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Section I. I.

Basic Filtration Principles

FLUID CONTAMINANTS A. Solid Particulate B. Water C. Acid D. Gaseous E. Biological II. FLUID CLEANLINESS A. Particle Size B. ISO 4406 Fluid Cleanliness Code C. Filterability III. FILTRATION MECHANICS A. Media Types and Capture Mechanisms 1) Depth Vs Surface 2) Fiber Types 3) Capture Mechanisms B. Filter Efficiency Rating 1) Nominal and Absolute 2) The Beta Ratio C. Contamination Control Balance D. Efficiency/Pressure/Flow/Dirt Capacity Relationship E. Filter Location Section II. Cartridge Selection

I. Cartridge Nomenclature II. Safegard PL III. MICROGARD PL IV. PH V. Disc VI. Filled VII. PD Hilsorb Section III. I. Applications

Golden Rule of Filtration . 3.01.1 II. Fluid Cleanliness 3.05.1 III. Filtration Mechanics . 3.15.1

FLUID CONTAMINANTS A fluid contaminant might be described as any unwanted substance in the fluid that may have deleterious effects on the oil, the system components or both. Contaminants may be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form. Energy can be a contaminant in the form of heat or static electricity. The contaminants controllable with cartridge filtration that we are going to focus on are water, acid, and solid particulate. Solid Particulate Solid particulate may be defined as any particles that are insoluble in pentane. Solid particles are abrasive particles that cause wear which creates even more particles. They may be built in, system generated, or ingress from the environment. Water Contamination Water is ever present in the environment and as a result is one of the most common contaminants. It may enter a system through condensation, leaks, breathers, or poor housekeeping and storage conditions. Water is equally dangerous to systems as solid particulate is and cant be ignored. It may be present as free water or dissolved water in solution with the base oil or as an emulsion. Water causes corrosion of system parts, introducing rust and scale particles into the system. Water also accelerates the hydrolysis and subsequent breakdown of the oil itself with an attendant increase in the acid level. Water removal is accomplished with the PD series of dryer cartridges. They can effectively absorb water from oil to reduce the water content to the saturation point of the oil. To reduce water further, a reclaimer is capable of reducing the water content way below the saturation point. In oils with a good separability index, coalescing is an economical way to separate large quantities of water on a continuous basis. Acid Acidity measured as Total Acid Number (TAN) causes corrosion and loss of dielectric strength. It often begins as a result of the breakdown or hydrolysis of the fluid. Once started the reaction feeds on itself creating ever increasing degradation. High temperatures, the presence of water, and naturally occurring sulfur may all contribute to increasing TAN levels. Metallic fines or even hydraulic components containing brass or copper can act as oxidation catalysts to accelerate oil breakdown with a subsequent increase in acidity. Vacuum pumps used in acid etching become heavily contaminated with acid. The filled AT, HT, ST, ET style cartridges will do a first rate job of either cleaning up an acid problem or maintaining a system to a very low TAN. Gaseous Contaminants The most common gaseous contaminant is air. Air enters the system through Bernoulli induction or excessive agitation. Air may be dissolved or entrained as bubbles. It can cause erratic or spongy hydraulic control, excessive heat, and oxidation of the fluid, cavitation, and micro dieseling. Dissolved air and gases can be removed with atmospheric and vacuum degassers. Good housekeeping and proper system design can minimize system air. Excessive air can cause oxidation of the fluid, which leads to varnishing. Cartridge filtration can do nothing about the air but adsorptive filtration will treat the effects of air induced fluid oxidation.

Gaseous contamination can be any compressed gas found in compressor or vacuum pump seal and lube oil. It can reduce the fluids viscosity and lubricity. Low boiling hydrocarbon contamination may lower the flash point creating a safety problem. A degassing reclaimer is recommended for the removal of unwanted gases. Biological Contaminants Biological contaminants consist of bacteria, yeast, molds, and algae. They gain access to a system through breathers, and contact with tools cleaning rags, and even operators. They are detectable by the slimes they produce and obnoxious odors. They create problems with filter and screen plugging and create corrosive acids as they digest nutrients in the host fluid. Bacteria thrive at an oil water interface and in oil/water emulsions. Fluid Cleanliness The target of fluid contamination control is to achieve a desired cleanliness level of the fluid. A cleanliness level may be a target level of contaminants that will give the desired fluid properties and component life. Particle Size Particle size is an important consideration when determining a contamination control strategy. A human hair is about 80 microns in diameter and the smallest particle the human eye can see is about 40 microns. The visible spectrum of light is between .4 and .7 microns. Particles smaller than this are invisible to optical microscopy. Many typical contaminants will be too small too see even under a microscope. Clean appearing or new oil may have an unacceptable contamination level. One has to know the size range and volume of solid particulate contaminants so that appropriate filtration may be applied. The following chart gives an idea of relative sizes on the micronic and sub-micronic scale: Once the particle size population and volume is known; the next step is to determine how clean the fluid has to be.

