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html What is Taekwondo

Taekwondo is one of the most systematic and scientific Korean traditional martial arts, that teaches more than physical fighting skills. It is a discipline that shows ways of enhancing our spirit and life through training our body and mind. Today, it has become a global sport that has gained an international reputation, and stands among the official games in the Olympics. Let's take a closer look at the meaning of the word "Tae" "Kwon" "Do." It is composed of three parts as shown in the English spelling, though it is one word in Korean. "Tae" means "foot," "leg," or "to step on"; "Kwon" means "fist," or "fight"; and "Do" means the "way" or "discipline." If we put these three parts together, we can see two important concepts behind "Tae Kwon Do". First, Taekwondo is the right way of using Tae and Kwon 'fists and feet,' or all the parts of the body that are represented by fists and feet. Second, it is a way to control or calm down fights and keep the peace. This concept comes from the meaning of Tae Kwon 'to put fists under control' [or 'to step on fists']. Thus Taekwondo means "the right way of using all parts of the body to stop fights and help to build a better and more peaceful world." Taekwondo has been developing with the 5000-year long history of Korea, being called by several different names in the course. In Korea, Taekwondo began as a defense martial art called "Subak" or "Taekkyon," and developed as a way of training body and mind in the ancient kingdom of Koguryo, under the name of "Sunbae." In the Shilla period, it had become the backbone of Hwarangdo that aimed at producing leaders of the country. Taekwondo today is similar to the martial arts in other Oriental countries and shares some features with them, because in the course of its evolution it has gained many different styles that existed in the martial arts of the countries surrounding Korea, like Japan and China.

But Taekwondo is very different from many such oriental martial arts. First, physically it is very dynamic with active movements that include a mirage of foot skills. Second, the principle physical movements are in simpatico with that of the mind and life as a whole. Third, it possesses dynamic poses from another perspective. Taekwondo can be characterized by unity: the unity of body, mind, and life, and the unity of the pose ["poomsae"] and confrontation, and cracking down. When you do Taekwondo, you should make your mind peaceful and synchronize your mind with your movements, and extend this harmony to your life and society. This is how in Taekwondo the principle of physical movements, the principle of mind training, and the principle of life become one and the same. On the other hand, the right poomsae lead to the right confrontation, which will eventually produce great destructive power. How come we reach such a unity in Taekwondo? Taekwondo is a way of life, much like having a job, raising a family, fighting for a cause, or any one of numerous raison d'etre. What makes Taekwondo different from these is that it is an activity for survival in extremely antagonistic situations. One must always overcome the enemy that is trying to cause harm. But simply winning a fight is not enough to guarantee one's safety, because the enemy may recuperate and attack again. Moreover, there may be many other enemies than the one that was just defeated. One cannot ever feel safe unless one gains permanent peace. To attain this permanent or lasting peace, one needs unity. This is what Taekwondo aim for. Otherwise Taekwondo would be no different from any other street-fighting skills. Taekwondo pursues harmonious growth and improvements of life through its unique activities. This is why one could say Taekwondo is a way of life. To ultimately enable ourselves to lead more valuable lives, we would do well by finding the guiding principles deeply hidden in Taekwondo.


The philosophy of Taekwondo is very special, but what makes it so special? If we learn philosophy from books, we tend to forget it as soon as we leave them, because it is not related to our actual lives. But since Taekwondo is connected with our lives like every movement of ours is, we can never forget its philosophy.

That is, the philosophy is one of actions that can be learned from other actions, and our everyday activities. Taekwondo philosophy represents the principles of the changes and movements in human beings. It also represents the principles of our lives, since life consists of our movements. Therefore, we can say Taekwondo is a philosophy in itself. We can understand the philosophy of Taekwondo by doing Taekwondo, and this understanding should lead to better understanding and enhancement of our life. The principles of Taekwondo can be explained in several ways but here we will explain it simply with the principle of "Sam Jae" [Three Elements] and that of "Eum" [the Negative or Darkness] and "Yang" [the Positive or the Brightness]. "Sam Jae" refers to "Cheon" [the Heaven], "Ji" [the Earth], and "In" [the Man] and the principles concerning them. In oriental countries, it has been recognized as the central principle that explains the changes of everything in the world. "Sam Jae" and the changes of "Eum" and "Yang" constitute the "Eight Trigrams for Divination" in the "Book of Changes." The principle of Sam Jae has been emphasized in oriental countries, especially in Korea. If you understand Taekwondo's principle, you could understand all the skills and spiritual depth of Taekwondo. The principle of Eum and Yang has also been emphasized in oriental countries as the central principle of life. It maintains that everything has an opposite side. This principle explains various forms of changes, but it comes from "Taegeuk" [the Great Absolute], which represents the ultimate claim that Eum and Yang was the one and the same thing. If we understand Taekwondo according to this principle, we will find a solution, and by continuously changing skills, we will never get stuck, in any situation. After we understand these philosophical principles of Taekwondo, we can find proper ways to understand and develop our lives.

What is the philosophy of Taekwondo? Taekwondo contains thoughts that Han [Korean] people had developed through history. Its philosophy is easily explained with Hongik-Ingan, Jaese-Ihwa, or Hwarangdo spirit. HongikIngan and Jaese-Ihwa were not only ideologies of Tangun Chosun's foundation, but also a fundamental thought of Han people. With time, these ideas developed into the Hwarangdo spirit and the Taekwondo philosophy today. Now, let's look at the principles contents of the philosophy.

Hongik-Ingan" means universal welfare of mankind. It was the idea of the national foundation by Tangun, and the Taekwondo spirit too has inherited the idea of Hongik-Ingan. It is easily confirmed from the fact that the word of Taekwondo, itself means to suppress fighting and induce peace. On one hand, JaeseIhwa means that the world is educated in accordance with the reason of heaven. Taekwondo is a principle, not a simple connection with movements. It is the Korean traditional martial art characterized by the trinity of body, mind and life. Thus, the principle is the reason of all creation, and so it refers to the reason of heaven in Jaese-Ihwa. Therefore, human beings can be educated in accordance with the reason of heaven through correct training of Taekwondo. That's the very meaning of Jaese-Ihwa. HongikIngan and Jaese-Ihwa appear clearly in the myth of the Korean foundation. According to it, "In the early age, Hwan-Wung, the son of Heaven established a nation called Baedal [earliest name of Korea]. He then announced the purpose of the national foundation as Jaese-Ihwa [educate with the reason of heaven] and Hongik-Ingan [universal welfare of mankind].

Ancient Timers

The historical background of Taekwondo development will be explained following the chronological order of 4 different ages; ancient times, middles ages, modern ages and present times.

Man by nature has instinct to preserve his own life as well as his race, and therefore engages in physical activities either consciously or unconsciously. Man cannot do without physical motions that he grows and developed on them, regardless of time and space. In ancient times people had no means other than the bare hands and body to defend themselves; so they naturally developed the bare-hand fighting techniques. Even at times when arms were developed as defensive or offensive means, people continued to enjoy the bare-hand fighting techniques for the purpose of building physical strength as well as showing off through matches at rituals of tribal communities. In the early days of the Korean peninsula, there were three tribes, each enjoying warrior's martial art contests during the ritual seasons. At the time, people learned techniques from their experiences of fighting against the beasts whose defensive and offensive motions were also the subject of analysis. It is believed that this was exactly the true grounding of today's Taekwondo, which names have descended from "Subak", "Taekkyon" and so on. In the latter part of ancient times on the Korean peninsula, three kingdoms were rivaling among them for the hegemony. They were Koguryo, Paekje and Shilla all indulged in growing national strength with trained warriors. Therefore, the Korean history tells that there were military personalities among the wellknown prominent national leaders of the three kingdoms, which proves the military tendency of ruling hierarchy. As a result, youth warriors were organized, such as "Hwarangdo" in Shilla and "Chouisonin" in Koguryo, which both adopted martial art training as one of the important subjects of learning. A known martial art book of the days, called "Muyedobo-Tongji" wrote "Taekwondo is the basis of martial art, enabling one to build strength by using the hand and foot freely and training arms and legs as well as the body to adaptable to any critical situations," which means Taekwondo was already prevalent in that age. Thus, it can be easily assumed that Taekwondo was originated from the days of tribal communities on the Korean peninsula. Shilla kingdom founded in B.C. 57 on the southeastern part of Korea, and Koguryo founded in B.C. 37 on the northern part of Korea along Yalu river, both made great efforts to raise their youngsters into strong warriors called "hwarang" and "sunbae" respectively, certainly with Taekwondo as one of the principal subjects of physical training.

Koguryo was founded on the northern part of Korea, surrounded by hostile Han [Chinese] tribes in the north. Therefore, in its early days, the kingdom organized a strong warrior corps called "Sunbae" in its attempt to consolidate power. According to the scholars, a man of virtue who never recoils from a fight means "sunbae", which is a member of the warrior corps. Later, the chronicle of the Old Chosun Dynasty described the lift of Koguryo days, saying; "people gathered on march 10 every year at a site of ritual, where they enjoyed a sword dance, archery, Taekkyon contests and so on," implying that Taekkyon was one of the popular events for the ritual in the Koguryo days. It also said "sunbae" lived in groups, learning history and literary arts at home and going out to construct roads and fortresses for the benefits of society, always devoting themselves to the nations. Therefore, it was natural that Koguryo put the priority of interests on the Taekkyon which was the basis of martial arts, as can be proven by the wall paintings discovered at tombs of Koguryo days. A mural painting at the Samsil tomb shows two warriors engaged in a face-to-face match in Taekkyon stance, and a third at the same tomb shows the scene of Korean wrestling bout [Ssireum], clearly distinguishing it from Taekkyon. It can be assumed from the painting of Taekkyon match that the dead were either a Taekkyon practical or the subject of condolence with dances and martial art.

