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Time Synchronization Terms and Glossary

BSC Base Station Control: A GSM network element that handles BTS management and radio resource control. The BSC manages the radio interface, mainly through the allocation, release, handover and power control of radio channels. The BSC is synchronized over the PCM30-transmission of the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) and send the received clock accuracy over further PCM30-transmissions to the base stations. BTS Base Transceiver Station: A GSM network element that provides radio interface of the network. The BTS controls the radio transmission to and from the mobile terminals. It is synchronized over the PCM30 transmission from BSC and provides thereby the clock accuracy at the air interface. GSM Global System for Mobile Communications: GSM is the standard for the digital transmission technique which is world wide adopted. GSM uses 900 MHz and 1.800 MHz for transmission and receiving. MSC Mobile Switching Center: A GSM network element, for exchanging mobile subscribers. The MSC arranges also the switching to the subscribers in PSTN (Public switched telephone network). The MSC is a digital switching center which contains components like TRAU, BSCs and BTSs for the radio interface. The MSC is synchronized by local clock sources, e. g. PRCs, GPS receivers or clock outputs (T4) of SDH network elements. PBX Private Branch Exchange: A telephone switch located on a customer's premises that primarily establishes voice-grade circuits over E1 links to PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).

PDH The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy is a digital communication technology. PDH is based on the fundamental concepts of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Plesiochronous: (Greek - plesio, meaning near and chronos, meaning time) The meaning of Plesiochronous therefore is "nearly synchronous". Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy is used to multiplex PCM30 transmissions to data streams with higher data rates and for transmission over digital transport equipment such as fiber optic and microwave radio systems. Although this transmission clock accuracy is not highly exact, the PCM30 data flow is transferred from synchronized switching centers, regarding data and clock transparency. Digital switching centers transfers synchronous PCM30 - data flow with this transmission technique to other switching centers, and the recovered clock can be used for its own synchronization. Much of the transport infrastructure based on plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) is being replaced with SONET or SDH based infrastructure. PRC Primary Reference Clock: Usually a caesium standard that provides frequencies compliant with ITU G.811 or ETSI EN 300 462-6-1. The accuracy of PRC must be > 1 x 10-11. SLIP Slip = PCM30 - Frame Slip - always arises in a PCM receiver. The data are stored error-free in a buffer, which can take up 2 PCM Frames. The buffer is read with the clock of the switching center. If the receiving switching center has a lower frequency than the transmitting switching center, the buffer cannot read the data in the same rate as these is written by the transmitter. A buffer overflow occurs with the result of a frame slip. If the receiving switching center has a higher frequency than the transmitting switching center, the buffer is faster read out, than it is filled. A buffer underflow occurs followed by a slip frame. The slip rate is proportional to the frequency deviation between transmitter and

receiver. T3 Name of a clock input for clock generators (usually PLL) of a network element like e.g. switching center, BSC, BTS and SDH. These inputs can be synchronized with 2,048 MHz or 2,048 MBit/s. The interfaces are either symmetrical or asymmetrical. T4 Designation of the clock output of a clock generator in a network element e.g. switching center, BSC, BTS and SDH. These output can deliver 2,048 MHz or 2,048 MBit/s. The interfaces are either symmetrical or asymmetrical. E1 E1 transfers 32 time slots for each PCM frame - the first time slot of the first frame is the frame alignment signal (FAS). This signal makes the recognition of the frame in the PCM receiver, so that thereafter the time slots with speech data or data can be assigned to their goals correctly. The first time slot of the second PCM frame is the non frame alignment signal (NFAS) to transfer alarms and checksums (CRC4). Trau Transcoder Rate Adaption Unit. The TRAU belonged functionally to the mobile switching center. It has the GSM specific language coding and - decoding (from 64 kBit/s to 16 kBit/s per voice channel in both direcctions). It is synchronized over the PCM30-Transmission from MSC and transmits the received clock accuracy over PCM30 transmissions to the base station control (BSC). The TRAU is located at the BSC or directly at the MSC (mobile Switching center). Sonet/SDH Definitions and Documentations SDH (Synchronous digitally Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data communication on optical media (in the USA usually known as SONET).

This technology is characterised by higher data rates and makes the transmission of the existing data formats from the earlier PDH technology possible. Contrary to the PDH technology SDH network elements are synchronized. The payload data is stored in "containers" with additional information - the "Overhead" and the "Payload" is transmitted as synchronous transport module (e.g. STM-1). This transmission is normally accomplished over optical media. STM-1 designates a data rate of 155 MBit/s - e.g. 63 PCM30 transmissions can be transported. These 155 MBit/s data stream transports also the clock accuracy to the next SDH network element and synchronizes its clock generator. Thus a continuous synchronization of the SDH network is possible. The clock outputs (T4) of the SDH network elements can be used for the synchronization of further SDH network components or other connected mobile equipment. SDH uses the following Synchronous Transport Modules (STM) and rates: