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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION 1. The lifetimes of Goodcell battery are normally distributed with mean 200 hours and standard deviation 25 hours. Calculate, to 3 significant figures, the probability that a battery chosen at random will have (i) a lifetime between 170 and 205 hours, (ii) a lifetime which differ from the mean by more than 15 hours.

2. Soap powder is packed in packets of two sizes. The mass in each small packet may be regarded as a normal variable with mean 505g and standard deviation 10g while the mass in each large packet is another independent normal variable with mean 1005g and standard deviation 20g. (a) Find the probability that the mass of one randomly chosen large packet is less than 1000g. (b) Find the probability that the mass of one randomly chosen large packet exceeds the total mass of two randomly chosen small packets. (c) Find also the probability that the mass of one randomly chosen large packet is less than twice the mass of one randomly chosen small packet.

3. Melons are sold by weight at a price of $1.50 per kilogram. The masses of melons are normally distributed with a mean of 0.8kg and a standard deviation of 0.1kg. Pumpkins are sold by weight at a price of $0.50 per kilogram. The masses of pumpkins are normally distributed with a mean of 1.2kg and a standard deviation of 0.2kg. Find the probability that the total price of 5 randomly chosen melons and 3 randomly chosen pumpkins exceeds $8. 4. Aluminium foils are packaged in two sizes, Jumbo Rolls and Regular Rolls, which has lengths (in metres) that are normally distributed with means and variance as given: Mean (m) 19 6 Variance ( m 2 ) 0.25 0.09

Jumbo Regular

Find the probability that (i) The length of a randomly chosen Jumbo Roll is more than 3 times that of a randomly chosen regular Roll, (ii) the total length of 2 randomly chosen Jumbo Rolls and 3 randomly chosen Regular Rolls is more than 57m, (iii) at most 2 out of 10 randomly chosen Regular Rolls have lengths that are less than 5.5m.

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5. A jam manufacturer produces a pack consisting of 8 assorted pots of differing flavours. The actual weight of each pot may be taken to have an independent normal distribution with mean 52g and standard deviation 1.10g. (i) Show that the probability that a pot weighs less than 50g is 0.0345, correct to 3 significant figures. (ii) Find the probability that a pack weighs less than 420g. (iii) An alteration to the production method changes the standard deviation of the weight of each pot to g. Find the value of such that 99% of packs weigh above 400g.

6. A box of chocolates contains both milk chocolates and plain chocolates. The masses of the constituents, in grams, are all normally distributed with the following means and variances:

Empty chocolate box Plain chocolate Milk chocolate

Mean 35 17 22

Variance 0.15 0.2 0.3

(i) Einstein buys a box of chocolates which contains 6 milk chocolates and 4 plain chocolates. Find the probability that his box of chocolates weighs more than 236 grams. (ii) Find the probability that the weight of a randomly chosen plain chocolate is more than four-fifths of a randomly chosen milk chocolate by at least 1 gram. (iii) If 100 milk chocolates are chosen at random, by using a suitable approximation, what is the probability that at most 25 chocolates will each weigh more than 22.5 grams?

7. In an orchard, the weight X of rose apples harvested are normally distributed with mean 200g and standard deviation 20g. The weight Y of cherry apples harvested are normally distributed with mean 150g and standard deviation 9g. (i) Find the probability that a randomly chosen rose apple will weigh between 195g and 200g. (ii) Find the weight m such that only 3% of the cherry apples have weight less than m grams. Given that the rose apples are packed in boxes of 50, using a suitable approximation, find the probability that more than 4 apples in a box have weight between 195 and 200 grams.