The Kingdom of Shilla was founded on the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula where there were no immediate threats from outside, but along with the birth of Paekje Kingdom on its west flank and the start of invasions by Koguryo from the north, Shilla was impelled to arm itself with development of martial arts. In fact, "hwarangdo" is the typical example of Shilla's martial arts, which is an assimilation of Koguryo's "sunbae" system. The youth group hwarangdo were well trained with the senses of filial piety, loyalty to the kingdom and sacrificial devotion to society to become important personalities for the rein of the kingdom. Notable among them were Kim Yu-Shin and Kim Chun-Chu that made definite contributions to the unification of those three kingdoms. The chronicle of Old Chosun described the life of hwarangs, members of hwarangdo: "hwarang were selected by the kingdom through contests and, after selection, they lived together in a group, learning, exercising subak, fencing and horse-riding, and sometimes enjoyed various games of communities, working on emergency aids and construction of fortresses and roads, and they were always ready to sacrifice their lives at the time of war." Hwarangs were particularly influenced by the Buddhistic disciplines and therefore the bronze statues of a Kumgang Yoksa [a man of great physical strength] currently exhibited at the Kyongju Museum clearly indicate that martial arts were practiced at temples by showing a strong man's bare-hand defensive and offensive stances. Especially the shape of a fist shown on the statue of Kumgang Yoksa exactly resembles that of a "jungkwon" [proper fist] in the contemporary term of Taekwondo. The statue also shows "pyon jumok " [flat fist] and the use of legs, which are seen in today's Taekwondo. It is really noticeable that in the Shilla epoch the terms "subak" [hand techniques] and "taekkyon" appear together, signifying that both hand and foot techniques were used in martial arts as shown in today's Taekwondo.

together, signifying that both hand and foot techniques were used in martial arts as shown in today's Taekwondo.

as the art of taekkyon was popularized in Koguryo, it was also handed down to Silla, which is justified by the following points of view; (1) "Hwarang"(or sonrang) in Silla has the same meaning with the word "sonbae" in Koguryo by indicating both the youth warrior's corps from their etymological origins. Both Hwarang and sonbae had the same organizations and hierarchical structure with each other. According to historical, as sonbaes in Koguryo used to compete in taekkyon games at the time of their national festivals, Hwarangs in Silla also played taekkyon games (subak, dokkyoni or taekkyoni) at such festivals as "palkwanhoe" and "hankawi" , thus systematically developing the ancient fighting techniques into the taekkyon(or sonbae) as the basis of martial arts by around a.d.200. from the 4th century the Hwarangs took the takkyon lesson as a systemized martial art at their learning houses to make it also popularized among ordinary people so much so that their techniques were depicted on the mural paintings of ancient warrior tombs. Again, it is also true that taekkyon, coming down to Silla, was further developed into a school of martial art with the division of techniques, i ,e bare-hand techniques and foot techniques, which can be proved by the fact that both hand and foot techniques art clearly shown in the ancient sculptures buddlistic statues.

(2) (3)

Middle Ages

The Koryo dynasty, which reunified the Korean peninsula after Shilla [A.D. 918 to 1392], had the Taekkyon develop more systematically and made it a compulsory subject in the examinations for selection of military cadets. The techniques and power of Taekkyon grew to become effective weapons even to kill human beings. In the military, a pattern of collective practice, called "obyong-subak-hui [5 soldier's Taekkyon play], was introduced so that it might be used in a real war.

In the early days of Koryo dynasty, martial art abilities were the only required qualifications to become military personnel because th kingdom utterly needed the national defense capabilities after conquering the peninsula. A certain plain soldier who mastered Taekkyon techniques was promoted to a general, and young were invited to Taekkyon contests where the skilled ones were selecte to become military officers. There were lots of other examples in which many Taekkyon-mastered youths were picked at contests, which is proof that Taekwondo sports was originated in that epoch. The chronicles of Koryo dynasty writes: "at a power contest of Taekkyon techniques, Lee Yi- Min punched a pillar of the house with his right-hand fist, then some of the props of the roof were shaken. Another Taekkyon practicer had his fist pierce through the clay-wall." Especially the kings of Koryo dynasty were much interested in "subakhui" [Taekkyon contest], making it a compulsory course of military training. Therefore, subakhui was also popular out for inspection tours in the villages.

military training. Therefore, subakhui was also popular out for inspection tours in the villages.

However, the Koryo dynasty in its latest years had gunpowder and new types of weapons available at hand, thus slowing down its support of martial as the folk games to be transmitted down to the modern Korea, Chosun. (Taekkyon explained in the Koryo history book)

Modern Times

In the modern times of Korea, the Chosun dynasty [1392-1910] the imperial Korea and the Japanese colonial rule until 1945, T "subakhui" than "Taekkyon" and it suffered an eventual loss of official support from the central government as the weapons w defense, although the subkhui was still popular in the early days of Chosun.

The Chosun dynasty was founded on the ideology of Confucianism, which resulted in rejecting Buddhism and giving more im martial art. Nonetheless, the Annals of Chosun Dynasty tells about the contests of subakhui ordered by local officials for the p others ordered by the kings who enjoyed watching subakhui contests at the times of feasts. It was also ruled by the defense dep employed when he wins three other contestants in the subakhui bouts. However, as the government progressed, the governmen importance on power struggles than on the interest of defense, naturally neglecting promotion of martial arts.

Then, it was only in the days of King Jungjo after the disgraceful invasion of Korea by the Japanese [1592] that the royal gove measures by strengthening military training and martial art practice. Around this period there was a publication of the so-calle martial art illustrations, which 4th volume entitled "hand-fighting techniques" contained the illustration of 38 motions, exactly poomsae and basic movements, although those motions cannot be compared with today's Taekwondo poomsae, which has bee studies.

Even under the Japanese colonial rule, some famous Korean writers, such as Shin Chae- Ho and Choi Nam-Sun, mentioned ab subak prevailing in Seoul came from the sunbae in the Koguryo dynasty," and "subak is like today's Taekkyon which was orig but is now played mostly by children as games."

However, the Japanese colonial government totally prohibited all folkloric games including Taekkyon in the process of suppre martial art Taekkyon [Taekwondo] had been secretly handed down only by the masters of the art until the liberation of the cou of the then masters testifies that his master was Im Ho who was reputed for his excellent skills of Taekkyon, "jumping over th wood just like a tiger." (explanation of taekkon techniques in muyedobo-tongji (general illustrations of techniques) (scene of c

At the time, 14 terms of techniques were used representing 5 kicking patterns, 4 hand techniques, 3 pushing-down-the-heel pa pattern and 1 technique of downing-the-whole-body. Also noteworthy is the use the term "poom" which signified a face-to-fac The masters of Taekkyon were also under constant threat of imprisonment, which resulted in an eventual of Taekkyon as popu

Present Day

Upon liberation of Korea from the Japanese colonial rule after World War II, the Korean people began recovering the thought of self reliance and the traditional folkloric games resumed their popularity. Song Duk-Ki, afore-mentioned master of Taekkyon, presented demonstration of the martial art before the first republic of Korea president Syngman Rhee on the occasion of his birthday, clearly distinguishing Taekwondo from the Japanese Karate which had been introduced by the Japanese rulers.

Martial art experts began opening Taekwondo gymnasiums all over the country and after the end of Korean War [1950-1953] Taekwondo was popularized among the dan-grade black-belters within the country, also dispatching about 2,000 Taekwondo maste to more than 100 countries. After all, following the nomination of Taekwondo as a national martial art in 1971, the present Kukkiwon was founded in 1972 to be used as the headquarters as well as the site of various Taekwondo competitions. Then a year later, in 1973 the World Taekwondo Federation was established. In 1973, the biennial World Taekwondo Championships was organized.

In 1984, Taekwondo was admitted to the Asian games as an official event. In 1975, Taekwondo was accepted as an official sport by the U.S Amateur Athletic Union [AAU] and also admitted to the General Association of International Sports Federations [GAISF], followed by the adoption of official sports event by the International Council of Military Sports [CISM] in 1976. The WTF became an IOC-recognized sports federation in 1980, making Taekwondo an Olympic sport. Then the adoption of Taekwondo as an official eve was followed by the world games in 1981, the pan-American games in 1986, and finally by the Sydney 2000 Olympics in 1994 and then Athens 2004 Olympic Games in 2000. On November 29, 2002, the 114th IOC Session also confirmed the inclusion of Taekwon in the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.






http://www.wtf.org/wtf_eng/site/about_taekwondo/poomsae.html http://w CHONKWON - 6JITAE - 8HANSU

1 Jang

Taegeuk 1 Jang represents the symbol of "Keon", one of the 8 Kwaes (divination signs), which means the "heave universe, do does the Taegeuk 1 Jang in the training of Taekwondo. This poomsae is characterized by its easine momtong-makki, momtong-jireugi, and ap-chagi. The 8th Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae.

2 Jang

Taegeuk 2 Jang symbolizes the "Tae", one of the 8 divination signs, which signifies the inner firmness and the ou The ap-chagi actions appear more frequently than in Taegeuk 1 Jang. The 7th Kup-grade trainees practice this p

3 Jang

Taegeuk 3 Jang symbolizes the "Ra", one of the 8 divination signs, which represent "hot and bright". This is to en accomplishment of this poomsae will give the trainees a promotion to a blue belt. New actions are sonnal-mok-ch makki and chigi, and continued jireugis. Emphasis is laid on the counterattacks against the opponent's chigi. The

4 Jang

Taegeuk 4 Jang symbolizes the "Jin", one of the 8 divination signs, which represent the thunder meaning great p jebipoom-mok-chigi, yop-chagi, momtong- bakkat-makki, deung-jumeok-olgul-apchigi and mikkeurombal [slipping cases characterize it. The 5th Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae.

