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# SUBJECT: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS - I TOPIC: REGRESSION ANALYSIS THROUGH SPSS SUBMITTED TO: PROF. A.

V HANS GROUP NO: 02 SUBMITTED BY: AAKASH KHATRI: 107101 DHEERAJ SINGHAL: 107110 DIVESH RAMAWAT: 107111 GAURAV KUMAR: 107112 JEET RANJAN DAS: 107139 SWAGAT BARUAH: 107141 YOGESH KUMAR: 107145 CLASS: PGDM (A1) BATCH: 2007-2009 DATE OF SUBMISSION: 02 NOVEMBER 2007 PLACE: NEW DELHI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like thank PROF. A.V. HANS, Course Instructor-Quantitative Analysis-I, MANAGEMENT EDUCATION & REASEARCH INSTITUTE (MERI), who gave us an opportunity to analyze and study SPSS in depth, in order to do our project and to learn the importance and use of SPSS for Regression analyses. Finally, we must state that this project helped us in detailing the intricacies of SPSS and getting the first hand experience of studying and operating SPSS for making business analysis and other results.

## STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES ( SPSS )

The abbreviation SPSS stands for Statistical tool for the Social Sciences and is comprehensive system for analyzing data. SPSS package consists of a set of software tools for data entry, data management, statistical analysis, and presentation. SPSS integrates complex data and file management, statistical analysis and reporting functions. Social Sciences SPSS is a software package especially designed to facilitate statisticians in the computation and analysis of varying types of data. As, handling of mass data without the aid of computers becomes very monotonous, and tedious, therefore nowadays computers provided a great relief to statisticians in performing lengthy and difficult calculations easily, moreover helping in saving a lot of time. SPSS can take data from almost any type of file and use them to generate tabulated reports, charts, and plots of distribution and trends, descriptive statistics and complex statistical analysis.

REGRESSION
The dictionary meaning of the term Regression is the act of returning or going back. The term regression was first used by Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) in 1877 while studying the relationship between the height of fathers and sons. Regression is the measure of the average relationship between two or more variables in terms of the original units of the datas. Regression analysis is a statistical device with the help of which we are in a position to estimate (or predict) the

unknown values of one variable from known values of another variable. The variable which to predict the variable interest is called the independent variable or explanatory variable and the variable we are trying to predict is called the dependent variable or explained variable.

## A VARIETY OF PROBLEMS CAN BE HANDLED THROUGH SPSS

(Our topic is Regression analysis through SPSS).

## STEPS IN REGRESSION ANALYSIS Problem: Regression analysis of Performance ratings on experience.

STEP 1.Entering the raw data for analysis or choosing existing data.

DATA: We can use primary data for regression analysis, By choosing the second option, Type in data"

[Primary data when the data is presented in its as it is form and unable to dram any justify conclusion] We can use secondary data from existing file saved in computer by using 5th option. Open an existing data source. source When we choose type in data option then a window appears, in which we have to enter two things, 1. Variable view 2. Data view. We have taken data according to the problem. In this variable views are : 1. Experience (Independent) 2. Performance (Dependent)

STEP 2. Calculating Regression Equation ---Linear Regression: Linear Regression estimates the coefficients of the linear equations, involving one or more independent variables that best predict the value of the dependent variable. To perform regression analysis, From the ANALYZE menu

## Choose REGRESSION Choose LINEAR

SELECTING: DEPENDABLE VARIABLE & INDEPENDABLE VARIABLE Dependent Variable: Performance Independent Variable: Experience

We can select different type of outcomes according to the problem given by the help of statistics option present in linear regression window. We can choose different type of diagrams and graphs with the help of option Plot present in linear regression window.

OUTCOME

Total number of data view for experience and performance are equal and it is 8. Descriptive Statistics showing mean and standard deviation of performance and experience.

REGRESSION EQUATION
Y = b + aX Where, Y = Dependent Variable (Performance) a,b = constant X = Independent Variable (Experience) Sol: Y - y = bxy (X- x) bxy = regression coefficient Properties of Regression Coefficients 1. The coefficients of correlation is the geometric mean of the two regression coefficients. 2. As the coefficient of correlation cannot exceed 1, in case one of the regression coefficient is greater then 1, then the other must be less then 1. 3. Both the regression coefficients will have the same sign, either positive or negative. If one regression coefficient is positive then the other will also be positive. 4. The coefficients of correlation and the regression coefficients will have the same sign. If the regression coefficients are positive, then the correlation will also be positive and vice versa. 5. The average of the two regression coefficients will always be greater then the correlation coefficient. 6. Regression coefficients are not affected by change of origin. But this is not the case in respect of scale. Regression Equation according to our problem. Y = 69.67 + 1.133 X REGRESSION LINE:It is the line of best fit to calculate the various points or the dependent variable covering maximum number of the points lying in a scattered diagram.

## MAIN USERS OF SPSS

Market Researchers Health Researchers Survey Companies Government Education Researchers SPSS USERS AND THEIR RESPONSE 1. Alpha credit Belgium Alpha credit Belgium is the business of customer credit business who offers both expanding credit and revolving credit.

Challenge: To get information about consumers budget Solution: It uses range of solution from SPSS statistics family for credit risk analysis. This enables the company to undertake detailed analysis. 2. Barclays Bank Challenge: To satisfy the consumers requirement. Solution: Ability to digitally record, helps managers listen to the recordings at their convenience anywhere they like and also them to add to the presentation. 3. British Telecom: Challenge: To obtain the greatest value from its marketing budget, to identify customer propensity to purchase and calculate their likely comparative value. Solution: With the help of SPSS, British Telecom got higher response rate to marketing campaigns, increased product revenue, and even greater market share in the company.

IMPORTANCE OF REGRESSION
Regression Analysis is a scientific Discipline: Regression analysis is a branch of statistical theory that is widely used in almost all the scientific disciplines. In economics it is the relationship among economic variable theory and economic life. Application in wide area: The study of the regression is of considerable help to the economists and business man, but regression analysis is also used in almost the nature physical and social science. Estimates of value: Regression analysis provides estimates of values of the dependent variable from value of the independent variable. The regression line describes the average relationship between x and y variables. To calculate regression co-efficient:

With the help of regression coefficients we can calculate coefficient (r) called coefficient of determination.

CONCLUSION
SPSS is software through which we can make analysis of mass data in an easier way involving lesser amount of time. One of the key features of SPSS is that its offers predictive analytic data mining and text mining tools and application,

comprehensive statistical analysis software to support decision making process. It also helps a large no of organizations in achieving a positive reducing return costs on and investment improving by increasing and productivity, customer

employee satisfaction.