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# Positive Voltages

In some DC circuits, one point in the circuit is designated as the common-ground reference point and all voltages are measured relative to that point.

Internal Resistance
All voltage sources have some internal resistance such as the conductors in the coils of a generator or the chemicals in a battery.
The internal resistance of a voltage source can be represented as a resistance in series with an ideal voltage source. Load Normally this resistance is very small compared to that of the load and has little effect on circuit operation.

Determining Resistance
There are various ways to find the total resistance of parallel resistances when the individual resistance values are known.
For any parallel circuit the reciprocal equation can be used.

## Solving DC Parallel Circuits

The procedure for solving parallel-circuit values of voltage, current, resistance, and power is similar to that used for solving values for series circuits.
Ohms law as it applies to the circuit as a whole and to individual loads, as well, is used. The parallel-circuit characteristics of voltage, current, resistance, and power.

I = E /R

E=IxR

## Points A, B, and C, are all positive relative to the reference point.

Internal resistance

R = E/ I IT = I1 + I2 + I3 . . ET = E1 = E2 = E3 . . . PT = P1 + P2 + P3 . . .

RT = R1 x R2 R1 + R2 RT = RX Rn

If the parallel circuit has only two branches, a more simple equation called the product over sum equation can be used. For parallel circuits with resistors of equal value, the value of one of the resistors is divided by the number of resistances.

## Ideal voltage source Battery Common-ground reference point

When the internal resistance becomes a significant part of the total circuit resistance, we must take it into account.

Kirchhoffs Laws
Kirchhoffs laws are an extension of Ohms law. They can be considered as additional tools for solving values for electric circuits. Used along with Ohms law, these laws allow you to analyze DC series-parallel circuit networks.
R2 R5 R6

Determining Resistance
General procedures to be followed in reducing series-parallel networks:
Reduce only one part at a time. After each circuit reduction redraw the circuit and exchange the equivalent resistor for the original resistors. Be sure that all series resistors have been combined before a parallel portion is reduced. Combine parallel portions to a single resistor. Repeat combining equivalent resistors until the circuit is reduced to one equivalent total resistance.

Determining Power
The total power supplied to a DC resistive circuit, whether series, parallel, or a combination, is equal to the sum of the power dissipated by the individual load resistors. PT = P1 + P2 + P3 + ... + Pn, (where n is the number of resistive components in the circuit) Therefore, each circuit component contributes to the total power dissipated by a DC series-parallel circuit.

## Voltage Source Internal Resistance

When the internal resistance of a voltage source becomes a significant part of the total circuit resistance, you must take it into account when analyzing the circuit.

ET

R1 R4

R3 R7

## Constant Current Source with Internal Resistance

The current source internal resistance RS is in parallel with the current source. In reality, every current source has a parallel internal resistance (RS), which causes some loss of current. Using the current divider rule (for a parallel circuit), the output current (or load current) can be determined in terms of RS and RL :

## Converting Voltage and Current Sources

Any voltage source with its series resistance can be converted to an equivalent current source with the same value of resistance in parallel.
Divide the source voltage ES by its series resistance RS to calculate the current IS for the equivalent current source of the same value.

Superposition Theorem
The superposition theorem treats each source as an independent source in the network, and then combines the individual results.

Superposition Theorem
In order to zero a current source, we replace it with an open circuit, since the current through an open circuit is zero amperes.

## Original current source

RL = IS x
Current source

RS RL + RS

To convert a current source to an equivalent voltage source, the source current IS is multiplied by its parallel resistance RS, to calculate voltage ES.

The superposition theorem states the following: In a resistor network with two or more sources, the current through or the voltage across any component is the algebraic sum of the effects due to each independent source.

(OPEN)

## Current source replaced with an open circuit

Superposition Theorem
The following steps are used applying the superposition theorem:
1. Zero all voltage or current sources but one.

Superposition Theorem
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all the remaining sources in the circuit.

Superposition Theorem
4.To find a specific current or voltage, algebraically combine the currents or voltages due to the individual sources. If the currents act in the same direction or the voltages are of the same polarity, add them. If they act in opposite directions, subtract them with the direction of the resultant current or voltage being the same as the larger of the original quantity.

Thevenin's Theorem
Thevenin's theorem is particularly useful in situations where the circuit is complicated, but the interest is in the current through or the voltage across a particular resistor, which is generally referred to as the load resistor or RL.

2. Determine the current or voltage you need, along with its correct direction or polarity, just as if there were only one source in the circuit.

Thevenin's Theorem
Thevenin's theorem states that: Any network of voltage sources and resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent voltage source (ETH) in series with a single equivalent resistance (RTH) and the load resistor (RL).

## Converting a Circuit to its Thevenin Equivalent

The following steps are used in converting a circuit to its Thevenin equivalent. These steps can be done either by calculating the values or by measuring the values if the circuit actually exists.
1. Select the resistor (RL) you wish to know the current through and remove it from the circuit.

## Converting a Circuit to its Thevenin Equivalent

2. Measure or calculate the voltage across the points in the circuit where the resistor was connected. This is the Thevenin voltage (ETH).

## Converting a Circuit to its Thevenin Equivalent

3. Remove each voltage source and replace it with a short circuit. Be careful not to short across an active source in a working circuit.

(SHORT)

RTH
(SHORT)

## Thevenin resistance Thevenin voltage Load resistor

ETH

4. Measure or calculate the resistance across the points in the circuit where the RL resistor was connected. This is the Thevenin resistance (RTH).

## Converting a Circuit to its Thevenin Equivalent

5. Create a series circuit with the Thevenin voltage (ETH) as the source and the Thevenin resistance (RTH) placed in series with the resistor (RL) that was removed. This is called the Thevenin equivalent circuit.

Norton's Theorem
Norton's theorem is used for simplifying a net-work in terms of currents instead of voltages. The basis of Norton's theorem is the use of a current source to supply a total load current that is divided among parallel branches.

Norton's Theorem
The following steps are used to convert a resistive network into its Norton equivalent:

Norton's Theorem
2. Calculate the Norton equivalent resistance. This is equal to the resistance between terminals A-B when the voltage source is removed and replaced with a shortcircuit.

IL = VTH RTH + RL EL = IL x RL

1. Calculate the Norton equivalent current source. This is equal to the current that would flow between terminals A-B if the load resistor was removed and replaced with a short-circuit.

6. Finally, calculate the current through (IL) and the voltage across (EL)the load resistor RLusing Ohm's law.

Norton's theorem simplifies a resistive network and represents it with a Norton equivalent current source (IN) in parallel with an equivalent Norton resistance (RN).

Norton's Theorem
The procedure for calculating Thevenin resistance is identical to the procedure for calculating Norton resistance: remove all power sources and determine resistance between the open load connection points.
As such, Thevenin and Norton resistances for the same original network must be equal.

Norton's Theorem
The Norton equivalent circuit may also be determined directly from the Thevenin equivalent circuit, and viceversa.