5 Jang

Taegeuk 5 Jang symbolizes the "Son", one of the 8 divination signs, which represent the wind, meaning both mig jumeok-maeryo-chigi, palkup-dollyo-chigi, yop-chagi & yop-jireugi, palkup-pyo-jeok-chigi and such stances as kk as area-makki and momtong-makki and also the chigi by thumbling after running. The 4th Kup-grade trainees pra

6 Jang

Taegeuk 6 Jang symbolizes the "Kam", one of the 8 divination signs, which represents water, meaning incessan

5 Jang

Taegeuk 5 Jang symbolizes the "Son", one of the 8 divination signs, which represent the wind, meaning both mig jumeok-maeryo-chigi, palkup-dollyo-chigi, yop-chagi & yop-jireugi, palkup-pyo-jeok-chigi and such stances as kk as area-makki and momtong-makki and also the chigi by thumbling after running. The 4th Kup-grade trainees pra

6 Jang

Taegeuk 6 Jang symbolizes the "Kam", one of the 8 divination signs, which represents water, meaning incessan bakkat-makki and batang-son- momtong-makki in addition to pyonhi-seogi [at-ease stance]. One should be caref hand by a palm's length at the time of delivering a batang-son momtong-makki lower than in the palmok-makki. T

7 Jang

Taegeuk 7 Jang symbolizes the "Kan", one of the 8 divination signs, which represents the mountain, meaning po bo-jumeok-kawi-makki, mureup-chigi, momtong-hecho-makki, jechin-du-jumeok-momtong-jireugi, otkoreo-arae-m Smooth connection of movements is important for training. The 2nd Kup-graders practice this poomsae.

8 Jang

Taegeuk 8 Jang symbolizes the "Kon", one of the 8 divination signs, which represents "Yin" and earth, meaning poomsaes, which may enable the trainees to undergo the Dan [black belt] promotion test. New movements are d dollyo-chigi. Emphasis must be laid on the accuracy of stepping and the difference between jumping-over kick an poomsae.

Koryo poomsae symbolizes "seonbae" which means a learned man, who is characterized by a strong martial sprit as well as a right and down to Koryo, which is the background of organizing the Koryo poomsae. The new techniques appearing in this poomsae are kkokki, momtong-hecho-makki, jumeok- pyojeok-jireugi, pyonson-kkeut-jecho-jireugi, batang-son-nullo-makki, palkup-yop-chagi, me the tong-milgi that requires mental concentration by positioning the hand in between the upper abdomen and the lower abdomen wh letter, which means "seonbae" or "seonbi", a learned man or a man virtue in the Korean language.

Keumgang [meaning diamond] has the significance of "hardness" and "ponder", The Keumgang Mountain on the Korean peninsula, warrior] as named by Buddha, who represents the mightiest warrior, are the background of denominating this poomsae. New techni Keumgang-makki, santeoul-makki, kheun dol-tzogi [large hinge], and the hak-dari-seogi. The poomsae line is symbolic of the Chine dignity.

Taebaek is the name of a mountain with the meaning of "bright mountain", where Tangun, the founder of the nation of Korean peop Tangun's thought of "hongik ingan"[humanitarian ideal]. There are numerous sites known as Taebaek, but Mt. Paektu, which has be poomsae. New techniques introduced in this poomsae are sonnal-arae-hecho-makki, sonnal-opeo-japki [grabbing], japhin-son-mokbakkat-chigi, dol-tzeogi [hinge], etc. The line of poomsae is like a Chinese letter, which symbolized the bridge between the Heaven poomsae movements are largely composed of momtong-makkis and chigis.

Pyongwon means a plain that is a vast stretched-out land. It is the source of life for all the creatures and the field where human bein resulting from the principles of origin and use. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are palkup-ollyo-chigi, kodureo- olgu seogi is the moa-seogi-wen-kyop-son [left overlapping hands], which requires concentration of force in the beginning and source of

resulting from the principles of origin and use. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are palkup-ollyo-chigi, kodureo- olgu seogi is the moa-seogi-wen-kyop-son [left overlapping hands], which requires concentration of force in the beginning and source of

The word "Sipjin" derived from the thought of 10 longevity, which advocates there are ten creatures of long life, namely, sun, moon, 2 heavenly bodies, 3 natural resources, 2 plants and 3 animals, all giving human beings faith, hope and love. The poomsae Sipjin s [bull makki], son-badak[palm]-kodureo-makki, opeun-son-nal-jireugi, son-nal-arae-makki, bawi-milgi [rock pushing], son-nal-deung-m otkoreo-arae-makki, son-nal-deung-momtong-makki, which counts 10. The Chinese letter meaning ten is the form of the poomsae li

The word "Jitae" means a man standing on the ground with two feet, looking over the sky. A man on the earth represents the way o the poomsae symbolizes various aspects occurring in the course of human being's struggle for existence. The new techniques intro jumeok-yop-pyojeok-chigi only, and the poomsae line signified a man standing on earth to spring up toward the heaven.

The word "Chonkwon" means the Heaven's Great Mighty, which is the origin of all the creature and itself the cosmos. Its infinite com of Heaven for all principal earthly shapes and meanings because they felt afraid of the Heaven's mighty. Over 4,000 years ago, the "heavenly" town as the capital near the heavenly sea and heavenly mountain, where the Han people as the heavenly race gave birt Chunkwon is based on such sublime history and thoughts

The new techniques introduced in thtis poomsae are nalgae-pyogi [wing opening], bam-jumeok-sosum-chigi [knuckle protruding fist drawing], keumgang-yop-jireugi, taesan-milgi, etc., and a crouched walking manner.

The characteristics of movements are large actions and arm sections forming gentle curves, thus symbolizing the greatness of Chun submitting to the will of Heaven, being endowed power by the Heaven and worshiping the Heaven, which means the oneness betwe

The word "Hansu" means water is the source of substance preserving the life and growing all the creatures. Hansu symbolizes birth Especially, "han" has the various meanings, namely, the name of a country, numerousness, largeness, evenness, length and even t background of organizing this poomsae.

The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are son-nal-deung-momtong-hecho-makki, me-jumeok-yang-yopkuri[both flanks]-ch also modum-bal as a stance.

Actions should be practiced softly like water but continuously like a drop of water gathering to make an ocean. The poomsae line sy

Ilyeo means the thought of a great Buddhist priest of Silla Dynasty, Saint Wonhyo, which is characterized by the philosophy of onen one. Therefore, the poomsae Ilyeo represents the harmonization of spirit and body, which is the essence of martial art, after a long t practice.


The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are son-nal-olgul-makki, wesanteul-yop-chagi, du-son-pyo[two opened hands]-bitur back]-hakdari-seogi. Jumbi-seogi is the bo-jumeok-moa-seogi [wrapped-up fist moa-seogi], in which, as the last step of poomsae tra unification and moderation, so that the spiritual energy can flow freely into the body as well as the two hands. The line of poomsae s state of perfect selflessness in Buddhism where origin, substance and service come into congruity.

Dan grading All matters about black belt Poom/Dan certification are dealt with by the Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters). Dan/Poom promotion tests are conducted according to the Regulations for Promotion Tests of the Kukkiwon. To go to the website of the Kukkiwon, please click here.

http://www.itftkd.org/?Content=Home Taekwon-Do History Although the origins of the martial arts are shrouded in mystery, we consider it an undeniable fact that from time immemorial there have been physical condtions involving the use of the hands and feet for purpose of self-protection. If we ere to define these physical actions as "Taekwon- Do", any country might claim credit for inventing Taekwon-Do. There is, however, scant esemblance between Taekwon-Do, as it is practiced today, and the crude forms of unarmed combat developed in the past. Modern Taekwon-Do differs greatly from other martial arts. In fact, no other artial art is so advanced with regard to the sophistication and effectiveness of its technique or the over-all physical fitness it imparts to its practitioners. Technically, 1955 signaled the beginning of Taekwon-Do as a formally recognized art in Korea. During that year, a special board was formed which included leading master instructors, historians, and prominent leaders of society. A number of names for the new martial art were submitted. On the 11th of April, the board summoned by Gen. Choi Hong Hi, decided on the name of Taekwon-Do which had been submitted by him. This single unified name of Taekwon-Do replaced the different and confusing terms; Dang Soo, Gong Soo, Taek Kyon, Kwon Bup, etc. In 1959, Taekwon-Do spread beyond its national boundaries. The father of Taekwon-Do and nineteen of his top black belt holders toured the Far East. The tour was a major success, astounding all spectators with the excellence of the Taekwon-Do techniques. Many of these black belt holders such as Nam Tae Hi, President of the Asia Taekwon-Do Federation; Colonel Ko Jae Chun, the 5th Chief of Taekwon-Do instructors in Vietnam; Colonel Baek Joon Gi, the 2nd Chief instructor in Vietnam; Brigadier Gen. Woo Jong Lim; Mr. Han Cha Kyo, the Head Instructor in Singapore and Mr. Cha Soo Young, presently an international instructor in Washington D.C. eventually went on to spread the art to the world. In this year, Choi was elevated to two illustrious posts; President of his newly formed Korea Taekwon-Do Association and deputy commander of the 2nd Army in Tae Gu. In 1965 Ambassador Choi, retired two star general, was appointed by the Government of the Republic of Korea to lead a goodwill mission to West Germany, Italy, Turkey, United-Arab Republic, Malaysia, and Singapore. This trip is significant in that the Ambassador, for the first time in Korean history, declared Taekwon-Do as the national martial art of Korea. This was the basis not only for establishing Taekwon-Do Associations in these countries but also the formation of the International Taekwon-Do Federation as it is known today. In 1966, the dream of the sickly young student of calligraphy, who rose to Ambassador and the Association President of the most respected martial art in the world came true. On the 22nd of March, the International Taekwon-Do Federation was formed with associations in Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, West Germany, the United States, Turkey, Italy, Arab Republic of Egypt and Korea.

