, there should only be one post, and the signals mounted on this post so arranged as
to be applicable to the lines on consecutive order from left to right, the signal at the left extreme
being applicable to the extreme diverging line. Signals applicable to the through line are placed
higher than the signals applicable to other lines.

4. One aspect shall have but one name and one indication, conversely for a given indication the
same aspect shall be used everywhere and at all times.

Explanation: A given signal aspect must transmit the same indication at all times, at all places
and under all conditions, so that a driver will know instantly what is means and whether or not it
is properly displayed.

5. The action required by a signal indication shall be definite and capable of easy
implementation.

Explanation: This is an important principle. The indication of a proceed aspect must be clearly
and unambiguously stipulated in the rules, preferably in terms of the speed at which the signal
in advance may be approached. The point at which action on an indication should commence
must be well defined and not left to the driver’s discretion. Signals should be so located with
respect to each other that the indication of a signal displaying a restrictive proceed aspect can
be complied with by means of a normal brake application initiated at the signal itself and as a
result either the train comes to a stand without undue loss of speed at the signal in advance
displaying stop or the speed is reduced to the rate prescribed for the signal in advance, where
reduced speed is required.

6. Each and every signal shall afford the sighting distance required, of it.

Explanation: For obvious reasons this principle supersedes the older assumption that every
signal shall afford the maximum possible sighting distance.

7. The number of fixed signals provided shall be the minimum for each route.

Explanation: - This supersedes the older assumption that the number of signals in a yard
should be the minimum. The correct principles is that the number of signals per route should be
the minimum required to obtain a given track capacity.
8. The overlaps required for each system of aspects shall be clearly specified.

Explanation:- Although the proceed aspect of a signal authorises the movement of a train at
the speed indicated by its aspects only upto the signal next in advance, a specified overlap
distance in advance of a stop signal must also be maintained clear before the stop signal in rear
can display a proceed aspect. While the overlaps in the two-aspect system may be chosen
arbitrarily having regard to practical considerations, there should be a gradual reduction in the
overlaps as the number of aspects increase.

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