## Sine Wave Average Value

It is sometimes useful to know the average value of the sine wave voltage or current for one half cycle.

## Alternating Current (AC)

Alternating current changes in both value and direction.
The sine wave is the most common waveform for alternating current. The current increases from zero to some maximum value and then drops back to zero as it flows in one direction.

## From Norton to Thevenin RTH = RN ETH = IN x RN

If the voltage or current changed at the same rate over the entire half cycle, the average value would be one half of the peak value.

However, because the voltage and current do not change at the same rate, another method must be used.

Q 11-20

## Alternating Current (AC)

The waveform or exact manner in which the current increases and decreases is determined by the type of AC voltage source used.
Sine wave Square wave

## Left-Hand Generator Rule

Conductor motion Flux

## Generator Output Voltage

In general, the amount of output voltage produced by an alternator is determined by the length of the armature conductors, the strength of the magnetic field, and the speed of the rotor. The amount of voltage induced into the armature of an alternator can be calculated using the formula:

## Sine Wave Frequency

The frequency of the induced voltage in each phase of a 3-phase alternator is directly related to the number of field poles of the rotor, the winding of the stator coils and to the rotational speed of the rotor. The formulas used to determine the frequency of an AC generator are:
Frequency (F) = No. of poles (P) x Revolutions per second (S) 2

Sawtooth wave

E=BLv
The sine wave is the most common waveform for alternating current.

108

## An AC waveform crosses the zero reference line.

Induced current

where B = flux density (gausses) L = the active length of the armature conductors v = the velocity of the armature conductors

Frequency (F) = No. of poles (P) x Revolutions per minute (S) 120

Q 1-10

## Sine Wave Instantaneous Value

Sine waves are produced by all rotating machines and are so named because the instantaneous voltage or current at any point along its waveform is equal to the maximum, or peak, value times the sine of the angle of rotation. sin ! ! = opposite = Y! hypotenuse Z!

## Sine Wave Effective Value

The effective value of an AC current is based on its heating effect. It is equivalent to a DC current that has the same heating effect.
DC Current

## Sine Wave Effective Value

The effective value of a sine wave current or voltage is also called the "root-mean-square," or "rms," value because of the way it is derived. It is equal to the square root of the average value of the squares of all the instantaneous values of voltage current during one-half cycle.
peak rms

## Sine Wave Effective Value

The equations can be transposed so that the peak value of a sine wave can be determined if its effective value is known. Accordingly, the peak value of a sine wave is equal to 1.414 times its effective value: E peak = E rms x 1.414 I peak = I rms x 1.414

Equivalent AC current

## I rms = I peak x 0.707 E rms = E peak x 0.707

When 1 A of DC current flows through a resistor a certain amount of energy is dissipated in the form of heat. An AC current that will produce the same amount of heat in the resistor is considered to have an effective current value of 1 A and a peak value of 1.414 A.

The rms or effective value of a "pure" or undistorted sine wave of current or voltage is always equal to 0.707 times its peak value.

## Sine Wave Average Value

It is sometimes useful to know the average value of the sine wave voltage or current for one half cycle.

## Sine Wave Average Value

The average value of an AC sine wave is the average of all the instantaneous values during one half cycle.

The conductors for 3-phase need to be only 75% the size of conductors for a 1-phase two wire system.

## Operating Alternators in Parallel

Before connecting three-phase alternators in parallel or on-line they must be synchronized. An alternator is said to be synchronized when it meets all of the following conditions:
The phase sequence or rotation of the machine is the same as that of the system. Same Load The generator voltage is equal to the system voltage. The generator voltage is in phase with the system voltage.

The average value for one half cycle of a pure sine wave is equal to 0.637 times the peak maximum value.
If the voltage or current changed at the same rate over the entire half cycle, the average value would be one half of the peak value. However, because the voltage and current do not change at the same rate, another method must be used.

1! Source

3! Source

## The generator frequency is equal to the system frequency.

Wye Connection
The Wye connection is made by connecting one end of each of the three-phase alternator windings together.

Delta Connection The phase windings of a Delta connection are all connected in series.
Since these windings form a closed loop, it may seem that a high current will continuously flow through the windings, even when no load is connected.

Delta Connection
In a delta connection the line voltage and the phase voltage are the same, because they act in parallel with each other.

DC Generator
A soft-iron armature core helps to reduce "hysteresis" loss. Hysteresis loss is caused by molecular friction. As the direction of the magnetic field reverses, the molecules of the metal are magnetized with the opposite polarity and swing to realign themselves. This continuous aligning and realigning of the molecules produces heat caused by friction. Since soft iron has a low reluctance, its opposition to magnetic alignment with the field flux is at a minimum, and so hysteresis loss is kept to a low value.

I I

line=

## Iphase x 1.73 Iline 1.73

phase=

line

=E

phase

The voltage between and the current through the line wires are known as the "line voltage" (Eline) and "line current" (Iline).

The voltage across and the current through a single winding or the phase are known as the "phase voltage" (Ephase) and "phase current" (Iphase).

Due to the phase difference negligible or no current flows in the windings under no-load conditions.

Hysteresis Curve
The line current of a delta connection is higher than the phase current by a factor of 1.73. This is because the current of each phase has a 120 delay or shift that has to be taken into account.

## 3-Phase Diode Rectifier

Another option available for producing DC from a rotating machine is to use solid-state diodes, in place of a commutator, to convert the generated voltage from AC to DC.
Car alternator used to provide a DC voltage to recharge the battery

Separately-Excited DC Generator
With the speed held constant, the output of this generator may be varied by controlling the current through the field coils. This is accomplished by inserting a rheostat in series with the DC source and field windings. The output voltage of the generator will then vary in direct proportion to the amount of field current flow.

Separately-Excited DC Generator
The actual output voltage available at the armature terminals is less than the voltage induced in the armature itself. This difference in voltage is due to losses caused by the resistance in the armature circuit and by armature reaction.

## Self-Excited Shunt Generator

Self-excited generators use part of the generated current to excite the field. They are classified according to the method by which the field coils are connected.
Armature I

Stator

Rotor

Armature

Shunt Field

Field I

## 3-phase stator generated voltage

In a "shunt generator" the field windings are connected in parallel with the armature. The shunt field winding consists of many turns of relatively small wire and actually uses only a small part of the generated current. A rheostat connected in series with the field coils is used to vary the field current, which in turn controls the generator output voltage.

## Self-Excited Shunt Generator

One advantage of the load/voltage characteristics of the shunt generator is self-protection. A short circuit on the load will short the shunt field current resulting in only a small output voltage generated by the residual magnetism. This will reduce the current to a minimum and thus prevent overheating.
Field current drops to near Zero

## Self-Excited Series Generator

The self-excited "series generator" contains only series field windings connected in series with the armature.
The entire load current flows through the series field and for this reason, the field coils must be wound with wire large enough to carry the full-load current of the generator.

