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# The radian is the SI derived unit of angle. There are 2 (pi) radians (about 6.283185) in a complete circle.

## 1 rad = 360o / 2 =~ 57.29578o

The radian is defined as the angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc of circumference equal in length to the radius of the circle. Converting angular velocity to other units

## RPM to Radians and Degrees per Second Converter

RPM

Rectangular Prism

Volume of a rectangular prism can be expressed as V = l b h (1) where V = volume of solid (m3, ft3) l = length of rectangular prism (m, ft)

b = width of rectangular prism (m, ft) h = height of rectangular prism (m, ft) Surface of a rectangular prism can be expressed as A = 2 (b h + h l + l b) (1b) where A = surface area of solid (m2, ft2)

Cylinder

Volume of a cylinder can be expressed as V = r2 h (2) where r = radius of cylinder (m, ft) h = height of cylinder (m, ft) Surface of a cylinder can be expressed as A = 2 r h + 2 r2 (2b)

Pyramid

## Volume of a pyramid can be expressed as V = 1/3 l Ab (3) where

Ab = area of base (m2, ft2) h = perpendicular height of pyramid (m, ft) Surface of a cylinder can be expressed as A = sum of areas of triangles forming sides + Ab (3b) where the surface areas of the triangular faces will have different formulas for different shaped bases

Cone

Volume of a cone can be expressed as V = 1/3 r2 h (4) where r = radius of cone base (m, ft) h = height of cone (m, ft) Surface of a cone can be expressed as A = r l + r2 (4b) where l = (r2 + h2)1/2 = length of cone side (m, ft)

Sphere

## Volume of a sphere can be expressed as

V = 4/3 r3 (5) where r = radius of sphere (m, ft) Surface area of a sphere can be expressed as A = 4 r2 (5b)

## Volume Units Converting Table

The table below can be used to convert between common volume units. Multiply by Convert to Convert from us imp us dry liquid liquid barrel gallon gallon gallon s (oil) s s s fluid fluid ounce ounce s s (UK) (US) 3.52 104 3.38 104

cubic inches

cubic feet

cubic yards

cups

pints (UK)

cubic meters

6.1 104

35.3

1.308

264.2

227

220

6.29

4227

1760

cubic 61.02 decimeters cubic 0.061 centimeters cubic millimeters 6.1 10-5 6.1 103

0.035

0.264

0.227

0.22

0.006

4.23

35.2

33.8

1.76

hectoliters

3.53

0.13

26.4

22.7

22

0.63

423

3381

176

liters

61

0.26

0.23

0.22

4.2

35.2

33.8

1.76

centiliters

0.61

0.35

0.338

milliliters

6.1 10-2

3.5 10-2

3.4 10-2

cubic inches

10-4

0.58

0.55

cubic feet

0.037

7.48

6.43

6.23

0.18

119.7

49.8

cubic yards

27

202

173.6

168.2

4.8

3232

1345

231

0.134

0.86

0.83

0.024

16

133.2

128

6.7

268.8

0.156

1.16

0.97

0.028

18.62

155

148.9

7.75

277.4

0.16

1.2

1.03

0.029

19.2

160

153.7

42 6.2 10-2

35 5.2 10-2

1 1.5 10-3

672

5596

5376

279.8

cups

14.4

8.3

0.4

## fluid ounces (UK) fluid ounces (US)

1.73

10-3

3.7 10-5

7.5 10-3

6.45 10-3

6.25 10-3

1.79 10-4

0.12

0.96

5 10-2

1.8

10-3

3.87 10-5

7.8 10-3

6.7 10-3

6.5 10-3

1.89 10-4

0.13

1.04

0.052

pints (UK)

34.7

0.02

7.4 10-4

0.15

0.129

0.125

3.57 103

2.4

20

19.2

Multiply by Convert to Convert from cubic cubic cubic hectoliter decimeter centimeter millimeter s s s s

cubic meters

liters

centiliter s

milliliters

## cubic meters cubic decimeters

103

106

109

10

103

105

106

10-3

103

106

0.01

100

103

cubic centimeters cubic millimeters hectoliters liters centiliters milliliters cubic inches cubic feet cubic yards us liquid gallons us dry gallons imp liquid gallons barrels (oil) cups fluid ounces (UK) fluid ounces (US) pints (UK)

10-6

10-3

103

10-5

10-3

0.1

10-9

10-6

10-3

10-8

10-6

10-4

10-3

105 103 10 1

105 103 10 1

1.6 10-5

1.6 10-2

16.4

1.64 104

1.64 10-4

1.64

16.4

28.3 765

0.28 7.65

28.3 765

3.79 10-3

3.79

3.79 103

3.79 106

3.79 10-2

3.79

379

3.79 103

4.4 10-3

4.4

4.4 103

4.4 106

4.4 10-2

4.4

440

4.4 103

4.55 10-3

4.55

4.55 103

4.55 106

4.56 10-2

4.55

455

4.55 103

159 0.24

159 0.236

2.8 10-5

2.8 10-2

28.4

2.8 104

2.8 10-4

2.8 10-2

2.84

28.4

2.96 10-5

2.96 10-2

29.6

2.96 104

2.96 10-4

2.96 102

2.96

29.6

5.68 10-4

0.568

568

5.68 105

5.68 10-3

0.568

56.8

568

## Other Volume Units

1 m3 = 27.496 bushels (UK) 1 m3 = 28.378 bushels (US) 1 m3 = 0.001 cubic decameters 1 m3 = 1759.8 pints (UK) 1 m3 = 1816.2 pints dry (US) 1 m3 = 2113.4 pints liquid (US) 1 m3 = 879.9 quarts (UK) 1 m3 = 908.1 quarts dry (US) 1 m3 = 1056.7 quarts liquid (US) 1 m3 = 67628 table spoons 1 m3 = 202884 tea spoons

## 1 peck = 8 dry quarts 1 hogshead = 8.42184 cubic feet

Rectangle
Area of a rectangle can be expressed as A = b h (1) where A = area (m2, ft2) b = width (m, ft) h = height (m, ft)

Parallelogram
Area of a parallelogram can be expressed as A = b h (2)

Triangle
Area of a triangle can be expressed as A = 1/2 b h (3)

Trapezoid
Area of a trapezoid can be expressed as A = 1/2 (a + b) h (4)

Circle
Area of a circle can be expressed as A = r2 (5) where

## Sector and Segment of a Circle

Sector of Circle
Area of a sector of circle can be expressed as A = 1/2 r r2 (6) = 1/360 d r2 where r = angle in radians d = angle in degrees

Segment of Circle
Area of a segment of circle can be expressed as A = 1/2 (r - sin r) r2 = 1/2 ( d/180 - sin d) r2 (7)

## Right Circular Cylinder

Lateral surface area of a right circular circle can be expressed as A = 2 r h (8) where h = height of cylinder (m, ft) r = radius of base (m, ft)

## Right Circular Cone

Lateral surface area of a right circular cone can be expressed as A=rl = r (r2 + h2)1/2 (9) where h = height of cone (m, ft) r = radius of base (m, ft) l = slant length (m, ft)

Sphere
Lateral surface area of a sphere can be expressed as A = 4 r2 (10)

## A weight calculating formula for steel pipes

If the outside diameter and the wall thickness of a steel pipe is known, the weight per foot can be expressed as: m = 10.68 (do - tw) tw (1) where m = weight per foot (lbs/ft) do = outside diameter (inches) tw = wall thickness (inches)

## Example - Weight of 4" Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

The outside diameter (do) of 4" Schedule 40 Steel Pipe is 4.500 inches. The wall thickness is 0.237 inches. The weight per foot can be calculated using (1) as: m = 10.68 (4.500 - 0.237) 0.237 = 10.79 lbs/ft

Density
Density is defined as an objects mass per unit volume. Mass is a property.

