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SCRAPING Why and How By Ron Gerlach For SCHSM

Why Scrape? Elegantly simple technique that provides results that are difficult to match Still used today on high end machines to fit sliding members to way surfaces Scr aped surfaces retain oil in the fine scrape marks in a way that ground surfaces cannot A must, on large new and rebuilt machine tools Take the tool to the work A straight edge can be a fraction of the weight of the tool Inexpensive Tools

Example, Finely Scraped Straight Edge

Reflection off of a fine scraped surface

Applications Machine Tool Rebuilding Any slide way surface Precision mating surfaces Easy way to true up two mating surfaces if a surface grinder is not available or practical Cylinder head to block Bearing block halves Flattening parts that are impractica l to clamp or hold for milling Quick way to accurately correct damage to flat surfaces Dings Edge Impacts Gouges

Basic Procedure for Scraping Start with a known flat surface Surface plate Ground bed way Apply a spotting compound to flat reference surface Apply work piece surface to be scraped to the inked/dyed surface (or vice versa) and move slightly back and forth Separate and observe spots transferred to work piece Scrape off metal from any locations with spots Repeat until spotting produces a uniformly distributed set of spots through out the work piece surface

Flat Plate, Early Stage

Flat Plate, After Several Cycles

Flat Plate After More Cycles

Lathe Cross Slide, Early Stage

Lathe Cross Slide, Later Stage

Types of Surfaces to be Scraped Any flat surface Size constrained by size of reference surface or straight edge Long surfaces can be successfully scraped with a shorter straight edge Requires careful attention to spotting indications Start at one end and scrape u ntil level Progress towards opposite end while overlapping portion of previous s ection Scrape new section until contact on previous section is restored Metals as well as some specialty plastics such as Rulon and Turcite Dovetails Usually requires some method to measure distance between opposing dovetails Prec ision ground rod in dovetail opening provides an easy and repeatable measurement point

Challenges, Spotting Spotting Compound Application Heavier during initial aggressive scraping Lighter and thinner as surface progre sses closer to final condition Accurate Spotting Consistent and even application of compound Consistent and even application of p ressure between work piece and reference surface Gravity is always best when possible, can be augmented with weights Must be awar e of how center of gravity acts on work or straight edge Manually applied pressu re can work but must be consistent Reading the spots For heavy scraping; if its blue, scrape it For light scraping; scrape light area s surrounded by blue

Fine Spotting

Challenges, Scraping Basic technique is to apply pushing & downward force on scrapers Careful scrapin g Avoid gouges by controlling scraper angle and pressure Developing an ability to scrape with required aggressiveness Heavy metal removal when surface is far from desired flatness Light metal remova l when surface is close to desired flatness Avoid damage to edges Patience The results can be slow but the reward is worth it

Control Scraping Straight Down removes metal in a homogenous manner anywhere across entire surface Work piece progresses as angle remains fixed as surface becomes True Techniques can be applied to actually tilt or skew a surface as need Two surfaces on different planes can be worked to be parallel Commonly done when working with dovetails and flat ways to compensate for uneven wear Leaving one end un-scraped while continuing to spot and scrape all other sections will rotat e work piece down from theunscraped edge or point

Tools Needed Flat Reference Surface plate Straight Edge Spotting Compound Prussian Blue Water based Compound, Canode #2243 from Dapra Almost any substance that will leave a fine film and that will transfer Lipstick Paint pigment Ink Roller Scrapers Carbide (best over all) Commercial units available Inexpensive inserts can be brazed to handles and shar pened as required Old files (will work but requires frequent sharpening)

Tools, Continued Clean flat file to debur surface before each spotting More critical when doing heavy metal removal Paint brush to clean away scraping residue Sturdy holding device Keep work piece from moving when applying heavy scraping action Flexibility to m ove work piece around for best light and tool access Gloves

Camel Back Straight Edge

SCRAPERS

More Commercial Hand Scrapers

Home Made HandScrapers

Scraping Links Yahoo Groups-Scraping Wikipedia-Hand Scraping Straight Talk on Ways: Andrew tt, Devitt Machinery http://www.moglice.com/newsite/frames/straightframe.html Tu rcite: Machine Tool Specialty Components http://www.mtsandtg.com/specialty/turci te BIAX Scrapers: Dapra Corporation http://www.dapra.com/biax/scrapers/accessori es.htm Practical Machinist http://www.practicalmachinist.com Machine Repair: books, videos, tools http://www.machinerepair.com/ Machine Tool Reconditioning by Edward Connelly