## Self-Excited Compound Generator

A compound generator combines the characteristics of the shunt and series generator. When these two characteristics are combined, then the loss in voltage encountered by one will be compensated for by the increase in voltage of the other The result is a generator having excellent regulation characteristics.

## Self-Excited Compound Generator

When the shunt field is connected in parallel with the series combination of the armature and series field, the compound generator is said to be connected in long- shunt.

Short Circuit

## Output voltage drops to near Zero

In a series generator, an increase in load causes a similar increase in field current which results in a higher output voltage. The voltage continues to increase with corresponding increases in load until the core reaches the point of magnetic saturation. Due to its poor voltage regulation, the series generator has very few direct applications.

When the shunt field is connected in parallel with only the armature, the compound generator is said to be connected in short-shunt.

The output characteristics of the long and short -shunt generator are almost identical.

## Self-Excited Compound Generator

If the series and shunt windings are connected in reverse, so that their magnetic fields oppose each other, the generator would have extremely poor voltage regulation. This is called differential compounding and is not normally used in generators.
Over compounded Flat compounded Under compounded

## Operating DC Generators in Parallel

Reaction of the series field to momentary changes in voltage and/or load currents can cause shifting of the load from one machine to the other.
Generator"A" Generator "B"

## AC Purely Resistive Circuits

Skin Effect The fact that alternating current changes in value and direction tends to make it flow along the outer surface of the conductor. The alternating current sets up eddy currents in the conductor which cause the electrons to be repelled towards the outer surface of the conductor. Forcing the electrons to the outer surface of the conductor has the same effect as deceasing the diameter of the conductor, which increases conductor resistance . The skin effect is directly proportional to the AC frequency as it is this rapid movement of going from negative to positive that causes the effect.
Cross-section area of a round conductor available for conducting DC current Cross-section area of the same conductor available for conducting low-frequency AC

## AC Purely Resistive Circuits

Hysteresis Effect Alternating current produces a magnetic flux which changes polarity with each reversal of current flow. The change in polarity causes the molecules in the metal parts near the circuit to be in motion, thus producing heat. The heat either radiates back into the circuit conductors or retards the dissipation of heat produced by current flowing in the conductors. This hysteresis effect increases the effective resistance of the circuit.

Differential compounded

The voltage of an overcompound generator increases when full load is applied, whereas the voltage of a flatcompound generator remains constant and that of an undercompound generator drops slightly.

In order to prevent the possibility of unwanted load shifting, the series field of each machine is connected to a common "equalizer bus" which puts the two series fields in parallel with each other. The result is that the series field currents are divided proportionally between the two generators.

Q 30-40

## AC Purely Resistive Circuits

Eddy Currents When an AC current flows in a conductor it causes voltages to be set up inside of the conductor. The voltages set up in the conductor cause small independent currents, called eddy currents to exist. Eddy currents vary with and are directly proportional to the frequency of the supply. Heat produced by these currents tends to increase the effective resistance of the circuit. Dielectric Stress As the alternating voltage varies in strength, the stress on the conductor insulation increases and decreases. This variation in dielectric stress also produces heat, which increases the circuit resistance.

## AC Purely Resistive Circuits

All the laws and formulas that apply to DC circuits also apply to AC circuits. Furthermore, they apply exactly the same way to AC resistive circuits.

## AC Purely Resistive Circuits

The Ohm's Law formula for an AC circuit can be expressed as: Irms = Erms / R or simply I = E / R Unless otherwise stated, all AC voltage and current values are given as effective or rms values. With this in mind, the formula for Ohm's Law for an AC circuit can also be expressed as: or Iaverage = Eaverage / R Ipeak = Epeak / R

## AC Purely Resistive Circuits

For in-phase circuits, that is, resistive circuits, we can state that the effective or rms power is equal to: P = IE P =I2R P = E2 / R where I and E are the effective or rms current and voltage.

## Three-Phase Power Measurement

A single wattmeter may be used to measure the 3-phase power of a balanced 3-phase resistive load bank. The wattmeter is connected to meter the phase current and voltage.
Accordingly, three times the measured value of the wattmeter is equal to the three-phase power, as long as the three-phase are balanced.
Balanced 3-phase resistive loads Wattmeter A B C

## Three-Phase Power Measurement

Two wattmeters can be used to measure the 3-phase power in systems which contain only three line wire by metering the line current and voltage.
If the 3-phase system is balanced and resistive then the two wattmeters will have the same readings and the total circuit power will be equal to the sum of the two wattmeter readings W1 and W2.
W2 A Balanced 3-phase resistive loads

## AC Purely Resistive Circuits

At any instant the power is equal to the current at that instant multiplied by the voltage at that instant.
+
POWER Notice that the power waveform is always positive for in-phase currents and voltages. A negative current multiplied by a negative voltage yields a positive power. This means that the resistive load is converting electric energy into heat energy during the complete cycle.

For three-phase resistive circuits voltages and currents are usually expressed as rms or effective values, as in single-phase analysis. The power delivered to threephase balanced resistive loads is calculated as follows: P = !3 x Eline x Iline

or

## P =1.73 x Eline x Iline

0 Current

C W1

Q 40-50

Voltage

Inductance
Inductance (L) is the ability of an electric circuit or component to oppose any change in current flow.

Lenzs law
In any type of inductive circuit there is an important relationship between the direction of the current change and the induced voltage. This relationship is summarized by Lenzs law and stated as follows: The induced voltage always acts in a direction to oppose the current change that produced it.

Lenzs law
Lenz's law deals with the polarity of the induced voltage and the direction of the flow of current. The general rule is that inductors always oppose a change in current.

## Counter Electromotive Force (CEMF)

The voltage induced in a conductor or coil by its own magnetic field is called a counter electromotive force. (CEMF) . When the source
Volts
voltage is increasing, the polarity of the CEMF is such that it opposes the source voltage. When the source voltage is decreasing, the CEMF aids the source voltage and tries to keep the current constant.

The ability of the inductive circuit or component to oppose changes in current is due to its ability to store and release energy that it has stored in a magnetic field.

Polarity of CEMF

## Time Opposing magnetic poles produced Induced current

Volts

An electric current induced by a changing magnetic field will flow such that it will create its own magnetic field that opposes the magnetic field that created it.

Polarity of CEMF

Time

## Energy Conversion in an Inductor

Current flow in an inductor generates a magnetic field and this magnetic field stores energy. The amount of energy stored in the magnetic field is a function of the current and inductance. An ideal inductor (assuming no winding resistance) does not dissipate energy, it only stores it. When an AC voltage is applied to an inductor, energy is stored by the inductor during a portion of the cycle; then the stored energy is returned to the source during another portion of the cycle.