## Mass and Weight - the Difference! - What is weight and what is

The density can be expressed as = m / V = 1 / vg (1) where = density (kg/m3) m = mass (kg) V = volume (m3) vg = specific volume (m3/kg)

## mass? An explanation of the difference between weight and mass.

The SI units for density are kg/m3. The imperial (BG) units are lb/ft3 (slugs/ft3). While people often use pounds per cubic foot as a measure of density in the U.S., pounds are really a measure of force, not mass. Slugs are the correct measure of mass. You can multiply slugs by 32.2 for a rough value in pounds.

## Unit converter for other units

The higher the density, the tighter the particles are packed inside the substance. Density is a physical property constant at a given temperature and density can help to identify a substance.

## Densities and material properties for common materials

Relative Density
Relative density of a substance is the ratio of the substance to the density of water, i.e.

## Example - Use the Density to Identify the Material:

An unknown liquid substance has a mass of 18.5 g and occupies a volume of 23.4 ml. (milliliter). The density can be calculated as = [18.5 (g) / 1000 (g/kg)] / [23.4 (ml) / 1000 (ml/l) 1000 (l/m3) ] = 18.5 10-3 (kg) / 23.4 10-6 (m3) = 790 kg/m3 If we look up densities of some common substances, we can find that ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, has a density of 790 kg/m3. Our unknown liquid may likely be ethyl alcohol!

## Example - Use Density to Calculate the Mass of a Volume

The density of titanium is 4507 kg/m3 . Calculate the mass of 0.17 m3 titanium! m = 0.17 (m3) 4507 (kg/m3) = 766.2 kg

Specific Weight
Specific Weight is defined as weight per unit volume. Weight is a force.

## Mass and Weight - the difference! - What is weight and what is

Specific Weight can be expressed as = g (2) where = specific weight (N/m3) = density (kg/m3) g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2)

## mass? An explanation of the difference between weight and mass.

The SI-units of specific weight are N/m3. The imperial units are lb/ft3. The local acceleration g is under normal conditions 9.807 m/s2 in SI-units and 32.174 ft/s2 in imperial units.

## Example - Specific Weight Water

Specific weight for water at 39 oF (4 oC) is 62.4 lb/ft3 (9.81 kN/m3) in imperial units. Specific weight in SI units can be calculates like = 1000 kg/m3 9.81 m/s2 = 9810 N/m3 = 9.81 kN/m3

## Example - Specific Weight Some other Materials

Specific Weight - Product Imperial Units (lb/ft3) Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerin Mercury SAE 20 Oil Seawater Water 49.3 42.5 78.6 847 57 64 62.4 SI Units (kN/m3) 7.74 6.67 12.4 133.7 8.95 10.1 9.81

Material Properties

Specific Gravity
The Specific Gravity - SG - is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of density of the material to the density of water at a specified temperature. Specific Gravity can be expressed as SG = = / H2O (3) where SG = specific gravity = density of fluid or substance (kg/m3) H2O = density of water (kg/m3) It is common to use the density of water at 4 oC (39oF) as reference - at this point the density of water is at the highest - 1000 kg/m3 or 62.4 lb/ft3.

## Thermal Properties of Water Density, Freezing temperature, Boiling

temperature, Latent heat of melting, Latent heat of evaporation, Critical temperature ... Since Specific Weight is dimensionless it has the same value in the metric SI system as in the imperial English system (BG). At the reference point the Specific Gravity has same numerically value as density.

## Example - Specific Gravity

If the density of iron is 7850 kg/m3, 7.85 grams per cubic centimeter (cm3), 7.85 kilograms per liter, or 7.85 metric tons per cubic meter - the specific gravity of iron is: SG = 7850 kg/m3/ 1000 kg/m3 = 7.85 (the density of water is 1000 kg/m3)

## TOTAL STATION DOCCUMENT

Introduction This document will describe the basic operation and application of the Leica Total Station surveying equipment as well as discuss the process of downloading the data and producing detailed topography maps using the Liscad software. It is meant to explain the operation based upon the Active Tectonics members experiences in using the equipment, and should supplement the reading of the manual and your intuition. This document contains the basic set-up and operating instructions for our electronic surveying equipment. It also contains discussions of how the instrument works, and suggestions for methods and strategies of use. Equipment Description Most of this equipment is stored in the locked cabinet, or alongside it, in the Active Tectonics lab, room 475 of the Physical Sciences H-wing. An equipment list and check out sheet are posted on the door of the cabinet. Table 1. Location of the Total Staion and its components. Picture of all items and associated checklist. Item Leica (Wild) TCM1100 self-contained Motorized Coaxial Electronic Total Station Description/Location This is the core of the surveying equipment, controlling the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurement device), manipulating and storing the data, and measuring horizontal and vertical angles. It has an optical plumb for centering over a station and two levels. The EDM is implemented around the theodolite's telescope so both sighting optics are coaxial. The EDM measures the slope distance to the reflector, and communicates the data to the theodolite. We have two TCM-1100 that are kept in the cabinet in H475. Corner-cube type. Two of these, along with a

Reflector

reflector cap, are kept alongside the cabinet in H475. Plumbing pole/reflector The reflector attaches to the top of this and it staff telescopes in height from 1.30 m to 2.15 m. It is light and a useful alpine staff, although Roland Brgmann stabbed himself before on the pointed bottom of a similar plumb pole, so be careful. Two of these are kept alongside the cabinet in H475. Tripod for Theodolite Two of these are kept alongside the cabinet in H475.

Small Internal Batteries We have two small batteries. They are inserted into a compartment on the side of the Total Station. Each of these when fully charged within a few days of the survey effort should be good for at least 300 to 800 shots, depending on use of motors. Each small battery weighs ? kg (? lb). These are kept in the locked cabinet or in its compartment in the Total Station. Gel-cell Batteries and cords The gel-cell batteries can support the Total Station for 7x the time of the internal battery. They weigh about 8 pounds (3.5 kg). They can be left on the smart charger indefinitely. We have two of these, along with padded cases. We also have two cords that plug into the side of the Total Station where a gutted battery takes place of the real one. These are also found in the locked cabinet in H475. This battery system owes its origination to Lee Amoroso, our battery specialist. Two that plug into an electrical outlet; two that run off the car battery Rechargeable battery (gel-cell) to Total Station (2); outlet to Total Station(2); adapter cable for inverter(2).

## Battery Charger Cables (see checklist)

Portable Power Inverter We have two for the batteries. International Adapter Plugs important if traveling overseas (2 sets).

