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SECTION 10

Air-Cooled Exchangers
An air-cooled exchanger is used t o cool fluids wit h ambient
air. Sever al ar t icles have been published descr ibing in det ail
t heir applicat ion and economic analysis. (See Bibliogr aphy at
t he end of t his sect ion.) This sect ion descr ibes t he gener al
design of air-cooled exchanger s and pr esent s a met hod of ap-
pr oximat e sizing.
ARRANGEMENT AND MECHANICAL
DESIGN
Figs. 10-2 and 10-3 show t ypical elevat ion and plan views of
hor izont al air-cooled exchanger s as commonly used. The basic
component s ar e one or mor e t ube sect ions ser ved by one or
mor e axial flow fans, fan dr iver s, speed r educer s, and an en-
closing and suppor t ing st r uct ur e.
Air-cooled exchanger s ar e classed as for ced dr aft when t he
t ube sect ion is locat ed on t he dischar ge side of t he fan, and as
induced dr aft when t he t ube sect ion is locat ed on t he suct ion
side of t he fan.
Advantages of i nduced draft are:
Bet t er dist r ibut ion of air acr oss t he sect ion.
Less possibilit y of t he hot effluent air r ecir culat ing
ar ound t o t he int ake of t he sect ions. The hot air is dis-
A
i
= inside sur face of t ube, sq ft
A
b
= out side bar e t ube sur face, sq ft
A
x
= out side ext ended sur face of t ube, sq ft
A
t
= t ube inside cr oss-sect ional ar ea, sq in. (see Fig. 9-25)
ACFM = act ual cubic feet per minut e
APF = t ot al ext er nal ar ea/ft of fint ube, sq ft /ft
APSF = ext er nal ar ea of fint ube, sq ft /sq ft of bundle face ar ea
AR = ar ea r at io of fint ube compar ed t o t he ext er ior ar ea
of 1 in. OD bar e t ube
B = cor r ect ion fact or, psi (see Fig. 10-14)
C
p
= specific heat at aver age t emper at ur e, Bt u/(lb F)
CMTD = cor r ect ed mean t emper at ur e differ ence, F
D = fan diamet er, ft
D
i
= inside t ube diamet er, in.
D
o
= out side t ube diamet er, in.
D
R
= densit y r at io, t he r at io of act ual air densit y t o t he
densit y of dr y air at 70F and 14.7 psia, 0.0749
lb/cu ft (see Fig. 10-16)
f = fr ict ion fact or (see Fig. 10-12)
F = cor r ect ion fact or (see Fig. 10-8)
F
a
= t ot al face ar ea of bundles, sq ft
F
p
= air pr essur e dr op fact or, in. of wat er per r ow
of t ubes
FAPF = fan ar ea per fan, ft
2
/fan
g = local acceler at ion due t o gr avit y, ft /s
2
G = mass velocit y, lb/(sq ft s)
G
a
= air face mass velocit y, lb/(hr sq ft ) of face ar ea
G
t
= t ubeside mass velocit y, lb/(sq ft s)
h
a
= air side film coefficient Bt u/(h sq ft F)
h
s
= shell side film coefficient based on out side t ube
ar ea, Bt u/(h sq ft F)
h
t
= t ube side film coefficient based on inside t ube ar ea,
Bt u/(h sq ft F)
J = J fact or (see Fig. 10-15)
k = t her mal conduct ivit y, Bt u/[(hr sq ft F)/ft ]
L = lengt h of t ube, ft
LMTD = log mean t emper at ur e differ ence, F
(see Fig. 9-3)
N = number of r ows of t ubes in dir ect ion of flow
N
P
= number of t ube passes
N
R
= modified Reynolds number, (in lb/(sq ft s cp)
N
t
= number of t ubes
P = pr essur e dr op, psi
PF = fan t ot al pr essur e, inches of wat er

a
= densit y of air, lb/ cu ft

w
= densit y of wat er, lb/ cu ft
P = t emper at ur e r at io (see Fig. 10-8)
Q = heat t r ansfer r ed, Bt u/h
r
d
= fouling r esist ance (fouling fact or ), (hr ft
2
F/Bt u)
r
f
= fluid film r esist ance (r ecipr ocal of film coefficient )
r
mb
= met al r esist ance r efer r ed t o out side bar e sur face
r
mx
= met al r esist ance r efer r ed t o out side ext endedsur face
R = t emper at ur e r at io (see Fig. 10-8)
S = specific gr avit y (wat er = 1.0)
t = t emper at ur e air side, F
T = t emper at ur e t ube side, F
U = over all heat t r ansfer coefficient , Bt u/(h ft
2
F)
W = mass flow, lb/hr
Y = cor r ect ion fact or, psi/ft (see Fig. 10-14)
= viscosit y, cp

w
= viscosit y at aver age t ube wall t emper at ur e, cp
= viscosit y gr adient cor r ect ion
Subscri pts :
a = air side
b = bar e t ube sur face basis
s = shell side
t = t ube side
x = ext ended t ube sur face basis
1 = inlet
2 = out let
FIG. 10-1
Nomenclature
10-1
char ged upwar d at appr oximat ely 2
1

2
t imes t he velocit y
of int ake, or about 1500 ft /min.
Less effect of sun, r ain, and hail, since 60% of t he face
ar ea of t he sect ion is cover ed.
Incr eased capacit y in t he event of fan failur e, since t he
nat ur al dr aft st ack effect is much gr eat er wit h induced
dr aft .
Di sadvantages of i nduced draft are:
Higher hor sepower since t he fan is locat ed in t he hot air.
Effluent air temperature should be limited to 200F, to pre-
vent potential damage to fan blades, bearings, V-belts, or
other mechanical components in the hot air stream.
The fan dr ive component s ar e less accessible for maint e-
nance, which may have t o be done in t he hot air gener -
at ed by nat ur al convect ion.
For inlet pr ocess fluids above 350F, for ced dr aft design
should be used; ot her wise, fan failur e could subject t he
fan blades and bear ings t o excessive t emper at ur es.
Advantages of forced draft are:
Slight ly lower hor sepower since t he fan is in cold air.
(Hor sepower var ies dir ect ly as t he absolut e t emper a-
t ur e.)
Bet t er accessibilit y of mechanical component s for main-
t enance.
Easily adapt able for war m air r ecir culat ion for cold cli-
mat es.
The disadvantages of forced draft are:
Poor dist r ibut ion of air over t he sect ion.
Gr eat ly incr eased possibilit y of hot air r ecir culat ion, due
t o low dischar ge velocit y fr om t he sect ions and absence
of st ack.
Low nat ur al dr aft capabilit y on fan failur e due t o small
st ack effect .
Tot al exposur e of t ubes t o sun, r ain, and hail.
The hor izont al sect ion is t he most commonly used air cooled
sect ion, and gener ally t he most economical. For a fluid wit h
fr eezing pot ent ial, t he t ubes should be sloped at least
1