## Inductance Unit of Measurement

One henry (1 H) represents the inductance of a coil in which a current change of one ampere per second (1A/ s) will produce a countervoltage of one volt (1V). This can be represented by the formula: VCEMF = L x !I !T Where: L = inductance in henrys !I = change in current !T = change in time

Inductor Specifications
In addition to being rated for inductance (H), inductors are also rated for:
DC resistance - which specifies the resistance of the wire in the winding of the inductor. Current rating - which specifies how much current the inductor can continuously carry without overheating. Voltage rating - which specifies how much voltage the insulation on the inductor winding can continuously withstand. Quality - which specifies the ratio of its reactance to its resistance. Tolerance - which is specified as a percentage of the stated inductance.

## Factors that Determine Inductance

Inductance depends entirely on the physical construction of both the core and the windings around the core. The number of turns

## The more turns the greater the inductance

Higher Inductance

## Factors that Determine Inductance

Core material and cross-sectional area

RL Time Constant
Because the inductor's basic action is to develop a voltage that opposes a change in its current, it follows that current cannot change instantaneously in an inductor. A certain time is required for the current to make a change from one value to another.
Large Steel Core

RL Time Constant
The time constant is a measure of how much time it takes the current to change by 63.2 percent or approximately 63 percent.
Current Coil

## Spacing between turns

For a fixed number of turns, the longer the coil the lower the inductance Air Core The better the magnetic core material and the the larger the core cross-sectional area the higher the inductance

Higher Inductance

## Small Steel Core

Higher Inductance

The rate at which the current changes is determined by the RL time constant: T = L / R Where: T is the time constant in seconds L is the inductance in henrys R is the resistance in ohms (the resistance is in series with L, being the coil resistance or an external resistance)

The build up of current follows an exponential curve and reaches maximum value after 5 time constant periods.

Time

Q 1-10

Inductive Reactance
In a DC circuit, the only changes in current occur when the circuit is closed to start current, and when it is opened to stop current.

Inductive Reactance
The amount of inductive reactance in an AC circuit then depends on the amount of inductance and the frequency of the circuit current. An increase in the size of the inductor and/or the frequency will cause a higher opposition to current flow. To calculate inductive reactance for AC circuits apply the formula: XL = 2 ! f L Where: XL = the inductive reactance in ohms f = the frequency of the AC in hertz L = the inductance in henries 2! = 6.28 (indicates 2! radians, 360 or 1 cycle)

Inductive Reactance
A pure or ideal inductor is an inductor that has zero resistance. It does not convert any electric energy into heat energy, and it has infinite quality.
I=? XL E In theoretical AC circuits that contain only pure inductance, the inductive reactance (XL) is the only thing that limits the current.

Inductors in Series
Finding the total inductance of a series circuit, composed totally of inductors, is the same as finding the total resistance of a series resistor circuit. You simply add all of the individual inductances: LT = L 1 + L 2 + L 3 . . .

In an AC circuit, the current is continually changing each time the voltage alternates. Since inductance in a circuit opposes a change in current and AC current is continually changing, there is an opposition offered by the inductor to the AC current that is called

## The current is determined by Ohms law with XL replacing R:

L1

L2 LT

L3

inductive reactance.

I = E XL

Inductors in Parallel
Inductors connected in parallel are also treated like resistors in parallel. Choice of formulas
LT = L / n (same values formula) LT = L1 x L2 (product-over-sum formula) L1 + L2 LT = 1 (the reciprocal formula) 1 1 1 L1 + L2 + L3

## Inductive Reactive Power

The average value of power calculates out to be zero. This means that no power is dissipated in a pure inductive circuit.
Average Power = 0 Voltage

## Inductive Reactive Power

Since the product of the voltage and current for a pure inductance is not mathematically equal to zero, this product for a pure inductance must represent some different kind of power. The power associated with an inductance is a kind of "magnetic power," and is called inductive reactive power.
0W A V

## Inductive Reactive Power

To calculate inductive reactance power apply the formula: or IL2 x XL VARs = EL x IL Where: EL = the voltage applied across the inductor! IL = the current flow through the inductor! XL = the inductive reactance !

LT

Current

120V

Inductive reactive power is measured in VARs, which is the abbreviation for volt-ampere-reactive.

2A

Capacitor
The capacitor has the ability to store electrons and release them at a later time.
Negative Plate Charged Capacitor Positive Plate Electrostatic Field

Capacitor Ratings
Capacitors are limited in the amount of electric charge they can store. If the value of the applied voltage and capacitance of the capacitor are known, the amount of charge stored in the capacitor can be calculated. The equation used is: Q = CE Where: Q = the charge in coulombs C = the capacitance in farads E = the voltage in volts

Capacitor Ratings
The capacitance value of a capacitor depends on: Area of the plates - The greater the plate area, the higher the capacitance value.

Capacitor Ratings
The capacitance value of a capacitor depends on: Type of dielectric - The better the dielectric material, the higher the capacitance value.
Air Ceramic

The operation of a capacitor depends on the electrostatic field that is built up between the two oppositely charged parallel plates. When a capacitor has a potential difference or voltage between plates, it is said to be charged.

Capacitor Ratings
MATERIAL
The dielectric constant (K) of a material measures its effectiveness when used as the dielectric of a capacitor. Air is assumed to have a dielectric constant of 1, and all others dielectrics are compared to this standard. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT (K)

Capacitor Ratings
The capacitance value of a capacitor depends on: Spacing between plates - The closer the plates, the higher the capacitance value.

Capacitor Ratings
The following formula can be used to determine the capacitance of a capacitor when the area of the plates, the dielectric constant, and the distance between plates are known:
C= KxA 4.45 x D
Where: C = capacitance in pF (picofarads) K = dielectric constant A = area of one plate in square inches D = distance between plates in inches

Capacitors in Parallel
The total capacitance of parallel connected capacitors is equal to the sum of all the individual capacitances in parallel:! CT = C1 + C2 + C3 . . .
C1 CT C2 C3

## Air Bakelite Lucite Mica Paper Insulating Oils Paraffin

1.0 4.0 to 10.0 2.0 to 3.0 6.0 to 7.0 2.0 to 3.0 2.0 to 5.0 1.5 to 2.0

The largest voltage that can be applied safely to a group of capacitors in parallel can be determined easily. It is the voltage that can be applied safely to the capacitor having the lowest voltage rating.

Capacitors in Series
The formulas that can be used for calculating the total capacitance of capacitors in series is similar to that used to calculate the total resistance of resistors connected in parallel: CT = C1 x C2 (product-over-sum formula) C1 + C2

RC-Time Constant
A high-value resistor will give us a long charging time. A low-value resistor used with the same capacitor will give a shorter charging time.