ISO 4406 Fluid Cleanliness Code Fluid cleanliness will affect component and system life, maintenance intervals, overall reliability and even profitability. A common misunderstanding is that the ISO Cleanliness rating is a cartridge rating. ISO cleanliness deals specifically with the fluid cleanliness state, not cartridge rating. The following table is intended as a recommendation based on average ingression levels with a 5% to 10% of the system volume filtered per minute in a recirculating filtration loop.

TYPICAL ISO CLEANLINESS WITH HILCO PH FILTER CARTRIDGES


MEDIA 1 0 5 3 1 1 1 1 BETAX=75 50 40 24 14 9 3 BETAX=200 51 41 25 15 11 4 BETAX=1000 53 43 27 17 13 6 ISO 4406 25/23/20 22/19/16 19/17/14 17/16/13 16/14/11 15/13/10 NAS 1638 12 10 8 7 5 4

Table 1 Because there are many cleanliness reporting standards, many of which are obsolete or disavowed, a universal reporting method was required. ISO 4406: 1999 is the most commonly accepted cleanliness rating code the world over. ISO 4406 is a three-digit code that represents cumulative particle counts at 4, 6, and 14 micron particle sizes in a 1-milliliter sample (about an eyedropper drop). The range code numbers are dimensionless and require the chart given in ISO 4406:1999 to relate the range codes to actual particle counts. In cases where only two numbers are reported, as in code number 14/11, only >/= 5 micron and >/= 15 micron particles have been counted per the older 1987 standard. ISO 4406 Cleanliness Requirements The following tables depict commonly accepted cleanliness requirements. These are intended as guidelines not absolutes. POWER GENERATION TURBINES ISO 4406 NUMBER Lube Oil System 14/11 Fuel System 10/7 EHC Governor 16/13 EHC Valves 14/11 GENERAL LUBRICATION Hydrostatic Transmission Roller-bearing systems Ball-bearing systems Journal bearings (high speed) Journal bearings (low speed) General industrial gearboxes HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS ISO 4406 CODE NUMBER 14/11 14/12 13/11 15/13 16/14 15/13 SUGGESTED FILTRATION, ISO 4406 CODE BX>=100 NUMBER

Systems extremely sensitive to the smallest contaminants which require maximum reliability. Sensitive high performance control systems operating at high pressure with excellent reliability. High quality, reliable mobile equipment and industrial hydraulic systems operating at high pressure. General machinery and mobile equipment with medium pressure, large capacity and moderate clearances. Low pressure heavy industrial systems or systems where high reliability or long life are not critical. Low pressure hydraulic systems with large clearances or systems with limited service life.

1-2.5 2.5-5 5-10 10-15

13/9 15/11 16/13 18/14

15-20 20-40

19/15 21/17

ISO 4406 CLEANLINESS IN A SINGLE PASS SYSTEM Most filtration is done on a recirculating system. In some instances however such as fuel filtration, the fluid will only get to go through the filter once. The following table shows what degree of cleanliness may be expected based on the initial cleanliness and filter efficiency. INLET ISO 21/16 19/15 18/14 16/13 15/11 13/9 OUTLET ISO 03 MEDIA 21/15 19/14 18/13 16/12 15/16 13/8 OUTLET ISO 01 MEDIA 19/16 17/9 16/8 14/7 13/5 11/3 OUTLET ISO 12 MEDIA 17/7 15/7 14/6 12/5 11/3 9/1

Turbine Lube System ISO 4406 Cleanliness The international standard for defining the cleanliness of a hydraulic or lubricating fluid is now ISO 4406:1999. The range codes correspond to 4 , 6 , & 14 particle sizes. GE Global Services Engineering recommends that 1 synthetic filter cartridges for main lube filters. Cleanliness of oil from the tank truck should be at least ISO 17/16/14. Hydraulic oil for servo valves should be ISO 16/14/11. GE procedure GEK 81515C, Flushing Procedure for Turbine Lube Oil Systems states an allowable lube oil contamination level as follows is recommended. Number of Particles per 100 Milliliter