8
in.
per foot t o t he out let header. Since in most cases t her e will be
no pr oblem associat ed wit h fr eezing, and it is mor e cost ly t o
design a sloped unit , most cooler s ar e designed wit h level sec-
t ions.
Ver t ical sect ions ar e somet imes used when maximum dr ain-
age and head ar e r equir ed, such as for condensing ser vices.
Angled sect ions, like ver t ical sect ions, ar e used for condens-
ing ser vices, allowing posit ive dr ainage. Fr equent ly, angle sec-
t ions ar e sloped t hir t y degr ees (30) fr om t he hor izont al.
A-fr ames ar e usually sloped sixt y degr ees (60) fr om t he hor i-
zont al. See Fig. 10-4.
Forced draft
Driver Drive
assembly
Fan Fan
ring
Supporting
structure
Air plenum
chamber
Tube section
Headers
Nozzles
Induced draft
Fan Fan ring
Air plenum
chamber
Headers
Nozzles Drive
assembly
Driver
Tube
Section
FIG. 10-2
Typical Side Elevations of Air Coolers
Bay
width
Bay
width
Unit width
Unit width
Tube
length
Tube
length
Tube
length
Tube
length
Two-fan bay with
2 tube bundles
Two two-fan bays with
6 tube bundles
One-fan bay with
3 tube bundles
Two one-fan bays with
4 tube bundles
FIG. 10-3
Typical Plan Views of Air Coolers
Non-freeze
Divided
rear header
Tube
bundle
Hot air
Hot
air
E
x
h
a
u
s
t

s
t
r
e
a
m
Cool
air
FIG. 10-4
Angled Section Layout
10-2
Fan sizes r ange fr om 3 ft t o 28 ft diamet er. However, 14 ft
t o 16 ft diamet er is t he lar gest diamet er nor mally used. Fan
dr iver s may be elect r ic mot or s, st eam t ur bines, hydr aulic mo-
t or s, or gas-gasoline engines. A speed r educer, such as a V-belt
dr ive or r educt ion gear box, is necessar y t o mat ch t he dr iver
out put speed t o t he r elat ively slow speed of t he axial flow fan.
Fan t ip speeds ar e nor mally 12,000 ft /min or less. Gener al
pr act ice is t o use V-belt dr ives up t o about 30 bhp and gear
dr ives at higher power. Individual dr iver size is usually lim-
it ed t o 50 hp.
Two fan bays ar e popular, since t his pr ovides a degr ee of
safet y against fan or dr iver failur e and also a met hod of cont r ol
by fan st aging. Fan cover age is t he r at io of t he pr oject ed ar ea
of t he fan t o t he face of t he sect ion ser ved by t he fan. Good
pr act ice is t o keep t his r at io above 0.40 whenever possible be-
cause higher r at ios impr ove air dist r ibut ion acr oss t he face of
t he t ube sect ion. Face ar ea is t he plan ar ea of t he heat t r ansfer
sur face available t o air flow at t he face of t he sect ion.
The heat -t r ansfer device is t he t ube sect ion, which is an as-
sembly of side fr ames, t ube suppor t s, header s, and fin t ubes.
Aluminum fins ar e nor mally applied t o t he t ubes t o pr ovide
an ext ended sur face on t he air side, in or der t o compensat e for
t he r elat ively low heat t r ansfer coefficient of t he air t o t he
t ube. Fin const r uct ion t ypes ar e t ension-wr apped, embedded,
ext r uded, and welded.
Tension-wr apped is pr obably t he most common fin t ype used
because of economics. Tension wr apped t ubing is common for
cont inuous ser vice wit h t emper at ur es below 400F. Ext r uded
fin is a mechanical bond bet ween an inner t ube exposed t o t he
pr ocess and an out er t ube or sleeve (usually aluminum) which
is ext r uded int o a high fin. Embedded fin is an aluminum or
st eel fin gr ooved int o t he base t ube. Embedded fins ar e used
in cyclic and high t emper at ur e ser vices. Ot her t ypes of finned
t ubes available ar e solder ed, edge wr apped, and ser r at ed t en-
sion wr apped. Cooler s ar e r egular ly manufact ur ed in t ube
lengt hs fr om 6 ft t o 50 ft and in bay widt hs fr om 4 ft t o 30 ft .
Use of longer t ubes usually r esult s in a less cost ly design com-
par ed t o using shor t er t ubes.
Base t ube diamet er s ar e
5

8
in. t o 1
1

2
in. OD wit h fins fr om
1

2
in. t o 1 in. high, spaced fr om 7 t o 11 per inch, pr oviding an
ext ended finned sur face of 12 t o 25 t imes t he out side sur face
of t he base t ubing. Tubes ar e usually ar r anged on t r iangular
pit ch wit h t he fin t ips of adjacent t ubes t ouching or separ at ed
by fr om
1

16
in. t o
1

4
in. Mat ching of t he t ube sect ion t o t he fan
syst em and t he heat t r ansfer r equir ement s usually r esult s in
t he sect ion having dept h of 3 t o 8 r ows of fin t ubes, wit h 4 r ows
t he most t ypical.
A 1-in. OD t ube is t he most popular diamet er, and t he most
common fins ar e
1

