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ConstructionConstruction EquipmentEquipment

• Selection of appropriate type, size and characteristics will increase job site productivity.

• It is therefore important for site managers and construction planners to be familiar with the characteristics of the major types of equipment most commonly used in construction

 
  Types of Construction Equipment according to their function  
  Types of Construction Equipment according to their function  

Types of Construction Equipment according to their function

 
Equipment according to their function     Excavating   Loading &   Hauling
Equipment according to their function     Excavating   Loading &   Hauling
Equipment according to their function     Excavating   Loading &   Hauling
Equipment according to their function     Excavating   Loading &   Hauling
Equipment according to their function     Excavating   Loading &   Hauling
Equipment according to their function     Excavating   Loading &   Hauling
 

Excavating

 

Loading &

 

Hauling

 

Compacting

 

Drilling

 

Mixing &

Lifting

(Transportation)

& grading

Paving

         
         
 
         
 
         
 
         
 
         
 

ConstructionConstruction EquipmentEquipment CostsCosts

Equipment Costs Ownership Operating costs costs Depreciation Maintenance & repair Interest Tires Taxes Fuel
Equipment Costs
Ownership
Operating
costs
costs
Depreciation
Maintenance & repair
Interest
Tires
Taxes
Fuel
Insurance
Services (filters, oil,
grease,…)
Storage
Operator
License fee

ConstructionConstruction EquipmentEquipment CostsCosts

• Ownership costs are incurred by the contractor whether the equipment is used or not. • Operating costs are incurred by the contractor only when the equipment is used. • Ownership costs generally decline with equipment age, because the rate of depreciation tends to be greater in the initial ownership period and declines with time. • Operating costs tend to increase with equipment age because repair and maintenance costs tend to increase with equipment usage.

costs tend to increase with equipment age because repair and maintenance costs tend to increase with

ExcavatingExcavating

An excavator is defined as a power-driven digging machine.

 
    Types of excavators  
    Types of excavators  
 

Types of excavators

 
    Types of excavators     Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell
    Types of excavators     Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell
    Types of excavators     Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell
    Types of excavators     Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell
    Types of excavators     Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell
 

Hydraulic

 

Dragline

 

Hydraulic

 

Clamshell

 

Trenching

shovels

backhoe

excavators

Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell   Trenching shovels backhoe excavators
Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell   Trenching shovels backhoe excavators
Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell   Trenching shovels backhoe excavators
Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell   Trenching shovels backhoe excavators
Hydraulic   Dragline   Hydraulic   Clamshell   Trenching shovels backhoe excavators

ExcavatingExcavating

An excavator consists of three major components:

•A carrier or mounting which provides mobility and stability for the machine. •A revolving deck or turntable which contains the power and control units. •A front end attachment which serves the special functions in an operation.

There are two types of mounting: crawler mounting & wheel mounting. Crawler mounting is particularly suitable for crawling over relatively rugged (uneven and rough) surfaces at a job site. Wheel (truck) mounting provide greater mobility between job sites, but require better surfaces for their operation.

ExcavatingExcavating

Revolving deck containing control unit and engine engine Crawler mounting
Revolving deck
containing
control unit and
engine
engine
Crawler mounting

Components of a Hydraulic Shovel

ExcavatingExcavating

Revolving deck containing control unit and engine engine
Revolving deck
containing
control unit and
engine
engine
Excavating Revolving deck containing control unit and engine engine Crawler mounting Components of a Hydraulic Backhoe

Crawler mounting

Components of a Hydraulic Backhoe

ExcavatingExcavating Revolving deck containing control unit and engine
ExcavatingExcavating
Revolving deck
containing control
unit and engine
ExcavatingExcavating Revolving deck containing control unit and engine engine Crawler mounting Components of a Dragline

engine

Crawler mounting

Components of a Dragline

ExcavatingExcavating Revolving deck containing control unit and engine engine Crawler mounting
ExcavatingExcavating
Revolving deck
containing control
unit and engine
engine
Crawler mounting