Particle Size Microns 6 - 11 12 - 20 21 - 60 61 - 105 106 - 250 > 250 ISO Code

Good 21,000 6,500 2,370 112 18 None 16/12

Acceptable 85,000 23,000 11,450 470 80 None 17/15

A survey of lube oil cleanliness specifications shows that GE, Westinghouse and Brown Boveri accept an ISO 4406 lube oil cleanliness of 16/12. According to National Tribology Services, Inc., a major oil analysis lab, 16/12 is the accepted industry guideline. For hydraulic systems using servo control valves, an ISO 4406 14/11 is the commonly accepted standard. A Hilco survey of turbine lube oil sample data revealed an average cleanliness of ISO 19/14. In a typical turbine application, the Hilco PH line of cartridges could be expected to produce the cleanliness levels shown in Table 2. Applicati Hydrau Hydraulic on lic & Lube Media PH-12 PH-01 16/12 14/6 Lub Lube e PH- PH-05 03 17/ 19/14 13 16/ 19/14 9

Reservoi 13/10 r Filter Outlet 9/3

Filterability and Degradation Most filtration problems, it seems, are blamed on the filter. The fluid itself however may be the real culprit. Fluid filterability and fluid degradation describe two fluid characteristics that can have a deleterious effect on filter life. Filterability is a term used to describe the profinity of new oil to clog a new filter. It is a little known fact that new, clean oil can clog up a filter. Long chain polymers, wax, and non-soluble additives can plate out on filter media fiber surfaces so that the pore structure becomes clogged. Different brands of similar oils may have vastly different filterability characteristics. Therefore switching oil brands may either clear up, or create problems with short filter life. Filterability testing is a fairly simple laboratory procedure and would be recommended when short filter life problems occur in new or clean fluid. Degradation is another fluid phenomena that cause short filter life. Fluid degradation occurs through oxidation or hydrolytic breakdown of the oil causing the formation of asphaltic particles or asphaltines. Asphaltines may be likened to soft tarry gumballs that plate out on filter and

system surfaces. They can rapidly plug filters and also bake onto system surfaces to become hard varnish. Asphaltines are a self-induced contaminant in that they are a product of the fluid.

FILTRATION MECHANICS This section deals with the relationship of media types, capture mechanisms and the measure of solid particulate removal filtration performance. Media Types and Capture Mechanisms Depth Vs Surface: In surface filtration particles are captured on the surface of a thin single ply media such as a wire screen strainer. A characteristic of surface filtration is a sharp particle separation cutoff point. A surface filter will act like a go-no-go gauge with virtually zero efficiency for any particles smaller than its pore size and high efficiency for all particles over its pore size. Once a layer of particles begins to build on the surface to bridge the pores, then smaller particle efficiency will increase, as the separated particles become a depth filter. Virtually any multiple ply or fiber based media is a depth filter since particle separation takes place throughout the body of the media as well as on its surface. These microphotographs of fine fibered PH media and the relatively coarse fibered PL media shows the pore structure as a fibrous matrix. Note that the fine microglass fibers of the PH media obstruct less flow than the coarse wood pulp fibers of the PL media. They both offer 3D spatiality. Particle capture may be through the straining out of large particles that simply wont fit into the pore matrix as well as fiber impacting deep inside the media. Fluid moving through a fiber matrix is constantly changing direction as it weaves around the individual fiber. Inertial forces cause solid particles to be thrown out of the fluid streamlines to impact on a fiber. This phenomena permits the capture of particles in a depth media that are far smaller than the pore structure of the media

Filter Efficiency Ratings Nominal and Absolute The term nominal means in name only. Nominal filtration ratings are often just that. They may be arbitrarily chosen designations that have little commonality with other manufacturer ratings.