2
in. or
5

8
in. high. The dat a pr esent ed in
Fig. 10-11 ar e for 1 in. OD t ubes wit h
1

2
in. high fins, 9 fins/in.
(designat ed as
1

2
x 9) and
5

8
in. high fins, 10 fins/in. (desig-
nat ed as
5

8
x 10).
Common mat er ials of const r uct ion for header s ar e fir ebox
qualit y car bon st eel, ASTM SA-515-70, SA-516-70. Tubes ar e
gener ally ASTM SA-214 (ERW), SA-179 (SMLS), car bon st eel.
Louver s ar e gener ally car bon st eel, or aluminum wit h car bon
st eel const r uct ion being t he most gener al and most economi-
cal. Fins ar e nor mally aluminum. Bot h st ainless and br ass
alloys have t heir applicat ions but ar e mor e expensive t han
car bon st eel.
HEADER DESIGN
Plug header const r uct ion uses a welded box which allows
par t ial access t o t ubes by means of shoulder plugs opposit e t he
t ubes. Plug header s ar e nor mally used as t hey ar e cheaper
t han t he alt er nat e cover plat e design. Cover plat e header con-
st r uct ion allows t ot al access t o header, t ube sheet , and t ubes.
This design is used in high fouling, low pr essur e ser vice.
Fig. 10-5 shows t ypical designs for bot h plug header and
cover plat e header.
AIR-SIDE CONTROL
Air-cooled exchanger s ar e sized t o oper at e at war m (sum-
mer ) air t emper at ur es. Seasonal var iat ion of t he air t emper a-
t ur e can r esult in over-cooling which may be undesir able. One
way t o cont r ol t he amount of cooling is by var ying t he amount
of air flowing t hr ough t he t ube sect ion. This can be accom-
plished by using mult iple mot or s, 2-speed dr ives, var iable
speed mot or s, louver s on t he face of t he t ube sect ion, or var i-
able pit ch fans.
St aging of fans or fan speeds may be adequat e for syst ems
which do not r equir e pr ecise cont r ol of pr ocess t emper at ur e or
pr essur e. Louver s will pr ovide a full r ange of air quant it y con-
t r ol. They may be oper at ed manually, or aut omat ically oper -
16
9
10
3
1
13
11
18
6
17
3
5
12
4 15
17
18 14
Cover plate header
16 9
3
1
10
5
2
8
6
3
16
Plug header
13
11
12
4
14
7
15
FIG. 10-5
Typical Construction of Tube Section with Plug and Cover
Plate Headers
1. Tube sheet 7. St iffener 13. Tube keeper
2. Plug sheet 8. Plug 14. Vent
3. Top and bot t om plat es 9. Nozzle 15. Dr ain
4. End plat e 10. Side fr ame 16. Inst r ument connect ion
5. Tube 11. Tube spacer 17. Cover plat e
6. Pass par t it ion 12. Tube suppor t
cr oss-member
18. Gasket
10-3
at ed by a pneumat ic or elect r ic mot or cont r olled fr om a r emot e
t emper at ur e or pr essur e cont r oller in t he pr ocess st r eam. Lou-
ver s used wit h const ant speed fans do not r educe fan power
r equir ement s.
Aut o-var iable-pit ch fans ar e nor mally pr ovided wit h pneu-
mat ically oper at ed blade pit ch adjust ment which may be con-
t r olled fr om a r emot e sensor. Blade pit ch is adjust ed t o pr ovide
t he r equir ed amount of air flow t o maint ain t he pr ocess t em-
per at ur e or pr essur e at t he cooler. The r equir ed blade angle
decr eases as ambient air t emper at ur e dr ops and t his con-
ser ves fan power. Hydr aulic var iable speed dr ives r educe fan
speed when less air flow is r equir ed and can also conser ve fan
power.
A design consider at ion which might be r equir ed for sat isfac-
t or y pr ocess fluid cont r ol is co-cur r ent flow. In ext r eme cases
of high pour point fluids, no amount of air side cont r ol would
allow sat isfact or y cooling and pr event fr eezing. Co-cur r ent
flow has t he coldest air cool t he hot t est pr ocess fluid, while t he
hot t est air cools t he coolest pr ocess fluid. This is done in or der
t o maint ain a high t ube wall t emper at ur e. This gives a much
poor er LMTD, but for highly viscous fluids is oft en t he only
way t o pr event fr eezing or unaccept able pr essur e dr ops. Wit h
air cooler s, t he most common met hod of accomplishing co-cur -
r ent flow is t o have t he inlet nozzle on t he bot t om of t he header
wit h t he pass ar r angement upwar ds. This t ot ally r ever ses t he
st andar d design, and may cause a pr oblem wit h dr ainage dur -
ing shut -downs. In addit ion, air side cont r ol is necessar y wit h
co-cur r ent designs.
WARM AIR RECIRCULATION
Ext r eme var iat ion in air t emper at ur e, such as encount er ed
in nor t her n climat es, may r equir e special air r ecir culat ion fea-
t ur es. These ar e needed t o pr ovide cont r ol of pr ocess st r eam
t emper at ur es, and t o pr event fr eezing of liquid st r eams. War m
air r ecir culat ion var ies fr om a st andar d cooler wit h one r ever s-
ing fan t o a t ot ally enclosed syst em of aut omat ic louver s and
fans. These t wo widely used syst ems ar e t er med int er nal r e-
cir culat ion and ext er nal r ecir culat ion.
A t ypical layout for int er nal r ecir culat ion is shown in Fig.
10-6. Dur ing low ambient oper at ion, t he manual fan cont inues
t o for ce air t hr ough t he inlet half of t he sect ion. The aut o-var i-
able fan oper at es in a r ever sing mode, and dr aws hot air fr om
t he upper r ecir culat ion chamber down t hr ough t he out let end
of t he sect ion. Because of t he lower r ecir culat ion skir t , t he
manual fan mixes some of t he hot air br ought down by t he
aut o-var iable fan wit h cold out side air and t he pr ocess r epeat s.
The t op exhaust louver s ar e aut omat ically adjust ed by a t em-
per at ur e cont r oller sensing t he pr ocess fluid st r eam. As t he
fluid t emper at ur e r ises, t he louver s ar e opened. Dur ing design
ambient condit ions, t he louver s ar e full open and bot h fans
oper at e in a st andar d for ced dr aft mode.
A cooler wit h int er nal r ecir culat ion is a compr omise bet ween
no r ecir culat ion and fully cont r olled ext er nal r ecir culat ion. It
is cheaper t han full ext er nal r ecir culat ion, and has less st at ic
pr essur e loss dur ing maximum ambient t emper at ur e condi-
t ions. A cooler wit h int er nal r ecir culat ion is easier t o er ect , and
r equir es less plot ar ea t han an ext er nal r ecir culat ion design.
However, t his lat t er design is mor e cost ly t han a cooler wit h
no r ecir culat ion, and cannot pr ovide complet e fr eeze pr ot ec-
Without recirculation
Auto-variable fan
(slight negative pitch)
Manual fan
(on)
Exhaust
Exhaust Exhaust
Automatic louvers
Automatic louvers (partially closed)
upper recirculation
chamber
Coil
Manual fan
(on)
Auto-variable fan
(positive pitch)
Lower recirculation skirt
Minimum
Normal airflow
Recirculated airflow
Normal airflow
Lower recirculation
skirt
Upper recirculation
chamber
Coil
With recirculation
FIG. 10-6
Internal Recirculation Design
10-4
tion. Because there is no control over air intake, and fans alone
cannot fully mix air, stratified cold air may contact the section.
With the fans off, high wind velocity during low ambient condi-
tions could cause excessive cold air to reach the section.
A typical layout for external recirculation is shown in Fig. 10-7.
During low ambient temperature conditions, two-speed motors on
low speed, or auto-variable fans at low pitch, are normally used.
For this design, the sides of the cooler are closed with manual
louvers. Over both ends, a recirculation chamber projects beyond
the section headers, and provides a duct for mixing cold outside
air with warm recirculated air. As with the internal recirculation
design, the top exhaust louvers are controlled by the temperature
of the process fluid. However, this design provides for control of
the inlet air temperature. As the inlet air louver closes, an internal
louver in the end duct opens. These adjustments are determined
by a controller which senses air temperature at the fan. Once the
system reaches equilibrium, it automatically controls process
temperature and prevents excessive cooling. During warm