Strip Surge Suppressor We have two. Verbatim SRAM Card 2MB(I think it stands The SRAM card acts as a memory module for coordinates and attributes recorded with the

## for Static Read-Only Memory, but check)

Total Station. SRAM cards can hold variable amounts of data (e.g., 2 MB SRAM cartridges, 8 MB cartridges, etc.) and allow for the Total Station operator to collect a large amount of data, given that s/he has enough SRAM cards to store the project's work. The SRAM card interfaces with a PC via the PCMCIA port; therefore, transfer of data is quick and easy. A 2MB SRAM card is capable of storing approximately 8000 blocks of data. We have 4 Motorola Radius SP50 and 4 BELL Phones (#9914-1) FRS UHF 2-Way Radios

Leica (Wild) Surveying Equipment The Leica (Wild) equipment is well known as some of the best surveying equipment available. It is often referred to as "the Cadillac" of surveying equipment. "All surveyors either own a Leica (Wild) or wish that they did" (Hanz Haselbach, Jr., personal communication, 1991). Leica (Wild) makes top of the line equipment that is used on all expeditions and has better mechanics, optics, factory support, ease of repair, and ability to maintain resale value than other manufacturers. Furthermore, the company supports older equipment by providing a modular set-up, allowing selective upgrades: We bought our system from: Surveyors Service Company 4317 N. 16th Street Phoenix, AZ 85016 (800) 938-0608 (602) 274-2052 They should be consulted for upgrades, repairs or with questions. Preparation In order to properly prepare for a survey effort, checking the equipment in the lab/office before leaving and proper reconnaissance before set up are important. On the next page is a list of equipment and the checks that should be made before leaving the office. Planning and Reconnaissance Before leaving the office, look at the base map or airphoto of the area and define the mapping project(s). Consider access. If you need permission to get on the property, you should get that well in advance. The equipment is heavy and bulky. Two people can carry it with difficulty for 1 or 2 kilometers, but it is a demoralizing experience. Therefore, try to plan appropriate vehicle access, but don't drive unnecessarily through the landscape

destroying the beauty and making a bad name for geologists! You must have a field assistant. Operating this equipment by yourself is pretty silly, although it can be done. You will end up walking at least two times the total slope length of the shots you make. The distance will add up quickly! Your helper need not be a geologist, but should be sturdy, careful, and interested. Once in the field, walk over the area with the field assistant. Look for suitable instrument stations. Much time and precision may be lost with multiple set ups. Therefore, plan the minimum number of instrument stations. A high position somewhere near the survey area should suffice. Remember that the instrument has an effective working range of at least 1 km, so if you have walkie-talkies or body signals and can communicate (see communication techniques) over long ranges, much of the survey may be completed from a single well chosen site. Consider gullies and ridges, and other obstacles that may obscure the survey. Remember that the reflector plumb staff telescopes to 2.15 m, so that may help with visibility. Be sure to communicate to the instrument operator changes in reflector height (click here to see how to enter into Total Station) and record them on the Survey Record Form and in the Thoedolite! While reconnoitering the area, consider the problem being addressed by the mapping project, and choose an appropriate and optimal strategy: What is the optimum number and distribution of points necessary for this project? What is the desired precision? Will I ever want to reoccupy this network? Be sure that the field assistant understands the strategy too, so that you do not have to have major discussions about strategy once you have started working, although the plan should be flexible if an obvious modification becomes apparent.

## Table 2. Equip and location.

Essential Total Station Equipment: Total Station and parts photo checklist Theodolite Tripod Check smoothness of horizontal and vertical spindles. Turn on and off to check electronics. Set up and make sure that it opens smoothly. There should be no play between the various components. If necessary, moderately tighten the three Allen screws under the tripod plate. When the tripod is lifted by its head, the legs should just remain spread out. Adjust the hinge screws if necessary. The yellow plastic head cover for the tripod contains an Allen key for the tripod screws. This is the memory. It should be stored in the side of the Theodolite in its compartment. Check with previous users of the instrument to determine if they have backed up any data they might need in the module so you can clear it if necessary before starting your survey. Note: It must be inscerted correctly: Look at the front with the right-side-up and that side goes on the bottom of the case. So when the case is shut the front is facing the outside of the Total Station and it is right-side-up.

## Reflector Reflector plumb staff Batteries

Ensure it is clean and stored in a clean place. Make sure it telescopes smoothly. Ensure that at least one of the large ones has been charged. To fully charge, it may take 8 to 12 hours. Also charge the on board battery on the Total Station. Optional. Make sure that you have all of the cables and parts (mouse, keyboard, etc.). Software necessary for Liscad plots include Excel, Canvas, Liscad, and the Liscad dongle. Bring some floppy disks to back up data in a few places. Used to approximately level the instrument, and to determine reference azimuth. These should be loaded up with the gear. Measures barometric pressure for scale correction Measure temperature for scale correction.

Computer

## Brunton Compass Backpack, Briefcase Altimeter Thermometer

Extra survey Equipment: Flags Flagging tape Survey Record Form Clipboard Pencils, ruler, protractor Liscad Dongle Printer and paper Cables Binoculars Walkie-Talkies Calculator Metric grid paper Rebar, steel rods, or stakes Sledge hammer Appropriate base map or Necessary to run the Liscad plotting program. Good for mapping and plotting results Printer, laptop Helps to spot instrument or rod person. Make sure batteries are fully charged and if necessary have extras. Useful for checking measurements and calculations. Useful for checking plots and measurements, and for mapping. For benchmarks. You may also want cement. Pounding benchmarks. You can use a rock hammer, too. Use these to locate benchmarks and reference locations for the survey. Do you have enough for your plan? Could be useful. Are the information columns adequate?

topographic map/airphoto

Set-up Choose an adequate instrument station as described above. In detail, ensure that you can safely operate the instrument without knocking it over. It is necessary to have the center of the instrument, which is the point of intersection of the transverse axis and the vertical axis of the instrument, directly over a given point on the ground (the Instrument Station). Also, the circle and the transverse axis must be horizontal (Moffitt, 1987). Remove the yellow plastic cap from the tripod, and leave the instrument in the case until the tripod is nearly level (see below). The tripod legs are spread (not too vertical) and their points are placed so that the tripod is approximately horizontal and the telescope is at a convenient height for sighting (this is important: you don't want to get a sore back from it being too low, nor do you want to get sore calves and fall over from it being too high). The instrument should be within 20 cm of the desired point, but no extra care is taken to set it up closely at once. If the location of the instrument station is not predetermined, set up first, and then use the optical plummet to locate the benchmark: this will save time, because it takes extra care to accurately set up over a benchmark. When setting up on rough ground, two legs of the tripod should be set at about the same elevation and the top of the tripod is made level by changing the length of the third. Consider the common sighting direction and try to have one leg pointing that way so that there will be a gap between two legs behind, and the instrument operator will not have to straddle a tripod leg for the entire session. If the instrument is more than a few inches from the given point, the tripod is shifted bodily without changing the inclination of the legs and it is set near as possible to the point. Check the level by placing a Brunton compass on top of the tripod and adjusting gently until the Brunton bubble level indicates that the top of the tripod is level. Tread tripod shoes firmly into the ground, making sure to press along the leg and not verically down (Anderson and Mikhail, 1989). If shoes do not penetrate to an equal depth, re-level by extending or retracting the tripod legs. Before attaching the instrument, check that the clamps of the telescopic legs are tight. Once the tripod is nearly level and nearly above the desired point, remove the Theodolite gently from its case and carry it with one hand on the upper handle, and one hand below, to the top of the tripod, and immediately screw the tripod fixing screw firmly into the bottom of the theodolite. The levels on the instrument are very sensitive, and therefore, the instrument should be completely set up in order to ensure that it will be properly leveled. This will also give the tripod more time to thermally equilibrate with the atmosphere and incident sunlight, since differential thermal expansion of the tripod legs will effect the levels. Now you are ready for fine leveling of the instrument. Use the three black footscrews on the tribrach (the device on the bottom of the Theodolite to which the tripod fixing screw is attached) to center the circular bubble. This is a coarse level. Turn the outer ring on the eyepiece of the optical plummet until the crosshairs are in focus. Turn the inner ring of the optical plummet until the ground point is in focus. Slacken tripod fixing screw and move instrument over tripod plate until cross hairs coincide with ground mark. Only

translate the instrument over the tripod plate, do not rotate it. Finally retighten fixing screw. Now do the fine leveling.