They usually have little to do with actual cartridge performance. To have any meaning, a nominal rating must have some sort of efficiency designation such as 98% at 10 microns. The Hilco media designations of 01, -03, -05 and so on are often mistakenly called micron ratings. They have no bearing on the actual micron of the cartridge. They are to differentiate one media grade from another. Separation efficiency or micron ratings for Hilco cartridges are expressed in their Beta Ratios. Absolute ratings can be just as confusing. They may also be an arbitrary designation, based on porosimeter data, bubble point, or challenged with a calibrated contaminant. Because an absolute rating can mean so many things it can not be used to universally compare filtration performance. The only acceptable absolute rating today is the particle size at which the Beta Ratio equals either 75 or 200. The Beta Ratio The Beta Ratio based on multipass efficiency testing is the most universally accepted filtration performance assessment method available. International Standard ISO 4572 has been used the world over. Beginning in the year 2000, International Standard ISO 16889 supercedes ISO 4572. The most significant difference is that the new standard will replace ISO Fine Test Dust with ISO Medium Test as the contaminant and will use in line sampling instead of bottle sampling. The Beta Ratio is the ratio of all the particle counts equal to and larger than a specific micron size upstream of a filter Vs all the particle counts equal to and larger than the same specific size downstream of the filter. For example, in the upstream sample we count 2000 particles that are 5 microns and larger. The downstream sample has been reduced to 10 particles that are 5 microns and larger. Doing the math, 2000 divided by 10 equals 200 for a Beta Ratio of 200 at 5 microns or B5=200. The efficiency is calculated from the Beta Ratio. Efficiency % = (B-1/B)*100, or using our example, (200-1/200)*100=99.5% efficiency. Beta Ratios and Corresponding Efficiencies Beta Ratio Efficiency 1 0% 2 50% 5 80% 10 90% 20 95% 75 98.7% 100 99% 200 99.5% 1000 99.9% Another piece of information derived from the multipass test is a comparative dirt capacity. This dirt capacity data, reported as apparent dirt capacity is the quantity of contaminant it took to achieve the terminal pressure drop. Because terminal pressure drop is an arbitrarily chosen figure, when comparing dirt capacity data from different manufacturers you have to know what the test terminal pressure was. For example, Hilliard chooses a 25-psid increase over the clean starting pressure drop to be the terminal pressure drop.

Brand X chooses a 60-psid increase to terminate the test. Because the Brand X test will run longer to reach 60-psid than 25-psid, their reported apparent dirt capacity will be higher while in actuality if both companies had terminated at the same pressure, the results may have been equal. Another caveat on dirt capacities is that the ISO Multipass Test is a standardized test meant for cartridge comparison. It does not mean a guarantee of field performance. Field contaminants may have different shapes, densities, and ingression rates than the test conditions so results will vary. Filter Location There are several places to install a filter in a hydraulic or lube oil systems illustrated in figure XX. Each location has its own merits as well as drawbacks. Offline or kidney loop filtration operating independently of the main system offers many advantages. The suction strainer in location 1 is usually a 75 to 100 micron wire mesh strainer. The strainer must present a minimum pressure loss to the pump so as not to induce cavitation. Therefore an inlet strainer is only capable of keeping larger particles from entering the pump. It can do nothing for the protection of downstream components from abrasive wear particles. A full flow, in-line, high-pressure filter in location 2 will protect sensitive downstream components from wear debris and fall out from catastrophic pump failure. Since it must withstand full system pressure and flow, the filter is usually small and expensive. The small size equates to low dirt capacity and short life. A duplex filter is recommended in this location so the system doesnt have to be shut down for servicing. Any pressure or flow surges may cause the filter to unload captured particles back into the system. A low-pressure return line is a good location to capture system wear generated particles but it is subject to flow fluctuations that may dislodge previously captured particles. The off-line recirculating filter in location 4 avoids problems with pressure and flow surges. It uses relatively inexpensive low-pressure filter cartridges with large dirt capacity and long life. Because it is an independent system, it may operate even while the main system is idle. Higher efficiency filtration may be used here without creating a problem of high impedance to the main system oil flow. Portable filters can be used for off-line filtration and offer the advantage of portability so they may be shared with other systems. An additional benefit is that additional fluid conditioning equipment such as heaters and coolers can package as a fluid conditioning console. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 1 Fine Filtration without Pump Cavitation Captures Particles before Exposure to Pump low-pressure Operation Cannot Introduce Air into System Unaffected by System Flow Surges Continuous Filtration, Independent of Hydraulic System Operation Can be Serviced without Hydraulic System Shutdown Suitable for Portable Filtration/Reclamation X X X LOCATION 2 3 X X X X X X

4 X X X X X X X X

PL PH HP DF DS DD AT HT ST ET GT *** Section II, Cartridge Selection Cartridge Nomenclature Suffix B C R N

Pleated cellulose media Pleated synthetic media High Pressure, Pleated synthetic Standard Stacked Disc, gray SaflowTM Stacked Disc, tan SaflowTM D, Stacked Disc, white Activated Alumina Hilite green label fullers earth Selexsorb Ion Exchange Resin Glass Tube See Hilco Engineering