Components of a Clamshell

TrenchersTrenchers

Some of the types of trenching machines available include: chain trenchers, ladder trenchers, and wheel trenchers

Engine Chain
Engine
Chain

Chain trenches

TrenchersTrenchers

Trenchers Trenchers
Trenchers Trenchers

TrenchersTrenchers

Trenchers Trenchers Excavating wheel Wheel trenches
Trenchers Trenchers Excavating wheel Wheel trenches

Excavating wheel

Trenchers Trenchers Excavating wheel Wheel trenches

Wheel trenches

TrenchlessTrenchless ExcavationExcavation

Pipe jacking

Trenchless Trenchless Excavation Excavation Pipe jacking Horizontal earth boring
Trenchless Trenchless Excavation Excavation Pipe jacking Horizontal earth boring

Horizontal earth boring

ExcavatorExcavator

Micro-Excavator (PC01)

Used for excavating and leveling in very narrow locations in the site

Micro-Excavator (PC01) Used for excavating and leveling in very narrow locations in the site Shovel Leveling

Shovel

Micro-Excavator (PC01) Used for excavating and leveling in very narrow locations in the site Shovel Leveling

Leveling blade

Micro-Excavator (PC01) Used for excavating and leveling in very narrow locations in the site Shovel Leveling

ExcavatorExcavator

Small-sized Excavator (PC100)

Excavator Excavator Small-sized Excavator (PC100) Used for small excavation jobs

Used for small excavation jobs

ExcavatorExcavator

Medium-sized Excavator (PC200)

Used for regular excavation jobs

Hydraulic

jack

Boom
Boom
(PC200) Used for regular excavation jobs Hydraulic jack Boom Revolving deck containing the Engine and Driver

Revolving deck

containing the

Engine and

Driver Seat

Arm

excavation jobs Hydraulic jack Boom Revolving deck containing the Engine and Driver Seat Arm Bucket Crawler

Bucket

excavation jobs Hydraulic jack Boom Revolving deck containing the Engine and Driver Seat Arm Bucket Crawler

Crawler mounting

ExcavatorExcavator

Large Excavator

Excavator Excavator Large Excavator

ExcavatorExcavator

Super Large Excavator (PC8000)

Used for huge excavation jobs

Excavator Excavator Super Large Excavator (PC8000) Used for huge excavation jobs

ExcavatorExcavator

Excavator Excavator Super Large Excavator

Super Large Excavator

ExcavatorExcavator

Muddy Soil Excavator

Used for excavating in river beds Equipped with special crawlers that prevents it from sinking on muddy surfaces

Used for excavating in river beds Equipped with special crawlers that prevents it from sinking on

ExcavatorExcavator

Wheeled Excavator (PW128UU)

Does not require to be carried in a truck

Excavator Excavator Wheeled Excavator (PW128UU) Does not require to be carried in a truck

ExcavatorExcavator

Excavator Excavator Crawler Attachments

Crawler

Attachments

LoadingLoading andand LiftingLifting

A loader is a machine with a bucket mounted on the front end. Loaders are used for:

• Loading trucks with soil loads.

• Backfilling.

• Stockpiling.

• Excavating soft to medium-hard materials (smaller depths compared with excavators).

Tracked loaders have straight frame while wheel loaders have articulated frame with a pivot point between the front and rear axle which gives better mobility. Straight-frame loaders cost less to purchase and maintain, but the productivity of the articulated loader is greater for truck loading operations, because of its shorter turning radius.