## Fine leveling instructions

1) Set plate level (the one in the tube--this is the fine level) parallel to two footscrews. Center plate level bubble by adjusting these two screws in equal and opposite directions. 2) Turn Theodolite through 90. Center bubble with third footscrew. 3) Turn Theodolite through 180 (in the same direction as above). Note position of bubble. Turn the third footscrew (same one used in step 2) to bring the bubble to a point halfway between the position noted and the centered position. Use the adjusting pin (in silver handle in the Theodolite case) to turn the adjustment screw until bubble is centered (see page 44 of the Theodolite manual for a picture). 4) Repeat until bubble remains centered within a single division for any position.

Note that the instrument will drift out of level as the day progresses. Repeat the above steps as needed and enter change by pressing the level button (see Operation). If the optical plummet is not above the ground point desired, slacken tripod fixing screw and move instrument over tripod plate until cross hairs coincide with ground mark. Only translate the instrument over the tripod plate, do not rotate. Retighten fixing screw. Now press the ON button and the startup menu will come on. Press the white LEVEL (figure 1) key along the bottom of the key panel followed by continue. When the levels are set press the continue button. Now that the instrument is leveled up, set up and test the electronics. First, insert the Verbatim SRAM card into the slot in the Theodolite. Ensure that the arrow on the back of the card faces down when you insert it. See below for a suggested initial key sequence for the Theodolite and see the TPS-System 1000 Short Instructions System manual in the Theodolite case for a list of commands for the Theodolite. The keypad on the Theodolite allows for maximum utility with the minimum number of keys. Therefore, most of the keys have several functions, depending upon the class of operation. One way to remember the meaning is by noting the background color of the keys. Table 3. Classes of keypad operation for Theodolite (TCM-1100) (Short Instruction Book) See Figure 2. Class of operation Fixed Keys Key color White Example Functions which are always available. Returns to last diologue. ON OFF. These keys correspond to the bottom line on the display. Pressing SHIFT followed by an F key displays other options.

Function Keys

Orange

Green

Vertical scrolling, position the cursor to edit, insert or delete numerical data and characters, and position colums. 1...9 Numerical input. ". " and +/- set decimal place and sign. The Enter key to complete the data input of confirm a selection out of a data list. Use the CE key to delete the last entered digit or character.

Numeric Keys

Yellow

The ENTER button is important in that it executes the preceding commands or answers in the affirmative, while the CE button often clears the last command. Before anything, start with a fresh copy of the Survey Record Form, and fill out the important details at the top. Use this form to take notes while surveying. Remember to record all observations and considerations, since the next time you look at this data, it might 6 months from now in the Dungeon! Record the observations so that someone else can understand. After all, someone else might use the data. Table 4. Suggested command sequence for Theodolite start up
# 1 Key sequence Description Switches Theodolite on. Screen briefly displays software version.

After the bubble is level press the Continue button. You can check and adjust level all day.

Select the setup file by pressing F5 (Setup) and using the arrows to select file. Press F6 to get the list of files. Push

enter to select (button with curved stem). It is also possible to set user templates based on many different users or survey types with different needs. We will go through the template setup later in the sequence. Press Continue to go to the SETUP/ STATION DATA menu. 4 x4 Enter the station number (is it your first one of the network?, or is it a new station setup within a network?). Use the down button and enter instrument height. You measure this using the reflector staff and holding it parallel with the station and up to the small hole (1 mm diameter) under the Leica name on the right side of the Total Station. Arrow down and enter station easting (we use 1000), station northing (we use 1000), and station elevation (we use 100). Record this information on your Survey Record Form. Make sure you are in meters, and if not, we will go through the sequence below.

Press F4 to enter in the reference azimuth. Point the instrument at the backsight or reference azimuth and input the value. For example, 335.5 will set the reference azimuth and horizontal circle to 335.5. All subsequent measurements will be made relative to that direction. Record Hz0 on the Survey Record Form. Press continue followed by F3, record. Now you are back at the main menu. Press F4, Data, to see what is in file. Scroll down with arrows to File, selct F6 to list files or F5 (search) to examine individual files. By using the F3 and F4 keys, you can scroll through the file history. Press Continue when finished.

You should be back at the main menu. Press F3 (CONF) to system configuration. Press enter for user configuration. Press F4 (SET) if you need to change the language or units. Press F6 to list the selections and enter to select it. We use ENGLISH, Metre, 3 Dec., 360 , 3 Dec., C, mbar, Easting/Northing, Clockwise (+), and V-drive left. Press CONT when completed, and CONT to get back to main menu. ( or ) We are going to set the user template. The first step is to set the recording mask. From the main menu press F3 (CONF). Press Continue. From here you can change the recording mask sequence(F2) or the display mask (F3). Both are set in the following sequence: Press F6 (LIST) to list the possibilites followed by the enter key to select and move to the next choice. When complete press CONT and set the other mask if desired. Now we are just about ready to shoot points. From Main Menu press F6 (MEAS). Enter the reflector height by

pressing F4 (TARGET) and arrow down to Refl.Height and enter in the reflector height in meters. Any time the reflector height changes it must be changed in the Total Station and on the survey record form. Record height on the Survey Record Form. Press CONT to save this change and you will return to MEASURE MODE. For operation refer to chart E.

Operation Now that the instrument has been set up physically and electronically, you are ready for operations. Reflector Check to make sure that the reflector is properly mounted on the plumb pole by squeezing the small button on the lower back portion of the reflector as you slip it down over the top of the plumb pole. When you point the telescope at the reflector, the cross hairs must intersect on the yellow reflector plate as shown in Figure 1. This offset from the actual reflector is the same as the offset between the center of the telescope and the EDM. We also have a Triple Tilt Prism Assembly that is used for longer distances . Focusing and sighting Focus the reticle cross hairs by pointing the telescope at some other uniformly light surface (the sky), and rotate the inner black portion of the eyepiece until the cross hairs are sharp and black. Point telescope toward reflector by means of optical sight. Use of this sight will speed up acquisition of the reflector significantly. With both eyes open, have the image of the white cross hair in the optical sight in one eye, and the reflector in the other. When the two are superimposed, you are approximately on target. This saves a significant amount of time searching for the reflector with the actual telescope. The horizontal and vertical rotations of the Theodolite are controlled in two ways. First you can rotate the Theodolite horizontally by hand by placing two hands on either side of it and rotating it. To rotate vertically, rotate the EDM unit up or down by hand by nudging in up or down. Manual rotation works best and is less demanding on the battery if there is a distance change from point to point of several meters. Otherwise fine-tuning is done by turning the horizontal and vertical knobs on the sides of the unit. The instrument updates angle measurements within 0.3 seconds, so the angles can be quickly displayed. In order to see the horizontal and vertical angles of the current pointing, push the point. F2 (DIST). Before the station is moved press F3 (REC) to record

Measurement and recording With the instrument pointed at the reflector, ensure that the reflector operator is holding the reflector still and level (by using the bubble level on the plumb pole), and then push F1 (ALL) . The EDM will measure the slope distance in about 3 seconds, and it will (DIST). Up to this point, the data has

## display on the LCD of the EDM if you push

not been recorded. To record the entire block of measured data, push (REC). If the format used is not the standard recording format (and it is not if you followed the suggestion in step 8 above), the query "OK?" appears on the display before recording the first data block. Press OK to confirm and record the first data block. This will happen each time the instrument is turned on. As you can see, with many shots, you would end up pushing often. To make things go quicker, measurements that you don't want

to check can be speeded up by pushing . The instrument will measure the distance and automatically record the block of measured data and increment the current point number by 1. However, it will not display the distance or other calculated values like Easting or Northing in the LCD. To see these to check the shot, you would have to press (DATA) (SEARCH) and then to scroll through the points.

