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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Calculus II

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2 3 6 10 14 15

Indefinite Integration Method of substitution Integration by Parts Special Integration Integration of Trigonometric Function Reduction Formula

x ! l xC

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

INDEFINITE INTEGRATION
Definition f (x ) is said to be primitive function or anti-derivative of g( x ) if f ' ( x ) ! g(x ) .
d 2 ( x ) ! 2x dx

Example

x 2 is the primitive function of 2x .

Note Definition

Primitive function is not UNIQUE. For any function f (x ) if F( x) is the primitive function of f (x ) , i.e. F ' ( x) ! f (x ) , then we define the indefinite integral of f (x ) w.r.t.x as constant of integration.

f (x) dx !F(x)  c , where

c is called the

Theorem

Two function f (x ) and h( x) differ by a constant if and only if they have the same primitive function.

Standard Results
1

1. 3. 5. 7.

x dx ! l

xc

2. 4. 6. 8.

e dx ! e
x

c

cos xdx ! si sec


2

xc

si csc

xdx !  cos x  c
2

xdx ! ta x  c xdx ! sec x  c ax c ln a dx ! sin 1

xdx !  cot x  c

sec x ta

x a dx

csc x cot xdx !  csc x  c


x
1 x2  a2
2

9.

10. x c a

dx ! ln

x  x2  a2 c a

11*.

1 a2  x2
1 x2  a2

13.

dx ! l

Theorem

(a) (b)

kf (x)dx ! k f ( x)dx [f ( x) s g( x)]dx ! f ( x)dx s g(x)dx .


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12*.

1 x 1 dx ! tan 1  c 2 a a a

x2  a2  x c a

Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example proof

Prove

a dx ! ln a  c
x

Let y ! a x . l y ! xl a 1 dy ! ln a y dx @
dy ! yl a dx

dx dx
y
x a dx

dy

= = =

yl

a dx

l a y dx ax c l a

METHOD OF SUBSTITUTION
Theorem ( CHANGE OF VARIABLE ) If x ! g(t ) is a differentiable function, Proof

f ( x)dx ! f (g(t )) g '(t ) dt .

Let F( x) is the primitive function of f (x ) . i.e. 3 We have


dF ( x ) ! f (x) dx x ! g( t ) d F( x ) = dt dF ( x ) dx dx dt dF ( x ) g ' (t ) dx

= F( x ) = =

f (g(t ))g '(t )dt f (g(t ))g '(t )dt


x2  a2  x c a

f ( x)dx
1 x2  a2

Example proof

Prove

dx ! ln

sub x ! a ta 1 dx @ 2 x  a2

= = =

dx ! a sec 2 d 1 2 a sec a sec d

sec
l sec

d
 ta c

( sec d ! l sec  ta

c)

x2  a2  x c a
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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Remark

By using substitution, the following two formulae can be derived easily. f '(x) (I) f ( x) dx ! l f ( x)  c , f '(x) (II) 2 f ( x) dx ! f ( x )  c . The following examples illustrate the use of the above results.

Example proof

sec

d ! l sec  ta

c

and

csc

d !  l csc  cot

c

Example = = =

ta
cos
si

d
d d( cos c )

l x dx x

l
=

x d(l x) (ln x) 2 c 2

1  cos  ln cos

Example = = = Example (a)

cot
si si
cos 1

d
d d(si c )

3  2 si

cos x x

dx

ln sin

dx
x

(b)

x e

2 x3

dx

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

dx x

( Let y ! x )

Example

(a)

ex  1 e x  1dx

(b)

e si

Example

1  x dx

Page

2x

si
2x

dx

Prepared by Mr. K. F. Ngai

Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

(a) (b) (c)

cot(e x )dx

a2x  b2x e x dx x2 px  q dx

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

INTEGRATION BY PARTS

*Theorem

( INTEGRATION BY PARTS ) If
, v are two functions of x , then d uv dx u dv dx

udv ! uv  vdu.