RC-Time Constant
The charging rate of a resistor and capacitor connected in series is called the RC-time constant. When the resistance in megohms is multiplied by the capacitance in microfarads the product is called the RC-time constant in seconds: t = RC
Where: t = time constant in seconds R = resistance in M! C = capacitance in "F

Capacitive Reactance
The opposition to the flow of AC current offered by a capacitor is called "capacitive reactance." Capacitive reactance is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol XC.
I M! E XC

"F

## Capacitor charges in a longer period of time

Capacitive Reactance
The capacitive reactance of a capacitor can be calculated using the formula: XC = __1__ 2!fC Where: XC = capacitive reactance in ohms (!) f = frequency in hertz (Hz) C = capacitance in farads (F)

Capacitive Reactance
In AC circuits that contain only capacitance, the capacitive reactance is the only thing that limits the current and will replace resistance in the Ohm's law equation:
I = E / R (AC purely resistive circuit) I = E / XC (AC purely capacitive circuit)
I=E

## Voltage Drops in a Series Capacitive Circuit

The voltage drop across each capacitor in a series connection depends on its capacitance reactance and current value: EC = IC x XC (for any capacitor)
I

## Voltage Drops in a Series Capacitive Circuit

Since the current is the same at any point in a series circuit, the largest-value capacitor in series (lowest XC) will have the smallest voltage drop and the smallest capacitance value (highest XC) will have the largest voltage drop. The voltage drop across any individual capacitor in series can be determined directly using the formula:

EX = CT x ES CX
Where : CX = any capacitor in series, such as C1, C2, C3 . . . EX = the voltage across capacitor CX CT = the total capacitance of the series circuit ES = the voltage of the source

I
Frequency Capacitance

XC XC
E = I x XC

XC = E I

## Phase Shift in a Capacitor

Circuit IC EC
Since an AC source is used, the voltage applied to the capacitor is constantly causing the capacitor to charge in one direction, then discharge in the other.

## Phase Shift in a Capacitor

The phase shift in a capacitor is exactly opposite to the phase shift in an inductor. Current leads voltage by 90 in a capacitor and current lags the voltage by 90 in an inductor.
I EL

## Phase Shift in a Capacitor

In a parallel circuit, the capacitor and inductor currents will be 180 out of phase and act to directly oppose each other.
IC IL IC E E I

## Capacitive Reactive Power

Like the inductor, a capacitor does not dissipate energy; it only stores energy temporarily. Due to the 90 phase shift the voltage and current have the same polarity for half the time during one cycle and have opposite polarities the other half of the time.
When the voltage and current have the same polarity, energy is stored in the electrostatic field of the capacitor. If the values of current times voltage for one full cycle are added, the sum equals zero just as it is with pure inductive circuits. When the voltage and current have opposite polarities, the stored energy is discharged back into the circuit.

EL

## Vector Representation IC The current leads the voltage by 90.

EC EC

IL

90o EC

In a series circuit, the capacitor and inductor voltages will be 180 out of phase and act to directly oppose each other.

## Capacitive Reactive Power

The power associated with a capacitor is reactive power and is measured in VARs, just as for an inductor. To calculate the capacitive reactive power for a capacitor apply the formula: VARs = EC x IC or IC x XC
2

Vectors
A is ahead of B A B A leads B by 90 A Phase shift = 90 degrees

Vectors
A summary of basic rules, which apply to drawing vectors for electrical circuits, are as follows:
When two waveforms are in-phase, they have the same direction and so their vectors are drawn on the same line. B The counter-clockwise direction is considered as the positive direction of rotation. A vector, which is rotated in a counterclockwise direction from a given vector, is said to lead the given vector. Similarly, the clockwise direction is considered as the negative direction of rotation. B The magnitude of a vector is given by a scaled length of the vector line. It is not necessary to use the same scale for both the current and voltage vectors. However, if there is more than one current or voltage vector, a common scale must be used.

Vectors
In a series circuit, the current is constant through all parts of the circuit. Hence, it is convenient to draw the current vector on a horizontal line and use it as the reference vector for other vectors in the same diagram. EL E

90

Where: EC = the voltage applied across the capacitor IC = the current flow through the capacitor XC = the capacitive reactance
B A

EL - E C

Resultant

## B leads A by 90 B is ahead of A Phase shift = 90 degrees A - 90

ER I

EC

Vectors
In a parallel circuit, the voltage is the same across parallel branches. Therefore, it is convenient to draw the voltage vector on a horizontal line and use it as the reference vector for other vectors in the same diagram. IC

## Vector Addition - Pythagorean Theorem

When two vectors have a phase difference of exactly 90 (right angle), the sum of the two vectors can be most easily found using the Pythagorean Theorem.

## Basic Trigonometry Functions

Regardless of the shape of the right triangle, certain relationships always exist between the sides and the angles.
sine ! = opposite hypotenuse = O H

Rectangular Notation
Using rectangular notation the value of a vector is expressed by its respective horizontal and vertical components.
Imaginary number line (pos) 4 +j3 Real number line (neg)

E IR

HYPOTENUSE (H)

IL - IC

I IL

Resultant

Side "B"

## Imaginary number line (neg)

Impedance (Z)
The total opposition to current flow in any AC circuit is called impedance (Z). In a series RL circuit, this total opposition is due to a combination of both resistance (R) and inductive reactance (XL).
The symbol for impedance is Z, and like resistance and reactance, it too is measured in ohms. From Ohm's law, the impedance of a circuit will be equal to the total supply voltage (ET) divided by the circuit current:

RL Circuit Vector
The "reference vector" is labeled I and represents the current in the circuit, which is common to all circuit elements. Since the voltage across the resistor is in phase with the current flowing through the voltage vector ER it is shown superimposed on the current vector. The inductor voltage EL leads the current by 90 and is drawn leading the current vector by 90.

## RL Circuit Impedance Triangle RL Circuit Impedance Triangle

Because the current flow for each component is the Because the current flow each component is the same, their voltage drops are directly proportional to same, their voltage drops are directly proportional their opposition. their opposition.
EL ET Inductive Inductive Reactance Reactance (XL)

## Series RL Circuit Current And Voltage

If the impedance of a circuit is known it is possible to find the current by using Ohm's law and substituting "Z" for "R" as follows:

EL

ET

The total supply voltage (ET) is the vector sum of the resistor and inductor voltages ER I Resistance (R) Resistance (R)

I
ER

Since the impedance triangle is Since the impedance triangle is a right triangle, then the impedance right triangle, then the impedance must be the square root of the sum must be the square root of the sum of the square of the ohmic values for of the square of the ohmic values for resistance and inductive reactance: resistance and inductive reactance:

Since the current is the same throughout the series circuit the individual voltage drops the inductor and resistor can be calculated by applying Ohm, law as follows: ER = I x R EL = I x XL

## Series RL Circuit Power

In a purely resistive circuit the voltage and current are in-phase, and true power in watts is calculated by multiplying voltage by current: True Power (Watts) = ER x IR For purely inductive load the voltage and current are 90 out-of-phase, true power in watts is zero, and the reactive power (VARs) is calculated by multiplying the inductor voltage by its current: Reactive Power (VARs) = EL x IL

IR

## Series RL Circuit Power Triangle

The power triangle shown is used to describe the relationship between the various power components of a series RL circuit. It is geometrically similar to the impedance triangle and the series RL circuit vector diagram.
The length of the hypotenuse represents the apparent power

## Series RL Circuit Power Factor (PF)

The "power factor" (PF) for any AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power:

Apparent Power VA = ET x IT

IT

True Power W = ER x IR

ER

ET

## IL Reactive Power VARs = EL x IL

The opposite side to ! represents the reactive power Reactive Power (VARs)

EL

## The angle theta (!) is used to represent the phase difference

True Power (W) The adjacent side to ! represents the true power

The value can be from zero to 1 and is often expressed as a percentage; 0% for a purely reactive load to 100% for a purely resistive load.