LoaderLoader

Mini Wheel Loader (WA10)

For working in narrow locations in the site

Loader Loader Mini Wheel Loader (WA10) For working in narrow locations in the site

LoaderLoader

Medium-sized Wheel Loader (WA150)

Control unit Engine Bucket There are different types of tires to be used depending on
Control unit
Engine
Bucket
There are different
types of tires to be
used depending
on surfaces
conditions

LoaderLoader

Super Large Wheel Loader (WA1200)

For loading big rocks onto dump trucks

Loader Loader Super Large Wheel Loader (WA1200) For loading big rocks onto dump trucks

LoaderLoader

Log Grapple Loader

Used for loading and unloading logs from trucks

Loader Loader Log Grapple Loader Used for loading and unloading logs from trucks

LoaderLoader

Steel Chains are tied up to tires to be able to work on muddy and slippery surfaces

Loader Loader Steel Chains are tied up to tires to be able to work on muddy

LoaderLoader

Track loaders

Bucket tracks
Bucket
tracks
Compact track loader
Compact track loader
Loader Loader Track loaders Bucket tracks Compact track loader
Loader Loader Track loaders Bucket tracks Compact track loader

LoadingLoading andand LiftingLifting

Mobile cranes and tower cranes are used to lift loads to great heights and to facilitate the erection of steel building frames.

Forklifts and lifts are used to lift small loads to short heights

MobileMobile cranecrane

Small Mobile Crane (RT9100)

Capacity = 35 ton Max Height = 21 m

Mobile Mobile crane crane Small Mobile Crane (RT9100) Capacity = 35 ton Max Height = 21

MobileMobile cranecrane

Medium Mobile Crane (LTM1030)

Capacity = 100 ton Max Height = 47 m

Mobile Mobile crane crane Medium Mobile Crane (LTM1030) Capacity = 100 ton Max Height = 47

MobileMobile cranecrane

Large Mobile Crane (AC535)

Mobile Mobile crane crane Large Mobile Crane (AC535) Capacity = 190 ton Max Height = 65

Capacity = 190 ton Max Height = 65 m

TowerTower cranecrane

Jib Counterweight Control unit Tower Foundation
Jib
Counterweight
Control unit
Tower
Foundation
TowerTower cranecrane Tower Crane Assembly • The tower crane is transported to the construction site
TowerTower cranecrane
Tower Crane Assembly
• The tower crane is transported to the construction site
in parts.
• A foundation is constructed for the tower crane.
• Mobile cranes are used to assemble the different parts
of the tower crane.
• Some cranes are self-erecting.

TowerTower cranecrane

Preparing a tower foundation

Tower Tower crane crane Preparing a tower foundation
Tower Tower crane crane Preparing a tower foundation

TowerTower cranecrane

Tower crane attachments

Tower Tower crane crane Tower crane attachments
Telescopic forklift
Telescopic forklift

ForkliftForklift

Telescopic forklift Forklift Forklift Forklifts are used to transport construction materials around the construction site

Forklifts are used to transport construction materials around the construction site and to load and unload trucks

LiftLift

Lift Lift Lifts are used for lifting labors & materials for exterior tasks (e.g. painting)

Lifts are used for lifting labors & materials for exterior tasks (e.g. painting)

Lift Lift Lifts are used for lifting labors & materials for exterior tasks (e.g. painting)

HaulingHauling

Trucks are used to transport material to and from the construction site. Dump trucks are used to transport earthwork to and from the construction site. Bulldozers and scrapers are used to transport earthwork within the construction site (for shorter distances compared to the dump trucks). Truck mixers are used to transport ready mix concrete from central batch plant to construction sites.

BulldozerBulldozer

A bulldozer (also known as dozers) is a machine that is equipped with a front-end blade. Dozers are used for pushing earth loads, creating stockpiles, backfilling trenches, and spreading materials.

Small Bulldozer (D21A)

Crawler

Control unit Engine
Control unit
Engine

Blade

BulldozerBulldozer

Medium Bulldozer (D65PX)

Bulldozer Bulldozer Medium Bulldozer (D65PX)

BulldozerBulldozer

Large Bulldozer (D155AX)

Pushes and gathers big rocks that are dug up from mountains. These rocks become gravel for building roads

Sharp rippers for digging up the ground and crushing rocks

from mountains. These rocks become gravel for building roads Sharp rippers for digging up the ground

BulldozerBulldozer

Super Large Bulldozers (D575A)

•For large tasks. •It has to be transported in parts to construction site.