proof

= =

dv du v dx dx

d du uv  v dx dx dv

We integrate both sides with respect to x to obtain

udv
Example (a)

u dx dx

uv  vdu

x dx

(b)

l x dx

Example

(a)

I ! x 2 cos xdx

(b) I ! x 2 si xdx

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

I!

xe dx (1  x) 2

Example

ta

1

x dx

Example

(l

x) 2 dx

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

(a) Show that

d x 1 ta ! . dx 2 1  cos x x  si x dx 1  cos x

(b) Using (a), or otherwise, find

[HKALE 1997]

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

SPECIAL INTEGRATION

We resolve the rational function

P( x ) by simple partial fraction for P( x), Q(x ) being poly. The Q( x )

integration of rational function is easily done by terms by terms integration.

Example

(a)

dx  a2

(b)

x1 dx 2 1

Example

x 3  2x 2  1 (x  1)(x  2)(x  3) 2 dx

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

Evaluate

2x  x  3x  3x dx . x3  1 1 2x 2x 4  x 3  3x 2  3x ! 2x  1   2 . 3 x1 x  x1 x 1

Solution

By decomposing into partial fractions, Hence,

Integration of

Px  Q ax 2  x  c

Example Solution

Evaluate

dx. 5  4x  x 2 Observing that the derivative of 5  4x  x 2 is  (4  2x ) , we have

4x  1

4x  1 5  4x  x
2

dx =

 2( 4  2x )  9 dx 5  4x  x 2

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Integration of

1 x s ax 2  x  c

Example

x

dx x2  1

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Integration of

R( x,

ax  b )dx cx  d ax  b cx  d

In solving such problems, we use the substitution u ! n

Example

I!

x2 x x1

dx

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

INTEGRATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTION

Integration of

R( cos

, sin )d put u ! sin . put u ! cos . put u ! tan .


2t 1  t2

(1) If  R(  cos , sin ) ! R( cos , sin ) , (2) If  R( cos , sin ) ! R( cos , sin ) , (3) If R(  cos ,  sin ) ! R( cos , sin ) ,

Example

(a)

cos

sin 2 d

Example

sin

x cos 7 x dx

(4) Otherwise, put t ! tan

tan

1 t2 cos ! 1  t2
sin ! 2t 1 t2

(b)

cos

sin 3 d

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

REDUCTION FORMULA

Certain integrals involving powers of the variable or powers of functions of the variable can be related to integrals of the same form but containing reduced powers and such relations are called REDUCTION FORMULAS . Successive use of such formulas will often allow a given integral to

be expressed in terms of a much simpler one. Let I n ! sin n x dx for n is non-negative integer.
1 n 1 I n 2 Show that I n !  cos x sin n 1 x  n n Hence, find I 6 .

Example

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

Show that if I n ! cosn d , where n is a non-negative integer, then n 1 sin cos n 1 I n  2 , for n u 2 .  n n Hence evaluate I 5 and I 6 . In !

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

If I n ! tan n x dx , where n is a non-negative integer, find a reduction formula for I n . ( In !


1 tan n 1 x  I n  2 ) n1

This formula relates I n with I n  2 , and if n is a positive integer, successive use of it will ultimately relate with either Since

tan x dx

or

dx .
tan x can

tan xdx ! ln sec x  c, dx ! x  c , and positive integral power of

therefore be integrated. For non-negative integer n, I n ! (ln x )n dx . Find a reduction formula for I n and hence evaluate I 3 .

Example

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Indefinite Integration Advanced Level Pure Mathematics

Example

Let n be a positive integer and a { 0 . dx In ! . (*) 2 (ax  bx  c )n (a) Prove that n(4ac  b 2 )I n  1 ! 2( 2n  1)a I n  (b) Evaluate 2ax  b . (ax  bx  c)n
2

(x

dx .  2 x  2) 2

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