## Series RL Circuit Power Factor (PF)

For circuits containing both resistance and inductive reactance, the power factor is said to be lagging in some value between zero and one.

## Series RL Circuit Power Factor (PF)

Any of the following equations can be used to calculate the power factor of a series RL circuit:
PF = cos !!
ET Z VA

Series RC Circuits
The combination of a resistor and capacitor connected in series to an AC source is called a series RC circuit.
The current flow through the resistor is of the same value and phase as that through the capacitor. The voltage drops across the resistor and capacitor are proportional to the current and the individual resistance and capacitive reactance values.

Series RC Circuits
Series RC circuits are similar to series circuits RL circuits. The formulas are basically the same with capacitance values substituted for inductance values.
In a series RC circuit, the total opposition or impedance is due to a combination of both resistance (R) and capacitive reactance (XC). R ET I

The greater the power factor, the more resistive the circuit; a lower power factor indicates a more reactive circuit. The power factor is not an angular measure but a numerical ratio, with a value between 0 and 1. As the phase angle between the source voltage and current increases, the power factor decreases, indicating an increasingly reactive circuit.
I

ER

The formula for the impedance of a series RC circuit based on Ohm's law remains as:

## RC Circuit Vector RC Circuit Vector

The "reference vector" is labeled I and represents the current in The "reference vector" is labeled and represents the current in the circuit, which is common to all circuit elements. the circuit, which is common to all circuit elements. Since the voltage across the resistor is in phase with the current Since the voltage across the resistor is in phase with the current flowing through the voltage vector shown superimposed flowing through the voltage vector ER it is shown superimposed the current vector. on the current vector. The capacitor voltage The capacitor voltage EL lags the current by 90 and is drawn lags the current by 90 and is drawn lagging the current vector by 90. lagging the current vector by 90. The total supply The total supply voltage (ET) is the voltage (E is the vector sum f the vector sum of the resistor and resistor and inductor voltages inductor voltages

## RC Circuit Impedance Triangle RC Circuit Impedance Triangle

The resistance (R) and capacitive reactance (XC) are The resistance (R) and capacitive reactance are 90 out-of-phase with each other, and this forms the out-of-phase with each other, and this forms the r impedance triangle which is geometrically similar to impedance triangle which is geometrically similar or r the circuit vector diagram. the circuit vector diagram.
R (Resistance) (Resistance) I When the resistance When the resistance and capacitive and capacitive reactance of a series reactance of series RC circuit are known, RC circuit are known, the impedance is the impedance is found using the found using the equation: equation:

## Series RC Circuit Current and Voltage

If the impedance of a circuit is known it is possible to find the current by using Ohm's law and substituting "Z" for "R" as follows: Since the current is the same throughout the series circuit the individual voltage drops the resistor and capacitor can be calculated by applying Ohm, law as follows: ER = I x R E C = I x XC
The equations used are basically the same as that used for the RL circuit, with the capacitive component values used in place of the inductance values. One difference is that the current will be in-phase with the resistance voltage drop, ER, but will lead the capacitance voltage drop, EC, by 90.

## Series RC Circuit Power

Like RL circuits, RC circuits have significant values of apparent power, reactive power, and true power.
IR Apparent Power IT VA = ET x IT ET The apparent power will contain both a true power component and a reactive power component. True Power W = ER x IR True power is found in the resistive part of the circuit. Reactive Power VARs = EC x IC EC Capacitive reactive power is found in the capacitive part of the circuit.

## (Capacitive Reactance) (Capacitive Reactance)

ER

ER

IC

EC ET
(Supply Voltage) (Supply Voltage)

XC

Z (Impedance) (Impedance)

## Series RC Circuit Power Factor (PF)

The "power factor" (PF) for any AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power:

Series LC Circuits
A series LC circuit consists of an inductance and a capacitance connected in series with an AC source.
EL =I x XL EL
As in all series circuits, the current in a series LC circuit is the same value at all points. This means the current in the inductor is the same as, and therefore in-phase with, the current in the capacitor.

## LC Circuit Voltage Vector

The voltage vector, EL, is placed 90 ahead of I since the voltage leads the current by exactly 90 degrees in an inductor.

## LC Circuit Voltage Vector

The total applied voltage ET is the difference between EL and EC voltage values and is in phase with the larger of the two voltages, which in this case is EL.
EL
The larger of the two voltages, or their respective reactance values, determines if the circuit is inductive or capacitive. Any time XL is greater than XC, the voltage across the inductor will be greater than that across the capacitor and the circuit will be inductive in nature. The reverse is true whenever XC is greater than XL. In this example, the circuit would be inductive.

EL

ET

The vector addition of EL and EC gives a resultant that represents the applied voltage ET.

ET
Is leading for the series RC circuit

I
The vector diagram is drawn starting with a horizontal line representing the current vector I, which is the common quantity.

ET = EL - EC I

## Is lagging for the series RL circuit

EC = I x XC

EC

The voltages dropped across the inductor and the capacitor depends on the circuit current and the values of XL and XC:

The voltage vector, EC, is placed 90 behind that of I since the voltage lags the current by exactly 90 degrees in a capacitor.

EC

EC

LC Reactance Vector
The series LC circuit voltage vector and reactance vector are similar to each other, except for the units by which they are measured.
XL
XL and XC are 180 out-of-phase with each other, therefore, the value of one subtracts from the other, leaving the circuit either inductive or capacitive depending on which reactance is larger.

LC Reactance Vector
The total opposition to the current flow (Z) in a series LC circuit is equal to the equivalent total reactance (X).
XL

## Series LC Circuit Power

The total applied voltage ET is always in-phase either EL or EC (whichever is greater), and therefore will always be 90 out-of-phase with the current. There is a constant interchange of power, or energy, between the source and the circuit, but no power consumption.
PF=0 0 Watts The applied voltage and current will always be 90 out-ofphase. L 120V The true power or watts will always equal zero. The power factor will always equal zero.

## Series RLC Circuits

A series RLC circuit contains elements of resistance, inductance and capacitance connected in series with an AC source.
R The current is the same through all components but the voltage drop across the elements are out of phase with each other.