Super Large Bulldozers (D575A) •For large tasks. •It has to be transported in parts to construction

Ripper

BulldozerBulldozer

Water Bulldozers (D155W)

•Helpful in building harbors. •It is controlled by a remote control.

Bulldozer Bulldozer Water Bulldozers (D155W) •Helpful in building harbors. •It is controlled by a remote control.

DumpDump TruckTruck

Trucks and haulers are pieces of construction equipment that are used to carry bulk construction materials such as earthwork, sand, gravel, rock, asphalt,…etc

Driver seat
Driver seat

Medium sized Dump Truck (HD255)

There are different types of tires depending on road characteristics

Vessel for loading soil and rocks. It can be leaned all the way using hydraulic jacks for quick unload.

DumpDump TruckTruck

Super large Dump Truck (HD930E)

For transporting big rocks and large loads

Dump Dump Truck Truck Super large Dump Truck (HD930E) For transporting big rocks and large loads

DumpDump TruckTruck

Dump Truck with Crawler

For uneven roads or muddy surfaces

Dump Dump Truck Truck Dump Truck with Crawler For uneven roads or muddy surfaces

ScraperScraper

A Scraper is a large bowl with a cutting edge front that is attached to a pulling machine. They scrape the surface by lowering the cutting edge into the soil and moving forward to fill the bowl. Once the bowl is loaded, its front apron is lowered, sealing the material in the bowl. The bowl is raised, and the scraper transports the loaded material to the dump location.

sealing the material in the bowl. The bowl is raised, and the scraper transports the loaded

ScraperScraper

Scraper Scraper A dozer push-loading a scraper

A dozer push-loading a scraper

ScraperScraper

Scraper Scraper Push-pull scrapers operate in pairs assisting each other in loading. The rear scraper pushes

Push-pull scrapers operate in pairs assisting each other in loading. The rear scraper pushes the lead scraper while it loads, then the lead scraper pulls the rear scraper while it loads. When both are loaded, they disconnect and travel independently.

ScraperScraper

Scraper Scraper

MixerMixer

Concrete Mixer

For transporting raw concrete to construction site

Mixer Mixer Concrete Mixer For transporting raw concrete to construction site

Conc.Conc. PumpPump

Concrete pump

For pumping raw concrete to high elevations

Conc. Conc. Pump Pump Concrete pump For pumping raw concrete to high elevations

Conc.Conc. PumpPump

Conc. Conc. Pump Pump

CompactingCompacting andand GradingGrading

The function of compaction equipment is to produce higher density in soil mechanically. The degree of compaction that may be achieved depends on:

• The properties of soil

• Soil moisture content

• The thickness of the soil layer for compaction

• The method of compaction

The function of grading equipment is to bring the earthwork to the desired shape and elevation.

CompactorsCompactors

There are many types of soil compaction equipment. They can be grouped into the following four types:

• Pneumatic-tire.

• Smooth steel-drum.

• Tamping foot.

• Vibratory.

The primary compacting methods are:

• Static weight (or pressure).

• Kneading (or rubbing).

• Vibration (or shaking).

• Impact (or sharp blow).

CompactorsCompactors

A pneumatic-tire compactor uses static weight and kneading action of the tires for compaction and is effective with clay and granular soils. These compactors have an odd number of tires (commonly 7, 9, 11, or 13) so that the rear tires track over the spaces between the front tires.

