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Central government

- Build, with the local entities responsible for water and sanitation service provision (and the involvement of users), the - Manage local water general consensus on the definition resources. of the desired service provision - Contribute to funding (level, location, development). (channel resources from - Responsible for overall policy, central budget + municipal objectives and institutional setting, budget). incl. consistency across main - Contribute to collect and programmes, cross-border monitoring of information on agreements. the sector. - Political will and commitment: fight against corruption, objectives - Create capacity and space for dialogue between the in terms of universal service and services to the poor, commitment different stakeholders. to financial sustainability of the - Involve communities in sector. discussions on service level, - Decentralise and devolve powers. Allocate roles across public agencies & establish coordination mechanisms. - In charge (with local governments and regulators) of organising, planning, costing, formulating tariff policy and funding. - Capacity building, national awareness campaigns. - Support and contribute to the building of information on the sector across provinces /municipalities. technology choice, prices.

Local government / Municipalities - Implement and enforce policy framework as defined with central government

Regulatory bodies - Regulation of water quality, environmental regulation, economic regulation to oversee monopolistic market. - Monitoring of sector: control of compliance with standards, approval of tariff levels and their periodic & extraordinary revisions, collection and provision of information on quality of services (to promote benchmarking). - Consumer protection, representation and involvement in regulatory decision making (through water customer committees for instance).

Private sector - Based on contractual arrangements: * Service delivery and operation * Technical planning * Customer relations (incl. complaints analysis) * Revenue collection * Maintenance * Infrastructure development, * Financing * Market analysis: site assessment, customer survey, mapping of the poor.

Users / NGOs / Community groups Users: - Pay for services received - Participate to monitoring of quality of services and contribute to accountability of officials and providers NGOs/Community groups:

Donors / IFIs - Contribute to funding - Leverage additional funds through risk mitigation schemes - Contribute to the coordination of efforts

- Help develop consumer trust - Supervision and and knowledge through enforcement of awareness / information contractual arrangements. campaigns). - Contract design and bidding - Work on developing outreach to small-scale process, in accordance with informal providers. overall institutional and regulatory settings. - Accountability to users and honour contractual arrangements. - First conflict mediation instance.

- Support capacity building (of users, - Advocate for weaker government, communities practitioners), - Support development and including support for - Comply with service quality capacity building of user project design (e.g,. standards, environmental associations (eventually through project standards and agreed tariffs. together with national and preparation grant - Population awareness raising local government facilities). through targeted programmes) - Collect and share communication, participation in - Represent users in experience across local action. regulatory decisions, in countries. - Reporting of economic, stakeholders dialogue - Promote adoption of environmental and social - Build bridges between internationally agreed performance. formal and informal standards (such as - Impact evaluation on providers, users and other anti-corruption environment and development stakeholders conventions, adoption of environment friendly of quality standards - Raise awareness on technologies. and norms). hygiene, water - Pro-poor advocacy and conservation, pollution proposition of pro-poor methodologies.

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.