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Федеральное агентство морского и речного транспорта

Федеральное государственное образовательное

учреждение высшего и профессионального образования
Волжская государственная академия водного транспорта

Кафедра иностранных языков

В. Ю. Новик А.О. Савицкая

Английский язык

Методическое пособие для студентов 1- 2 курсов

юридической специальности

Нижний Новгород
Издательство ФГОУ ВПО»ВГАВТ»
УДК 821.111:621.396038)
С 48

Рецензент : Орлова Л.Г., канд.фил. наук. доцент

Седова Е.А. Английский язык: методическое пособие для

студентов экономических специальностей очной формы
обучения.- Н. Новгород: Изд-во ФГОУ ВПО «ВГАВТ», 2011,

Цель данного пособия- развитие навыков устной речи на основе

профессионально-ориентированных тем.

Материал пособия организован в виде 18 тематических уроков,

содержащих коммуникативные упражнения в рамках
профессионально – ориентированных тем , направленные на
развитие навыков говорения, аудирования, чтения. К данному
пособию прилагается диск с аудиоматериалами.

Методическое пособие предназначено для студентов

специальности 080502 «Экономика и управление на
предприятиях», а также может быть использовано со студентами
других специальностей направления 521600 «Экономика»

Работа рекомендована к изданию кафедрой иностранных

языков ( протокол № 7 от 23.05.2011)


Unit 1
Basic Legal Terms

1. Before you read the passage, talk about these questions.

a) What are some different jobs in the legal profession?
b) Which legal job would you prefer and why?

2. Read the text and complete the table using information from
the text.

Person Role or Job

1. ------------------------------ files a complaint
2. ------------------------------ is accused of a crime
attorneys 3. ---------------------------
Paralegal 4. ---------------------------
5. ------------------------------- resolves a complaint

People in the Legal System: Civil Cases

A civil case begins with a plaintiff. He or she has a complaint about the
actions of another person or organization. The plaintiff files the
complaint with a court.
The person or organization accused of a wrongdoing is the defendant.
Both the plaintiff and the defendant usually have attorneys. The
attorneys speak on behalf of their clients. A paralegal, a person with
legal training, may assist the attorney.
In some cases, a jury listens to arguments for and against the defendant.
Then they decide on a verdict. Finally, the judge makes a decision to
resolve the complaint.

3. Match the words (1-7) with the definitions (A-G).

1 ___ verdict
2 ___ legal system
3 ___ court
4 ___ complaint
5 ___ paralegal
6 ___ plaintiff
7 ___ civil

A the methods of interpreting laws and putting them into effect
B a legal conclusion
C a written document that states the reason for legal action
D the place where people go to conduct legal business
E a person who accuses another person of a wrongdoing
F an attorney’s assistant with specialized legal training
G occurring between citizens

4. Decide in which sentence the underlined parts are used correctly.

1 ___ A The plaintiff delivered a verdict at the end of the trial.
___ B The judge listened to the attorneys’ arguments.

2 ___ A Twelve paralegals determined the outcome of the case.

___ B The jury decided that the man was not guilty.

3 ___ A The defendant hired an attorney to prove that he was

___ B In court, the plaintiff always makes the final decision.

4 ___ A Mr.Meaner’s attorney represented him during the trial.

___ B What verdict is the defendant accused of?

5. Listen to a conversation between two attorneys. Choose the

correct answers.
1. What is the conversation mostly about?
A the creation of a complaint
B an attorney’s advice to a defendant
C a plaintiff’s reaction to a verdict
D the progress of a civil case

2. Why is the man worried?

A The complaint is not true.
B The jury already decided.
C The defendant is guilty.
D The plaintiff has no proof.

6. Listen again and complete the conversation.

Attorney 1: Hi, Robert! How is that 1_______ case going?

Attorney 2: Hey, Janet. It’s not going all that well, actually.

Attorney 1: Oh? What’s wrong?

Attorney 2: The defendant’s 2 _______ is pretty good. He’s making

our 3 _______ seem weak.

Attorney 1: Well, it’s not, is it?

Attorney 2: No, the 4 ________ owes my client thousands of dollars.

But that’s based on a verbal agreement.

Attorney 1: I see. So the 5 ________ has nothing in writing?

Attorney 2: Exactly. I’m worried that the 6 _______ will decide

against us.

7. With a partner, act out the roles below based on Task 6. Then,
switch roles.
Use language such as:
How is that ….. going?
What’s wrong?
I’m concerned that the …...

Student A: You are an attorney. Talk to another attorney about a

civil case. Ask Student B about:
- the case
- the complaint
- the problem

Student B: You are an attorney representing a client in a civil case.

Answer Student A’s questions.

8. Use the conversation from Task 7 to fill out an update on the
attorney’s case.

Civil Case Update

Attorney: ______________________________________________

Plaintiff’s Complaint: ____________________________________

Possible Outcome: _______________________________________

Reason: ________________________________________________

Unit 2
Basic Legal Concepts

1. Before you read the passage, talk about these questions.

a) Why do people decide to take legal action?
b) What do people need to do in order to start a case?
2. Read the brochure and decide if the following statements
are true or false.
1. Butler and Evans Associates helps people who have been
2. The firm’s clients are responsible for bringing proof to the
3. The firm does not charge clients whose cases are not won or

Butler & Evans Associates

Are you injured because of someone else’s carelessness? Are you
involved in a dispute with a neighbor? Butler and Evans is available to
help you take legal action.
Everyone is entitled to due process. When you decide to initiate a
lawsuit, call us. We are going to make sure you get the damages you’re
entitled to. Our investigators are able to get all the proof needed for your
trial. When a verdict is not in your favor, we appeal whenever possible.
In the event we fail to settle or win your case, you don’t owe us
anything. So what do you have to lose? Call 876-0251 today to arrange
a meeting.

3. Choose the word that is closest in meaning to the underlined

1. Jane received money as compensation for her accident.
A proof B damages C due process
2. The law firm helps people involved in an argument or conflict
with their neighbors.
A a dispute B a lawsuit C a trial
3. Ms .Harris wants to start the process of legal action.
A appeal B initiate C settle

4. Everyone in the country has the right to receive justice according to
established rules.
A due process B appeal C damages
5. Mr.Tan initiated a legal course of action against his neighbor
because her dog barks too much.
A appeal B lawsuit C dispute

4. Fill in the blanks with the correct words and phrases from the
word bank.
legal action proof settle trial appeal

1. Hopefully, Mr. Wilton will be able to ______________ this

problem without going to court.
2. Mrs. Janson decided to _______________ after the judge ruled
against her.
3. In this _______________ , the defendant is accused of stealing
from a bank.
4. Mrs. Britt wants to take _______________ against her
employer for not giving her a promotion.
5. Attorneys don’t win cases when there is not enough
____________ to support their arguments.

5. Listen and read the brochure again. What services does the
company offer?

6. Listen to a phone call between a client and an attorney at a law

firm. Choose the correct answers.

1. What is the conversation mostly about?

A an offer to settle
B evidence in a trial
C the filing of a lawsuit
D an injury from a car accident

2. What will the man mostly likely do?

A Bring in more evidence.
B Refuse the attorney’s offer.

C Pay for half of the damages.
D Drop the lawsuit against the woman.

7. Listen again and complete the conversation.

Lawyer: Hello, Mr. Williams. I received an 1 __________

from Ms. Johnson’s lawyer. She’s ready to end this
Client: Really? What do we need to do?
Lawyer: Well, she’s not dropping the 2 ____________ unless
you agree to 3 ____________ .
Client: What is she asking for?
Lawyer: She wants you to 4 ______ ______ ______ of the
damages to her car.
Client: But I didn’t wreck her car! Someone else ran into it.
Lawyer: I know. But since you have no 5 __________ , I
suggest you settle.
Client: I don’t like it. But I guess 6 ______ _______ .