As you are surveying it may be advantageous to switch operators occasionally. Another important hint is to have simple hand signals to communicate the status of the measurement to the reflector person or the type of topography to the instrument person without having to shout or use the two-way radios for simple communications (See Communication techniques). I like to have the instrument person hold his or her arm straight up when starting to focus and measure to indicate to the reflector person that he or she should hold the reflector level. As soon as the distance measurement appears in the LCD, the instrument person's arm is held sideways to indicate that the shot is complete and the reflector person should move to the next target point. With this scheme, approximately 100 points per hour can be acquired. Our record for one day is 707 shots with three people rotating through the two positions. If the target points are further apart or in rough terrain, you may have two reflector people, and alternate shots between them. This will speed up operations, but it requires more coordination and concentration, especially on the part of the instrument person. Communication Techniques Your surveying team may not be blessed with radio communication. However, there are some basic arm signals that we have developed for geomorphic features.

## "That was the first point for a breakline."

Coding specific points and breaklines Coding specific points or breaklines adds sort-of a dimentional character to your map. We generally use the Total Station to produce maps or profiles that contain features-such as topographical breaks in slope-that, when accentuated with a polyline, provide a three dimentional view on the map. This section will discuss the coding system and cover the keypad procedure. There are basically three types of codes: specific survey point codes (i.e., landmarks), polyline codes (i.e., topographic breaks), and physical feature codes (i.e., flotsam, trees). Specific survey points, such as a benchmark or survey mark are denoted by a symbol other than a dot. Polylines connect a given set of points to denote a ridge, stream, scarp, etc., and provide a line of which topolines will "break" along when plotted using the Liscad software. Also, physical features such as vegetation, roads, buildings, and electric can be symbolized on a map.

To assign a point or set of points to a code, first shoot the point as described in Table 4, only make sure to press F2 DIST. Next, you must set that point to a code number.

See this link for coding details: coding. Data downloading, manipulation, and software I want to emphasize again the importance of taking good notes while surveying. A few quick annotations may save a major hassle down the road. Use the Survey Record Form to organize the observations, and your organization and manipulation of the data should go smoothly. Data storage format The memory card stores two types of information units: measurement blocks and code blocks. With our present software set up, we don't use code blocks. You are welcome to experiment with them. Other more sophisticated software systems use the code blocks as part of the data organization. The measurement blocks contain measured data and a point number. Each block includes a consecutive unique block number which is recorded automatically. If possible, record both the point number and block number on the Survey Record Form in order to avoid ambiguity later. The memory card data is made up of data blocks, each of which is made up of words with a fixed length of 16 characters per word. Each block may contain up to 8 words. A measurement block has the following data format: Word 1 Point number Word 2 .... Word n End character

The first word of a measurement block always contains the point number. The remaining words of the block are determined by the measurement format of the Theodolite. Here is an actual data block: 110001+00000000 21.103+09803900 22.103+08849970 31..00+00258533 51....+0100+000 81..00+00255904 82..0000036142 83..00+00007194 While it appears quite cryptic, you can see the word identifiers in there at the beginning of each word indicating the data (31 for example is slope length). The first word, 110001+00000000, contains the word identifier, 11, meaning point number (click here for more codes; 21 is the horizontal angle, 22 is the vertical angle (measured from zenith, so that is why it is usually around 90 for the typical nearly horizontal shot0, 31 is the slope length, and 81, 82, and 83 are the easting, northing, and elevation respectively), then it is followed by the block number (0001), and then the point number (00000000). Each of these will be incremented automatically. The running point

number may be changed or input as surveying proceeds, but the block numbers are unique. See coding for corresponding features. Downloading The data should be downloaded from the SRAM card when the surveying is complete. The SRAM card should then be cleared of data for the next surveying trip. The Macintosh computer systems that we use are not the type supported by the surveying community; therefore, our scheme is original and somewhat circuitous, but effective. In the motel, truck, or office, remove the SRAM card from the Total Station, and insert it in the laptop. Open Microsoft Excel and open file. Excel will ask you to choose from several options: plate 1- select delimited; plate 2- select space and tap delimiters; plate 3finish. All your data will be in the form indicated below in the raw data block. This form needs to be changed to either be viewed by Liscad or as northing, easting, and elevation in excel. Note that these days (2004), I typically just parse the raw file in excel and put a column break in on the left side of each plus as well as at the spaces, and then you can delete the columns you don't want and will have millimeters for the unit for the distances and easting, norrthing, and elevation which you can easily correct. Filtering the data Obviously the raw data is of little use for analysis. Raw data block: 110549+00006000 21.323+07291800 22.323+09123700 31..00+00180854 81..10+01172836 82..10+01053110 83..10+00996292 87..10+00001300 410550+00000005 42....+00001101 Block Point Easting # # E
549

Northing Elevatio n N H

Horiz. angle Hz

Vertical angle V

Slope length D

## 72.91800 91.23700 180.854

To view as easting, northing, and elevation data in excel, you must first delete rows that are not needed. The word identifiers (the first two numbers at the beginning of the word) indicate the code of the word. We keep the point number, 41 (point number), 42 (code), 81 (easting), 82 (northing), and 83 (elevation). Delete all other columns. Be careful not to delete columns where additional data was recorded causing a shift of words. You also need to add this to the header (first line): Wild REC-TotalStation Here is a sample that works. It is important to note that the data should be in this order because the program (liscad) will take the second three words and assume that they are

Easting, Northing, and Elevation. Wild REC-TotalStation 110549+00006000 81..10+01172836 82..10+01053110 83..10+00996292 410550+00000005 42....+00001101 110551+00006001 81..10+01177605 82..10+01046419 83..10+00992448 110552+00006002 81..10+01185919 82..10+01040090 83..10+00986772 110553+00006003 81..10+01193146 82..10+01036721 83..10+00985793 110554+00006004 81..10+01196477 82..10+01035305 83..10+00985896 110555+00006005 81..10+01211466 82..10+01026636 83..10+00979522 110556+00006006 81..10+01215893 82..10+01023119 83..10+00978902 110557+00006007 81..10+01221285 82..10+01019707 83..10+00977450 110558+00006008 81..10+01225470 82..10+01015623 83..10+00976024 110559+00006009 81..10+01240939 82..10+01016348 83..10+00975100 110560+00006010 81..10+01253217 82..10+01013742 83..10+00971985 110561+00006011 81..10+01271393 82..10+01012739 83..10+00969438 110562+00006012 81..10+01286564 82..10+01008193 83..10+00966146 110563+00006013 81..10+01290373 82..10+00997422 83..10+00964371 410564+00000005 42....+00000000 110565+00006014 81..10+01296148 82..10+00970876 83..10+00961116 110566+00006015 81..10+01302319 82..10+00944821 83..10+00958195 110567+00006016 81..10+01278370 82..10+00934876 83..10+00957227 110568+00006017 81..10+01272799 82..10+00954352 83..10+00959228 110569+00006018 81..10+01261752 82..10+00980963 83..10+00962315 110570+00006019 81..10+01265783 82..10+01001572 83..10+00965681 410571+00000005 42....+00002101 110572+00006020 81..10+01265783 82..10+01001563 83..10+00965681 110573+00006021 81..10+01253140 82..10+01001680 83..10+00966532 110574+00006022 81..10+01238534 82..10+00999553 83..10+00966963 | 110575+00006023 81..10+01250007 82..10+00944827 83..10+00957900

