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EXPERIENCES IN CONDUCTING LESSON STUDY WITH MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN SEAMEO QITEP IN MATHEMATICS

By: Fadjar Shadiq, M.App.Sc.

SEAMEO Regional Centre for QITEP in Mathematis 2010

FOREWORD

Foreword
Praise to God the Almighty for His blessing and mercies so that we can accomplish the writing of this learning material for the course on Lesson Study in Mathematics Education. Hopefully this learning material brings you a lot of benefits and meets your need to enhance the teaching skill in heterogeneous mathematics class. SEAMEO Regional Centre for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel (QITEP) in Mathematics is one of the organizations under SEAMEO which has commitment to improve the quality of Mathematics teachers and education personnel in Southeast Asia. To actualize its goals, SEAMEO QITEP in Mathematics conducts a course entitled Lesson Study in Mathematics Education. To prepare the implementation of this course, the Centre facilitates instructors or facilitators of the course to write the learning materials. The Centre thanks all the writers and those who give contribution in writing learning materials for the course. This book consists of the learning materials for the course on Lesson Study in Mathematics Education, which can be used to support the course. The materials of this course are as follows: Philosophical Theoretical Ground Mathematics Teaching Concept of Lesson Study and Establishing System for the Proposed Lesson Study Activities Preparation and Supporting Factors for Lesson Study Activities Monitoring, Evaluation, and Sustaining Program of Lesson Study Activities
SEAMEO REGIONAL CENTER FOR QITEP IN MATHEMATICS 2010

EXPERIENCES IN CONDUCTING LESSON STUDY WITH MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN SEAMEO QITEP IN MATHEMATICS

Utilizing Computers and Mobile Phones for Mathematics Learning

Besides, these learning materials cover summary of best practices sharing among the participants during the workshop. We expect it can be used by the secondary school mathematics teachers to enhance their competence in teaching mathematics in a heterogeneous class. We realize that this book is not yet perfect due to our limitations. Therefore, we invite the readers to give some criticisms and suggestions for the improvement of this book. Please send the comments to qitepinmath@yahoo.com. Finally, we would like to thank all who have helped us to accomplish this book. Acting Director,

Herry Sukarman, MSc.Ed.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
Foreword ....................................................................................................i Table of Content..................................................................................... iii Chapter I Introduction ............................................................................................. 1
A. Rationale . ............................................................................................................................. 1 B. Porpose ................................................................................................... 3 C. Scope ....................................................................................................... 3 Chapter II

Planning and Lesson ................................................................................ 4


A. Ipreparation of the Activity .................................................................... 4 B. The Planning Step Activity ................................................................ 7 Chapter III

Implementation and Observation ......................................................... 13


A. Implementation .................................................................................... 13 B. Observation .......................................................................................... 16 Chapter IV

Reflection and Discussion ......................................................................17


A. Results of Class Reflection .................................................................. 18 B. Individual Reflection ............................................................................ 19 Chapter V A. Conclusion ........................................................................................... 21 B. Recommendation.................................................................................. 22

References ..................................................................................................... 23

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INTRODUCTION

Chapter I Introduction
A. Rationale
Marquis de Condorcet as quoted by Fitzgerald and James (2007: ix) states: Mathematics , is the best training for our abilities, as it develops both the power and the precision of our thinking. In addition, National Research Council from USA (NRC, 1989:1) states: Communication has created a world economy in which working smarter is more important than merely working harder ... requires workers who are mentally fit workers who are prepared to absorb new ideas, to adapt to change, to cope with ambiguity, to perceive patterns, and to solve unconventional problems. The question can be raised is: How could mathematics teachers help their students to be smarter workers than merely harder workers? Therefore, the main issue in mathematics education is how to help and to facilitate children to learn mathematics with understanding; actively building new knowledge from experiences and prior knowledge. The change which could be done during the mathematics teaching and learning process is the shift from the traditional method such as lecture to other strategies or activities such as problem-solving, investigation, exploration, and open-ended activities; from memorizing or rote learning to reasoning and understanding; from low order thinking skills (LOTS) to high order thinking skills (HOTS). The newest trend in mathematics education is that mathematics teaching and learning should be focused on problem solving and the learning process could be started with realistic or contextual problems.