Moral Culture (Jungshin Sooyang) The broad connotations and various possible interpretations of the moral culture are often very difficult for the western mind to grasp because this is an aspect of Oriental Philosophy which pervades the lives of Oriental people. In a word, it is the endeavor and process of becoming an exemplary person such as Confucius (552-479 AD). To become such a person, one has to first find himself and acquire a moral character which is respected by all. This can only be achieved through constant practice of mental discipline. Thus, if the times call for it, the mentally disciplined man can contribute to the building of an ideal society through wise counsel to the government and, even after death, through his everlasting examples. Confucius said, "to promote the sense of morality one must treat others with faithfulness and sincerity based on righteousness, and to eliminate completely vicious thinking".

Part One
Everyone of us, as a social being, desires to live in a free and peaceful society. At the same time, it is our obligation to build such a society for the people. I have quoted various words of wisdom of ancient saints and philosophers for creating an ideal society in the hope that students of Taekwon-Do use them as a guide to cultivating their moral culture.

An ideal society, according to LAO-TZU, is one in which the ruler is of such high moral character that he can rule naturally, not by interference or fear but by appealing to the good nature of his people, who by merely doing their duty can live freely in peace without fear and anxiety. Next, a moral society is one in which the people admire and praise their ruler in gratitude for his love and the benign disposition he bears toward his people. Thirdly there is a "legalistic society in which the ruler, because he lacks the moral authority, resorts to various laws to govern his people, who in turn obey because they fear the retribution that the violation of these laws will bring." Under these circumstances, the ruler loses touch with his people. Finally the worst kind of society is that in which the ruler, through deception and trickery, misuses his legal authority to further his personal ambitions and imposes his rule upon his people by force as he deems necessary. In such a society, the ruler is despised and hated by his people and eventually invites not only his own downfall but with him the downfall of the people and the country. In Taekwon-Do a heavy emphasis is placed on moral culture, for it not only promotes a healthy body and keen mind but good sportsmanship and the perfection of moral behavior. As ancient Greeks first espoused in their sound mind, sound body, creative spirit concept, the more disciplined and cultivated the mind is, the more disciplined and cultivated will be the student's use of Taekwon-Do. No doubt the following lessons may be somewhat hard to fully understand; however, it would behoove the serious student of Taekwon-Do to read, digest, and attempt to grasp these very fundamental essences of moral culture. A. Return to the basic nature - Mencius gave the following analogy when he reasoned that a man is basically good. Even a ruthless robber, coming upon an innocent child about to fall into a well, will try to save the child, forgetting for the moment, his intention to rob the house. This good nature becomes obscured or completely lost by greed for money and power. B. Be virtuous - It is difficult to define what virtue is. However, these are five human qualities which have been recognized as virtues since ancient times; humanity, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom, and trust. To be virtuous one must constantly cultivate and practice these virtues. Confucius said, "Virtue is like the North Star. All the stars revolve around it in an orderly fashion." Therefore, people who surround the virtuous person, naturally will act for the betterment of society. 1. HUMANITY (In) The ability to feel sorrow for the misfortunes of fellow men and love them all equally as parents love their children equally. Confucius defined humanity in the following ways: A. To love people, especially one's parents. B. Not asking others to do what you would rather not do. C. To behave with the nature of propriety by controlling on oneself. D. To have unbending desire to accomplish what is right regardless of how insignificant the result may initially seem when compared to the amount of effort put forth. E. To value others' honor before your own. F. To put others' freedom, before your own. To implement humanity he said one should: 1) Practice utmost prudence, modesty and discretion in everyday life. 2) Devote oneself to assigned work be it large or small. 3) Demonstrate sincerity with whole-heartedness to others at all times. Tae Kong Mang (12th century BC) said; "The heaven provides us four seasons while the earth has the power to produce all living things. This privilege is not reserved for any specific person but for all human beings... Therefore, humanity lies in the idea of sharing the fruits of nature with all people." 2. RIGHTEOUSNESS (Ui) The ability to feel ashamed of unjust acts and to do one's duty to others. Mencius said; "for the ordinary person life and death are the most important in the life. However, for the virtuous person to and live and die for righteousness is far more important than life and death themselves." Righteousness is well defined in the act of a certain army general depicted in the book of "War Manual" written about 2,400 years ago. A General was taking a break from the grueling war with his soldiers by a river bank when an aide brought him a small carafe of wine for his refreshment. He took the carafe and slowly emptied it into the flowing river in full view of the puzzled soldiers and invited them to share the wine with him by taking a sip of the water from the river. 3. PROPRIETY (Ye)

Unlike animals fighting over food, a courteous man would offer another man a piece of bread even though both were starving, out of respect and good manners. Confucius said, "propriety must be practiced for the proper development of personality, and whoever lacks sincerity in his words, cannot be considered a gentleman." He also said: "Frankness without courtesy can be rather ruthless." "Respectfulness without courtesy can make the recipient rather uncomfortable." "Courageousness without courtesy can be rather violent." "Prudence without courtesy can be rather cowardish." Ye is a term describing proper code of conduct between various social status, for example: superior and inferior, noble and common, old and young, rich and poor, etc. 4. WISDOM (Ji) The ability to judge right from wrong, not especially in matters concerning the right and wrong of others but in matters concerning oneself. A wise man (Yu Bee) once said to his sons, "no matter how small it is you should not do what you realize is wrong. On the other hand you must do what is right no matter how small it may seem." 5. TRUST (Shin) The ability to keep one's words and promises, not only to one's friends but to everyone in general. Without trust a person loses all principles and dignities and becomes a liar and a cheater.

Part Two
How, then, can man discover his own human nature? There are two ways by which a person can find himself; first, by preserving the goodness given to him by God or heaven at birth, and secondly by renouncing greed for material things. A. Man may occupy two positions in a lifetime Basically there are two kinds of position; one is the live virtues given by heaven, explained earlier, and the other given by man, such as a cabinet minister, bureau chief, and so on. Unfortunately man often relies too much on worldly position which is transient at best, for what man gives can also be taken away. On the other hand, what heaven endows us with is eternal. This is not to say that we reject all worldly things but rather that we keep both positions in proper balance so that the virtues of the former position provides guidance for the proper use of the latter. In this manner a man will gain respect and set good examples for others to follow. Without proper guidance, a person can easily fall victim to the temptations of personal power and wealth, employing unethical means to further his ambitions. Ultimately such a person will become a tyrant, or a dictator and an enemy of the people. According to Confucius, a generous and loving man cannot have enemies. Therefore, humanity, the first virtue, is like a strong secure fortress. B. Greed is Insatiable He who is content with what he has is the richest man in the world. On the other hand, if one has everything and still more, he may yet be poor. A man who is blinded by greed is not only given to corruption, intrigue and exploitation of others, but worst of all, he casts himself in the position of "friend fighting against friend, father fighting against son," finally becoming no better than an animal. There is certain truth in the old saying that a truly good person cannot be rich, and a rich person cannot be a truly good person. According to an ancient adage, "constant material dissatisfaction is considered to be the root of all misfortunes." There is no better way to self satisfaction and human growth than the constant development of a generous nature. C. Be humble A weed holds up its head in arrogance while a mature grain bows its head in humility. Lao-Tzu taught that lofty virtue is like a deep valley into which all streams of water flow. A virtuous man will draw the respect of others toward him in the same fashion while one who is selfish and egotistic will lose the respect of his fellow man and become despised and isolated. To be humble is not to engage in petty squabbles, but to be like the magnamous river in the low valley which irrigates the farm fields around it. D. Self-criticism No one is wise from the moment of birth. As human beings we have many faults and are prone to make mistakes. However, once having acquired knowledge we learn to correct these shortcomings. It would not be impossible to eventually become perfect