Lastly, save excel worksheet with a .ex extension. This file will be the master archive for your data. From it you can manipulate, plot, and contour your data. Print this file out and save the hardcopy somewhere safe. Care Our surveying equipment is fairly rugged and designed to last. However, it is also expensive and likes a little attention and Tender Loving Care occasionally. Giving the equipment a good cleaning occasionally and treating it with care will ensure that it will last for a long time. Here are some basic suggestions. Transport For transport, use shockproof packaging material for the instruments. We have nice carrying cases for the EDM and Total Station and most of the associated hardware. While these cases add significant weight, they really do protect the instruments, and the one

time that you decide to lighten your load and only carry the instruments, will be the one time that they fall down a hill and are severely damaged--a fall which they would have survived had they been in the cases! Cleaning and drying Before cleaning, blow dust off lenses and prisms. Handle lenses, eyepieces and prisms with special care. Always use a soft, clean cloth or clean cottonwool. Breathe on glass components, then wipe gently. If necessary, slightly moisten cloth or cottonwool with pure alcohol. Do not use any other liquid. Never touch optical glass with your fingers. Cables and plugs Clean periodically. Do not let plugs get dirty. Protect from moisture. Use pure alcohol to rinse dirty cable connectors, then leave to dry thoroughly. Condensation on prisms When a prism is cooler than the ambient air it may collect condensation. If this happens, warm the prism for some time by placing it in a warm environment (room, vehicle, or inside clothing). Merely wiping the prism is useless. Storage If an instrument has become wet, unpack it on return to base. Carefully clean the instrument, accessories, case and foam inserts. Wipe dry. Repack only after all the equipment is again thoroughly dry. In the field The main perils in the field to the instrument are rain, blowing sand, heat, and being knocked over. If it is raining or blowing hard, you will have to postpone the effort. Protect against light mist and moderately blowing sand by placing one of the plastic hoods (stored in the EDM case) over the instrument whenever it will not be used for longer than several minutes. If the temperature is less than -20C or greater than +50 C, you should not operate the instrument. Protect against temperature fluctuation with an umbrella. Walk carefully when working around the instrument and when setting up, check to make sure that the area is clear of debris that may be an obstacle. How it works Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM) One of the fundamental measurements in surveying is distance. Obviously with a distance and an angle, one can establish a coordinate system and locate the relative positions of objects or observations. The angle defines the orientation and the distance of the scale. The direct measurement of distance in the field is one of the more troublesome of surveying operations, especially if a high degree of accuracy is desired. Indirect

measurements, like the use of a stadia rod, have been developed and used extensively; however, these systems are of rather limited range and accuracy. With the advent of electromagnetic instruments, the direct measurement of distance with high precision is possible (Burnside, 1991). When a distance is measured using an EDM instrument, some form of electromagnetic wave (in our case, infra-red--IR--radiation) is transmitted from the instrument towards a reflector where part of the transmitted wave is returned to the instrument. Electronic comparison of the transmitted and received signals allows for computation of the distance (Price, 1989). See Figure 3 for a schematic of the method of operation of an EDM. Figure 3.1 Schematics of EDM system. From Price and Uren, 1989.

Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves can be represented by a sinusoidal wave motion. The number of times in 1 second that a wave completes a cycle is called the frequency (f), and is measured in Hz. The length of one cycle is called the wavelength ( ), which can be determined as a function of the frequency from

## (1) where v is the speed of propagation of the wave.

The speed of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is called the speed of light, c, and is taken to be 299,792,458 m s-1.(Price, 1989). The accuracy of an EDM instrument depends ultimately on the accuracy of the estimated velocity of the electromagnetic wave through the atmosphere (Burnside, 1991). A relationship expressing the instantaneous amplitude of a sinusoidal wave is (2) where Amax is the maximum amplitude developed by the source, A0 is the reference amplitude, and is the phase angle which completes a cycle in 2 radians or 360. In an EDM system, distance is measured by the difference in phase angle between the transmitted and received versions of a sinusoidal wave. The double path length (2D) between instrument and reflector is the distance covered by the radiation from an EDM measurement. It can be represented in terms of the wavelength of the measuring unit: 2 (3) The distance from instrument to reflector is D, m is the wavelength of the measuring unit, n is the integer number of wavelengths traveled by the wave, and m is the fraction of the wavelength traveled by the wave. Therefore, the distance D is made of two separate elements. An EDM instrument using continuous electromagnetic waves can only determine m by phase comparison (Figure 4). If the phase angle of the transmitted wave measured at the instrument is 1, and the phase angle measured on receipt is 2, then

(4) The phase angle 2 can apply to any incoming wavelength, so phase comparison will only provide a determination of the fraction of a wavelength traveled by the wave, leaving the total number, n, ambiguous (Price, 1989).

Figure 4. Phase comparison. (a) An EDM is set up at A and a reflector at B for determination of the slope length (D). During measurement, an electromagnetic wave is continuously transmitted from A towards B where it is reflected back to A. (b) The electromagnetic wave path from A to B has been shown, and for clarity, the same sequence is shown in (c), but the return wave has ben opened out. Points A and A' are effectively the same, since the transmitter and receiver would eb side by side in the same unit at A. The lowermost portion also isslustrates the ideal of

modulation of the carrier wave by the measuring wave. From Price and Uren, 1989.

For many EDM instruments, an accuracy in measurement between 1 and 10 mm is specified at short ranges, and a phase resolution of 1 in 10,000 is normal. Assuming an accuracy of at least 1 mm, therefore, a measuring wavelength ( m) of 10 m is required. Approximating the speed of propagation, v, by 3 x 108 m s-1, 10 m corresponds to a frequency of 30 MHz. Adequate propagation of an electromagnetic signal of 30 MHz frequency for EDM purposes is not practical, so a higher frequency carrier wave is used and modulated by the measuring wave (Figure 5, (Price, 1989)). In the case of our instrument, the carrier wave is infra-red, with a wavelength of 0.835 m, corresponding to a frequency of 3.6 x 105 GHz. The return signal is usually amplified, and then the phase difference is determined digitally. The signal derived from the modulation triggers off the counting mechanism every time the signal changes from negative to positive. The signal derived from the

reflected ray stops the counting mechanism (Burnside, 1991). For our instrument, the integer ambiguity (n) of wavelengths is determined using the coarse measurement frequency of 74,927 Hz, equivalent to 2000 m, and the amplitude modulation of 4,870,255 Hz (30.7692 m) provides the fine measurement ( m). In order to achieve the stated accuracy of 5 mm, the phase measurements are accurate to 1 part in 6,154. Errors in distance measurement The path of electromagnetic energy is the true distance that is measured by the EDM, and will be determined by the variability in the refractive index through the atmosphere.

therefore should be accounted for by adjusting the scale error on the theodolite occasionally during the day's surveying effort (see Figure 6, graph 1 to determine D1). The correction in ppm for the reduction to mean sea level is based upon the formula: (7) where D2 = reduction to MSL in ppm, H = height of EDM above MSL, and R = 6378 km (earth radius). This correction is a constant and should be determined at the beginning of the survey effort by consulting Figure 6, graph 2a or 2b. Corrections in ppm may be made for map projections as well. Reduction formula The theodolite computes slope distance according to the following formula: D = D0x(1+deltaDx10-6) + mm where D is the corrected slope distance in mm, D0 is the measured (uncorrected) slope distance in mm, (deltaD) = sum of scale corrections (n is the number of scale corrections) in ppm, and mm = prism constant in mm. The theodolite computes horizontal distance (Dh) and height difference (eh) by accounting for earth curvature and mean refractive index. These corrections are on the order of 10-8 or 0.01 ppm of D0 and therefore not significant compared to the scale correction (~50 to 100 ppm). Figure 6. Scale correction graphs from Theodolite manual. Use these to determine D (sum of scale corrections).

orders of magnitude greater efficiency than other lasers, can be made much smaller and more rugged, and are considerably less expensive than other lasers (Price, 1989). Because of the relatively low power radiated, a beam of sufficient power will not be reflected from an unprepared surface. A special reflector is therefore used in order to ensure a good return signal. A plane mirror can be employed, but it requires accurate setting, so in practice, a corner cube reflector is most often used. This reflector will return a beam along a path parallel to the incident path over a wide range of angles of incidence onto the front surface. A cube of glass is usually used with its edges ground into a corner with accuracies of grinding to within a few degrees of arc (Burnside, 1991). The path length of the signal within the reflector must be corrected for, and that is the reason for the setting of the prism constant within the theodolite. The constant for Wild circular prisms is 0. Note that over short distances, the "cat-eye" type reflector commonly used for bicycles will adequately reflect highly oblique incident signals. Figure 7. Gallium arsenide diode characteristics. From Burnside, 1991.