weather, the side manual louvers are opened, while close control
is maintained by adjustment of the exhaust louvers.
The external recirculation design is preferred for critical control
and prevention of freezing. Once operational, it requires little at-
tention. Upon failure of power or air supply, the system closes
automatically to prevent freezing. It can be designed to automat-
ically reduce motor energy use when excess cooling is being pro-
vided. The main drawback for t his t ype of system is it s high cost .
Several actuators and control devices are required, along with
more steel and louvers. It is usually too large to be shop assembled,
and requires more field assembly than an internal system. Be-
cause of the need to restrict air intake, this design increases the
static pressure, causing greater energy use, and 20-25% larger
motors than a standard cooler.
When designing an ext er nal r ecir culat ion unit , consider a-
t ion must be given t o t he plenum dept h and duct wor k t o allow
air mixing and pr event excessive st at ic pr essur e loss. The lou-
ver int ake ar ea should be lar ge enough t o keep t he air flow
below 500 ft /min dur ing maximum design condit ions.
AIR EVAPORATIVE COOLERS
Wet /dr y t ype (air evapor at ive cooler s) air cooler s may be a
good economical choice when a close appr oach t o t he ambient
t emper at ur e is r equir ed. In t hese syst ems, t he designer can
t ake advant age of t he differ ence bet ween t he dr y bulb and wet
bulb t emper at ur es. Ther e ar e t wo gener al t ypes of air evapo-
r at ive cooler combinat ions used alt hough ot her combinat ions
ar e possible:
We t air type In t his t ype, t he air is humidified by
spr aying wat er int o t he air st r eam on t he inlet side of t he air
cooler. The air st r eam may t hen pass t hr ough a mist elimina-
t or t o r emove t he excess wat er. The air t hen passes over t he
finned t ubes at close t o it s wet -bulb t emper at ur e. If t he mist
eliminat or is not used, t he spr ay should be clean, t r eat ed
wat er or t he t ube/fin t ype and met allur gy should be compat -
ible wit h t he wat er.
We t tube type An air evapor at ive cooler may be oper -
at ed in ser ies wit h an air cooler if t her e is a lar ge pr ocess fluid
t emper at ur e change wit h a close appr oach t o t he ambient . The
pr ocess fluid ent er s a dr y finned t ube sect ion and t hen passes
int o a wet , plain t ube sect ion (or appr opr iat e finned t ube sec-
t ion). The air is pulled acr oss t he wet t ube sect ion and t hen,
aft er dr opping out t he excess moist ur e, passes over t he dr y
t ube sect ion.
Access door for each bay
Automatic louvers
Handrail
Grating
walkway
Automatic louvers
Bug and lint screen
when required
Manual louvers
Hinged
access
door
Fixed panel in
recirculation compartment
Coil
Coil guard
Manual louvers
Bug and lint screen when required
FIG. 10-7
External Recirculation Design
10-5
SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN STEAM
CONDENSERS
Ther e ar e oft en pr oblems wit h st eam condenser s which need
special at t ent ion at t he design st age.
Imploding (collapsing bubbles) or knocking can cr eat e vio-
lent fluid for ces which may damage piping or equipment .
These for ces ar e cr eat ed when a subcooled condensat e is
dumped int o a t wo-phase condensat e header, or when live
st eam passes int o subcooled condensat e. This pr oblem is
avoided by designing t he st eam syst em and cont r ols so t hat
st eam and subcooled condensat e do not meet in t he syst em.
Non-condensable gas st agnat ion can be a pr oblem in t he air
cooled st eam condenser any t ime t her e is mor e t han one t ube
r ow per pass. The t emper at ur e of t he air incr eases r ow by r ow
fr om bot t om t o t op of t he air cooled sect ion. The condensing
capacit y of each r ow will t her efor e var y wit h each t ube r ow in
pr opor t ion t o t he T dr iving for ce. Since t he t ubes ar e con-
nect ed t o common header s and ar e subject t o t he same pr es-
sur e dr op, t he vapor flows int o t he bot t om r ows fr om bot h ends.
The non-condensables ar e t r apped wit hin t he t ube at t he point
of lowest pr essur e. The non-condensables cont inue t o accumu-
lat e in all but t he t op r ows unt il t hey r each t he t ube out let .
The syst em becomes st able wit h t he condensat e r unning out
of t hese lower t ube r ows by gr avit y. This pr oblem can be elimi-
nat ed in sever al ways:
By assigning only one t ube r ow per pass.
By connect ing t he t ube r ows at t he r et ur n end wit h 180
r et ur n bends and eliminat ing t he common header.
AIR COOLER LOCATION
Cir culat ion of hot air t o t he fans of an air cooler can gr eat ly
r educe t he cooling capacit y of an air cooler. Cooler locat ion
should t ake t his int o consider at ion.
Si ngle Installati ons
Avoid locat ing t he air-cooled exchanger t oo close t o buildings
or st r uct ur es in t he downwind dir ect ion. Hot air vent ing fr om
t he air cooler is car r ied by t he wind, and aft er st r iking t he
obst r uct ion, some of t he hot air r ecycles t o t he inlet . An in-
duced dr aft fan wit h sufficient st ack height alleviat es t his
pr oblem, but locat ing t he air cooler away fr om such obst r uc-
t ions is t he best solut ion.
An air cooler wit h for ced dr aft fans is always suscept ible t o
air r ecir culat ion. If t he air cooler is locat ed t oo close t o t he
gr ound, causing high inlet velocit ies r elat ive t o t he exhaust
air velocit y leaving t he cooler, t he hot air r ecir culat ion can
become ver y significant . For ced dr aft cooler s ar e pr efer ably
locat ed above pipe lanes r elat ively high above t he gr ound. In-
duced dr aft cooler s ar e less likely t o exper ience r ecir culat ion
because t he exhaust velocit ies ar e nor mally consider ably
higher t han t he inlet velocit ies.
Banks of Coolers
Cooler s ar r anged in a bank should be close t oget her or have
air seals bet ween t hem t o pr event r ecir culat ion bet ween t he
unit s. Mixing of induced dr aft and for ced dr aft unit s in close
pr oximit y t o each ot her invit es r ecir culat ion. Avoid placing
cooler s at differ ent elevat ions in t he same bank.
Avoid placing t he bank of cooler s downwind fr om ot her heat
gener at ing equipment .
Since air can only ent er on t he ends of cooler s in a bank, t he
bank should be locat ed above gr ound high enough t o assur e a
r easonably low inlet velocit y.
The pr evailing summer wind dir ect ion can have a pr ofound
effect on t he per for mance of t he cooler s. Nor mally t he bank
should be or ient ed such t hat t he wind flows par allel t o t he long
axis of t he bank of cooler s, and t he it ems wit h t he closest ap-
pr oach t o t he ambient t emper at ur e should be locat ed on t he
upwind end of t he bank.
These gener alizat ions ar e helpful in locat ing cooler s. The
use of Comput at ional Fluid Dynamics t o st udy t he effect of
wind dir ect ion, velocit y, obst r uct ions, and heat gener at ing ob-
ject s should be consider ed t o assur e t he best locat ion and or i-
ent at ion of air cooled heat exchanger s, especially for lar ge
inst allat ions.
MULTIPLE SERVICE DISCUSSION
If differ ent ser vices can be placed in t he same plot ar ea wit h-
out excessive piping r uns, it is usually less expensive t o com-
bine t hem on one st r uct ur e, wit h each ser vice having a
separ at e sect ion, but shar ing t he same fan and mot or s. Sepa-
r at e louver s may be placed on each ser vice t o allow inde-
pendent cont r ol. The cost and space savings makes t his
met hod common pr act ice in t he air cooler indust r y.
In designing mult iple ser vice cooler s, t he ser vice wit h t he
most cr it ical pr essur e dr op should be calculat ed fir st . This is
because t he pr essur e dr op on t he cr it ical it em might r est r ict