8. With a partner, act out the roles below based on Task 7.

Then, switch roles. Use language such as:
She’s ready to end this dispute.
What is she asking for?
I suggest you…...
Student A: You are an attorney. Another attorney has called to
end a dispute. Talk to Student B, your client, about:
- the attorney’s offer
- what the client must do
- your advice
Student B: You are in a dispute. Student A is your lawyer.
Talk to him or her about ending the dispute.

9. Use the conversation from Task 8 to fill out the attorney’s


Butler & Evans
Meeting Notes

Client: ___________________________________

Date: ___________________________________

Meeting about: ____________________________


Recommended that client ___________________


Client will ________________________________


Unit 3
Sources of law

1. Before you read the passage, talk about these questions.

a) How are laws created in your country? Do you think that
system works well?
b) How do national and local laws differ?

Dear Ms. Martin,

I finished my research on the Great Cars Incorporated

(GCI) lawsuit. Here are the important notes:
Recent national legislation requires a lot of safety
testing. GCI did not follow that policy. But the statute
is new, so it may not pertain to our case.
There is a precedent. A suit against Car Masters was
dismissed two years ago. The company did not make
changes to meet state laws fast enough. A judge dismissed
the case after Car Masters met the requirements.
Still, the plaintiff may sue under a relevant constitutional
law. But court rules don’t allow him to change the lawsuit
yet. That procedure takes weeks.

Let me know if you have any questions.

Sarah Jackson

2. Listen, read and say if the following statements are true or

1. Great Cars Incorporated did not obey laws about testing its
2. Car Masters lost a lawsuit because it did not meet state laws.
3. The plaintiff cannot sue under a constitutional law for several

3. Choose the response that answers the questions.

1. Does this information pertain to the case?

A No, it’s about something completely different.
B Yes, the deadline passed yesterday.

2. Are there any precedents that we can refer to?

A Yes, there was a similar case two years ago.
B No, the court date is scheduled for the 18th.

3. Are there any procedures that we need to follow in court?

A There are several attorneys working at the firm.
B The defense attorney must be allowed to speak first.

4. Did Anne find any regulations in the state laws?

A No, but she found some in the city laws.
B Yes, she thinks the company will win the lawsuit.

5. Do the court rules have information about when to file an appeal?

A Yes, the client has been in jail for 6 months.
B Yes, it must be done within a year of a decision.

4. Choose the word that is closest in meaning to the underlined

1. The government made some changes to the laws that relate to
government power.
A state laws
B constitutional laws
C court rules

2. The council announced new rules decided by the government for

environmental issues.
A precedents
B legislation
C procedures

3. Caroline needs to follow the steps to complete an activity very

A legislation
B constitutional laws
C procedures

4. The rules, laws or orders states that all dogs in the park must
be on a leash.
A court rules
B policy
C precedents

5. The article does not have any information connected to the

A relevant
B procedural
C regulated

5. Listen to a conversation between two lawyers. Choose the

correct answers.

1. Why is the company being sued?

A It broke a state law.
B A seatbelt did not work.
C A driver was in an accident.
D It misused millions of dollars.

2. What is true of the man?

A He considered representing Car Masters.
B He thinks the woman should not take the case.
C He works for the same company as the woman.
D He is working on the Great Cars Incorporated lawsuit.

6. Listen again and complete the conversation.

Lawyer 1: So, why is Great Cars Incorporated being sued?

Lawyer 2: They didn’t follow 1 _____ _____ on brake testing
Lawyer 1: I see. And a driver got in an 2 ______?
Lawyer 2: Right. Now he’s suing them for $1 million.
Lawyer 1: It sounds 3 ______ to beat.
Lawyer 2: We have a shot. There’s a precedent from a lawsuit
against Car Masters.

Lawyer 1: I almost 4 _____ ______ _____ .
They didn’t meet 5 _____ _____ requirements for

Lawyer 2: Yes. But a judge dismissed the case when they weren’t
able to follow the 6 _____ .

7. With a partner, act out the roles below based on Task 6. Then,
switch roles. Use language such as:
So why is…… being sued?
Now he’s suing them for……
There’s a precedent from a lawsuit.

Student A: You are a lawyer. Talk to another lawyer about a case.

Be sure to address:
- causes - money - precedents
Student B: You are a lawyer. Talk to Student A about a case he or
she is working on.

8. Use the conversation from Task 7 to complete a lawyer’s

business notes.


Date: _________

I met with ______ today. ______ is working on a case for _______.

The company _______. But ______ thinks they can win the
There is a ________ that might help them. Another company ____ .
But a judge ________ .

Unit 4
Preliminary documents

1. Before you read the passage, talk about these questions.

a) What are some things attorneys and clients might talk about
when they first meet?
b) Why do attorneys need clients to agree to their fees before
representing them?

2. Read the memo and choose the correct answers.

1. What is the memo about?

A a previous case
B a new client
C new legislation
D researching a case

2. Which of the following documents does Janine NOT

currently have for Mr. Hendricks?
A an agenda
B police report
C a retainer agreement
D an intake memo

3. What is Mr. Thomson likely to do next?

A contact Mr. Hendricks
B send the client a bill
C sign some documents
D obtain medical records

Dear Mr.Thomson,
I have opened a file on our new client, Mr. Hendricks. The
contains the intake memo, fee agreement and retainer
agreement. Please sign these. I need to mail them to Mr.
Hendricks directly, along with our standard form letter.
I am also sending a demand package and copies of all the

correspondence so far. I have opened a pre-litigation folder and made
up an agenda. This is to ensure we have everything we need on time,
including medical records and the police report.

Thank you,

3. Match the words (1-4) with the definitions (A-D).

1 retainer agreement
2 agenda
3 form letter
4 demand package

A a contract between a lawyer and a client for retention and

payment of services
B a set of documents that a lawyer obtains from other
companies to help with a case
C a letter that is printed many times and sent to many different
D a list of things that need to be done in a certain order

4. Read the sentence pair. Choose where the words best fit in

1 medical records / police report

Did Ashley contact the hospital for the _______ ?
Ms. Reed had to write a _______ after her car was stolen.

2 intake memo / fee agreement

When the new client arrives, the legal assistant must complete
the _______ .
Mr. Jackson needs to see the ________ so he knows how
Much the services cost.

3 litigation / correspondence
Keep all _________ , such as letters and emails, in a folder.

There have already been two _________ cases with company.

5. Listen to a conversation between a lawyer and

a paralegal. Are the following statements true or

1 The lawyer left the intake memo in a folder.

2 The medical records are in the pre-litigation folder.
3 The speakers plan to send the client his pre-litigation

6. Listen again and complete the conversation.

Lawyer: Janine, I’ve signed the fee 1 _______ and

the 2 _______ memo for Mr. Hendricks.
Paralegal: Thanks. What about the 3 _______ agreement?
Lawyer: Oh, sorry, it’s probably still in my office.
Paralegal: Don’t worry, I’ll get it.
Lawyer: Have you got a copy of the 4 _____ _____
We sent for his medical records?
Paralegal: Yes, the records are in his pre- 5 ______
Lawyer: Good. Send that to him too, and don’t forget
to include the 6 _______ letter.
Paralegal: No problem.