Figure 8. Modulation of a Gallium arsenide diode. From Price and Uren, 1989.

## Selected Technical Data--Leica (Wild) DI4L

Standard deviation of distance measurement Breaks in beam Range with one reflector 5 mm + 5 mm/km result not affected 1.2 km in strong haze 2.5 km in average atmospheric conditions (the maximum range I have shot is 1.8 km) Carrier wavelength Fine measurement Coarse measurement Weight--DI4L Counterweight Container Total weight Beam width at half power 0.835 m infra-red 4,870,255 Hz = 30.7692 m 74,927 Hz = 2000 m 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) 0.8 kg (2.0 lb) 3.8 kg (8.4 lb) 5.7 kg (12.8 lb) 4' (12 cm at 100 m)

Theodolite The Theodolite is an accurate horizontal and vertical angle measuring device with a telescope and on board electronics for data storage and EDM operation. Fortunately for us, the angles are measured and recorded accurately and electronically, avoiding the need for us to read a vernier and record data manually as is typical on transits and optical

theodolites. This electronic theodolite contains circular encoders which sense the rotations of the vertical and horizontal spindles of the telescope, and converts those rotations into horizontal and vertical angles electronically, and displays the values of the angles on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) (Moffitt, 1987). The integrated EDM/Theodolite combination is often called a "Total Station" or "Total Geodetic Station." Output from the horizontal and vertical circular encoders and from the EDM are stored in a data collector. The instrument may convert the data (horizontal and vertical angles and the slope distance) electronically into Easting and Northing coordinates, height difference, and horizontal distance (Moffitt, 1987). Selected Technical Data--Leica (Wild T-1000)
Standard deviation of angular measurement Telescope Magnification Shortest focusing range Field at 1000 m Displays 3.0' (seconds of a degree) horizontal and vertical Erect image 30x 1.7 m 27 m 2 LCD displays each for 8 digits, sign, decimal point and symbols for user guidance Weatherproof, 14 multiple function keys, contact pressure 30 g About 3 minutes after last keystroke Continuous, by absolute encoder 0.1 to 0.3 seconds Focusing 2x -20C to +50C 4.5 kg (9.9 lb) Container Total weight 3.9 kg (8.6 lb) 8.4 kg (18.5 lb)

Keyboard Automatic power off Angle measurement Updates Optical plummet (in tribrach) Magnification Temperature Range Weight--T1000

Determination of Easting, Northing, and Elevation The actual observations made by the Total Station are the horizontal and vertical angles (Hz and V), and the slope length (D)--these are called fundamental measurements. Clearly, from these data, one can determine the relative coordinates of the instrument and reflector (Figure 9). The instrument makes its own reductions based only upon the fundamental measurements. The horizontal angles are made relative to a backsight or

reference azimuth or known orientation. This may be determined by a careful compass sighting to a distant, but stable and easily identifiable landmark, or it may be arbitrary. Once the backsight is made, the reference azimuth, (hz0) may be set on the Theodolite. The vertical angle may be called a zenith angle and is measured in a vertical plane down from the upward direction of a vertical or plumb line (Moffitt, 1987). Instrument Station Reference Location The point over which the Total Station is set up is called an instrument station. Such a point should be marked as accurately as possibly on some firm object. On many surveys, each station is marked by a wooden stake, spike, or piece of REBAR driven flush with the ground and into the top of which a small (~ mm diameter) dimple is marked (a tack may be put in the wooden stake) (Moffitt, 1987). The Total Station measurements and reductions are made relative to the instrument station (E0, N0, and H0--where E refers to distance East, N distance North, and H elevation, and the subscript 0 indicates a reference value). These values must be predetermined by other means (triangulation, previous survey location, Global Positioning System, etc., or they may be arbitrary). In fact, for most local surveys, with only one survey set up, the instrument station is commonly taken to be (0, 0, 0). Determinations in the vertical plane In the lower portion of Figure 9, the geometric reductions in a vertical plane are indicated. From the fundamental measurements and a few more observations, the horizontal distance (HD) and elevation (H) may be determined:

(9) H* is the elevation difference between instrument and reflector, IH is instrument Height, and PH is the Prism Height. (10) Figure 9. Surveying geometry.

Determinations in the horizontal plane In the upper portion of Figure 9, the map view reductions from the fundamental measurements are shown. Because we are interested in the map relations of the surveyed objects or observations, the distances East (E) and North (N) may be determined in the following way: (11) (12) Foresight and Backsight: the traverse

One other thing that people have trouble with and that I have only recently gotten to the bottom of is the traverse or how you move your station to a new position. The figure below shows how one starts of at the reference position E0, N0, H0, works, and then moves to the new station with a reference position E1, N1, H1. What you have to do is shoot from the first location to the second (foresight) and record the E1, N1, H1, and the bearing Hz0. Then, move to the new location, set up, tell the total station you are at E1, N1, H1, and set the horizontal circle to Hz1 or Hz0+180 degrees (backsight). Then shoot to the reflector set up at the first station and record the position. It should be within a few mm of the original E0, N0, H0.

Precision The angular accuracy at one standard deviation of the Theodolite is 3", and the linear accuracy at one standard deviation of the EDM is 5 mm 5 ppm of the slope length. The upper portion of Figure 10 shows a map view of the 1 standard deviation error volume (remember that the horizontal and vertical angles have the same precision). In reality, this volume is really an ellipsoid if we assume that the errors are normally distributed. The significance of this figure and the plot in the lower portion of Figure 10 is that one can

anticipate the precision and its changes with slope length, and consider them accordingly. For example, for a 100 m shot, or slope length D = 100 m, the linear error, l, is 5.5 mm, and the angular error, a, is 1.5 mm, and therefore, the error volume is 11 mm along the shot, and 3 mm wide along horizontal and vertical arcs. Note that this is much smaller than reflector placement error. Planning and executing a surveying/mapping project The important concern when planning a mapping project is the question that is being asked, or problem being addressed. While mapping and surveying may be intrinsically fascinating and interesting of themselves, unless you want to become a surveyor, they are only methods used to collect data in order to address a geologic problem. Therefore, the technique and methods should be appropriate for the problem. You should collect data at the appropriate scale and precision that will most efficiently shed light upon the problem. Check (Compton, 1985) for an inspiring and essential text to guide you in the field. Basic detailed mapping procedure This technique is appropriate for outcrop to kilometer scale mapping (1:10 to 1:1000 scale) for which no adequate base map exists. The basic idea is to shoot in control points with the Total Station, establish a base map, and then use tape and compass and triangulation to interpolate and locate features between the control points. Figure 10. Surveying precision.