Description Butyl Gasket Center Tube Fits 1 1/2 inch Center Post Metal End Caps

CARTRIDGE SELECTOR GUIDE CARTRIDGE CONTAMINAN OPERATING CONDITIONS TS SO AC WAT W HI HIG HIG HIG LI ID ER ET G H H H DS REM H PRE VIS DIR OVA FL SSU COS T L O RE ITY LOA W D

HI G H TE MP

HIG H/ LO W PH

A T E T

ALUMINA

ION EXCHANG E H FULLERS T EARTH S T SELEXSOR B

D SAFLOW D D DISC D STANDAR F DDISC D SAFLOW S DISC P HILSORB D H HIGH P PRESSURE P SAFEDARD

, MICROGAR D P PLEATED H INDUSTRIA L G GLASS T TUBE

Cartridge Descriptions PH Application A premium cartridge for severe service applications near or beyond the limits of the Safegard line of PL cartridges. For use when the Safegard cannot handle the flow, viscosity, surges, high dirt loads, acid, caustic, or water. Operating Limits Temperature Pressure Change-out Media Media grades 16, 14, 12, 11, 01, 03 and 05 use pleated micro-fiber glass fiber filter media sandwiched in a protective non-woven nylon scrim supported by either epoxy coated steel or nylon screens. Media grades 10, 20, and 40 use a polyester-cellulose blend coolant grade filter media supported with screen. The media differs from standard cartridge construction in that it is composed of synthetic fibers such as glass, nylon and polyester. The advantages of synthetic fibers are better chemical and water resistance than traditional cellulose. They also provide lower pressure restriction per unit area due to the smaller fiber diameters. Smaller diameter fibers present less obstruction to flow for a given pore size. A finer fiber is also more efficient in particle separation than a larger fiber because there are more pores available per unit area as the mass of the fiber structure 250OF 100 PSID 25 PSID increase

decreases. More pores provide greater dirt holding capacity and lower fluid face velocity through the media for a given flow rate. Lower velocity increases fluid separation efficiency. Due to particle mass, any decrease in velocity increases separation efficiency. Because the kinetic energy of a particle is proportional to the square of its velocity, any velocity reduction has a significant effect on separation efficiency. Support Screen One of the biggest differences between the PH and PL cartridge series is that all the PH media use a support screen. This support screen co-pleated with the media provides the required strength, support, and drainage properties. The porosity of a screen pleated with the media stiffens the pleats and provides flow channels between the pleats. This feature maintains flow between the pleats under severe operating conditions that would otherwise tend to pinch the pleats together. Maximum useable area available for dirt capacity is maintained by preventing the pleats from bunching which blocks off useable area. Many cartridges on the market today may offer a larger gross area but under actual operating conditions will have a smaller net area available to flow and dirt capacity.

PL-MicrogardTM Description Pleated paper, in three ply construction with high efficiency microglass sandwiched between two layers of cellulose media. Comments The highest efficiency pleated paper cartridge offers high dirt capacity to provide hard to beat value in this efficiency range. The cost effectiveness of this cartridge has made it an industry favorite. It is particularly effective for hydraulic system contamination control. Operating Limits Temperature 250OF Pressure 100 PSID Change-out 25 PSID increase Reduce flow 50% in water, water emulsions, or solutions.

PL-SafegardTM

Description Pleated paper, in single ply construction of resin saturated cellulose media with Hilcos radius pleat construction. Available in a broad range of filtration efficiencies. Comments Great general purpose filter, an industry favorite for lube oil applications. Operating Limits Temperature 250OF Pressure 100 PSID Change-out 25 PSID increase Reduce flow 50% in water, water emulsions, or solutions.

Disc Cartridges Description Stacked disc cartridges are die cut disks alternately stacked solid filter discs with spoked spacer discs. The spoked spacer discs contain inlet and outlet flow channels with dirt holding pockets. The filter discs are heavy-duty cellulose depth media designed for the efficient filtration of diesel engine lube oils. Hilco offers three grades of the stacked disc cartridges: FD, Standard Disk The highest efficiency of the disc media. For applications involving relatively low flow and contamination rates. May be used in both mineral and synthetic oils. SD, Saflow Disc Provides longer life and lower pressure drops than the FD media. DD, Saflow D Disc For diesel and 4-cycle gas engines that generate excessive carbon soot, engines that have frequent cold starts, and ashless detergent oils. PD-HilsorbTM Description A patented construction combining high efficiency particulate filtration co-pleated with a super absorbent outer layer of media for water removal. As the absorbent media reaches it saturation limit, the media swells, blocking off the flow so that the pressure drop increase signals the presence of water and time to change out. Water is chemically locked in the media so as not to re-contaminate the system through desorbtion. Available in two 12, 03, and 05 media grades. The 12 is particularly effective in removing the carbon fines in breaker and tap changer oils. Comments May be used for the reclamation or maintenance of water contaminated dielectric, hydraulic, lubrication and fuel oils. It may also be used as a fuse or water indicator. They will reduce the water content of the fluid to its saturation point. Operating Limits