7. With a partner, act out the roles below based on

Task 6. Then, switch roles. Use language such as:
I’ve signed the……
Have you got a copy of the demand package?
Don’t forget to include……

Student A: You are a lawyer. Check with your paralegal

about the status of important documents. Talk to Student B
- intake memo

- retainer agreement
- pre-litigation folder
Student B: You are a paralegal. Discuss the status of
documents with Student A.

8. Use the conversation from Task 7 to complete the paralegal’s

letter to the client.



I am pleased to enclose the following documents:




Please sign the relevant documents and return them to us as soon as


Janine Davies


Unit 5
Court structure

1. Before you read the passage, talk about these questions.

a) What are some different kinds of courts in your country?
b) What types of cases do the different courts hear?

2. Read the text about court structure.

Are the following statements true or false?

1. District courts review decisions that people protest.

2. Cases involving state laws are not heard in a federal court.
3. The Supreme Court hears all cases that are brought to it.

Understanding the Levels of US Federal Courts

District courts – These are general courts. But in some cases, the
jurisdiction is passed to specialized courts. These include:
bankruptcy courts, tax courts and the court of private land claims.
Court of Appeals – The Court of Appeals reviews all decisions in
the lower courts that people object to.
State courts – These courts decide disputes that pertain to state laws
rather than federal laws.
The Supreme Court – This is another appeals court, but it is the only
court that operates under discretionary review. This means it can
choose which cases to hear. The Supreme Court is also called a High
Court in some countries.

3. Read the sentence and choose the correct word.

1. The ( District / Supreme) Court decided not to review

Ms. Wright’s case against the company.
2. The case does not involve federal law, so it has to go through
the ( state / bankruptcy) court.
3. The district court has ( jurisdiction / claim) in Mr. Trujillo’s
. case.
4. If Ms. Davis wants her money back, she needs to go through the
small ( claims / discretionary) court.

4. Use the words from the bank to fill in the blanks.
discretionary review specialized
Supreme Appeals bankruptcy

1. The ___________ Court is called the High Court in Australia.

2. John decided to go to the Court of __________ because he didn’t
Agree with the decision.
3. The court will ___________ Mr. Allistair’s case next month.
4. Mr. Anderson is going to the ____________ court because he lost
a lot of money but has no way to pay it back.
5. The court has ___________ powers, so it may decide not to
investigate the case.
6. Ms. Ming’s case will go to a __________ court, not a general

5. Listen and read the text again. What types of courts are there
in the USA?

6. Listen to a conversation between a client and his attorney. Then

answer the questions. Which courts might the client’s case be
heard in?
- a state court
- a district court
- a court of appeal
- a specialized court
- the Supreme Court

7. Listen again and complete the conversation.

Client (M): So, is my case going to the 1 ________ courts?

Attorney (F): No, that’s not going to happen.
Client:Why not? It’s a dispute with the state.
Attorney: Well, 2 _________ courts usually have jurisdiction
over smaller cases like yours.
Client: I see. What do we do if the district court 3________
against us?
Attorney: We ask for the case to be 4 _________ in the
Court of Appeals.

Client: And they have to 5 _________ it, right?
Attorney: Yes. There’s no 6 ________ review in appeals
courts. That’s reserved for the Supreme Court.

8. With a partner, act out the roles below based on Task 7.

Then switch roles. Use language such as:
Is my case going to the ….. courts?
District courts usually have jurisdiction…..
We ask for the case to be…..
Student A: You are a client. Talk to your lawyer about your
case. Ask Student B abut:
- courts
- options after a decision
- likelihood of having case reviewed
Student B: You are a lawyer. Answer Student A’s questions.

9. Use the conversation from Task 8 to complete a lawyer’s

letter to a client.

T a m s i n G r e e r,

Dear Mr. Moisey,

In response to your question, your case is not going to

the ______ . It is going to a _______ because _____ .

If you do not agree with the decision, the case goes to an

_______ . They have to review it because _________.

Yours faithfully,
T. Greer

Unit 6

1. Before you read the passage, talk about these questions.

a) What are some things that determine which court hears
a certain case?
b) Sometimes a case could be heard in more than one type
of court. Why do you think this is?

2. Read the text and complete the table using information from it.


Jurisdiction is the authority to judge legal matters. Jurisdiction is given

to legal bodies or political leaders. There are three main types of
1. Personal jurisdiction is authority over a person.
2. Territorial jurisdiction is authority over an area.
3. Subject jurisdiction is authority over a particular subject.
Jurisdiction in courts can be exclusive or concurrent. With exclusive
court jurisdiction, only one court is able to decide the issue. With
concurrent jurisdiction, more than one court is able to adjudicate. In
this case, lawyers are able to go forum shopping. They choose the court
which is more likely to rule in favor of their clients.

1 -------------------------- Authority over a person

Territorial jurisdiction 2 -------------------------
3 --------------------------- Authority in one particular subject
Exclusive Jurisdiction 4 ---------------------------
5 --------------------------- More than one court can decide
the issue

3. Choose the sentence that uses the underlined parts correctly.

1 A The district court has subject jurisdiction over ten towns in the

B The lawyer was happy when the court ruled in favor of
his client.

2 A The manager has authority over all the workers in his


B The judge went forum shopping to find a court to hear

his case.

3 A Schools, shops and churches are legal bodies.

B Judge Reynolds is going to adjudicate the case.

4. Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined


1. Mr. Jones wants to know which court has authority over

a region in this town.
t_______i__ j___s_____o_

2. The district court’s jurisdiction in this matter is the only one.


3. In which circumstances does a court have authority over a

certain type of person?
p____n__ _u_____c____

4. Jurisdiction for the case is under the authority of several

different courts.
_ o _ _ _ r _ __ _ _

5. Ms. Carter is choosing a court to see which court is likely to

rule in her client’s favor.
f__u_ __o__i_g

6. The Department of Justice is one of the organizations that

enforce laws in the US.

_e__l _o_i__

7. The case is being heard in a civil court since that court has
authority over the topic.

_u__e___ j___s__c____

5. Listen and read the text again. How many types of jurisdiction
are there?

6. Listen to a conversation between two attorneys discussing a case.

Choose the correct answers.

1. Why does the man think the case is going to the district court?
A The case relates to a particular subject.
B He believes it has exclusive jurisdiction.
C He asked to have it tried in the district court.
D It might rule in their favor.

2. What is most likely to happen next?

A The man is going to research the subject of the case.
B The woman is going to adjudicate the case in the district
C The woman is going to see which legal bodies have
D The man is going to make sure the case is under territorial

7. Listen again and complete the conversation.

Lawyer 1: Which court is this case going to?
Lawyer 2: Probably to the district court. It has 1 ________
Lawyer 1: A subject-specific court is able to 2 _______ this
mkjatter, too. Right?
Lawyer 2: I don’t think so.
Lawyer 1: Really? I thought jurisdiction was 3 _______ .
Lawyer 2: You’re 4 _______ to check. But I don’t think any
other 5 ______ ______ have authority.

Lawyer 1: I’ll find out. I think we could choose a court
more likely to rule in our 6 ______ .
Lawyer 2: I hope you’re right.