t he maximum t ube lengt h t hat t he ot her ser vices could t oler -
at e. The bur den of for cing mor e t han one ser vice int o a single
t ube lengt h incr eases t he possibilit y of design er r or s. Sever al
t r ial calculat ions may be needed t o obt ain an efficient design.
Aft er all ser vice plot ar eas have been est imat ed, combine
t hem int o a unit having a r at io of 2 or 3 t o 1 in lengt h t o widt h
(assuming a t wo fan cooler ). Aft er assuming a t ube lengt h,
calculat e t he most cr it ical ser vice for pr essur e dr op using t he
assumed number and lengt h of t ubes and a single pass. If t he
dr op is accept able or ver y close, calculat e t he cr it ical ser vice
complet ely. Once a design for t he most cr it ical ser vice has been
complet ed, follow t he same pr ocedur e wit h t he next most cr it i-
cal ser vice. Aft er t he second or subsequent ser vices have been
r at ed, it is oft en necessar y t o lengt hen or shor t en t he t ubes or
change t he over all ar r angement . If t ubes need t o be added for
pr essur e dr op r educt ions in alr eady over sur faced sect ions, it
might be mor e cost effect ive t o add a r ow(s) r at her t han widen
t he ent ir e unit . The fan and mot or calculat ions ar e t he same
as for a single ser vice unit , except t hat t he quant it y of air used
must be t he sum of air r equir ed by all ser vices.
CONDENSING DISCUSSION
The example given cover s cooling pr oblems and would wor k
wit h st r aight line condensing pr oblems t hat have t he appr oxi-
mat e r ange of dew point t o bubble point of t he fluid. Wher e
de-super heat ing or subcooling or wher e dispr opor t ionat e
amount s of condensing occur at cer t ain t emper at ur es, as wit h
st eam and non-condensables, calculat ions for air cooler s
should be done by zones. A heat r elease cur ve developed
fr om ent halpy dat a will show t he quant it y of heat t o be dissi-
pat ed bet ween var ious t emper at ur es. The zones t o be calcu-
lat ed should be st r aight line zones; t hat is, fr om t he inlet
t emper at ur e of a zone t o it s out let , t he heat load per degr ee
t emper at ur e is t he same.
Aft er t he zones ar e det er mined, an appr oximat e r at e must
be found for each zone. Do t his by t aking r at es fr om vapor
10-6
cooling, condensing, and liquid cooling, t hen aver age t hese
based on t he per cent of heat load for t hat phase wit hin t he
zone. Next , calculat e t he LMTD of each zone. Begin wit h t he
out let zone using t he final design out let t emper at ur e and t he
inlet t emper at ur e of t hat zone. Cont inue t o calculat e t he zone
as if it wer e a cooler, except t hat only one pass and one or t wo
r ows should be assumed, depending on t he per cent age of heat
load in t hat zone. In calculat ing t he pr essur e dr op, aver age
condit ions may be used for est imat ing.
If t he calculat ions for zone one (or lat er a succeeding zone)
show a lar ge number of shor t t ubes wit h one pass, as is usually
t he case wit h st eam and non-condensables, r ecalculat e t he
zone wit h mult iple r ows (usually four ) and shor t t ubes having
one pass t hat uses only a per cent age of t he t ot al pr essur e dr op
allowed. The t ot al cooler will be calculat ed as if each zone wer e
a cooler connect ed in ser ies t o t he next one, except t hat only
t ube pr essur e dr ops should be calculat ed for t he middle zones.
Thus, each zone must have t he same number of t ubes and t r ue
ambient must be used in calculat ing t he LMTD. Only t he t ube
lengt h may var y, wit h odd lengt hs for a zone accept able as long
as over all lengt h is r ounded t o a st andar d t ube lengt h.
If t he calculat ions for zone one (and succeeding zones) fit
well int o a longer t ube lengt h, t he LMTD must be weight ed.
Aft er t he out let zone has been calculat ed, calculat e zone t wo
using t he inlet t emper at ur e for it and it s out let t emper at ur e,
which is t he inlet t emper at ur e of zone one. The ambient used
t o find t he zone t wo LMTD will be t he design ambient plus t he
air r ise fr om zone one. Cont inue in t his manner, always using
t he pr evious zones out let air t emper at ur e in calculat ing t he
cur r ent zones LMTD. Aft er t he cooler size and configur at ion
have been det er mined, t he fan and mot or calculat ions will be
made in t he nor mal manner.
The ult imat e pr essur e dr op is t he sum of t he dr ops for each
zone or appr oximat ely t he sum of t he dr op for each phase using
t he t ube lengt h and pass ar r angement for each phase. An es-
t imat ed over all t ube side coefficient may be calculat ed by es-
t imat ing t he coefficient for each phase. Then t ake a weight ed
aver age based on t he per cent age of heat load for each phase.
The t ot al LMTD must be t he weight ed aver age of t he calcu-
lat ed zone LMTDs.
THERMAL DESIGN
The basic equat ion t o be sat isfied is t he same as given in
Sect ion 9, Heat Exchanger s:
Q UA CMTD Eq 10-1
Nor mally Q is known, U and CMTD ar e calculat ed, and t he
equat ion is solved for A. The ambient air t emper at ur e t o be
used will eit her be known fr om available plant dat a or can be
select ed fr om t he summer dr y bulb t emper at ur e dat a given in
Sect ion 11, Cooling Tower s. The design ambient air t emper a-
t ur e is usually consider ed t o be t he dr y bulb t emper at ur e t hat
is exceeded less t han 5 per cent of t he t ime in t he ar ea wher e
t he inst allat ion is r equir ed.
A complicat ion ar ises in calculat ing t he LMTD because t he
air quant it y is a var iable, and t her efor e t he air out let t emper a-
t ur e is not known. The pr ocedur e given her e st ar t s wit h a st ep
for appr oximat ing t he air-t emper at ur e r ise. Aft er t he air-out -
let t emper at ur e has been det er mined, t he cor r ect ed LMTD is
calculat ed in t he manner descr ibed in t he shell and t ube sec-
t ion, except t hat MTD cor r ect ion fact or s t o be used ar e fr om
Figs. 10-8 and 10-9 which have been developed for t he cr oss-
flow sit uat ion exist ing in air-cooled exchanger s.
Fig. 10-8 is for one t ube pass. It is also used for mult iple t ube
passes if passes ar e side by side. Fig. 10-9 is for t wo t ube
passes and is used if t he t ube passes ar e over and under each
ot her. A MTD cor r ect ion fact or of 1.0 is used for four or mor e
passes, if passes ar e over and under each ot her. A cor r ect ion
fact or of 1.0 may be used as an appr oximat ion for t hr ee passes,
alt hough t he fact or will be slight ly lower t han 1.0 in some
cases.
The pr ocedur e for t he t her mal design of an air cooler con-
sist s of assuming a select ion and t hen pr oving it t o be cor r ect .
The t ypical over all heat t r ansfer coefficient s given in Fig.
10-10 ar e used t o appr oximat e t he heat t r ansfer ar ea r equir ed.
The heat t r ansfer ar ea is conver t ed t o a bundle face ar ea using
Fig. 10-11 which list s t he amount of ext ended sur face avail-
able per squar e foot of bundle ar ea for t wo specific fin t ubes
on t wo differ ent t ube pit ches for 3, 4, 5, and 6 r ows. Aft er as-
suming a t ube lengt h, Fig. 10-11 is also used t o ascer t ain t he
number of t ubes. Bot h t he t ube side and air side mass veloci-
t ies ar e now det er minable.
The t ube-side film coefficient is calculat ed fr om Figs. 10-12
and 10-13. Fig. 10-17 gives t he air-side film coefficient based
on out side ext ended sur face. Since all r esist ances must be
based on t he same sur face, it is necessar y t o mult iply t he r e-
cipr ocal of t he t ube-side film coefficient and t ube-side fouling
fact or by t he r at io of t he out side sur face t o inside sur face. This
r esult s in an over all t r ansfer r at e based on ext ended sur face,
designat ed as U
x
. The equat ion for over all heat t r ansfer r at e
is:
1
U
x