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EXPERIENCES IN CONDUCTING LESSON STUDY WITH MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN SEAMEO QITEP IN MATHEMATICS

Lesson study was primarily introduced at a Junior Secondary School in Fuji City, Japan. Lesson study consists of the study or examination of teaching practices. Japanese teachers examine their teaching through lesson study. They engage in a well-defined process that involves discussing lessons that they have first planned and observed together. By implementing lesson study in Japan, the quality of instructional process and result increase rapidly. This result does not only influence very much the instructional development and innovation but also improve competences and professionalism of teachers in Japan. Lesson study has also been chosen and applied by several developed countries, such as in the United States of America and Australia. These two countries have taken and adopted the concept of lesson study as an effort to enhance the quality of instructional process and result in each country. The quality improvement of instructional process and result was reached by examining or studying the teaching practices and students thinking as well as students behavior while implementing lesson study. Lesson study is a professional development process that a small group of teachers systematically examines their instructions through plan, do, and see steps, in order to improve the effectiveness of the experiences that the teachers provide to their students. Plan is related to the activity of planning and goal-setting. Teaching, observing, and revising the research lesson are covered in do component of the cycle. See consists of observing, discussing, and reflecting the research lesson. In the course on developing lesson study in mathematics education in QITEP in Mathematics, the participants have learnt about lesson study; what is lesson study? Why is lesson study? How do we implement lesson study? This document will cover the result of implementing the lesson study activities.

SEAMEO REGIONAL CENTER FOR QITEP IN MATHEMATICS 2010

INTRODUCTION

B. Purpose
In general, this paper is developed to explain and report the activities that have been undertaken by the participants of the course on developing lesson study in mathematics education in QITEP in Mathematics. Specifically, the purposes of this paper are as follow. 1. To explain and to report the plan step done and implemented by the participants of the course on developing lesson study in mathematics education. 2. To explain and to report the do step done and implemented by the participants of the course on developing lesson study in mathematics education. 3. To explain and to report the see step done and implemented by the participants of the course on developing lesson study in mathematics education.

C. Scope
This paper will be started with the report of the plan step; and will be continued with the report and explanation of the do step; and finally will be closed with the report and explanation of the see step; which have been implemented by the participants of the course on developing lesson study in mathematics education conducted by QITEP in Mathematics When the user of this paper is experiencing difficulties or having suggestions or criticisms, please contact the writer, Fadjar Shadiq, in the following address: QITEP in Mathematics Yogyakarta, PO Box 31 YKBS, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia; via email: fadjar_p3g@yahoo.com, via website: www.fadjarp3g.wordpress.com; via phone: (0274) 880762 or via mobile phone: 08156896973.

SEAMEO REGIONAL CENTER FOR QITEP IN MATHEMATICS 2010

EXPERIENCES IN CONDUCTING LESSON STUDY WITH MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN SEAMEO QITEP IN MATHEMATICS

Chapter II Planning the Lesson


A. Preparation of the Activity
There are two steps during the preparation activity: The first step is forming a lesson study group and the second step is selecting or choosing the topic of the lesson study. The participants of the course are divided into 6 groups. The number of the course participants is 24; so that each group has four members as follows. Group 1 a. Mr. Suwat Sriyotee b. Ms. Chea Vathana c. Ms. Betty Atmi d. Mr. Agus Supriadi Group 2 a. Ms. Thuy Chi Thu b. Mr. Ali Gufron c. Ms. Rismayati d. Mr. Amirullah Group 3 a. Mr. Bounthieng Pathoumvanh b. Mr. Arofiq Dardiri c. Mrs. Mien Irianti Lao PDR Indonesia (Mataram-NTB) Indonesia (Jayapura) Vietnam Indonesia (Surabaya) Indonesia (Jambi) Indonesia (Kendari) Thailand Cambodia Indonesia (Sumatera Utara) Indonesia (Yogyakarta)