Supplementary reading

The Aims of Law

Law is a system of rules a society sets to maintain order and protect

harm to persons and property. Law is ancient, dating back to the Code
of Hammurabi, written by an ancient Babylonian king around 1760 B.C.
Law has several aims. One of the aims of law is to maintain order
and resolve disputes that arise between individuals. The other aim is to
impose responsibility if one person has a legal claim against another.
Law makes society more stable and enables people to flourish. If people
disobey the rules the law threatens them with something unpleasant
(punishment or paying compensation).With laws people can live more
Laws guarantee to people who buy and sell goods, make wills, take
employment, form companies and so on that the state will enforce these
arrangements. Law not only threatens those who do what it forbids but
promises to protect people’s interests. It imposes restrictions on them
but also gives them certain guarantees. A very important aim of law is to
settle what the system of government is to be.
Governments make laws for their citizens, they use a system of
courts and the police to enforce these laws. Laws are written by

The legal system

In England there are three main types of law: statute law, common law
and European Union law.
Statute law
In theory the Legislature (Parliament) makes laws which are
administered by the Executive (Her Majesty’s Government) and when
there are disputes they are decided by the Judiciary (the judges and the
Most new laws are initiated by the Government, although a few come
from individual members of Parliament. A Bill is drafted and placed
before Parliament. It receives three ‘readings’ in the House of
Commons. The Bill is examined and amended, before passing on to the
House of Lords which may reject it all or in part. The Lords cannot
prevent the Commons from passing a Bill, but they can delay the

process. Once a Bill has passed through all its stages in Parliament it
goes to the Queen for the Royal Assent and becomes an Act of
Parliament and the law of the land.
Common law
Common law originated in England. It is a system of laws that have
been developed from customs and from decisions made by judges, not
created by Parliament. English law relies on case law, a collection of
previous decisions, called precedents. English courts look at precedents
and make a similar decision.
European Union Law
In 1972 the United Kingdom entered the European Community (now the
European Union).
There are four E.U. institutions: the Commission, the European
Parliament, the Council of Ministers, the European Court of Justice.
European Union law is superior to the law of individual member states.
In other words, if there is a conflict between the law of a state and that
of the E.U., then the E.U. has to be obeyed.

Civil law, Common law, Criminal law.

The term ‘civil law’ contrasts with both ‘common law’ and ‘criminal
Civil law is 1) the legal system developed from Roman codified law; 2)
the area of the law concerned with non-criminal matters.
Common law is the legal system which is the foundation of the legal
systems of most of the English-speaking countries, based on customs
and court decisions.
Criminal law is the area of the law which deals with crimes and
Civil law is opposed to common law as a legal system.
Civil law was inspired by old Roman law, the main feature of which
was that laws were written into a collection and codified. The principle
of civil law is to provide all citizens with a written collection of laws
which apply to them and which judges must follow. In contrast,

common law was originally developed through customs, at a time
before laws were written down.
Common law is based on precedents created by judicial decisions. It
means that past judgments are taken into consideration when cases are
Civil law is opposed to criminal law as the body of law.
Civil law deals with rights of private citizens. Violation of these rights is
a private wrong, or tort. Criminal law is the body of law setting limits of
social conduct and forbidding unlawful actions. Violation of these laws
is a public wrong, or wrong against society.

Enforcing the Law

Governments have many ways of making sure that citizens obey

the law. They make the public aware of what the law is and try to
encourage social support for law and order. They use police forces to
investigate crimes and catch criminals. They authorize courts to
complete the investigation of criminal and civil offences and pass
sentences to punish the guilty and deter others. And they make efforts
to re-educate and reform people who have broken law.
The laws of all countries are to be found in written records – the
legal codes of countries with continental systems, the statutes and case
judgements of common law countries, warnings on official forms and
notices in public buildings. Many people do not know where to find
these records and do not find it easy to read them. But ignorance of the
law is almost never a defense for breaking it. Governments usually
expect citizens to be aware of the laws which affect their lives.
Sometimes they seem very harsh, for example, when the law is very


Britain has 52 regional police forces, which are responsible for

maintaining law and order in their own area. London has two police
forces, the Metropolitan Police and the City of London Police. Each
regional police force is led by a Chief Constable. Police officers wear

dark blue uniforms, and constables wear tall hard helmets. The British
police force is relatively small, with one police officer to every 400
people. Each police force has a Criminal Investigation Department
(CID) of detectives. CID officers are chosen from the police. They do
not wear uniforms and have the title Detective before their rank, e.g.
Detective Inspector Jones. Individual police forces have other special
units for areas such as traffic, child protection, etc. And there are also
national police organizations, such as Special Branch which works to
prevent terrorism. In 2004 the government announced the creation of a
new national organization, the Serious Organized Crime Agency.


British law is divided into civil law and criminal law. Civil law concerns
disagreements between individuals about matters such as business
contracts. Criminal law deals with offences. In civil cases, the plaintiff
brings an action against the defendant in the hope of winning damages.
Criminal cases are brought against criminals by the state.
In England most towns have a Magistrates’ court where minor criminal
cases are judged by three magistrates called Justices of the Peace,
specially trained members of the public. More serious cases are heard in
a Crown Court by a judge and a jury. Minor civil cases, such as divorce
and bankruptcy are heard in the county courts and more serious ones in
the High Court of Justice. Appeals against decisions from the Crown
Court or the High Court go to the Court of Appeal. A few cases, where a
question of law is in doubt go to the House of Lords.

Lawyers’ work

Lawyers work to assure the principle of equal justice under law to

the people of the state.
A lawyer is both an advisor and an advocate. As an advisor, a
lawyer informs clients about legal matters or represents persons,
businesses, and the government in such matters as contracts and
commercial transactions.
As an advocate, a lawyer acts for the client in court. A lawyer also
advocates on behalf of clients in resolving disputes out of court.

Lawyers’ work can include defending or prosecuting those accused
of committing a crime.
Lawyers research legal issues, draft contracts, wills and other
documents, counsel, mediate, and negotiate settlements.
Some lawyers specialize in advising corporations working as in-
house counsel. They also act for the company in court if a dispute arises.
Most lawyers practice in law firms that can be small or big, but
usually have different areas to counsel clients on.
Usually, lawyers concentrate on a certain practice area: taxation or
intellectual property, some practice public interest law, for example
working to protect the environment.
Some lawyers may be appointed or elected to serve as judges.
Judges preside in the courtroom. They resolve disputes and give the
judgments. In a jury trial they rule on points of law and tell the jury
about the law that governs the case.
Lawyers also work for various government agencies and
Legal careers also include teaching law and research.

Professional Titles

The legal profession in England is divided into two main groups:

barristers and solicitors. A distinction between them is that barristers
do the court work and solicitors do the office work. A barrister spends
most of his time either in a courtroom or preparing his arguments for the
court and a solicitor spends most of his time in an office giving advice
to clients , making investigations and preparing documents.
Barristers specialize in arguing cases in front of a judge and have
the right to be heard, the right of audience, even in the highest courts.
They are experts in the interpretation of the law. They are called in to
advise on really difficult points. The barrister is also an expert on
advocacy (the art of presenting cases in court). They are not paid
directly by clients, but are employed by solicitors. Barristers work in
what are known as chambers. They belong to the institutions called Inns
of Court, which are ancient organizations rather like exclusive clubs.
Judges are usually chosen from the most senior barristers, when they are
appointed they cannot continue to practice as barrister.

Solicitors do much of the preparation for cases which they then
hand to barristers. Solicitors do legal work which does not come before
a court, such as drawing up wills and dealing with litigation which is
settled out of court. Solicitors have the right of audience in lower courts,
but in higher courts they must have a barrister argue their client’s case.
In the United States there is no division of the profession and a
lawyer does both office work and courtroom work. A practicing lawyer
in the USA is an attorney.