Temperature Pressure Change-out

200OF 100 PSID 25 PSID increase Hilco Adsorbent Products Fullers Earth Activated Alumina Selexsorb Ion Exchange

Hilco adsorbent products are highly micro porous granular media that capture ionic contaminants on the molecular level through surface attraction to the extended pore area surface active sites. They are highly effective for removing acids, water, and color from lube, hydraulic, and insulating oils. These products may also remove additives. For this reason they are most commonly used in oils with low additive content. With frequent monitoring and analysis of the oils properties, these adsorbents may be used in fluids with additives. Oftentimes the addition of makeup oil will adequately replenish any lost additives. HT-Fullers Earth Hilco Green Label Hilite, introduced in 1947 is a calcined water-resistant low volatility (LVM) or low moisture content fullers earth. Fullers earth is used for neutralizing acids, stabilizing, and decolorizing, clarifying, deodorizing, and reclaiming of solvents, mineral oils, distillates, petrolatum, vegetable oils, fats and waxes. It is used for removing surfactants from fuels to improve coalescing ability. It restores color and cleans dry cleaning solvents. It is used on insulating or transformer oil to remove acid and moisture to restore the dielectric strength. Fullers earth was the original adsorbent to be used for phosphate ester conditioning, coming into use in the early 1950s. Fullers earth is still widely used today although it is not as effective as activated alumina in removing acid phosphates. Problems with metallic salts leaching out and reacting with the base oil to form varnishes and gels led to the joint development of activated alumina treatment by General Electric, Alcoa and the Hilliard Corporation in the early 1970s. AT-Activated Alumina Activated alumina, known as Hilite A, is a very porous form of aluminum oxide of high surface area that adsorbs liquids and gases with no change in form. Because activated alumina is a highly efficient desiccant it is commonly used for drying various gases and liquids. Used in transformer oil it effectively dehydrates and removes acid to restore dielectric strength of the fluid. As a treatment for lubricating oil it restores the oil to low acid and water content to maximize the life of the fluid. It is several times more efficient than fullers earth and does not create gel formation from the leaching of metallic salts as does fullers earth. The greatest shortcoming of activated alumina is that its sodium content can lead to corrosion of servo valves in hydraulic systems. ST-Selexsorbu Selexsorb GT, was developed by Stauffer Chemical (now Akzo Nobel) specifically for use in their Fyrquelu brand of phosphate ester turbine lubricant and hydraulic fluids. Selexsorbu instead of neutralizing acid as does activated alumina, chemically bonds acid to the media surface. This prevents the liberation of metallic salts, thus eliminating the gel formation
u

associated with them. Selexsorbu also removes water but preferentially bonds acid phosphates first. This means that water will not cause a reduction in the ability to hold acid phosphates that can greatly extend cartridge life. Selexsorbu is meant to be used for system maintenance rather than restoration. It is not recommended for cleaning up high acid conditions. For TANs over .2, Akzo recommends that the system be flushed prior to installation of new Fyrquelu fluid with Selexsorbu conditioning. Selexsorbu used with new Fyrquelu fluid will maintain the oil with TAN less than .05 for thousands of hours. An oil-monitoring program indicates when the cartridges need to be changed by catching a rise in the TAN. When using either activated alumina or Selexsorbu, an off line filtration system using packed cartridges is recommended. Dosage rates are .5 pound of activated alumina per gallon of fluid and .1 pound of Selexsorbu per gallon. With either material a particulate trap filter is used in series downstream to capture any dust fines that could be shed from the adsorbents. ET-Ion Exchange Hilite E is an ion exchange resin based on a micro porous polymer of styrene and divinylbenzene. This polymer is virtually insoluble in most common solvents and oils. The form of the resin is an approximately 1/16 diameter spherical bead. A great advantage over particulate form adsorbents is that they contain no fines or dust to contaminate a system. The spherical form also gives lower pressure drops. An ion exchange media usually exchanges one ionic substance for another. In the treatment of lube oils however, hydrolytic oxidation components such as acidic radicals are surface adsorbed and ionically transported to interior sites within the micro porous structure. Because the ion exchange media contains nearly 50% water, capillary water may be flushed from the resin bed into the system fluid. Excess water is vaporized through the natural operating temperature of the equipment or reabsorbed into the resin bed. Akzo does not recommend ion exchange for use in their phosphate ester fluids. Some customers have used it however to reclaim fluid that has exceeded a TAN of .2. Ion exchange has also been used in phosphate ester fluids other than Akzos by customer specification. By laboratory test, ion exchange does not adsorb additives from the base fluid, as will the other adsorbents. The liberated water may however strip some of the antioxidant additive but still leave the fluid within specification. Hilliard does not advocate the use of ion exchange resin as an alternative to Selexsorbu in a healthy system. Ion exchange is offered for those systems that Selexsorb can not be used in because of previous fullers earth contamination or out of range acid numbers. It is also recommended for use in fluids with additives so that acid formation may be controlled while minimizing additive depletion.