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PLANNING THE LESSON

d. Mrs. Titin Suryati Sukmadewi Group 4 a. Edimo Souza Soares b. Drs. Suwardi c. Ngurah Putu Wiswayana, S.Pd., M.Pd. d. Drs. Susbintoro Group 5 a. Mr. Yim Bunly b. Mrs. Ida Lydiati c. Mr. Sumarno d. Mr. Yudi Setiawan Group 6 a. Mr. Manuel Da Costa Franca b. Mrs. Merle S Pacatang c. Mr. Khairuddin d. Mrs. Rini Zubaidah

Indonesia (Sumedang) Timor Leste Yogyakarta Bali Jawa Tengah

Cambodia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia

Timor Leste Phillipines Indonesia (Aceh) Indonesia (Jawa Tengah)

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EXPERIENCES IN CONDUCTING LESSON STUDY WITH MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN SEAMEO QITEP IN MATHEMATICS

The participants of Course on Developing Lesson Study in Mathematics Education with facilitators and Prof Masami Isoda from CRICED (Tsukuba University)
Three dimensional is the topic of the lesson study activity. The reasons of choosing that topic are: (1) three dimensional is the most difficult topic; and (2) at that time, the three dimensional topic was being taught in Yogyakarta schools. The topics are divided into three sub-topics as follows. 1. Relationships between: point and line point and plane line and line

SEAMEO REGIONAL CENTER FOR QITEP IN MATHEMATICS 2010

PLANNING THE LESSON

line and plane plane and plane 2. Distance between two points point and line point and plane two lines line and plane two planes 3. Angle between: two lines line and plane two planes The facilitators of this activity are: Dr Ida Karnasih; Dr Hartono, Mr Sahid, Ms. Puji Iryanti, M.Sc.Ed; Mr. Fadjar Shadiq, M.App.Sc; and Mr. Alkrismanto, M.Sc.

B. The Planning Step Activity


Each group prepares an activity for the same topic of Three Dimensional. There are two steps in planning activity. The first step is designing lesson plan and the second step is designing observation sheet. The lesson plan consists of several components such as: (1) standard of competence, (2) basic competence, (3) indicators, (4) time allocation, (5) objectives, (6) materials, (7) learning approaches and methods, (8) sources and media, (9) learning activities, (10) assessment, and (11) worksheet (compulsory). Each group is expected to write a lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation, and student worksheet.

SEAMEO REGIONAL CENTER FOR QITEP IN MATHEMATICS 2010

EXPERIENCES IN CONDUCTING LESSON STUDY WITH MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN SEAMEO QITEP IN MATHEMATICS

SEAMEO REGIONAL CENTER FOR QITEP IN MATHEMATICS 2010

PLANNING THE LESSON

According to the groups of participants, there are four goals of lesson study, i.e.: (1) to improve the quality of teaching and learning process as well as the lesson in the classroom; (2) to study that if lesson is welldesigned, then it will produce professional and innovative teachers; (3) to create shared expectations for and understanding of student thinking and learning; and (4) to help them to learn to observe and to criticize. Therefore, by doing lesson study, teachers can (1) effectively determine instructional objectives of a particular lesson, unit, and subject-matter area; (2) study and improve the lessons that are useful and suitable for students; (3) deepen their subject matter knowledge they deliver; (4) determine the long term objectives that will be achieved by their students; (5) plan collaboratively their lessons; (6) study accurately students learning and behaviour; (7) develop their best instructional knowledge; and (8) reflect their teaching process based on the students and colleagues perspectives or opinions. In designing the lesson plan, the steps are: (1) each group brainstormed the idea of teaching and learning activities for the lesson, (2) each member of each group wrote and designed the lesson plan, (3) each member of each group presented his lesson plan in front of his/her group, (4) other members gave suggestions or criticisms for the plan, (5) each member of each group revised his lesson, (6) the representative of each group presented his lesson plan in front of the class, (7) other groups gave suggestions or criticisms for the plan, (8) each group revised the lesson. During the plan step, the facilitators also act as: (1) motivator and (2) assessor. Facilitators have tried to remind the participants that there are several things should be taken into account, among them are as follows: a. The lesson study (LS) emphasis is not only on the collaborations between mathematics teachers and mathematics education experts;