Entering the Profession

In some countries in order to practice as a lawyer it is necessary to

get a university degree in law. In others, a degree may be insufficient,
professional examinations must be passed.
In Britain the main requirement is to pass the Bar Final examination
(for barristers) or the Law Society Final examination (for solicitors).
Most solicitors begin their careers with a degree, usually in law, from a
recognized university followed by a year in a specialized law school run
by Law Society. Then follows two years' practical experience as an
articled clerk. During this time his work is closely supervised by an
experienced lawyer, and he must take further courses. Barristers must
have a second class honours degree from a recognized university. Then
follows a one-year course at the Inns of Court School of Law. After the
Bar final examinations, a student must find a pupillage in chambers,
where he is attached to an experienced barrister and attends court with
him for 12 months, learning his profession.

Under the legal system of England a person accused of a serious crime
who pleads ‘not guilty’ to the crime will be tried by a jury. Juries also
hear some civil cases and decide whether a person is ‘liable ‘ or ‘not
liable’. Jurors are selected at random from lists of adults who have the
right to vote. They must be between the ages of 18 and 70 and have
lived in Britain for at least five years. Members of the armed forces, the
legal profession and the police force are not allowed to sit on juries. In

England 12 people sit on a jury. The court pays only their expenses.
Lawyers representing either side in a case have the right to object to a
particular person being on a jury. The jury hears the evidence presented
by both sides. After that the jury retires to the jury room to discuss the
case. When all members of the jury agree they return the verdict, go
back into court and say whether the accused is guilty or not guilty. The
verdict is announced by the foreman (= the person chosen by the jury as
their leader). Sometimes the jury cannot all agree and the judge may
allow a majority verdict (no more than two members of the jury
disagree). If no verdict is reached the trial is abandoned and started
again with a new jury. It is not the responsibility of the jury to decide
punishment though in some civil cases they may decide how much
compensation should be paid.

Differences in criminal and civil procedure

Differences in criminal and civil procedure include:

 the parties involved
 the standard of proof
 the outcomes
Criminal actions are nearly always started by the state. Civil actions are
usually started by individuals. The party bringing a criminal action is
called the prosecution, but the party bringing a civil action is the
claimant. In both kinds of action the other party is known as the
The standards of proof are higher in a criminal action than in a civil one
as the loser may be not only fined but also sent to prison (or, in some
countries, executed). In English law the prosecution must prove the guilt
of a criminal ‘beyond reasonable doubt’; but the claimant in a civil
action is required to prove his case ‘on the balance of probabilities’.
Thus in a criminal case a crime cannot be proven if the person or
persons judging it doubt the guilt of the suspect and have a reason for
this doubt. But in a civil case, the court will weigh all the evidence and
decide what is most probable.
A criminal action may result in a conviction and punishment of the
defendant. A civil action may result in liability on the part of the
defendant and damages are awarded to the claimant.


abandon - оставлять
accept - принимать; соглашаться
accident - (несчастный) случай
according (to) - согласно; по
accreditation - аккредитование
accusation - обвинение
accuse (of) - обвинять; предъявлять официальное обвинение
accused - обвиняемый; подсудимый
acquit - оправдать; признать невиновным
act - действие, деяние; закон; акт || поступать, действовать
Act of Parliament - акт парламента
action - действие, деяние; иск; судебное дело
activity – деятельность, мероприятия
address – обращаться
adjudicate – рассматривать спор; разрешить спор; вынести
судебное решение или приговор; судить
administer - управлять, применять
administrative law – административное право
adult - совершеннолетний
advertisement - объявление, реклама
advice - совет, консультация (юриста)
advise – извещать; советовать(ся), консультировать(ся)
advisor – советник, консультант
advocacy - адвокатская деятельность; адвокатура; защита
advocate - адвокат, защитник || защищать
affect - воздействовать, влиять; вредить, наносить ущерб
agency – орган, учреждение, организация
agenda - повестка
agent - агент; представитель; посредник
agree - соглашаться; договариваться; сходиться во мнениях
agreement – согласие; соглашение
aim - цель; намерение
allow – допускать, разрешать, позволять
amend - вносить поправку
ancient – древний, старый

announce – объявлять, заявлять
annoy – досаждать,; раздражать; беспокоить
appeal - апеллировать; подавать апелляционную жалобу
appear – являться в суд, представать перед судом
applicant – проситель, заявитель
appoint - назначать
approach - приближаться
area – область, зона, сфера
argue – аргументировать, доказывать, заявлять; дискутировать
argument – аргумент, довод, доказательство; аргументация;
выступление по делу; речь адвоката
arise - возникать
armed forces – вооруженные силы
arraignment – предъявление обвинения
arrange - урегулировать; договариваться; приходить к
arrangement - соглашение; договоренность
arrest - арест; задержание || арестовывать; задерживать
article – раздел, статья, пункт, параграф
articled clerk – служащий конторы солиситора, выполняющий
свою работу в порядке платы за обучение профессии
assault - нападение; совершить нападение
assertion – утверждение; заявление
asset - имущество; средства; активы
assist – помогать, содействовать, способствовать
assistance – помощь; содействие
assistant - помощник
assistant prosecutor – помощник обвинителя
associate – компаньон, партнер
assure - заверять, уверять; гарантировать; обеспечивать
attach – прикомандировывать, назначать
attack – нападение || нападать
attempt – пытаться; пробовать
attend - посещать
attorney – поверенный в суде, юрист, адвокат
authority – власть; полномочие; сфера компетенции

authorize – уполномочивать, управомочивать;
санкционировать, разрешать
available – (при)годный, имеющийся в распоряжении,
avoid – избегать
award - решение; присуждение || выносить решение;
award damages - присуждать возмещение убытков
aware (of) - (о)сознающий; знающий
B.C. – before Christ до нашей эры
bailiff – бейлиф, судебный пристав
bankruptcy - банкротство
bankruptcy court – суд по делам о несостоятельности
Bar – адвокатура, коллегия адвокатов; барристеры; профессия
bargain – сделка; соглашение; договор
barrister - барристер (адвокат, имеющий право выступать в
высших судах)
base - основывать
basics – самые простые и важные вещи, необходимые в данной
ситуации; основные, главные, самые существенные вещи
battery - нанесение побоев, избиение
beat – бить; победить
behave – вести себя, поступать
behavior - поведение
belief – мнение, убеждение
believe – верить; думать; считать
belong - принадлежать
bench – скамья; судейское место
beyond reasonable doubt - вне всяких разумных, обоснованных
biased – пристрастный, предубежденный
bill – счет
book a hotel – забронировать место в гостинице
branch – отделение, филиал; ветвь; отрасль
break a law – нарушать закон
bring a lawsuit against - заявить (предъявить, вчинить,
возбудить) иск; возбудить судебное дело против кого-л.