X = XL - XC I

X = XL - XC I

XC

XC
5A

## Series RLC Circuits

Voltage and current are in-phase

## Series RLC Circuits

The voltages dropped across the resistor, inductor and capacitor depends on the circuit current and the values of R, XL and XC

Series RLC Circuit Voltage Vector Series RLC Circuit Voltage Vector
EL
The total applied The total applied voltage (ET) is the voltage (E is the vector sum f the vector sum of the voltage across the voltage across the and the resistor (ER) and the resistor difference in voltage difference in voltage between between EL and EC. and

## Series RLC Circuit Voltage Vector

The circuit's phase angle theta(!), is always the angle that separates the circuit's current and the applied voltage source.
EL

ER = I x R

## Voltage leads the current by 90 degrees

EL = I x XL

To combine the combine the voltages, the two voltages, the two reactive voltage reactive voltage values, which are values, which are 180 out-of-phase 180 out-of-phase with each other, are with each other, are subtracted. subtracted.

!
ER EC

## Current reference Current reference line line

EL

EC

ET

A series RLC circuit will be inductive when the voltage across the inductor is greater than that across the capacitor and capacitive when the reverse is true. R

E L > EC !
ER EC

EC = I x XC

ET

I
C

## Series RLC Circuit Net Reactance

When XL is greater than XC, the net reactance is inductive, and the circuit acts essentially as an "RL" series circuit. XL > XC =
Acts like an RL series circuit

## Series RLC Circuit Impedance

The impedance for either the dominant inductive or capacitive series RLC circuit has an angle somewhere between 0 and 90 degrees.

Series RLC Circuit Impedance Vector Series RLC Circuit Impedance Vector
The total impedance (Z) is equal to the vector sum of the The impedance is equal the vector sum the r circuit's reactances and resistance. circuit's reactances and resistance.
XL
Amount of XC subtracted from XL Amount of subtracted from

## Series RLC Circuit Current and Voltage

If the impedance and applied voltage of a series RLC circuit are known, the current can be found using Ohm's law. ER = I x R
ER

Z X= XL - XC Inductive Circuit X ET Z R OR XC EC EC = I x XC EL EL = I x XL

When XC is greater than XL, the net reactance is capacitive, and the circuit acts as an "RC" series circuit. XC > XL =
Acts like an RC series circuit

!
Capacitive Circuit

In both cases, the value of the impedance angle depends on the relative values of the net reactance (X) and the resistance (R).

Once the current is known, the various voltage drops can be found using Ohm's law.

## Series RLC Circuit True Power

In a series RLC circuit, the power delivered to the inductance and capacitance is returned to the source. Only the power delivered to the resistor is dissipated in the form of heat. The power used by the
Watts
resistive element represents the true power in watts.

Series RLC Circuit Power Factor Series RLC Circuit Power Factor
The circuit's power factor, PF, is always equal to the The circuit's power factor, PF, is always equal the r cosine th angle that separates the circuit's current and the gle cosine of the angle that separates the circuit's current and n applied voltage. The PF series RCL circuit can be applied voltage. The PF of a series RCL circuit can be found using any the following equations: found using any of the following equations: PF Cos PF = Cos !
R
A leading power leading power factor means the factor means the current leads the current leads the applied voltage and applied voltage and is always the case is always the case in series RLC in a series RLC circuit when XC is circuit greater than XL. greater than A lagging power lagging power factor means the factor means the current lags the current lags the applied voltage and applied voltage and is always the case is always the case in a series RLC in series RLC circuit when XL is circuit greater than greater than XC.

Resonant Circuits
Circuits in which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance (XL = XC) are called resonant circuits. They can be series or parallel circuits and either RLC or LC circuits.

## RLC Series Resonant Circuit Impedance

XL Z X= XL - XC X

!
R Inductive Reactance

W = I2 x R

Capacitive Reactance

XC When XL and XC are unequal, the impedance Z is the diagonal of a vector combination of R and the difference between XL and XC. This diagonal is always greater than R. When XL and XC are equal, Z is equal to R and is at its minimum value, allowing the greatest amount of current to flow.

L C

W = ER x I W = ET x IT x PF (Cos !)

XL = XC

## RLC Series Resonant Circuit

At resonance the voltages across both XL and XC will be equal and are 180 out-of-phase with each other so that each will cancel the other.
The circuit can be considered to be purely resistive in nature. The phase angle between the circuit current and the supply voltage will be zero and the power factor will be 1 or 100%. The inductive reactive VARs of the inductor being cancelled out by the inductive capacitive VARs of the capacitor.

Resonant Frequency
Inductive reactance varies directly with the frequency of the AC supply voltage (XL = 2!fL) while capacitive reactance varies inversely

## Series RC Circuit Low-Pass Filter

The frequency response curve for the low-pass filter shows the amount of output voltage with respect to frequency.

XL = XC There will be one resonant frequency at which the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance will become equal XL = XC Resonant Frequency Resonant Frequency Resonant frequency Resonant frequency Formula: Formula: where: fR = resonant frequency (Hz) resonant frequency (Hz) L = inductance in henrys inductance in henrys C = capacitance in farads capacitance in farads Resonant Frequency

With a frequency of zero Hertz or DC, the capacitor offers maximum opposition and the output voltage is equal to the input voltage. As the frequency increases, XC begins to decrease, and the output voltage begins to drop off.

## Series RC Circuit Low-Pass Filter Series RC Circuit Low-Pass Filter

After the cut-off After the cut-off is frequency is reached, the output reached, the output voltage drops off voltage drops off at constant rate. a constant rate.

## Series Resonant Band-Pass Filter Series Resonant Band-Pass Filter

A band-pass filter is equivalent to combining a low-pass band-pass filter is equivalent combining low-pass filter and high-pass filter. filter and a high-pass filter.
E out out E in 0.707 E in
The bandwidth of a The bandwidth of band-pass filter is the band-pass filter is the range of frequencies range of frequencies for which the output for which the output voltage is equal to or voltage is equal to or greater than 70.7% of greater than 70.7% of its value at the its value the resonant frequency. resonant frequency.

## Series Resonant Band-Pass Filter

The "Q" factor is the measure of quality of a series resonant band-pass filter. The higher the Q of a circuit, the sharper its frequency response curve, the greater its output voltage, and the narrower its bandwidth.
Q=0.1

## Series Resonant Band-Stop Filter

The response of a band-stop filter is opposite that of the band-pass filter. Here a series resonant LC circuit is connected in parallel with the load.
RS C

## Output signal voltage

Q=1

Q=10

Input signal
10k 100 k 1M

L RL

Output signal

100

1k

At the cut-off frequency (fCO), the output voltage is equal At the cut-off frequency (f the output voltage is equal to approximately 70.7% of the input voltage and the to approximately 70.7% of the input voltage and the capacitive reactance will equal the value of the capacitive reactance will equal the value of the resistance. resistance.

0
The filter has two cut-off The filter has two cut-off points, f1 and f2 points, and

f1 fr

f2

Frequency en

Frequency (Hz)

Bandwidth Bandwidth

or

At resonance, the series resonant circuit offers very low impedance to current flow. This shorts or bypasses most of the current around RL and most of the input voltage is dropped across RS.