SEAMEO REGIONAL CENTER FOR QITEP IN MATHEMATICS 2010

EXPERIENCES IN CONDUCTING LESSON STUDY WITH MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN SEAMEO QITEP IN MATHEMATICS

but should also be on how to change the process of teaching and learning mathematics in such a way to be more easily understood by every student. b. The lesson study (LS) is as part of showing the best practice of teaching and learning mathematics of SEAMEO country-member teachers. c. The LS emphasis should also be aimed at learning mathematics purposes, e.g. to help children to be competent in mathematical process such as reasoning (inductive and deductive), problem solving, communications, and positive attitudes toward mathematics and not only aimed at content knowledge. By considering those purposes, the effort should be taken in designing activity to concentrate on those purposes. d. The importance of working together in individual group and in class as part of learning community among mathematics teachers and mathematics educators. Each member of the group, each group and class should support and criticize others in such a way that every teacher could enhance their quality and competence gradually to be better mathematics teachers. e. The culture of some SEAMEO member countries teachers (such as some of them are seemingly shy and quiet in discussing or in arguing for their teaching plan); which could be constrained in designing LS as an alternative or strategy in developing the professionalism of mathematics teachers. Therefore, during the LS activities, the atmosphere in each group and in class should not threatens each participant, each group, and class.

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PLANNING THE LESSON

f.

During the plan activity, teachers and math education experts also need high quality resource materials (such as mathematics textbooks, examples of lesson plan, and materials from websites/blogs, periodicals, films, or VCDs). Therefore, during the LS activities; the use of internet, library, and mathematics laboratory was usually suggested to each participant, each group, and class. The observation sheet that was provided by committee of this course

describes aspects below. a. When do students start concentrating on studying? b. When do students stop concentrating on studying? c. What do you learn mostly from the observation? The content of the observation sheet below implies that the learning or studying process is more important than the teaching process. The observation sheet form can be seen on the next page.

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Observation Sheet Mathematics Learning Activity in a Lesson Study 1. When do students start concentrating on studying? (Must be based on the real facts observed in the classroom and mention the name of the student).

2. When do students stop concentrating on studying? (Must be based on the real facts observed in the classroom and mention the name of the student).

3. What do you learn mostly from the observation?

School/Grade: Topics: Teacher:

Date: Observer: Supervisor

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IMPLEMENTATION AND OBSERVATION

Chapter III Implementation and Observation


Chapter III will explain and report the implementation and observation as part of do step in implementing the LS activity. The sample chosen in this report was Ms Titin Suryati Sukmadewi from Sumedang, Indonesia; hereafter she will be called Titin or Ms Titin or Ibu Titin. Titin has designed: (1) lesson plan; (2) PowerPoint of her presentation in the class; and (3) student worksheets.

A. Implementation
The topic should be taught by Titin was: Angle Formed by a Line and a Plane. The lesson plan was executed on Saturday, April 24, 2010 at SMAN 1 Kasihan, Bantul, Yogyakarta; from 08.45 to 10.15 a.m. The teaching and learning process was as follows: 1. The teacher asked the students the prerequisite material such as trigonometry ratio (sin , cos , and tan ) and also cosines rule. Nearly all of the students already know about them and then they were ready to learn the new topic of angle formed by a line and a plane. The teacher motivated her students with the picture of leaning tower of Pisa. 2. The students were expected to understand about the way to find angle between two lines (parallel and skew) and angle between line and plane after learning process by using wire frame cube and worksheet. The students were also expected to determine angle between two intersecting lines and angle between two skewed lines.