bureaucracy – бюрократия, бюрократизм
business – дело, занятие; предприятие
capital punishment – смертная казнь
care – забота; попечение; осторожность
career – карьера, успех; профессия, занятие
carelessness – неосторожность, небрежность
case – случай; казус; судебное дело
case law - прецедентное право
cause - основание; мотив; причина || причинять
certain - определенный; неизменный; постоянный
certification – выдача свидетельства, удостоверения;
chamber – палата; коллегия судей; pl контора адвоката
charge - обвинение || обвинять
check – проверять; контролировать
circumstance - обстоятельство; факт
cite – цитировать; ссылаться; указывать
citizen - гражданин
civil - гражданский
civil case – гражданское дело
civil law – гражданское право; Римское право
civil law attorney – адвокат, специализирующийся в
гражданском праве
claim – требование; претензия; иск || требовать, заявлять;
искать(в суде)
claimant - истец
clerk of the court – судебный секретарь
client - клиент, заказчик
code – кодекс; код || кодировать
codified - кодифицированный
codify – кодифицировать
collection - собрание
commercial – торговый, коммерческий
commission - комиссия
commit - совершать (действие)
commit a crime – совершать преступление
common – общий (о праве); простой, обыкновенный

common law – общее право
company - общество; компания
compensate – возмещать; компенсировать
compensation - возмещение, компенсация
complaint – жалоба, рекламация, претензия
complete – заканчивать; завершать
compliance – выполнение; соблюдение; соответствие
comply with – соответствовать чему-л.
concept - понятие, концепция
concern – касаться, иметь отношение к (чему-л._
concerned with – имеющий отношение к (чему-л.); связанный с
concerning – относительно; касательно
conclusion – заключение, вывод; решение (суда)
concurrent jurisdiction - совпадающая юрисдикция
conduct - вести
confirm - подтверждать; утверждать; санкционировать
conflict – конфликт, столкновение, противоречие
connect (to) – соединять, связывать
consider – рассматривать, обсуждать, обдумывать
constable – констебль (полицейский)
constitutional – конституционный, соответствующий
continental system – система континентально-европейского
contract - договор, контракт
contrast – конрастировать; отличаться
conviction - осуждение (признание виновным); судимость
corporation - корпорация; юридическое лицо
correct – исправлять, поправлять
correspondence – корреспонденция, письма
Council of Ministers - Совет министров
counsel – обсуждение, совещание; совет || советовать,
count (on) – рассчитывать на
county court - суд графства
course – курс, направление, линия поведения
court - суд; судья; судьи

Сourt of Appeal - апелляционный суд
Сourt of Appeals – апелляционный суд (высшая судебная
инстанция в ряде штатов США)
court of private land claims – суд тяжб, связанных с частной
county court - суд графства
Crown Court - Суд короны
district court – федеральный районный суд (федеральный
суд первой инстанции в США)
federal court – федеральный суд (в отличии от суда
general court – суд первой инстанции общей юрисдикции
High court – Высокий Суд
higher court – вышестоящий суд
lower court – нижестоящий суд
Magistrates’ court - суд магистрата; мировой суд
small claims court – суд мелких тяжб
specialized court – специализированный суд
state court – суд штата
subject-specific court – предметный суд
Supreme Court – Верховный суд (федеральный суд в
большинстве штатов США)
tax court – налоговый суд
court process – судопроизводство; судебный процесс
court reporter – судебный секретарь
courtroom – зал судебных заседаний
create - создавать
creation – создание
credibility – достоверность; правдивость
credible – заслуживающий доверия; правдивый
crime – преступление
criminal - преступник || преступный; уголовный
Criminal Investigation Department (CID) – уголовно-следственный
criminal law – уголовное право
Crown Court - Суд короны
custom - обычай
damage – ущерб; убыток; вред

damages - возмещение убытков
dangerous - опасный
deadline – предельный срок
deal (with) - заключать сделку; иметь дело (с кем.-л., чем-л.)
decide – решать, выносить судебное решение
decision - решение
decline - отклонять; отказывать(ся)
defend - защищать(ся); выступать защитником
defendant - ответчик; обвиняемый; подсудимый
defense - оборона, защита; защита на суде; аргументация
ответчика; возражение по иску
defense attorney – атторней защиты, адвокат, юрист
defense lawyer – адвокат защиты
degree – степень; стадия
delay - задерживать
deliver a verdict – выносить решение, приговор
demand package – запрос документов по делу
department of justice – министерство юстиции
depend (on) – зависеть
description - описание
deserve - заслуживать
detective – детектив, сыщик
deter (from) – удерживать от совершения чего-л.
determine – определять, решать; устанавливать
develop - развивать; создавать
direct – указывать; направлять; руководить
disagree – расходиться, не соответствовать; не соглашаться
disagreement – различие; несогласие, расхождение во мнениях
disciplinary action – дисциплинарная мера
discovery – истребование документов по делу
discretionary - дискреционный, предоставленный на
dismiss - отклонять (иск); отказывать (в иске); прекращать
disobey – не повиноваться, не подчиняться
dispute –спор || спорить
distinction - различие

district court – федеральный районный суд (федеральный суд
первой инстанции в США)
divide – делить, подразделять
division – деление, разделение
divorce – расторжение брака, развод || расторгать брак,
documentation - документы, документация
doubt – сомнение || сомневаться
draft - составлять проект
draw – составлять, оформлять (документ)
drop - бросать
due – должный, надлежащий
due process – надлежащая (правовая) процедура
dump – сбрасывать (отходы)
duty - обязанность
effort - усилие
elect - избирать, выбирать
elicit – извлекать; выявлять
employ – предоставлять работу
employee - служащий, работник по найму
employer - наниматель
employment – служба, работа, занятость
enable – давать возможность
enclose – вкладывать
encourage - поощрять; способствовать
enforce - принудительно применять; обеспечивать соблюдение,
ensure – обеспечивать, гарантировать
enter - входить, вступать
entire – полный; целый; весь
entitled (to) – имеющий право, управомоченный
environment - окружающая среда, обстановка
environmental – относящийся к окружающей среде, обстановке
equal – равный
escape – бегство из под стражи, побег || бежать из под стражи
establish - основывать, создавать; учреждать
etiquette – этикет; правила поведения
European - европейский

European Commission - Европейская Комиссия
European Community – Европейское Сообщество
European Court of Justice – Европейский суд
European Union – Европейский Союз
event – случай; событие; происшествие
evidence – средство или средства доказывания; доказательство;
доказательства; свидетельское показание
examine - опрашивать (в суде); рассматривать
exclusive jurisdiction – исключительная юрисдикция
execute – исполнять; совершать
Executive – исполнительная власть
expect – ожидать; рассчитывать; предполагать
expenses – расходы; издержки
experience - опыт
expert – эксперт, специалист
expert witness – свидетель-эксперт
eyewitness – свидетель очевидец
factual - фактический
fail - терпеть неудачу; не удаваться
fair - честный; справедливый
false - неправильный; ложный; фальшивый; обманный
faulty - имеющий недостатки, дефекты; неправильный;
favour – пристрастие; польза; интерес
federal court – федеральный суд (в отличии от суда штата)
fee – гонорар, вознаграждение; взнос; денежный сбор
fee agreement – соглашение о стоимости услуг адвоката
(юриста) и расходах
file - подача (документа); картотека; досье, дело || подавать
(документ); регистрировать
file a complaint – подать жалобу
find guilty – признать виновным
fine - штраф || штрафовать
fire - увольнять
firsthand – непосредственный, прямой; полученный из первых

flourish – процветать, преуспевать
follow – следовать; соблюдать; придерживаться
forbid - - запрещать
force – заставлять; принуждать
foreman – старшина присяжных
form - форма; установленный образец || формировать;
form letter- установленный образец; бланк; анкета
formally – формально; официально
former – прежний, бывший
forum shopping – выбор суда для обращения
foundation – основание; основа
general court – суд первой инстанции общей юрисдикции
get in trouble – вступить в конфликт с законом
get loose – вырваться на свободу; сорваться с цепи
go to jail – получить тюремное заключение
goal - цель
govern – управлять, руководить
government - управление; руководство; власть
government agency – правительственный орган;
исполнительная власть; государственный орган
guarantee – поручительство; гарантия || гарантировать
guilt - вина
guilty - виновный
hand – вручать, передавать
handle - рассматривать, разбирать; обрабатывать (документы,
harm - вред, ущерб || причинять вред; наносить ущерб
hearing – слушание; устное разбирательство в суде
heavy punishment – тяжкое наказание
helmet – шлем, каска
Her Majesty - ее (королевское) величество
High court – Высокий Суд
higher court – вышестоящий суд
hire - нанимать
honestly – честно, правдиво
hostile – неприятельский, враждебный
House of Commons - палата общин