1) Recon the area. Consider the problem, and instrument locations. 2) Flag points. Place flags (numbered) on important features (along large fractures or contacts for example). The density depends upon the scale of the problem and the map. If the flags are too close, you will spend a long time shooting them in and then may be confused while mapping. If they are too far apart, you will spend a long time measuring off distances and bearings between points. I suggest a radial distance between flags of 5 to 10 m. 3) Shoot points with Total Station. Make sure that the point number corresponds either directly or in some noted way with the flag numbers. 4) Produce basemap. This may be done in several ways. It may be done in the field or the office by manually plotting the location and recording the elevation of the point on grid paper. Be sure to use metric grid paper. The other way to produce the basemap is to download the data as described above, and contour and plot the points with their numbers. Print the contour map out to an appropriate size for your mapping. I do this step in Deltagraph Pro by importing a four column (point number, E, N, H) Excel file, and then plot an XYZContour chart (select the data by using the arrow in between the two label words:

c
Label

Label

Show symbols, and adjust the size of the chart by selecting Axis Attributes under the Axis choice under the Chart menu. Make sure that the X and Y (E and N) axes are the same scale. Choose an appropriate contour interval. Show the labels of the points (point numbers, for example) by selecting the chart, and then under the Chart menu, select Show Values, and choose a location besides None, and the Text should be Category. This will plot the items in the corresponding cell in the Labels Column adjacent to the symbol. 5) Mapping. The above method should provide a basemap with the control points displayed and labeled. Tape the base map or a portion of it to your map board and overlay a piece of vellum or mylar. Mark the control points and a few more index marks, especially if you will use more than one page for the base map. As you map, observe the locations and orientations of objects and features by noting the bearing and distance (using a Brunton Compass and a tape measure or a well calibrated pace) from one or more control points. You may also shoot a bearing to two or more control points, plot the angle on the map and triangulate your location. Mark your observations carefully with a sharp pencil. As you map, record the topography. If you plotted contour lines, trace and modify them in the field and include the subtleties that you can. In the evenings or whenever you are at a stable point, trace your lines in ink using a very fine pen. Examples

Below are a few examples of different mapping projects our members of our group have completed recently. These are meant to illustrate the different solutions to different problems that have been achieved. Topography My own interest in the geomorphic responses to active faulting provides the following example. During the June 28, 1993 Landers California earthquake, spectacular faulted landforms were produced all along the surface rupture. These landforms provided an important opportunity to document the original shapes and initial modification of faulted landforms. This project posed several interesting survey challenges: 1) producing detailed scarp profiles and longitudinal profiles of gully main and tributary channels, and detailed topographic contour maps of faulted knickpoints; 2) establishing a cheap but hopefully stable control network; and 3) reoccupying the network. Scarp profiles--coordinate transformation by rotation These profiles are made perpendicular to the fault scarp and are ideally planar. In the field, we marked the upper and lower ends of the profiles with steel rods, and walk between, shooting points about every 50 cm until we are at the free face of the scarp, where points are shot about every 10 - 20 cm. These data are down loaded as described above, and then the profile is projected to a plane perpendicular to the scarp. The coordinates are transformed by a rotation about the origin so that one axis is the distance along the profile and the other is the deviation from the plane of the profile. The equations for such a coordinate transformation are as follows: (13) (14) The figure above and to the right illustrates this geometry.

The following two figures illustrate the initial and rotated coordinate systems for a scarp profile. In the lower plot, the coordinate system has been rotated by -36 (counterclockwise), and the horizontal axis used as the horizontal distance along the profile. The vertical axis indicates that the deviation from a plane is a maximum of 5 m over 30 m.

Longitudinal profiles The gully longitudinal profiles were determined by observing points along the lowest portion of the active channel in a given gully. The distance along the profile is the sum of the distances between individual points. In other words, the longitudinal profile is not projected to a plane, rather the run, or distance along the channel, is stretched out and plotted as the horizontal axis for the longitudinal profile, while the vertical axis is the corresponding elevation measurements. This plot is important since it indicates the effective slope for the flow, which clearly may not be ideally contained within a single plane. Contour maps - topographic mapping Because of the precision and rapidity of data acquisition of our Total Station, as well as the opportunity to quantitatively document the three-dimensional (i.e. volumetric) changes in scarp form, particularly where the gully channels were disrupted by the earthquake surface rupture, we made detailed observations of small portions of the gully channel surfaces. We have observed after one year, and expect significant change within a few years. The data were observed over a relatively small area (125 to 250 m2) at a fairly high density: 1 measurement every 0.5 to 2.5 m2. The lower density shots seemed to optimally address the problem, and we achieved them by setting a goal of 100 shots to

complete the map. This seems to be a better psychological tactic than simply observing every apparently important break in slope. We used the program Deltagraph Pro to contour our data. This program has two advantages: 1) it can contour a set of data with an irregular boundary, enclosing the area of interest with a relatively close fitting polygon, instead of a rectangle, as is common with most contouring programs; and 2) it uses triangle-based terrain modeling (commonly called a Triangular Irregular Network--TIN; Kennie, 1990). This method essentially models the surface as a series of planar, triangular elements, each of which contains three neighboring data points (Figure 11). As you are surveying it is important for the reflector person to attempt to visualize this triangle network in order to assess the appropriateness of a given observation point. The points where contour lines intersect the lines between neighboring points are determined by direct, linear interpolation. The contour lines are then determined by connecting those intersections. Because the contour lines are not smoothed, this method provides a basic contour map that honors each data point directly. However, it does generate a somewhat jagged map which incidentally appears more appropriate for semi-arid landscapes rather than smoother humid-temperate landscapes. Given a method of plotting the map and taking it in the field, the subtleties of the contours could be adjusted manually. We adjusted our maps slightly in the office, honoring the topography as best as possible, by adding a few more vertices to the contour lines in the drawing program Canvas (Figure 11). Figure 11. Contour map preparation using Deltagraph Pro and Canvas.

Reoccupation There are three types of errors: random errors, systematic errors, and blunders (Kennie, 1990). Random errors result from the random normally distributed probability of a measurement. Systematic errors cannot be detected by redundant measurements because they effect all measurements similarly. However, they can be addressed by making more observations; for example the scale error due to atmospheric changes that is explained above is a type of systematic error that can be minimized by making observations of temperature and pressure and making the appropriate scale adjustment. Blunders are

mapped in by communication with the mapping partner who interpolated between the control points in a manner similar to that used for mapping other features (Cooke and Christiansen, Figure 12). As mapping progressed, observations and contour lines were inked. The final map was compiled and drafted by Ken Cruikshank (Figure 13). It was presented at the Fall, 1992 AGU meeting (Antonellini, 1992). Figure 12. Reduced portions of original basemaps from landers earthquake surface rupture mapping (Antonellini and others, 1992). Note the different styles and representations of fractures, topography, landforms, and human impacts.

Figure 13. Final analytical fracture map from Landers study (compiled by Ken Cruikshank)..

Bibliography

Geologic mapping
Compton, R. R., 1985, Geology in the Field: New York, John Wiley and Sons, 398 p. The best field geology book available. Covers all of the basics from rock identification through basic outcrop procedures to aerial photography. You should own it.

## Electromagnetic distance measurement

Burnside, C. D., 1991, Electromagnetic distance measurement: Boston, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 278 p. Good reference on the subject. A bit arcane in the explanation of the basics, but thorough. Includes a nice description of different equipment (3rd edition, TA601.B87 1991, Engineering Library). Price, W. F., and Uren, J., 1989, Laser surveying: London, Van Nostrand Reinhold (International), 256 p. Contains a good description of the basics of lasers, particularly GaAs diodes, and a clear description of the basics of EDMs. Covers other types of laser equipment as well (e.g., timed pulse distance measurement, alignment lasers, and laser Theodolites and levels), and laser safety (TA579.P94 1989, Engineering Library).

Basic Surveying
Moffitt, F. H., and Bouchard, H., 1987, Surveying: New York, Harper and Row, 876 p. Good reference on the subject. This one has it all (8th edition, TA545.B7 1987, Engineering Library).