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3. The teacher gave a few explanations about the definition of angle between two lines. The teacher gave worksheets to all of the students. While discussing, students could use equipment to help them solve the problem. As an example, in Hands-on Activity, students could use string to represent line in wire frame cub. In Minds-on Activity, teacher asked students to think about the angle between two lines (intersecting or skew), and in Authentic Learning Experience, the teacher asked the students to find the angle. Each group was requested to present the result of their group discussion, while the other groups were requested to pay attention. Teacher gave rewards to all of the students. 4. The next step of the lesson was about the angle between line and plane. But, before discussing this topic, students should be able to determine projection of a line to a plane. The teacher gave a few explanations about this by PowerPoint, using torch/flash light, and then asked the students to answer the questions on their worksheets about determining the projection of a point to a plane or projection of a line to a plane, by discussing it in pairs. 5. Next, the teacher gave a bit explanation about definition of angle between a line and a plane using PowerPoint. Working in groups, students discussed more challenging problem on their worksheets. Each group was requested to present the result of their group discussion, while the other groups were requested to pay attention. Teacher gave rewards to all of the students. 6. On the last step, the teacher and the students together concluded the distance between two parallel lines. Finally, the teacher gave questions for homework.

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IMPLEMENTATION AND OBSERVATION

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B. Observation
While the teacher conducted teaching and learning process, a group of observers was appointed to evaluate a student or a group of students. Therefore, the scope of the observation is narrowed and it is expected that the observers could put more attention and concentrate to obtain rich information about the learning process. This information can be used as feedback for learning the lesson in reflection or see step which will be reported in Chapter IV.

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REFLECTION AND DISCUSSION

Chapter IV Reflection and Discussion


This chapter will report and explain the see step on LS. After observing the lesson, the observers gave supports and critical ideas about the teaching and learning process done by each teacher. This chapter will report the reflection of class reflection as a whole in general and reflection of Ms. Titin concerning the teaching and learning process which had been done. Every teacher can learn from other teachers to be a better mathematics teacher. Therefore, during the LS, the LS participants could enhance his competence as mathematics teacher by learning from other teachers, especially from teachers who observe his presentation. In addition, the observers can learn from the teacher who presents the lesson. LS can be used as learning process by every mathematics teacher to improve the teaching and learning mathematics process.

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A. Results of the Class Reflection


The advantages that participants have got from the open classes are as follow. Introduction: Introductory lesson is very important to motivate students, or to make students ready to study or to learn by implementing alternative activities as follows: Telling the students the learning objectives Fun opening Prerequisite activities Motivation Contextual problems

Main Activity: Main activity step is very important to ensure that the objectives of the lesson could be achieved by the students by implementing alternative activities as follows: Group discussions to improve students communication and understanding. The use of equipment or media to minimize the abstractness of the concept learnt. Appropriate time management to ensure that the teaching and learning will run well. Worksheets to guide students to learn and collaborate with other students in group discussions. Systematic problem arrangement in worksheets.

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REFLECTION AND DISCUSSION

The teacher should have loud voice, smiling face, full attention, and patience to make interactions between teacher and students run well.

The use of ICT or media to ensure that the teaching and learning process will be more effective and more interesting. Giving rewards to the students who present in front of the class or to the students who participate well during the teaching and learning process.

Conclusion: Concluding step is very important to ensure that every student will learn mathematics successfully by implementing alternative activities as follows: Guiding the students to write the conclusion of the lesson. Assessing the students performance or competence. Asking students to do homework

B. Individual Reflection
Based on the observation sheets filled by the observers, and opinions or suggestions from observers in see step, there are many things that we can learn from the lesson. For example, this is an individual reflection for Ms. Titin. The patterns of the teaching and learning process are: Explanation by the teacher and she asks questions or gives task to do by students. This pattern can be categorized as traditional approach. The more active approach is by asking questions first and then followed by discussing the mathematical concept of the situation.