House of Lords - палата лордов
hung jury – состав присяжных, не пришедших к единому
hurt – вред, ущерб || наносить вред, ущерб; телесное
ignorance – незнание, неосведомленность
illegal - незаконный, противозаконный, противоправный;
impact (on) - влияние, воздействие
impose - налагать; назначать
in favour of – в пользу
in response to – в ответ на
in return for – взамен на; в ответ на
Incorporated - зарегистрированный как корпорация; имеющий
права юридического лица
incorrect - неправильный
individual - отдельное лицо, личность; физическое лицо ||
личный, индивидуальный, отдельный
infer – делать вывод; подразумевать
in-house counsel – юрист компании
initial - первоначальный
initiate - начинать
initiate a lawsuit – возбудить судебное дело
injunction – судебный запрет
injure - причинить вред; нарушить права
Inn – «инн», школа подготовки барристеров
Inns of Court – «Судебные Инны» (четыре английские школы
подготовки барристеров)
innocence - невиновность
innocent – невиновный
inspired - вдохновленный
institution - организация
insufficient - недостаточный
intake memo – заметки юриста при приеме нового клиента
intellectual – умственный, интеллектуальный
interpret – толковать, интерпретировать
interpretation - толкование
interrupt - прерывать

investigate – расследовать; изучать; рассматривать
investigation – расследование; изучение
investigator - следователь
involve (in) - вовлекать; включать в себя; влечь за собой
issue – спорный вопрос, предмет обсуждения
jail – тюрьма; тюремное заключение
jeopardize – подвергать риску
judge - судья || судить, рассматривать дело
judicial - судебный; судейский
Judiciary - судебная власть
jurisdiction - отправление правосудия; юрисдикция;
подсудность; судебный округ
concurrent jurisdiction - совпадающая юрисдикция
exclusive jurisdiction – исключительная юрисдикция
personal jurisdiction – персональная юрисдикция
subject jurisdiction – предметная юрисдикция
territorial jurisdiction – территориальная юрисдикция
juror – присяжный заседатель
jury - присяжные; суд присяжных
jury box – скамья присяжных
jury room – комната для присяжных
justice - справедливость; правосудие; юстиция
Justice of the Peace - мировой судья
keep order – обеспечивать порядок
kill – лишать жизни, убивать
land - земельная собственность; недвижимость
language - язык
last will – последняя воля, завещание
law - право; закон
law of the land - закон (право) страны
lawsuit – судебное дело, иск; тяжба; правовой спор; судебный
lawyer - юрист; адвокат; юрисконсульт
lead – возглавлять, руководить
lead (to) - вести, приводить к чему-л.
leader – руководитель, лидер
leash - привязь

legal - юридический; правовой; законный; судебный
legal body – правовой орган
legislation – законодательство; закон; законотворческая
legislator- законодатель
Legislature - законодательная власть (орган)
lesser – меньший; небольшой
let go - отпустить
level - уровень
liability - ответственность; обязанность
liable - ответственный; обязанный
license - разрешение; лицензия
lie – лгать
light punishment – легкое (мягкое) наказание
limit – лимит, предел || ограничивать
list - список
litigation – тяжба; судебный спор; процесс
litigation case – судебное дело
loser - проигравший
loss - потеря; убыток, ущерб
loss of earnings – потеря трудоспособности
lower court – нижестоящий суд
machinery - оборудование
Magistrates’ court - суд магистрата; мировой суд
maintain - сохранять в силе; поддерживать
majority verdict - вердикт, вынесенный большинством
matter - предмет; вопрос; факт; дело
mean – означать, значить
mediate – посредничать, выступать в качестве посредника
medical cost – стоимость медицинских услуг
medical record – официальный документ о ч-л. здоровье;
медицинская справка
meet laws (requirements) – соответствовать законам
member - член
memo – меморандум, заметка, памятный листок
Metropolitan Police – столичная полиция, лондонская полиция
minor – мелкий, незначительный

minor crime – малозначительное преступление
mistrial – судебный процесс, в котором не выносится решение о
виновности или невиновности лица
misuse – неправильно использовать; злоупотреблять
monetary damages – денежная компенсация ущерба
murder - тяжкое убийство
national – национальный, государственный
negligence - неосторожность
negligent - небрежный; допущенный по небрежности
negotiate - вести переговоры; договариваться
notice – предупреждение; уведомление; извещение
oath – клятва; присяга
obey - подчиняться
object (to) - возражать
obtain - получать, приобретать
off the record – не для протокола
offence - правонарушение; преступление
offend – оскорблять; нарушать
offer - предложение; оферта || предлагать
officer – должностное лицо; чиновник; служащий
official – официальный; государственный
on behalf of – от лица, от имени
on the balance of probabilities – при равновесии вероятностей
operate – иметь юридическое действие; иметь юридическую
opinion – мнение; заключение
oppose (to) - противопоставлять
order - приказ; предписание; требование; порядок ||
приказывать; предписывать
originate - возникать
outcome - результат; исход
out-of-court settlement – мировая сделка
overlook – не замечать; пропускать
owe – быть должным
owner - собственник; владелец
pamphlet - брошюра
paper - документ
paralegal – лицо, имеющее подготовку для помощи адвокату

Parliament - Парламент
particular – особый; отдельный; определенный
party - сторона (по делу, в договоре и т.д.)
pass – проходить; одобрять, утверждать, принимать
pay rise – повышение заработной платы
perjury - лжесвидетельство
permission - разрешение
person – лицо (физическое или юридическое); человек
personal jurisdiction – персональная юрисдикция
pertain – иметь отношение, относиться
place – ставить, помещать, предоставлять
plaintiff – истец
plea – заявление оснований иска или обвинения; аргумент; иск
plea bargain – сделка о признании вины
plead – заявлять (в суде)
plead guilty – признать себя виновным
plead not guilty – заявить о невиновности
pleased - довольный
point – пункт; вопрос
police force - полиция; полицейское подразделение
police report – отчет полиции
policy - политика; линия поведения; тактика
potential – потенциальный, возможный
power – способность; право; правомочие; компетенция; власть
practice – практика; применение
practise – практиковать, заниматься деятельностью
precedent - прецедент
preference - предпочтение
prejudiced – пристрастный; предубежденный
preliminary - предварительный
pre-litigation folder – папка с документами, необходимыми для
preparation - подготовка
prepare – готовить; подготавливать
present - подавать, представлять
preside – председательствовать; руководить заседанием
pre-trial hearing – досудебное слушание
prevent (from) – предотвращать; предупреждать

previous – предшествующий, прежний
primary - предварительный; главный
print - печатать
prison - тюрьма
private - частный
probable – вероятный, возможный
probate – доказывание завещания
probation – испытание; пробация, система испытания (вид
условного осуждения)
procedural - процедурный; процессуальный
procedure – процедура; порядок; судопроизводство; процесс
proceeding - иск; процессуальное действие; рассмотрение дела
в суде; процесс
process - процедура, порядок; судопроизводство; судебный
promise – обещание || обещать
promotion – повышение в должности
proof - доказательство; доказывание
properly – надлежащим образом
property - собственность; имущество
prosecute - искать в суде; преследовать; обвинять
prosecution - судебное преследование, уголовное
преследование; обвинение
prosecutor - обвинитель
protect - защищать
protection – защита, охрана
protest – протестовать; заявлять, утверждать
protocol - протокол
prove - доказывать
prove guilt - доказывать вину
prove guilty – доказать виновность
prove innocence – доказывать невиновность
provide - предусматривать; предоставлять; обеспечивать
public – народ, общество, население || государственный;
публичный; общественный
punish - наказывать
punishment – наказание
punitive – карательный, штрафной