human beings. For this purpose, it is essential not to be idyllic towards learning and continue to be willing to criticize oneself. It is said that Confucius and his pupils practiced self-criticism by repeating the following three times daily: 1) Have I neglected others' requests because of selfishness 2) Have I behaved with a sincere attitude towards friends 3) Have I inspired others with certainty, while being uncertain myself 4) Have I neglected to practice virtue 5) Have I erred in my studies 6) Have I avoided acting with righteousness 7) Have I corrected myself immediately upon realizing my fault E. Be Soft Because light is formless and soft, it can illuminate and give warmth to even hidden corners. As water can assume any shape or form, it can better serve the living things that need to survive. Once water becomes a part of the ocean, even the largest ship is like a mere leaf, and its awesome fury when aroused can conquer the tallest mountain. If one claims to be strong, he will soon meet someone who is stronger. A tree, such as a sapling, can withstand a strong wind when it is soft and flexible but may be toppled or broken after it becomes old and brittle. The same principle also applies to human beings. F. Respect of elders As son respects parents, younger brother respects older brother, man must always respect his elders or seniors. This is the beauty of mankind, and one of the distinctions between human and animal. Mencius said there are three things of value in human society: position, honor and moral integrity. In government, position is considered important, in a community, honour, and for a leader or advisor, moral integrity. Indeed, there can be no children without parents, nor a young generation without the old generation. A society and a nation could not avoid chaos without its culture and social order being based on respect for the knowledge and wisdom of its elders. G. Respect the rights of others To criticize someone who is better, to covet other's possessions and to steal the merits of others are the marks of an unscrupulous man. Mother Nature does make claims to her domain, yet all creatures within it acknowledge her eternal accomplishments. To help others develop and succeed in life is a reward in itself and has a true value only if nothing is expected in return. Throughout human history, people who in jealousy have stolen the recognition due to others and have stolen their possessions out of avarice have always left dark imprints of shame and dishonor. H. Be just To be correct and forthright is to live one's life correctly. Old sages used to say; "To common men, life is most valuable, and death, most fearful" However, a righteous man would value justice above life itself and would be willing to die rather than submit to injustice. Such notable figures as Baek-E-Sook-Je of China, Sung-Sam-Moon of Korea and YoshidaShoing of Japan all chose death in defiance of injustice leaving to their posterity lasting examples. Baek-E-Sook-Je lived in Chou period about 2,000 BC. When King Moo toppled the twenty-seventh King, who was a very notorious tyrant, he refused to serve the new King, who usurped the throne by force and not by legitimate process; he eventually starved to death in a self -imposed exile in the Sooyang mountains. Sung-Sam-Moon was an important minister of the King Se Jong, inventor of Han-Gul (Korean alphabet) in the 14th century. After the king died and the young Dan Jong became king his uncle Se-Jo conspired against the boy king and took over the throne. Minister Sung was later executed because of his persistent protest over the unlawful act of King Se-Jo. Yoshida-Shoing, one of the loyalists was also executed in protest when the Doku-Kawa military government, at the time, tried to abolish the Mei-Ji monarchy. I. Be frugal Since ancient times, excessive luxury and pleasure caused the downfall of many kings and nations without exception and history is full of such examples. Persons in leadership in particular must learn to be frugal and live moderately. As the old adage goes "if the water is muddy upstream so it will be downstream."

An extravagant leader will affect his subordinates in this same way and will bring more hardship to his subjects through increased taxation and bribery. During the Lee Dynasty of Korea, the king's roving inspector, Lee-Mong-Yong, while traveling the countryside incognito, was invited to one of the lavish dinner parties of a notorious governor. In the middle of the feast he recited his famous poem: The sweet wine you drink from the glittering cups Flows from the tears of people who toil The tender meat which fills the dishes of jades is torn from their aching flesh Merrier you laugh, sadder they will weep Louder you sing, more plaintive their lament. The governor and his cohorts recognizing the true identity of the poet, became frightened and fled from the scene. Remember that there are tears and heartaches of many behind one man's pleasure. J. Be discreet In every thing he does, a person must not be impulsive or reckless but be patient and thoughtful. "He who acts without thinking at least three times, will later regret his action," warns an old proverb. Accordingly, on a matter of an important appointment or punishment, one must not decide hastily but must deliberate to reach a decision that is both fair and objective. K. Know true happiness Lao-Tzu pointed out that nature was based upon harmony contrasts. For example, the universe was made up of two forces, Yin (female) and Yang (male). Other contrasts were hard and soft, long and short, night and day, solid and empty, cold and warm, big and small, beautiful and ugly. All things in this world are relative to one another. Misery can only come from having been happy once and sorrow from joy. The wealthy and the powerful are not necessarily happy. For every rich person, there are countless poor and for each tyrant, a nation of oppressed. Mencius defined life's three happinesses as follows: 1. Healthy parents and harmony within the family. 2. To live with pride and honor through correct behavior. 3. To educate the young to become upright and useful members of society. L. Let your actions speak for yourself. Even the ablest orator is apt to err if given to verbiage. A closed mouth can save a fish from the hook as well as stay secrets from the enemy. To speak only what is meaningful is a sign of a cultivated person. People talk mostly to brag about themselves or to gain advantage over others. A man of virtue expresses himself more through deeds than words. Thus, he influences others through living examples. In the old days, the truly effective way to teach was believed to be by the actions not by the words of the teacher. M. Develop peace of mind A clear pond becomes muddy if agitated and then returns to its original state when allowed to settle undisturbed. It is said that calm will be able to conquer the heat. Undoubtedly you can endure the hottest summer heat if you sit calm and composed. Conversely, if you move too much in order to warm your freezing body you may get temporary relief, but it does not last too long. We can attain peace of mind through meditation, by emptying our minds of all petty thoughts and returning to the natural state of man. Unlike in Buddhism or Zen, meditation in Taekwon-Do does not mean a total divorce from the world, like a dead body, but rather an active moment to reflect on our past mistakes in silence and in the privacy of our thoughts, and through penitence, to continue our self-improvement toward becoming better men and women. This active thought process in silence is called "Jung-Joong-Dong." N. Be firm of mind A person of strong conviction is unsuspicious and unafraid. When proved wrong, he has the moral strength to admit his mistakes to even the most humble and has the courage to stand up to the mighty if he believes himself or herself to be right. Strong conviction can be gained through the broad and deep "Ki"-spirit. Ki is a form of active energy which fills every physical cell and organ while "Chi"- will is the motivating force: the former moves, the latter leads. If "Ki" is nurtured with great care and allowed to grow based on humanity and justice, its soaring power and outreaching strength can fill the heaven and earth, enabling man to reach a new height of great achievements, so Mencius exhorted his disciples. On a more practical level "Ki" helps us to keep our

minds clear and alert when the affairs of life become strained and confused, or sees us through sleepless nights when our loved one is gravely ill. O. Be devoted As meditation is to the religious, concentration and devotion is to the artist, and perseverance is to the laborer, so is moral culture to the practitioner of the martial arts. In other words a person's unflinching dedication to his own interest and duty is the source of life and power. Cultivation of mind, therefore, is no monopoly of any particular person. In fact the sincerity and effort definitely produce the belief and the belief makes one able to reach the final goal. Moral culture is considered to be a cultivating movement to make one devote oneself to his work, whatever it might be, until his life and work become one.

Part Three
In summary, we can enjoy a greater freedom of action by preserving our basic nature while making ourselves impervious to the temptation of power, money and sex. A person who has attained this stage of self-cultivation is sometimes called a "Saint." It must indeed seem like an impossible undertaking to a mere mortal. A mountain crossing begins with a single bold step and an ocean begins with each small stream. As ancient proverbs say; "Where there is a will there is a way." "One should not look afar, when the way is right in front of you." "Even heaven can be moved if one devotes himself to his cause." With a strong will and firm determination, it is within the reach of anyone who is willing to make the effort. This moral culture is uniquely tied in with Taekwon-Do, not only for the eventual attainment of the highest goals in Taekwon-Do and the promotion of power, technique, and self-confidence, but also for the cultivation of character. Without this, the instructor would be guilty of imparting a devastating force to those who could eventually become so enamoured of their newly found techniques they might very easily become bullies or use this knowledge as a means to achieve their personal ambitions.

Benefits of TKD 1. Popularity

Young and old, male and female, and in some cases even handicapped persons are able to practice Taekwon-Do. Physical strength, weight and body build are of no consequences. A 60 year old, 85 pound, one armed woman can derive as much personal satisfaction, along with marked improvement in her mental and physical state of health, as an 18 year old Olympic decathlon champion. Patterns may be chosen according to a student's limitations and since Taekwon-Do boasts a myriad of techniques, those best suited for an individual student can be chosen or modified. A word of encouragement for those who are physically underdeveloped; the majority of Taekwon-Do masters today were not initially endowed with physical strength or natural coordination. In fact, an instructor usually prefers an underdeveloped student not only becasue of the personal challenge, but because this type of student will usually work much harder and become the most dedicated student. In some ways, Taekwon-Do is similar to gymnastics. A student has merely to repeat what the instructor has demonstrated with occasional corrections on proper technique. Also a student with even limited training can introduce another beginner to techniques the student himself has already mastered.

2. Economy
Although a practice suit is a prerequisite in classroom training as an aid for mental and spiritual conditioning, one can just as easily train in shirts, track suit, or even street clothes. To train or harden an attacking or blocking tool, straw rope wound around a piece of wood, a bag filled with sand or a piece of cloth or paper suspended by a string can suffice if the regular training aide is not available. Since Taekwon-Do can be practiced in a cleared space in your back yard or even public park in the absence of training hall, the student has the convenience of training by himself any time it suits him.

3. Tenacity
There are two pitfalls all students, regardless of rank, should avoid:

A. Boredom
There is a common tendency among beginners to tire of repeating the same techniques over and over. Boredom will usually set in between the third and sixth month for a beginning student. This is the period when a student is building his Taekwon-Do foundation by learning fundamental technique and building power. Impatience, lack of self-confidence, inability to perceive improvement and just plain physical fatigue combine to cause a psychological and physical ennui. After the seventh month, however, the student develops physically and fatigue is reduced. The student begins to learn techniques that he can use to gauge his rate of advancement; and through breaking techniques and sparring the student develops confidence. The best way to combat boredom is to attend classes regularly and develop resolve to attain a specific goal.

B. Lack of Thoroughness
Too often the students sacrifice thoroughness in the learning process, because they tend to lose patience and insist on progressing to a higher technique before mastering the previous one. Students should realize that it is extremely important for them to know thoroughly one single technique until it becomes reflexive before advancing to the next. The secret of becoming a black belt is a simple one; learn thoroughly each technique, especially patterns, step by step, not only developing a physical reflexive action, but developing mental concentration as well.