|

.
1
h
t

`

,

|

.
A
x

A
i
`

,
+ r
dt

|

.
A
x

A
i
`

,
+ r
mx
+
1
h
a

Eq 10-2
The basic equat ion will t hen yield a heat t r ansfer ar ea in
ext ended sur face, A
x
, and becomes:
Q (U
x
) (A
x
) CMTD
Eit her met hod is valid and each is used ext ensively by t her -
mal design engineer s. Fig. 10-10 gives t ypical over all heat
t r ansfer coefficient s based on bot h ext ended sur face and out -
side bar e sur face, so eit her met hod may be used. The ext ended
sur face met hod has been select ed for use in t he example which
follows. The air-film coefficient in Fig. 10-17 and t he air st at ic
pr essur e dr op in Fig. 10-18 ar e only for 1 in. OD t ubes wit h
5

8
in. high fins, 10 fins per inch on 2
1

4
in. t r iangular pit ch.
Refer t o Bibliogr aphy Nos. 2, 3, and 5 for infor mat ion on ot her
fin configur at ions and spacings.
The minimum fan ar ea is calculat ed in St ep 16 using t he
bundle face ar ea, number of fans, and a minimum fan cover age
of 0.40. The calculat ed ar ea is t hen conver t ed t o a diamet er
and r ounded up t o t he next available fan size. The air-side
st at ic pr essur e is calculat ed fr om Fig. 10-18 and t he fan t ot al
pr essur e is est imat ed using gr oss fan ar ea in St ep 20. Finally,
fan hor sepower is calculat ed in St ep 21 assuming a fan effi-
ciency of 70%, and dr iver hor sepower is est imat ed by assum-
ing a 92%-efficient speed r educer.
Example 10-1 Pr ocedur e for est imat ing t r ansfer sur face,
plot ar ea, and hor sepower
Required data for hot flui d
Name and phase: 48API hydr ocar bon liquid
Physical pr oper t ies at avg t emp = 200F
C
p
0.55 Bt u/(lb F)
0.51 cp
10-7
FIG. 10-8
MTD Correction Factors (1 Pass Cross Flow, Both Fluids Unmixed)
FIG. 10-9
MTD Correction Factors (2 Pass Cross Flow, Both Fluids Unmixed)
10-8
k 0.0766 Bt u/[(hr sq ft F)/ft ]
(Fr om t his Dat a Book Sect ion 23)
Heat load: Q = 15,000,000 Bt u/hr
Flow quant it y: W
t
= 273,000 lb/hr
Temper at ur e in: T
1
= 250F
Temper at ur e out : T
2
= 150F
Fouling fact or r
dt
= 0.001 (hr sq ft F)/Bt u
Allowable pr essur e dr op: P
t
= 5 psi
Required data for ai r
Ambient t emper at ur e: t
1
= 100F
Elevat ion: Sea level (see Fig. 10-16 for alt it ude
cor r ect ion)
C
Pair
= 0.24 Bt u/(lb F)
Basi c as sumptions
Type: For ced dr aft , 2 fans
Fint ube: 1 in. OD wit h
5

8
in. high fins
Tube pit ch: 2
1

2
in. t r iangular ()
Bundle layout : 3 t ube passes, 4 r ows of t ubes,
30 ft long t ubes
Fi rs t trial
1. Pick appr oximat e over all t r ansfer coefficient fr om Fig.
10-10. U
x
= 4.2
2. Calculat e appr oximat e air t emper at ur e r ise
t
a

|

.
U
x
+ 1
10
`

,

|

.
T
1
+ T
2
2
t
1
`

,
t
a

|

.
4.2 + 1.0
10
`

,

|

.
250 + 150
2
100
`

,
52F
3. Calculat e CMTD
Hydocar bon
Air
250
152
98


150
100
50
LMTD = 71.3F (see Fig. 9-3)
CMTD = (71.3) (1.00) = 71.3F
(3 t ube passes assumed)
4. Calculat e r equir ed sur face
A
x

Q
(U
x
) (CMTD)
A
x

15,000,000
(4.2) (71.3)
50,090 sq ft
5. Calculat e face ar ea using APSF fact or fr om Fig. 10-11
F
a