Tire Roller (JV215)
Tire Roller (JV215)

CompactorsCompactors

A smooth steel-drum compactor uses its static weight for compaction and is

effective on all types of soils and asphalt.

its static weight for compaction and is effective on all types of soils and asphalt. Smooth

Smooth steel-drum roller (JV80DW)

CompactorsCompactors

A tamping foot compactor uses its static weight and kneading action for compaction

and is effective on with clay and silty clay soils.

compactor uses its static weight and kneading action for compaction and is effective on with clay

CompactorsCompactors

A vibratory compactor uses its static weight, vibration, and impact to achieve compaction. These compactors are able to achieve deeper penetration than comparable static or non-vibratory compactors.

able to achieve deeper penetration than comparable static or non-vibratory compactors. Vibratory tamping-foot compactor

Vibratory tamping-foot compactor

CompactorsCompactors

Hand operated compactors are used to compact in confined spaces

Vibratory ram compactor Walk-behind Vibratory plate vibratory steel- compactor drum trench compactor
Vibratory ram compactor
Walk-behind
Vibratory plate
vibratory steel-
compactor
drum trench
compactor

GraderGrader

A grader is a piece of equipment that has a long wheel base and a wide blade mounted midway between the front and the rear axle. Graders are used to grade and mold the surface of the ground to the desired shape and elevation.

Grading blade
Grading blade

GraderGrader

Grader Grader
Grader Grader

DrillingDrilling

Rock excavation requires special equipment and methods. The degree of difficulty depends on physical characteristics of the rock type to be excavated.

Major types of drilling equipment are percussionpercussion drillsdrills (striking), rotaryrotary drillsdrills, and rotaryrotary--percussionpercussion drillsdrills.

A percussionpercussion drilldrill penetrates and cuts rock by impact. Common

types of percussion drills include a jackhammer which is hand-held

and others which are mounted on a fixed frame or on a wagon or crawl for mobility.

A rotaryrotary drilldrill cuts by turning a bit against the rock surface.

A rotaryrotary--percussionpercussion drilldrill combines the two cutting movements to

provide a faster penetration in rock.

DrillDrill

Jackhammer (BOSCH 11304)

Drill Drill Jackhammer (BOSCH 11304)

DrillDrill

Percussion Drill (DHT 300 SH)

This machine can drill holes of 160mm up to 54m in depth

Drill Drill Percussion Drill (DHT 300 SH) This machine can drill holes of 160mm up to
Drill Drill Percussion Drill (DHT 300 SH) This machine can drill holes of 160mm up to

DrillDrill

Drill Drill Rotary Drill (DM45/LP) This machine can drill holes of 200mm up to 115m in

Rotary Drill (DM45/LP)

Drill Drill Rotary Drill (DM45/LP) This machine can drill holes of 200mm up to 115m in

This machine can drill holes of 200mm up to 115m in depth

PavingPaving andand MixingMixing

• Concrete mixers are used to mix Portland cement, sand, gravel and water for concrete structures.

• A paving mixer is machine used for spreading aggregates,

concrete, or asphalt at any desired route along the roadway.

PaverPaver

Aggregate Spreader (PS 4000)

Used for spreading aggregates for road base preparations

Receive

aggregates by

dump truck

Aggregate Spreader (PS 4000) Used for spreading aggregates for road base preparations Receive aggregates by dump

PaverPaver

Concrete Paver (GHP-2800)

One-lane width

concrete paver

Paver Paver Concrete Paver (GHP-2800) One-lane width concrete paver

PaverPaver

Asphalt Paver (Elite 8500)

Paver Paver Asphalt Paver (Elite 8500) One-lane width asphalt paver Receive asphalt by dump truck Blade

One-lane width

asphalt paver

Asphalt Paver (Elite 8500) One-lane width asphalt paver Receive asphalt by dump truck Blade for leveling
Asphalt Paver (Elite 8500) One-lane width asphalt paver Receive asphalt by dump truck Blade for leveling

Receive asphalt by dump truck

Asphalt Paver (Elite 8500) One-lane width asphalt paver Receive asphalt by dump truck Blade for leveling

Blade for leveling asphalt surface

MixerMixer

Small Mixer

Mixer Mixer Small Mixer Large Mixer

Large Mixer

Mixer Mixer Small Mixer Large Mixer