Training Secrets of Taekwon-Do An old proverb says that even heaven cannot make a diligent worker poor. However, in Taekwon-Do, diligence or intensive training alone does not produce quality techniques. On the contrary, instructions from a false or unqualified instructor would be worse than not being taught at all because unscientific movements not only reduce the power but require a tremendous amount of time to correct. On the other hand, under the proper guidance of a competent instructor, a student who trains earnestly with dedication will learn the true techniques of Taekwon-Do in a comparatively short period of time with less effort. Students should keep in mind the following secrets: 1) To study the theory of power thoroughly. 2) To understand the purpose and method of each movement clearly. 3) To bring the action of eyes, hands, feet and breath into one single coordinated action. 4) To choose the appropriate attacking tool for each vital spot. 5) To become familiar with the correct angle and distance for attack and defence. 6) Keep both the arms and legs bent slightly while movement is in motion. 7) All movements must begin with a backward motion with very few exceptions. 8) To create sine wave during the movement by utilizing the knee spring

http://www.barrel.net/introduction.php Introduction to Taekwondo What is taekwondo? Disciplines of taekwondo Objectives of taekwondo Taekwondo for kids Is taekwondo dangerous?

What is taekwondo?
Taekwondo is a modern martial art, characterized by it's fast, high and spinning kicks. There are multiple interpretations of the name taekwondo. Taekwondo is often translated as 'the way of hand and foot'. My definition of the name Taekwondo is Tae='to strike or block with the foot'

Put this together and Taekwondo means: "The art of Kicking and Punching" or "The art of unarmed combat". The sport has been founded in Korea and is one of the popular modern martial arts.

or 'to kick', it also means 'jump' K'won='Fist', 'to strike or block with hand' Do='The way of' or 'art'.

Disciplinces of taekwondo
Taekwondo has four disciplinces which are explained in a seperate page/chapter of this site. The four displinces are: Patterns Sparring Self-defence Breaktest It is the combination of these four disciplines that makes the art called taekwondo.

Objectives of Taekwondo
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. to develop an appreciation for Taekwondo as a sport and as an art to achieve physical fitness through positive participation to improve mental discipline and emotional equanimity to learn self-defense skills to develop a sense of responsibility for one self and others.

Taekwondo for kids

Taekwondo has no age limits and is a very good sport for children. They learn fast reactions through games, learn to respect others and learn to know their abilities and disabilities. Competition rules are a bit different for children then they are for adults. Although children wear full body protection (preferably thicker than the protection for adults) only kicks and punches to the body are allowed, no kicks to the head.

Is Taekwondo dangerous?
Although WTF Taekwondo is a full contact sport where it is allowed to kick to the head (throwing punches to the head are not

allowed), it is not very dangerous to practise Taekwondo. During training, there is no need to actually win so contact is light. During competition, full protection is used to protect the competitors. To avoid head injuries, a competitor is not allowed to participate in a competition for three months (this time-period seems to vary) if one was knocked out by a kick to the head. If the same incident happens again after these three months, you are not allowed to participate for half a year. Another K.O. to the head after this half year period results in a permanent exclusion of competitions. ITF Taekwondo is so-called semi-contact. It is not allowed to attack the head with full force. However, it is allowed to throw punches to the head, by using the so-called "killing-blow", stop just an inch before the target. To avoid injuries, ITF uses gloves at sparring-competition. Copyright (c) 1994-2010 by Barry Nauta (barry_at_nauta_dot_be, http://www.barrel.net/ or http://www.nauta.be). Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "Copyleft".


Ethics HwaRang code of honor Commandmenst of modern taekwondo Tenets of taekwondo How to behave in a dojang

As in all Martial Arts, ethics are of great importance. One can look at individual ethics, treat a fellow-man right, or one can look at social ethics, as part of a whole. Ethics basically all comes down to one point, the difference between 'good' and 'evil'. We practise taekwondo, often seen as an aggresive sport, but does this mean that we can be aggresive? Do we want to be aggresive? The answer is NO! We wear protection, because we don't want someoneelse to be injured, nor do we want to get hurt ourselves. Taekwondo is not a destructive and aggressive sport, but a sportive one. As I see it, taking part in a competition is not to hurt your opponent, but to test your strength, in both physical and mental ways. Taekwondo students can improve themselves physically, and mentally by training. The final goal is to achieve harmony with nature and oneself. Balance is gained by controlling both evil and good forces (Yin vs. Yang): A true Taekwondo student knows how to behave in all situations. In my opinion, Taekwondo (and I guess this goes for every Martial Art) is not only a way to improve skills of self defence, but it's a way of life. Practicing Taekwondo gives the student more self-confidence, but this should not result in a false sense of superiority.

HwaRang code of honor

Because of the military background, there is a general code. These codes are reflected in the so-called 'Commandments of modern Taekwondo' and is strongly influenced by the Buddhism. These commandments are influenced by the HwaRang Do code of honor:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Serve your lord with loyalty Serve your parents with filial piety Trust your friends Never retreat from a battle When taking life, be selective

The commandments of Taekwondo are used as a guide for the moral development of students and art. No student who does not fully understand these tenets can ever hope to master the true essence of the art.

Commandments of modern Taekwondo:

1. Loyalty to your country

2. Respect your parents 3. Faithfulness to your spouse 4. Respect your brothers and sisters 5. Loyalty to your friends 6. Respect your elders 7. Respect your teacher 8. Never take life unjustly 9. Indomitable spirit 10. Loyalty to your school 11. Finish what you begin The Tenets of Taekwondo

Courtesy (Ye Ui). To be thoughtful and considerate of others. Taekwondo practisers (both students and instructors) should be polite, and show consideration for others.

Integrity (Yom Chi). Integrity describes how you should interact with others. To be honest and good, earn respect and trust.

Perseverance (In Nae). This basically stands for your internal drive. Challenges allow us to improve ourselves and should therefor not be avoided.

Self control (Guk Ki). To have control of your body and mind. A Taekwondo student should practice controlling his actions and reactions.

Indomitable spirit (Baekjool Boolgool). To have courage in the face of adversity. A Taekwondo student should never be dominated by, or have his spirit broken by another.

How to behave in the dojang

There are a few general rules. Always wear a clean Dobok. Clean hands, feet, short nails. Don't wear sharp things (if you do not have a Dobok, do not wear pants with

zippers etc.) No jewelry allowed Don't drink, smoke or eat in the dojang (no chewing gum!) Be on time. When entering and leaving the dojang, make a proper bow Don't talk, unless it is necessary


By Freddy Lufting (5th dan, june 2002), 1998, Taekwondo instructor of V.A.S. Arashi - University of Twente, the Netherlands I have trained students at V.A.S. Arashi for one-and-a-half year now. My experiences are positive. The Taekwondo students are willing to learn a lot about Taekwondo. What comes to my attention, however, is that mostly only the physical training is appreciated, like: "We have trained hard and are very tired.." They seem to think that only a hard training is a good one. I like to take a look at a different side of the Taekwondo training: the spiritual side. I will use the Poomse as illustration. What is a Poomse? The Poomse (pattern, shape) is, besides kyepka (breaktest), hosinsul (self-defense) and gyorugi (sparring), one of the four disciplines that are part of Taekwondo. You can distinguish these four disciplines, but you cannot part them. To understand the Poomse, you have to go back to the origin of Taekwondo. In times of peace, there was still the need to practice combat-techniques. The situation was quite different compared to the battle-field. The Poomse was needed to practice techniques, needed in war, but hard to train during sparring. The Poomse is a strict pattern, in which one can practice all techniques without a partner. All opponents are imaginary. Depending on the students skill (the color of the belt is an indication) the student practices a Poomse, and every new Poomse is a more difficult one. Unfortunately, sometimes both beginning and more skilled students practice the Poomse without the knowledge why. Taekwondo techniques are sometimes trained for hours, without thinking, and that is something I regret. In my training, I try to teach Taekwondo as a union of the Poomse, gyekpa, hosinsul and gyorugi. The sum is more than separate parts!


Poomse's Tul's Forms, or Poomses in Korean language, are a series of defending and attacking movements performed against imaginary opponents in a set pattern. Through the practice of forms, students come to learn the applications of various techniques of Taekwondo. Forms serve a multi-dimensional role, aiding in development and refinement of coordination, balance, timing, breath control and rhythm, all of which are essential skills to the Taekwondo student.

W.T.F. uses Poomses for patterns. Poomses originate from the book 'I Ching', a Chinese oracle. The I Ching has 64 hexagrams, a combination of two sets of three lines, closed or broken. The sets of three lines are called trigrams. The closed lines represent Yang, the open lines Yin. In the chinese language, the unity of Yin and Yang is called 'taich'i'. In the Korean language, the unity is called T'ae-guk. This explains the term Poomse Taeguk. The eight trigrams together are called Pal-gwe as in Poomse Palgwe...

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Il Jang -- Heaven

(South, Father) The first Taeguk/Palgwe is the beginning of all Poomses. The associated trigram represents Yang (heaven, light), therefore, this Poomse should be performed with the greatness of Heaven.

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Ee Jang -- Lake

(South East, Youngest daughter) In the depths of the lake are treasures and mysteries. The movements of this Taeguk/Palgwe should be performed knowing that man has limitations, but that we can overcome these limitations. This should lead to a feeling of joy, knowing that we can control our future.

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Sam Jang -- Fire

(East, Second daughter) Fire contains a lot of energy. Fire helped man to survive, but on the other hand had some catastrophical results. This form should be performed rhythmically, with some outbursts of energy.

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Sa Jang -- Thunder

(North East, Eldest son) Thunder comes from the sky and is absorbed by the earth. Thunder is one of the most powerful natural forces, circling, gyrating. This Taeguk/Palgwe should be performed with this in mind.

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Oh Jang -- Wind

(South West, Eldest daughter) Wind is a gently force, but can sometimes be furious, destroying everything in it's path. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Oh Jang should be performed like the wind: gently, but knowing the ability of mass destruction with a single movement.

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Yook Jang -- Water

(West, Second son) Water can move a mountain. The movements of this Poomse should be performed like water. Sometimes standing still like water in a lake, sometimes thriving as a river.