A
x
APSF
F
a

50,090
107.2
467 sq ft (4 r ows assumed)
6. Calculat e unit widt h wit h assumed t ube lengt h
Ser vice
1 in. Fint ube
1
2 in. by 9
5
8 in. by 10
Ub Ux Ub Ux
1. Wat er & wat er solut ions
(See not e below)
Engine jacket wat er
(rd = 0.001) 110 7.5 130 6.1
Process wat er
(rd = 0.002) 95 6.5 110 5.2
50-50 et hylene glycol-
wat er (rd = 0.001) 90 6.2 105 4.9
50-50 et hylene glycol-
wat er (rd = 0.002) 80 5.5 95 4.4
2. Hydr ocar bon liquid cooler s
Viscosit y, cp,
at avg. t emp.
Ub Ux Ub Ux
0.2 85 5.9 100 4.7
0.5 75 5.2 90 4.2
1.0 65 4.5 75 3.5
2.5 45 3.1 55 2.6
4.0 30 2.1 35 1.6
6.0 20 1.4 25 1.2
10.0 10 0.7 13 0.6
3. Hydr ocar bon gas cooler s
Pr essur e,
psig
Ub Ux Ub Ux
50 30 2.1 35 1.6
100 35 2.4 40 1.9
300 45 3.1 55 2.6
500 55 3.8 65 3.0
750 65 4.5 75 3.5
1000 75 5.2 90 4.2
4. Air and flue-gas cooler s
Use one-half of value given for hydr ocar bon gas cooler s.
5. St eam Condenser s (At mospher ic pr essur e & above)
Ub Ux Ub Ux
Pure St eam
(r d = 0.0005) 125 8.6 145 6.8
St eam wit h
non-condensibles 60 4.1 70 3.3
6. HC condenser s
Condensing*
Range, F
Ub Ux Ub Ux
0 range 85 5.9 100 4.7
10 range 80 5.5 95 4.4
25 range 75 5.2 90 4.2
60 range 65 4.5 75 3.5
100 & over range 60 4.1 70 3.3
7. Ot her condenser s
Ub Ux Ub Ux
Ammonia 110 7.6 130 6.1
Fr eon 12 65 4.5 75 3.5
Not es: Ub is overall r at e based on bare t ube ar ea, and Ux is over all r at e
based on ext ended sur face.
Based on approximat e air face mass velocit ies bet ween 2600 and 2800
lb/(hrsq ft of face area).
*Condensing range = hydr ocar bon inlet t emper at ure t o condensing zone
minus hydr ocar bon out let t emperat ur e from condensing zone.
FIG. 10-10
Typical Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Air Coolers
10-9
Widt h
F
a
L
Widt h
467
30
15.57 ft
For simplificat ion r ound t his answer t o 15.5, t hus F
a
=
465 (30-ft -long t ubes assumed)
7. Calculate number of tubes using APF factor from Fig. 10-11
N
t

A
x
(APF) (L)
N
t

50,090
(5.58) (30)
299
8. Calculat e t ube-side mass velocit y fr om assumed number
of passes and r eading A
t
fr om Fig. 9-25 for a 1 in. OD x
16 BWG t ube
A
t
= 0.5945 sq in.
G
t

(144) (W
t
) (N
p
)
(3600) (N
t
) (A
t
)
G
t

(0.04) (273,000) (3)
(299) (0.5945)
184 lb/(ft
2
sec)
9. Calculat e modified Reynolds number
N
R

(D
i
) (G
t
)


(0.87) (184)
0.51
314
10. Calculat e t ube-side pr essur e dr op using equat ion fr om
Fig. 10-14 and fr om Fig. 10-15
P
t

fYLN
p

+ BN
p
P
t

(0.0024) (14.5) (30) (3)
0.96
+ (0.25) (3) 4.0 psi
( is a difficult funct ion t o calculat e r igor ously, see Fig.
10-19)
11. Calculat e t ube-side film coefficient using equat ion fr om
Fig. 10-15 and
k
|

.
C
p

k
`

,
1
3
fr om Fig. 10-13
h
t

J k
|

.
C
p

k
`

,
1
3

D
i

(1900) (0.12) (0.96)
0.87
252
12. Calculat e air quant it y
W
a

Q
(0.24) (t
a
)
W
a

15,000,000
(0.24) (52)
1,200,000 lb/hr
13. Calculat e air face mass velocit y
G
a

W
a
F
a
lb/(hr sq ft of face ar ea)
G
a

1,200,000
465
2,581
14. Read air-side film coefficient fr om Fig. 10-17
h
a
8.5
15. Calculat e over all t r ansfer coefficient
A
x
A
i

(AR) (D
o
)
D
i
A
x
A
i

(21.4) (1.0)
0.87
24.6
1
U
x

|

.
1
h
t
`

,

|

.
A
x
A
i
`

,
+ r
dt

|

.
A
x
A
i
`

,
+ r
mx
+
1
h
a
1
U
x

|

.
1
252
`

,
(24.6) + (0.001) (24.6) +
1
8.5
U
x
4.17
(r
mx
is omit t ed fr om calculat ions, since met al r esist ance
is small compar ed t o ot her r esist ances)
Second and subsequent tri als . If U
x
calculat ed in
St ep 15 is equal or slight ly gr eat er t han U
x
assumed in St ep 1,
and calculat ed pr essur e dr op in St ep 9 is wit hin allowable
pr essur e dr op, t he solut ion is accept able. Pr oceed t o St ep 16.
Ot her wise, r epeat St eps 1-15 as follows:
1. Assume new U
x
bet ween value or iginally assumed in
St ep 1 and value calculat ed in St ep 15.
Fi n Hei ght by Fi ns/inch
1

2
i n. by 9
5

8
i n. by 10
APF, sq ft /ft 3.80 5.58
AR, sq ft /sq ft 14.5 21.4
Tube Pit ch 2 in. 2
1