Applications Golden Rule of Filtration The entire topic of filter applications can be summed up with the Golden Rule of filtration. First, if it is a fluid, then filter it. Second, anytime a fluid flows, filter it! This sounds simplistic but it is a simple truth that anytime a fluid is moved, pumped, or transferred it picks up contamination from the system and or the environment. Therefore when making a call, familiarize yourself with the customers process and learn to identify fluid movement and look for places additional filtration can provide a benefit to the customer.

Selling Benefits Filter sales is a lot like selling insurance. Frankly I fell sorry for anyone who has to sell filters. Why you ask? Because filters are one of those things no really wants. I doubt if anybody ever bought a filter because they really wanted one. In fact the only reason I have ever bought a filter is through fear. Fear my engine would stop running or self-destruct or that the warranty would become invalid. Actually filter sales is a lot like selling insurance which is something else nobody really wants either. According to the last insurance person that ever got into my house, they are not selling insurance, they are offering benefits. When I begin to see the advantages of these benefits I might even buy that insurance policy. Likewise, a potential filter customer has to be able to see the benefits they will enjoy. Show them they will benefit from reduced maintenance costs, reduced disposal costs, increased product recovery, less downtime, better quality, longer equipment life, less pollution, higher yields. You are selling these benefits, not filters. To do this you need to be able to select a filter or system that is going to meet your clients needs and provide those benefits. How do you do this? Ask the right questions. How do I select a filter system? Chances are your client has no idea what they really need unless they are just buying refills. You are the filter expert, and you are here to provide a service for your client. Now before you panic, take a close look at the professional experts who provide services for you. Your Doctor, Lawyer, Pastor, Consultant, Accountant, Broker, And yes, even the insurance salesman all has one thing in common. All of them provide a service that can solve your problems. They are experts in their fields. One other thing they all have in common is they approach your problem by asking questions. Asking questions can make you an expert. If you know how to ask the right questions to get to the root of your clients problems, you can turn them into opportunities. What do I ask? I thought you would never ask. First get out that notebook you carry around. If you are just an average sales person you may rely on your memory to try and ask the right questions. But if you are like one bright young vice president of marketing who recently called on me, you will probably have a check list of questions in that notebook. Im impressed when somebody asks me

all the right questions. I feel that they must understand my problem and have had previous experience in solving that problem. Do you know what that does? It instills confidence in that person and the company they represent. Lets look at some standard questions you should have on your experts checklist.

Filter Application Worksheet Fluid Characteristics Type (mineral, synthetic, water based, food process, etc.) Brand (Mobil DTE, Shell Turbo 29, etc.) Viscosity Specific Gravity Additives Operating Characteristics Fluid Volume (reservoir size, transformer size) Flow rate Operating temperature System pressure Maximum pressure drop allowed Contaminant Characteristics Solids Nature of (particles, sludge, gum, whatever) Particle sizes Quantity (particles per ml., mg/l, %) Liquids Water (PPM or %) Acid )type and total acid number) Other diluents (ask the desired flash point and viscosity) Objectives Cleanliness level desired (ISO 4406, mg/l, particles per ml.) Changeout schedule (per shift, weekly, annual, never) System protection requirements (pump, servo, flow divider) Component life expectancy Dielectric strength Flashpoint Viscosity Color, odor

FLUID FILTRATION APPLICATIONS

FLUID BULL APPLICATIONS DESCRIPTION ETIN Air breathers, vents, reservoirs Air Filter oil oil bath air filter oil