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Chil Jang -- Mountain

(North West, Youngest son) Mountains will always look majestic, no matter the size. This Poomse should be performed with the feeling that all movements are this majestic and deserved to be praised.

Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Pal Jang -- Earth

(North, Mother) The associated trigram of this Poomse is Yin: the end of the beginning, the evil part of all that is good. Even in this darkness, there is still some light. Performing this Taeguk/Palgwe, one should be aware that this is the last Taeguk/Palgwe to be learned, it also is the end of a circle, and therefore it is also the first, the second etc... Both Palgwe's and Taeguk's are numbered from one to eight. After this point, there is no longer a difference between the patterns. The patterns below follow the Poomse Taeguks as well as the Poomse Palgwes.

Poomse Koryo
Koryo (Korea) is the name of an old Korean Dynasty. The people from the Koryo-period defeated the Mongolian aggressors. Their spirit is reflected in the movements of the Poomse Koryo. Each movement of this Poomse represents the strength and energy needed to control the Mongols.

Poomse Keumgang
The definition of Keumgang is "Too h3 to be broken", or "diamond". The movements of the Poomse Keumgang are as beautiful as the Keumgang-san (a Korean mountain) and as h3 as Keumgang-seok (diamond).

Poomse TaeBaek
The legendary 'Dangoon' founded a nation in Taebaek, near Korea's biggest mountain Baekdoo. Baekdoo is a symbol for Korea. The definition of Taebaek is "lightness". Every movement in this Poomse must not only be exact en fast, but with determination and hardness.

Poomse Pyongwon
The definition of Pyongwon is "stretch, vast plain": big, majestic.

Poomse Sipjin
Sipjin stands for decimal. This Poomse represents the orderliness of the decimal system. It also means the endless development and growth in a systematic order: stability.

Poomse Jitae
Jitae is derived from the meaning of the earth. All things evolve from and return to the earth, the earth is the beginning and the end of life.

Poomse Cheonkwon
Cheonkwon means 'sky'. The sky should be seen as ruler of the universe. It is both mysterious, infinite and profound. The motions of Cheonkwon are full of piety and vitality.

Poomse Hansoo
This poomse is derived from the fluidity of water which easily adapts within nature.

Poomse Ilyo
The state of spiritual cultivation in Buddhism is called 'Ilyo' which means more or less 'oneness'. In Ilyo, body and mind, spirit and substance, I and you are unified. The ultimate ideal of taekwondo can be found in this state. It is a discipline in which we concentrate on every movement leaving all materialistics thoughts, obsessions and extermal influences behind.

I.T.F. has 24 patterns (or Tul) representing the 24 hours of the day, or the whole of a man's life. There are 10 patterns for the first black belt, at which point the member moves from being a 'beginner' to a 'novice'. The primary difference between I.T.F. and W.T.F. (from looking to the two) is that I.T.F. uses a 'stepping' movement for all hand techniques. Contributed by John Browne. This 'stepping motion' that the I.T.F. utilizes is referred to by I.T.F. practioners as "Sinewave", "Knee Spring" or "up/down Motion". It causes the body to move in a "sine wave" resulting in the whole body being involved at the moment of impact, blocking or attacking. This techniques us not just used for hand-techniques. It is used in I.T.F. kicking techniques as well. Contributed by jeja@gnn.com

Chon-Ji Tul (19 movements)

Literally means heaven and earth. It is in the orient interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth.

Dan-Gun Tul (21 movements)

Dan Gun is named after the Holy Dan Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 B.C..

Do-San Tul (24 movements)

Do-San is a pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876 - 1938). The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering education in Korea and the Korean independence movement.

Won-Hyo Tul (28 movements)

Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 AD.

Yul-Gok Tul (38 movements)

Yul-Gok is a pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536 - 1584) nicknamed the "Confucius of Korea". The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38 degree latitude and the diagram of the pattern represents scholar.

Joon-Gun Tul (32 movements)

Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this patter to represent Mr Ahn's age when he was executed at Lui-Shung in 1910.

Toi-Gye Tul (37 movements)

Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century) an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37 degree latitude, the diagram represent "scholar".

Hwa-Rang Tul (29 movements)

Hwa Rang is named after the Haw Rang youth group which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry Division, where Taekwondo developed into maturity.

Choong-Moo Tul (30 movements)

Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. This pattern ends with a left hand attack, to symbolize his regrettable death. He was noted for his unrestrained loyalty to the King.

Kwang-Gae Tul (39 movements)

Kwang-Gae is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th king of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represent the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD, the year he came to the throne.

Po-Eun Tul (36 movements)

Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong-Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and who's poem "I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred time" is know to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram represent his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.

Ge-Baek Tul (44 Movements)

Ge-Baek is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek-Je Dynasty (660AD). The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.

Eui-Am Tul (45 Movements)

Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed his name of Dong Hak (oriental Culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram represents his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.

Choong-Jang Tul (52 Movements)

Choong-Jang is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left hand attack to symbolise the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.

Juche Tul (45 Movements)

Juche is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything, in other words, the idea that man is that master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mount which symbolise the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu Mountain.

Sam Il Tul (33 Movements)

Sam Il denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea which began throughout the country on march 1, 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.

Yoo-Sin Tul (68 Movements)

Yoo Sin is named after General Kin Yoo Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 AD the year Korea was unified. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn to the right rather than the left side, symbolizing Yoo sin's mistake of following his king's orders to fight with foreign force against his own nation.

Choi Yong Tul (46 Movements)

Choi Yong is named after General Choi Yong, Premier and Commander-in Chief of the armed forces during the 14th century Koryo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Sung Gae, who later became the first king of the Yi Dynasty.

Yon Gae Tul (49 Movements)

Yon Gae is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty. Yon Gae Somoon. The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 AD the year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly 300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung.

UL-JI Tul (42 Movements)

UL-JI is named after general UL-JI Moon Dok who successfully defended Korea against a Tang's invasion force of nearly one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612 AD, Ul-JI employing hit and run guerilla tactics

was able to decimate a large percentage of the force. The diagram represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the author's age when he designed the pattern.

Moon-Moo Tul (61 Movements)

Moon Moo honors the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King's Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea "Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese". It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone Cave) was built to guard his tomb. The Sok Gul Am is a fine example of the culture of the Silla Dynasty. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 6612 AS when Moon Moo came to the throne.

So-San Tul (72 Movements)

So San is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyong Ung (1520 - 1604) during the Lae Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organised a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592.

Se Jong Tul (24 Movements)

Se-Jong is named after the greatest Korean King, Se-Jong, who invented the Korean alphabets in 1443, and was also a noted meteorologist. The diagram represents the king, while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters of the Korean alphabet.

Tong Il Tul
Tong Il denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea which has been divided since 1945. The diagram symbolises the homogenous race. Contributed by Kirsten Smith

Self defense (Hosinsul)

Hosinsul (self defense) is one of the four principles of taekwondo. Although taekwondo is a "self defense" sport in itself, it focusses on high and spinning kicks which are not very suitable for real life (street) application. Hosinsul is a mixture of all kinds of techniques, including grappling/locks as well as depending against armed attackers etc. (The photo shows Yvan de Wever, 6th dan Hwalmoo Hapkido) Self defense is something that cannot be practised alone. You will need a partner that has equal strength. You will learn how to react (and how not to react), proper freeing techniques, locks and strangling techniques. The following techniques are generally (this is not a rule, of course) practised (where the opponent either uses his body (i.e. hands), a knife or a stick): Control techniques Freeing techniques (Paegi) Termination techniques You will often see a big resemblance between the self defense techniques used in taekwondo and those applied in Hapkido.

Linear vs. Circular

There are two sorts of self-defense (this is a BIG generalisation): The hard or linear way and the soft or circular way. In the linear form one uses arms and legs to block a strike of the opponent. The advantage is that there is a direct counter-threat, which results in pain for the opponent. The disadvantage is that this method requires a lot of power and it may look extremely violent for outsiders. The circular form has a different view. Here you use the power and speed of the opponent to neutralise him/her using circular movements. The advantage is that you can neutralise your opponent without hurting him and that no strength is required. The disadvantage is that it takes a lot of skill and practise to come to the necessary level. You will most likely use a combination of both.

Kyepka (Break test)

Why perform breaktests? How to perform a breaktest The physics behind a break test One of the four elements fo taekwondo (besides sparring, styleforms and self-defence) is the breaktest. It is a obligatory part of the black-belt exam and is s popular element of taekwondo demonstrations.

Breaking an object is a good way to practise concentration, power, focus, speed and precision on non-living objects, without injuring oneself or another. It is very important to realise that a proper technique is needed and a breaking technique within your limits, because without it you can easily injure yourself, sometimes even permanently! Practising breaking objects helps you to realise that your body itself is a very strong weapon. It also helps you to understand that during practise with a partner, you have to be very careful.

The material that is most often used for breaking techniques is wood since it can be easily broken with either hand or foot. Other materials include bricks, tiles and sometimes even baseball bats! Breaking objects can be performed with any rigid part of the body. In taekwondo, the most common are the hand or the foot, but breaking can also be done by using the elbow, the knee and even the head.
(The photo show GM Moon of the Hwalmoo Hapkido federation, performing a breaktechnique with his head)

In order to break an object, it is best to start light. Use an object that is easy to break, instead of directly trying to break a thick board, and start with a technique in which you feel confident. Use your techniques as they are taught to you and try to be as releaxed as possible. When starting practising breaking techniques, it might help you to focus a few inches behind the actual point of impact.