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It would be better if the teacher uses quiz during the review of prerequisite material to minimize the time allocation. The teacher presents some pictures in the beginning of the lesson about leaning tower of Pisa which can improve students motivation. Nearly all of the students felt happy during the lesson. It is interesting that the teacher divided the apperception into 2 parts. The teaching process in defining the angle between two lines can be improved by giving opportunity to the students to try finding out that angle by themselves. Teacher could be a facilitator in helping her students.

The worksheet is good, because it starts from easy to difficult problems It is good that the teacher gives an example of the projection of point on the floor and a line on the floor by using ball and torch or light. Based on the see step on LS, every teacher should revise his/her

lesson plan, PowerPoint presentation, and student worksheets.

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CONCLUSION

Chapter V Conclusion
This chapter will conclude the LS implemented by the participants of the Course on Developing Lesson Study in Mathematics Education conducted by QITEP in Mathematics. Finally, based on that conclusion the ideas of the importance of the LS and the next LS course are recommended.

A. Conclusion
By analyzing the result of the implementation, the course participants conclude that: 1. By doing lesson study, teachers can plan their lessons collaboratively and reflect upon their teaching process based on students and colleagues perspectives or opinions. We can see that well-designed study will produce professional and innovative teachers. 2. Lesson study has successfully changed the teaching and learning mathematics to be more students-centered. However, the effort should be taken to ensure that the teaching and learning process should be started with posing problems (might be realistic or contextual problem). In other words, the focus of the teaching and learning process is on problem solving. 3. Lesson study is an effective way to improve teaching and learning process through development of a shared professional knowledge among lesson study group members that based on a real teaching practice. Although the lesson study has advantages to create shared expectations for and understanding of students thinking and learning,

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the importance issue is actually raised during the process on how mathematics teachers can give opportunity to students to think and to reason and not only to memorize. In addition, how we can help students to learn mathematics enthusiastically and joyfully. 4. The success of the lesson study was depending also on the spirit of working together among the participants to learn together and to share ideas.

B. Recommendation
Based on the conclusion, there are several recommendations to make better implementation of lesson study as follows: 1. Every mathematics teacher needs to experience mathematics in ways that they will be expected to teach it. Therefore, every topic of the course in QITEP in Mathematics should be related to the work of mathematics teachers in class. For example, the aim of the topic of Philosophical Theoretical Ground of Mathematics Teaching is how to change the perception and belief of the participants from the traditional belief that knowledge can be transferred from teachers to students to be more modern that is knowledge is constructed by the learners. 2. Every topic of the course in QITEP in Mathematics should not be expressed and discussed in theoretical level only; but it must be demonstrated or modelled in practical level to ensure that every participant of the course could implement or execute the course materials in the mathematics classrooms.

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CONCLUSION

References
Chu, T.T.; Rismayati; Ali Gufron; & Amirullah (2010). Implementation of Lesson Study at SMAN 1 Kasihan. Report of Group 2. Yogyakarta: QITEP in Mathematics. Bunly, Y; Ida Lydiati, Sumarno; Yudi Setiawan (2010). Report of Group 5 in Implementing Lesson Study. Yogyakarta: QITEP in Mathematics. Khairuddin; Rini Zubaidah; Pacatang, M.S.; Da Costa Franca, M. (2010). Implementation of Lesson Study at SMA Negeri 1 Kalasan. Report of Group 5 in Implementing Lesson Study. Yogyakarta: QITEP in Mathematics. Pathoumvanh, B; Arofiq Dardiri; Mien Irianti; Titin Suryati Sukmadewi. (2010). Report of Group 6 in Implementing Lesson Study. Yogyakarta: QITEP in Mathematics.

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