4
in. 2
1

4
in. 2
3

8
in. 2
1

2
in.
APSF (3 r ows) 68.4 60.6 89.1 84.8 80.4
(4 r ows) 91.2 80.8 118.8 113.0 107.2
(5 r ows) 114.0 101.0 148.5 141.3 134.0
(6 r ows) 136.8 121.2 178.2 169.6 160.8
Not es: APF is t ot al ext er nal ar ea/ft of fint ube in sq ft /ft . AR is t he ar ea r at io of fint ube compar ed t o t he ext er ior
ar ea of 1 in. OD bar e t ube which has 0.262 sq ft /ft . APSF is t he ext er nal ar ea in sq ft /sq ft of bundle face ar ea.
FIG. 10-11
Fintube Data for 1-in. OD Tubes
10-10
FIG. 10-12
Friction Factor for Fluids Flowing Inside Tubes
10-11
FIG. 10-13
Physical Property Factor for Hydrocarbon Liquids
10-12
FIG. 10-14
Pressure Drop for Fluids Flowing Inside Tubes
10-13
FIG. 10-15
J Factor Correlation to Calculate Inside Film Coefficient, h t
10-14
2. Adjust t
a
by incr easing t
a
if calculat ed U
x
is higher
t han assumed U
x
, or decr easing t
a
if calculat ed U
x
is
lower t han assumed U
x
.
3.-15. Recalculat e values in St eps 3-15 changing assumed
number of passes in St eps 3 and 8, and t ube lengt h in
St ep 6, if necessar y t o obt ain a pr essur e dr op as calcu-
lat ed in St ep 9 as high as possible wit hout exceeding t he
allowable.
16. Calculat e minimum fan ar ea.
Fan ar ea/fa n FAP F
(0.40) (F
a
)
(No. fans)
FAPF
(0.40) (465)
2
93 ft
2
(2 fans assumed)
17. Fan diamet er [4 (FAPF)/]
0.5
= [4 (93)/3.1416]
0.5
11 ft (r ounded up)
18. Calculat e air st at ic pr essur e dr op using F
p
fr om Fig.
10-18 and D
R
at avg air t emp fr om Fig. 10-16.
T
a
, avg
100F + 152F
2
126F
P
a

(F
p
) (N)
(D
R
)
P
a

(0.10) (4)
0.90
0.44 i n ch es of wat er
19. Calculat e act ual air volume using D
R
of air at fan inlet .
t
1
= 100F
250
200
150
100
50
0
-50
100
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Density ratio, Dg, dimensionless
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

F
Reference state dry air at 70F
and sea level, 14.7 psia
E
le
v
a
tio
n
F
t.
8
,0
0
0
7
,0
0
0
6
,0
0
0
5
,0
0
0
4
,0
0
0
3
,0
0
0
2
,0
0
0
1
,0
0
0
0
FIG. 10-16
Air-Density Ratio Chart
FIG. 10-17
Air Film Coefficient
FIG. 10-18
Air Static-Pressure Drop
Corr ect ion fact or

when
|

w
`

,
0.14
(See Fig. 10-15)
Cor rect ion
Fact or,
1. Hydr ocar bon vapor ; st eam; wat er 1.0
2. Hydr ocar bon liquids (18 t o 48 API), MEA/DEA
solut ions
0.96
3. Wat er /glycol solut ions; heat t r ansfer fluids 0.92
4. Lube oils; heavy pet roleum fract ions (10 t o 18 API) 0.85

When N r < 17, (



w
)
0.25
A Reynolds number of less t han 17 is only
likely for lube oils or heavy pet roleum fract ions. The minimum r ecom-
mended value of t o use in St ep 10 is 0.80, even t hough t he calculat ed
value may be lower.
FIG. 10-19
Correction Factor for Fluid Viscosity Within the Tubes
10-15
ACFM
W
a
(D
R
) (60) (0.0749)
ACFM
1,200,000
(0.94) (60) (0.0749)
284,000 Tot al
or 142,000 / Fan
20. Appr oximat e fan t ot al pr essur e using D
R
of air at fan and
fan ar ea.
PF P
a
+


ACFM
4005
|

.
D
2

4
`

,


]
]
]
]
]
2
(D
R
)
Wher e: 4005

2 g
w
(3600)

a
12
at 70F
PF 0.44 +
|

.
142,000
(4005) (0.785) (11
2
)
`

,
2
(0.94)
0.57 inches of wat er
21. Appr oximat e br ake hor sepower per fan, using 70% fan
efficiency.
bhp
(ACFM/fan) (PF)
(6356) (0.70)
Wher e t he conver sion fact or
6356
|

.
33,000 ft lb
min hp
`

,

|

.
12 in.
ft
`

,

|

.
ft
3
62.3 lb
`

,
Not e: 62.3 is t he weight of one cubic foot of wat er at 60F.
bhp
(142,000) (0.57)
(6356) (0.70)
18.2
Act ual fan mot or needed for 92% efficient speed r educer is
18.2/0.92 = 19.8 hp. For t his applicat ion, 20 hp dr iver s would
pr obably be select ed.
Soluti on:
(15.5 ft ) (30 ft ) = 465 sq ft
(465 sq ft ) (APSF) = ext ended sur face ar ea
(465) (107.2) = 49,848 sq ft
Ther efor e, one unit having 49,848 sq ft of ext ended sur face,
t wo 11 ft diamet er fans, and t wo 20 hp fan dr iver s, is r equir ed.
MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION
At t ent ion t o t he design of t he air cooler, and t he choice of
mat er ials, is essent ial t o pr ovide low maint enance oper at ion.
Major fact or s t o be consider ed ar e at mospher ic cor r osion, cli-
mat ic condit ions, and t emper at ur e cycling of fluid being
cooled.
Scheduled pr event ive maint enance and inspect ion is t he
key t o t r ouble-fr ee air cooler oper at ion. A check of all fans for
vibr at ion should be made r egular ly. At t he fir st sign of undue
vibr at ion on a unit , t he unit should be shut down at t he ear liest
oppor t unit y for t hor ough examinat ion of all moving par t s. A
semi-annual inspect ion and maint enance pr ogr am should:
Check and r eplace wor n or cr acked belt s.
Inspect fan blades for deflect ion and for cr acks near
hubs.
Gr ease all bear ings.
Change oil in gear dr ives.
Check t he inside of t ube sect ion for accumulat ion of
gr ease, dir t , bugs, leaves, et c., and schedule cleaning be-
for e t ubes become packed wit h such debr is.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. A.P.I. St andar d 661, Air Cooled Heat Exchanger s for Gener al
Refiner y Ser vices.
2. Br iggs, D. E., Young, E. H., Convect ion Heat Tr ansfer and Pr es-
sur e Dr op of Air Flowing Acr oss Tr iangular Pit ch of Tubes,
Chemical Engineer ing Pr ogr ess Symposium Ser ies, Volume 59,
No. 41, 1963.
3. Cook, E. M., Air Cooled Heat Exchanger s, Chemical Engineer -
ing, May 25, 1964, p. 137; J uly 6, 1964, p. 131; and August 3,
1964, p. 97.
4. Gar dner, K. A., Efficiency of Ext ended Sur faces, Tr ans ASME,
Volume 67, 1945, pp. 621-631.
5. Robinson, K. K., Br iggs, D. E., Pr essur e Dr op of Air Flowing
Acr oss Tr iangular Pit ch Banks of Finned Tubes, Chemical En-
gineer ing Progress Symposium Series, Volume 62, No. 64, 1966.
6. Rubin, Fr ank L., Wint er izing Air Cooled Heat Exchanger s, Hy-
dr ocar bon Pr ocessing, Oct ober 1980, pp. 147-149.
10-16