The physics behind a breaktest

Dry board are more brittle than wet ones and will break more easily

Impulse = force (delivered by the strength of t=your muscles) times time (delivered by the speed of your movement). (The second law of Newton). Therefor, the shorter your contact with the board, the bigger the force component will be and therefor, the easier the board will break. momentum = mass (weight) x velocity (speed in a certain direction), The change in momentum is the momentum when you hit the target minus the momentum whem you come to a stop, which is determined by weight and speed (== impulse??)/ The force applied to stop a movement determines how quickly it is stopped, since we can say the the mass used to create the momentum will not change. In order to break a board (or any kind of material), you must cause a shearing moment in the board that is larger than the critical moment for that type of material. When you try to break a board, the board itself is supported as both sides. If you perform your breaking technique well, you will hit the board in the center which leads to an equal distribution of force on the two parts. Both parts will supply a reverse force of half the initial force. When the force meets the board, the top of the board will be in a state of compression and the bottom will be in tension. This will produce a torque on an axis through the middle of the board. If the torque is great enough the board will break. Besides force other elements that are important are power and pressure. The thicker the board, the harder it is to break the board. That is why often multiple smaller boards instead of one thicker one are used.

If a board does not reak, a large force is transmitted back to your body for a relative long time. This might hurt :o) Break boards with the grain. It is much easier! When breaking a board, make sure that the persons who hold the board have a firm grip. If the board moves during your technique, it will soften your technique. other factors not coverd: angle of strike, size of attacking tool

WTF Competition Rules << Article 9 Article 11 >> COMPETITION RULES

Article 10. Procedure of the Contest 1. Call for Contestants The name of the contestants shall be announced three times beginning three minutes prior to the scheduled start of the contest. The contestant who fails to appear in the contest area within one minute after the scheduled start of the competition shall be regarded as withdrawn. 2. Physical and Costume Inspection After being called, the contestants shall undergo physical and costume inspection at the designated inspection desk by the inspector designated by the WTF, and the contestant shall not show any signs of aversion, and also shall not bear any materials which could cause harm to the other contestant. 3. Entering the Competition Area Entering the Competition Area: After inspection, the contestant shall enter into the

waiting position with one coach. 4. Start and End of the Contest The contest in each round shall begin with the declaration of "Shi-jak" [start] by the referee and shall end with the declaration of "Keu-man" [stop] by the referee. 5. Procedure Before the Beginning and After the End of the Contest 1) The contestants shall face each other and make a standing bow at the referee's command of "Cha-ryeot" [attention] and " Kyeong-rye" [bow]. A standing bow shall be made from the natural standing posture of "Cha-ryeot" by inclining forward at the waist to an angle of more than 30' degrees with the head inclined to an angle more than 45' degrees and the fists clenched at the sides of the legs. 2) The referee shall start the contest by commanding "Joon-bi" [ready] and "Shi- jak"[start].

3) After the end of the last round, the contestants shall stand at their respective positions facing each other and exchange a standing bow at the referee's command of "Cha-ryeot", "Kyeong-rye", and then wait for the referee's declaration of the decision in a standing posture. 4) The referee shall declare the winner by raising his/her own hand to the winner's side.

5) Retirement of the contestants 6. Contest Procedure in Team Competition 1) Both teams shall stand facing each other in line in submitted team order towards the 1st Boundary Line from the Contestants' Marks. 2) Procedure before the beginning and after the end of the contest shall be conducted as in item 5 of this Article. 3) Both teams shall leave the Contest Area and stand by at the designated area for each contestant's match. Both teams shall line up in the Contest Area immediately after the end of the final match facing each other. The referee shall declare the winning team by raising his/her own hand to the winning team's side.

4) 5)

Article 11. Permitted Techniques and Areas 1. Permitted Techniques A. Fist techniques: Delivering techniques by using the front parts of the forefinger and middle finger of the tightly clenched fist. B. Foot techniques: Delivering techniques by using the parts of the foot below the ankle bone. 2. Permitted Areas A. Trunk: Attack by fist and foot techniques on the areas covered by the trunk protector are permitted. However, such attacks shall not be made on the part of the back not

covered by the trunk protector. B. Face: This area is the faxe excluding the back of the head, and attack by foot techniques only is permitted. Article 12. Valid Points 1. Legal Scoring Areas A. Mid-section of the trunk: the abdomen and both sides of the flank. B. Face: the permitted parts of the face. 2. Points shall be awarded when permitted techniques are delivered accurately and powerfully to the legal scoring areas of the body. However, when a contestant is knocked down as a result of the opponent's attack on a part of the trunk protector that is not part of a legal scoring area, such a technique shall be regarded as a point. 3. The valid points are divided as follows: 1) One (1) point for attack on trunk protector 2) Two (2) points for attack on face 3) One (1) additional point shall be awarded in the event that the contestant is knocked down and the referee counts. 4. Match score shall be the sum of points of the three rounds. 5. Invalidation of points: When the following are committed, the delivered technique will not be scored. A. Intentionally falling, immediately after delivery of the legitimate technique. B. Committing an illegal act after delivery of the legitimate technique. C. Use of any of the prohibited actions. Article 14. Prohibited Acts 1. Penalties on any prohibited acts shall be declared by the referee. 2. In the case of multiple penalties being committed simultaneously, the heavier penalty shall be declared. 3. Penalties are divided into "Kyong-go" [warning penalty] and "Gam-jeom" [deduction penalty]. 4. Two "Kyong-gos" shall be counted as deduction of one [1] point. However, the odd "Kyong-go" shall not be counted in the grand total. 5. A "Gam-jeom" shall be counted as minus one [-1] point. 6. Prohibited acts: "Kyong-go" penalty A. Inteference with the progress of the match a. Crossing the Boundary Line b. Falling down c. Evading by turning the back to the opponent B. Undesirable acts a. Grabbing the opponent b. Holding the opponent c. Touching the opponent with the hand or the trunk d. Pretending injury e. Butting or attacking with knee f. Attacking the groin g. Stamping or kicking any part of the leg or foot h. Hitting the opponent's face with hands or fist i. Interrupting the progress of the match on the part of the contestant or the coach j. Avoiding the match 7. Prohibited acts: " Gam-jeom" penalty A. Inteference with the progress of the

match a. Throwing down the opponent by grappling the opponent's attacking foot in the air with the arm or by pushing the opponent with the hand b. Intentionally attacking the fallen opponent after declaration of 'Kal-yeo'. c. Intentionally attacking the opponent's face with fist B. Undesirable acts a. Temporary suspension of the match due to violent remarks or behaviors on the part of the contestant or the coach 8. When a contestant refuses to comply with the Competition Rules or the referee's order, the referee may declare the contestant loser by penalty after one (1) minute. 9. When the contestant receives minus three [-3] points, the referee shall declare him/her loser by penalties. 10. "Kyong-go" and " Gam-jeom" shall be counted in the total score of the three rounds. ITF Sparring
Article 33. TARGET AREA A. Head and neck area at the front and sides but not at the back. B. Trunk of the body from neck to navel vertically and from a line drawn from the armpit vertically down to the waist on each side (that is frontal area only excluding the back). Article 34. POINT AWARDS A. One (1) point will be awarded for: Hand attack directed to mid or high section, hand attack while in air (both feet must be off the ground) directed to mid section, foot attack directed to mid section, perfect block. B. Two (2) points will be awarded for: Foot attack directed to high section, hand attack while in air (both feet must be off the ground) directed to high section, jumping or flying kick directed to mid section. C. Three (3) points will be awarded for: Jumping or flying kick directed to high section. Article 35. SCORING PROCEDURE In competition a technique is valid when: A. it is executed correctly, B. it is dynamic, that is to say it is delivered with strength, purpose, rapidity and precision, C. it is controlled on the target, D. perfect block: i.) defender must maintain complete balance, ii.) an appropriate blocking tool must be used, iii.) block must be powerful and accurate, iv.) defence must be maintained at a proper distance, v.) opponents balance must be broken. Article 36. DISQUALIFICATION A. Misconduct against officials or ignoring instructions. B. Heavy contact. C. Committing 3 fouls. D. Any competitor suspected of being under influence of alcoholic beverages or drugs. Article 37. FOULS One point will be deducted for the following offences: A. Loss of temper, B. insulting an opponent in any way, C. biting/scratching/clawing, D. attacking with the knee, elbow or forehead,

E. attacking a fallen opponent, F. contact. NB. The sum of 3 warnings automatically means deducting 1 point. Article 38. WARNINGS Warnings will be assigned for the following offences: A. Attack to an illegal target, B. stepping completely out of the ring (both feet), C. falling down, whether intentional or not (this means any part of the body, other than the feet, touching the ground), D. holding/grabbing/pushing, E. sweeping, F. faking a blow, pretending to be injured to gain an advantage, G. intentionally avoiding sparring, H. pretending to have scored a point by raising the arm. N.B.: If an athlete is pushed out of the ring with intent (without undergoing a technique) then he will not receive a warning.

The Five Classics

Four of the 'Five Classics' of Chinese have survived to our day. These are links into the above entries:
The Shu Ching

The Book of Historical Records. This text describes events dating back to the third millenium B.C.E., and was written down during the Han dynasty (23-220 C.E.).
The Shih Ching

The Book of Odes. This contains poems dating back to 1000-500 B.C.E.
The I Ching The Book of Changes. Dating to approximately 3000 B.C.E., this famous oracular book is one of the oldest sacred texts in the world. The Li Ki Part I The Li Ki Part II

The Book of Rites. This text describes Chinese religious practice from the eighth to the fifth century B.C.E. The fifth classic (which we don't currently have translation of at this site) is the Spring and Autumn Annals, the Ch'un Ch'iu. There was also a sixth classic, the Classic of Music (the Yeh Ching), which was lost.
The Hsiao Ching

The Book of Filial Piety, from SBE 3.

The Book of Filial Duty

by Ivan Chen [1908] A translation of the Hsiao Ching, a classic text which defines the web of Confucian social relationships.