punitive damages - штрафные убытки; убытки, присуждаемые в
порядке наказания
pupilage - ученичество
purpose - цель; намерение
put into effect – осуществлять, проводить в жизнь, выполнять
put on probation - приговорить к пробации (условному
qualification - квалификация
Queen - королева
questioning - допрос
random – сделанный наугад
rank – звание, чин
reach – простираться; достигать, доходить до
reason – причина, основание, мотив || излагать мотив
receive – получать, принимать
recognized – признанный, общепризнанный
recommend – рекомендовать, советовать
record – запись; протокол, дело; документ || записывать;
re-educate - перевоспитывать
refer (to) - ссылаться (на); относиться (к)
reform – реформировать, исправлять
refuse – отказывать, отклонять
regard – касаться; иметь отношение к
regional – областной, районный, местный
regulate – регулировать; регламентировать
regulation - регулирование; регламентирование
reject - отвергать; отклонять
relate (to) - относиться, иметь отношение
relatively - относительно
release - освобождать
relevant - относящийся к делу
reliable – достоверный; надежный
rely (on) – полагаться, надеяться (на что-л.)
remove – смещать с должности; отстранять от должности
report – сообщать; докладывать; отчитываться
represent - представлять; быть представителем
request – просьба; требование || просить; требовать

require – требовать; приказывать
requirement - требование; необходимое условие
research – исследование; изучение || исследовать; изучать
reserve – резервировать; откладывать
resolve – решать, принимать решение
resolve a complaint – принимать решение по жалобе
respect – уважение || уважать
response - ответ
responsibility - ответственность
responsible (for) - ответственный; несущий ответственность
restriction - ограничение
result - результат || иметь результат; иметь результатом
retainer agreement – договор с адвокатом о ведении им дела и
сохранении адвокатских услуг; предварительный гонорар
retention – сохранение; удержание
retire - выходить (из товарищества и т.д.); выходить на пенсию,
в отставку
return the verdict – выносить вердикт
review – рассмотрение; пересмотр; рецензия || рассматривать;
пересматривать; рецензировать
right - право; правопритязание
right of audience – право выступать в суде
Roman - римский
Royal Assent - королевское одобрение
ruin – разрушать; уничтожать
rule - правило; норма права; постановление || постановлять,
rule in favour – решать в пользу
safety – безопасность; сохранность
scene of a crime – место преступления
schedule (for) - включать в график; намечать, планировать
second class honours degree – диплом с отличием второй
securely - надежно
seek - искать; добиваться; обращаться (за чем-л.)
select – отбирать; подбирать
send to jail – заключать в тюрьму

send to prison - заключать в тюрьму
senior - старший
sentence - приговор (к наказанию); наказание (по приговору) ||
приговаривать (к наказанию)
Serious Organized Crime Agency – агенство по расследованию
тяжких организованных преступлений
serious punishment – суровое наказание
serve – служить; отбывать (наказание)
set – устанавливать, определять
settle - урегулировать
settlement – урегулирование
shoplifting - кража в магазине
shot - зд. попытка, возможность
show - доказать; представить доказательства
side – сторона; сторона по делу
sign - подписывать
similar – похожий, подобный
sit – заседать; sit on – быть членом
sit for the trial – заседать в суде
sit on a jury – быть членом суда присяжных
small claims court – суд мелких тяжб
social - общественный; социальный
society - общество
solicitor - солиситор; юрисконсульт
solution – разрешение; решение
solve – разрешить, решить (вопрос и т. д.)
source – источник
special – специальный; особый; отдельный
Special Branch – особое отделение
specialize (in) - специализироваться
specialized – определенный, специализированный
specialized court – специализированный суд
stable – устойчивый, стабильный
stage – период, стадия
standard of proof – критерий доказанности
start a case – представить дело в суд; возбудить иск, судебное
state - государство; штат || заявлять; утверждать; излагать

state court – суд штата
statement - заявление; утверждение; изложение; показания
statute – статут; закон; законодательный акт
steal – красть, похищать
step – шаг; мера; ступень
stop (from) – удерживать; останавливать
strong case – веские доводы
subject - предмет (договора, спора и т. д.)
subject jurisdiction – предметная юрисдикция
successfully - успешно
sue - искать в суде; преследовать по суду
suffer – пострадать; понести убытки
suggest – советовать, предлагать
suit – иск; судебное дело; судебный процесс; судопроизводство
suitable – подходящий; соответствующий
sum - сумма
superior - высший, вышестоящий
supervise - наблюдать; осуществлять надзор
support – поддерживать, подкреплять
suppress – подавлять, запрещать; скрывать , замалчивать,
suppress evidence – утаить доказательство
Supreme Court – Верховный суд (федеральный суд в
большинстве штатов США)
suspect – подозреваемое или подозрительное лицо || подозревать
swear (swore, sworn) in – приводить к присяге
sworn in - под присягой
take a legal action (against sb) - заявить (предъявить, вчинить,
возбудить) иск; возбудить судебное дело (против кого-л.)
take into consideration – принимать во внимание
take legal action – обратиться в суд
task – задача; дело
tax - налог || облагать налогом
tax court – налоговый суд
taxation - налогообложение
technical – специальный; формальный, формально-
term – термин, выражение; срок (полномочий, наказания)

termination - прекращение; окончание
territorial jurisdiction – территориальная юрисдикция
testimony – свидетельское показание, свидетельские показания
testing – испытание; исследование
theft - кража
threaten - угрожать
title - титул; звание
topic – тема, предмет (обсуждения, дискуссии и т.д.)
tort - деликт; гражданское правонарушение
tough – трудный, тяжелый; невероятный
tradition - традиция
traffic – движение, перевозка, транспорт
train – тренировать; обучать; готовить к чему-л.
training – обучение, подготовка
transaction - сделка
trespass – причинение вреда || причинять вред; противоправное
нарушение владения || противоправно нарушать владение
trial - судебное разбирательство, судебный процесс; слушание
дела по существу
trust - доверять
trustworthy – заслуживающий доверия; достоверный
truth - правда
try - судить; разбирать, рассматривать, расследовать (дело,
type - печатать
under oath – под присягой
unfair - несправедливый
unit – единица; целое
upcoming – наступающий; предстоящий
update – сообщить кому-л. самую последнюю информацию о
чем –л.
useful - полезный
valid - юридически действительный; правомерный
valuable – ценный; дорогой
various – различный, разнообразный
verbal - устный
verbal agreement – устное соглашение
verdict - решение присяжных, вердикт

view – точка зрения; мнение
violation - нарушение
violent – насильственный
vote - голос; право голоса || голосовать
warning - предупреждение, предостережение
weak case – неубедительные доводы
weigh - взвешивать
well – места адвокатов
will – воля; завещание
win - выиграть (судебное дело, процесс)
witness - свидетель
witness stand – свидетельское место для дачи показаний
worth – стоящий; имеющий цену
wreck – вызывать катастрофу, крушение; выводить из строя;
wrong - правонарушение, деликт; вред; неправильный;
wrongdoing – причинение вреда, ущерба; правонарушение
wrongful - неправильный; неправомерный
Your Honor - Ваша честь (обращение к судье)
Yours faithfully – с уважением (заключение письма)


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