CARTRIDGE TECHNIQUES S DM, FD-6770 Disk, GT Continuous recirc. on reservoir

CONTAMINANTS air born dust, aerosols, mist sand, air born dust

Air atomizer

Bearing lube

turbine fuel injection turbine lube, mineral oil turbine lube, phosphate ester diesel lube

in line filter PH, AT, PD

Circuit Breaker oil

Coolant

Cutting oil

Edible oils

EDM, Water or Kerosene Fuel oil

Fuel gas

Continuous recirc. on reservoir PH, ST, PD Continuous recirc. on reservoir Stacked disc Continuous recirc. on reservoir utilities, power PD, HT, AT portable filter, dryer companies skid, reclaimer, treat oil on maintenance transfer machine tool GS, GT, PH gs-200, chips away, coolant reduce away chip wringer, PL, PH, GT heated settling tank, screw machines filtration fast food, food SP diatomaceous earth, processing filter press machine, job shop GT, SP Continuous recirc. on reservoir diesel, turbine Disk, GT, PL, fullflow or HT recirculation diesel, turbine DM, PH point of use compressor lube PL, PH, AT PL, PH heat transfer, engine coolant transmission mfg., diecast, plastic injection molding, turbine ehc transformers, breakers, cable commercial air, military engine, compressor fuel turbine lube, hydraulic HT-600,GT, PH-12

high temperatures, exhaust gas combustion particles solids, water, acid insolubles, water, acid insolubles, water, acid, carbon water, acid, carbon, sludge, entrained air metal working chips, grinder scarf, tramp oil chips, metal fines, water de, food solids, free fatty acids metal fines, carbon water, dirt, scale, oxidation water, dirt, scale, liquid or heavy hydrocarbons assembly, wear, atmospheric dirt, the gas itself, oxidation solids

Gas Compressors Gear oil

Heat Transfer, Synthetic, Glycol, Silicone, Freon, Hydraulic oil

fullflow or recirculation batch or recirculation low flow recirculation oxidation products, insolubles

PD-12, PL-12, fullflow or PH-12,HC recirculation, reclaimer PD,HT, AT, PL-12 HT, HC, HS PL, PH, DIsk PH, DM, HC PH, ST, AT portable filter, dryer skid, reclaimer, treat oil on maintenance transfer fuel buggy, transfer, tank farm fullflow or recirculation point of use, full flow fullflow or recirculation

insolubles, water, wear, entrained air water, acid, sludge, entrained air insolubles, water, oxidation products, surfactants solids, water, acid solids, scale, water solids, water, acid

Insulating,

Jet Fuel

Lube oil

Natural gas

Phosphate esters

Polyglycols

compressor lube, heat transfer aviation turbine lube heat treat quenching refrigeration, ac, compressor lube flood lube for rolling mill centrifugal compressors compressors heat transfer chip and wafer fabrication breweries, bottlers, well wash, mop

Polyol Ester

Quench oil

Refrigerant Compressor Rolling oil

Seal oil

fullflow or recirculation, reclaimer fullflow or recirculation, reclaimer PL, PH, Disk, recirc on quench GT, HT tank Reclaimer recirculation, clean & dirty tanks Disk, GT, HT, bypass skid package PL-12 with heat exchange PH-CG, HP High pressures often involved, degasser. see api-617,618 PH-12-CG PL, PH, PD Vacugard, PH, AT, reclaimer point of use batch, recirculation

solids, water, acid solids, water, acid dust, scale, chemicals, carbon, oxidized oil moisture carbon, metal fines volatiles from the gas stream, particles from gas stream particulate, scale cellulose, nitrile, viton, ep

Seal gas

Silicone oil

Vacuum Pump seal, lube oil

Water

Reclaimer, clean & moisture dirty tanks. vacugard into vacuum pump sump Nutrasweet, batch, point of use, solids GS, PS, Star full flow Reduceaway, batch solids, oil GS, PS FILTER CARTRIDGE PREFIX KEY

Prefix PL PH HP DF DS DD AT HT ST ET GT

Description Pleated cellulose media Pleated synthetic media High Pressure, Pleated synthetic Standard Stacked Disc, gray SaflowTM Stacked Disc, tan SaflowTM D, Stacked Disc, white Activated Alumina Hilite green label fullers earth Selexsorb Ion Exchange Resin Glass Tube FILTER CARTRIDGE SUFFIX KEY

Suffix B

Description

C R N P

Center Tube Reducer