## Parallel RL Circuits Parallel RL Circuits

The combination of a resistor and inductor connected in The combination resistor and inductor connected in r parallel to an AC source is called a parallel RL circuit. parallel AC source is called parallel RL circuit.
ET = ER = EL

## Parallel RL Circuit Vector Diagram

A horizontal line represents the common voltage vector E The current vector IR is placed directly on the voltage vector for the two are in-phase. The current vector IL is placed in a downward direction so that it is lagging behind the voltage vector by 90. The vector addition of IR and IL gives a resultant that represents the total (IT) or line current. The angle theta (!) indicates the angle by which the total current lags the voltage. IR E

## Parallel RL Circuit Phase Angle Parallel RL Circuit Phase Angle

In all parallel RL circuits, the phase angle theta (!) by In all parallel RL circuits, the phase angle theta ( ) by (! which the total current lags the voltage is somewhere which the current lags the voltage is somewhere between 0 and 90 . The size of the angle is determined between and 90 The size the angle is determined 90. by whether there is more inductive current r resistive by whether there is more inductive current or resistive IR current. current.
!
If there is more there inductive current, the inductive current, the phase angle will be phase angle will be closer to 90. closer to 90. E

## Parallel RL Circuit Power

In the parallel RL circuit, the VA (apparent power) includes both the Watts (true power) and the VARs (reactive power).

ET

ER

EL

IL

IT IR

!
The voltages across each parallel branch are the same The voltages across each parallel branch are the same value, equal in value to the total applied voltage and value, equal in value to the total applied voltage ET, and are all in-phase with each other. are all in-phase with each other.

IL

IT

It will be closer to will closer 0 if there is more there resistive current. resistive current.

!
IL IT

The true power (Watts) is that power dissipated by the resistive branch and the reactive power is the power that is returned to the source by the inductive branch.

10

## Parallel RL Circuit Power Parallel RL Circuit Power

The relationship VA, W, and VARs is the same The relationship of VA, W, and VARs is the same for the RL parallel circuit it is r the RL series circuit. the RL parallel circuit as it is for the RL series circuit.

## Parallel RL Circuit Power Factor Parallel RL Circuit Power Factor

The power factor is always lagging for an inductive The power factor is always lagging or or r r inductive load, leading for a capacitive load, and unity (1) for a load, leading r capacitive load, and unity 1) r resistive load. resistive load. Unity

Parallel RC Circuits
The combination of a resistor and capacitor connected in parallel to an AC source is called a parallel RC circuit.

## Parallel RC Circuits Parallel RC Circuits

The conditions that exist in RC parallel circuits and The conditions that exist in RC parallel circuits and the methods used for solving them are quite similar to the methods used solving them are quite similar r those used for RL parallel circuits. those used RL parallel circuits.
IC The principle The principle difference is one of one of phase relationship phase relationship

VA VA = ET x IT VARs VARs = EL x IL

R AC Voltage Source

EC

W = ER x I R

The power factor (PF) of The power factor (PF) of any AC circuit is the any AC circuit is the cosine of the angle theta cosine of the angle theta (!), which equals the ratio (!), which equals the ratio of true power/volt-amps of true power/volt-amps

In a pure capacitor the current In pure capacitor the current leads the voltage by 90, while leads the voltage by 90, while in a pure inductor the current in pure inductor the current lags the voltage by 90. lags the voltage by 90.

IC

EC

## Parallel RC Circuit Voltage Parallel RC Circuit Voltage

In a parallel RC circuit, as in any parallel circuit, the In parallel RC circuit, in any parallel circuit, the applied voltage (ET) is directly across each branch. The applied voltage is directly across each branch. The branch voltages are, therefore, equal each other, branch voltages are, therefore, equal to each other, as well well as to the applied voltage. the applied voltage.

## Parallel RC Circuit Current Parallel RC Circuit Current

The parallel RC circuit vector is similar to the parallel The parallel RC circuit vector is similar the parallel r r RL circuit in that it uses the common voltage (E) RL circuit in that it uses the common voltage r element the reference vector. element as the reference vector.
To obtain the total current (IT) the capacitor and To obtain the total current (I the capacitor and resistor currents are added vectorally resistor currents are added vectorally IT (total line (total line current) current)

## Parallel RC Circuit Current Parallel RC Circuit Current

In a parallel RC circuit, the line current leads the In parallel RC circuit, the line current leads the applied voltage by some phase angle less than 90 applied voltage by some phase angle less than degrees but greater than 0 degrees. degrees but greater than degrees.
IT IR IC IC IT

## Parallel RC Circuit Impedance Parallel RC Circuit Impedance

The impedance (Z) of a parallel RC circuit is a The impedance parallel RC circuit is measure of the total opposition offered to the current measure the opposition offered the current flow. flow.
Impedance of a parallel RC circuit can be calculated Impedance of parallel RC circuit can be calculated directly from the resistance and capacitive reactance directly from the resistance and capacitive reactance values using the equation: values using the equation:

ET

ER

EC

ET = ER = EC

## IC (capacitive (capacitive current) current)

!
IR

All three voltages are All three voltages are in-phase with each in-phase with each other other

ET ER EC

!
IR (resistive (resistive current) current)

## E (common (common voltage) voltage)

If there is more capacitive current, the angle will be If there is more capacitive current, the angle will be closer to 90 degrees; while if the resistive current is closer to 90 while if the resistive is greater, the angle is closer to 0 degrees. greater, the angle is closer to degrees.

When the total current (IT) and the applied voltage are When the total current (I and the applied voltage are first determined, the impedance is more easily first determined, the impedance is more easily calculated using the Ohm's law equation: calculated using the Ohm's law equation:

## Parallel LC Circuits Parallel Circuits

A parallel LC circuit consists of an inductance and a parallel circuit consists inductance and capacitance connected in series with an AC source. AC source. capacitance connected in series with
IT IC ET IL The voltages across The voltages across the branches of the branches of a parallel LC circuit parallel LC circuit are the same as the are the same the applied voltage, as applied voltage, they are in all they are in all parallel circuits. parallel circuits.

## Circuit Current Vector

The capacitor current (IC) leads the voltage by 90 and is drawn leading the voltage vector by 90 .

## Circuit Current Vector Circuit Current Vector

The line current for a parallel LC circuit has the phase The line current parallel circuit has the phase characteristic of the larger branch current. characteristic the larger branch current.
IC E IT IL If the inductive branch current is the If the inductive branch current is the larger, the line current is inductive, larger, the line current is inductive, and lags the applied voltage by 90. and lags the applied voltage by 90. 0

## Solving Parallel LC Circuits Solving Parallel Circuits

The magnitude of the branch currents The magnitude the branch currents depends on the reactance in the depends the reactance in the respective branches, and can be found respective branches, and can be found from the Ohm's law equations: from the Ohm's law equations: The impedance of a parallel LC The impedance parallel circuit can be calculated directly from circuit can be calculated directly from the inductive and capacitive the inductive and capacitive reactance values using the equations: reactance values using the equations: The impedance can also be calculated The impedance can also be calculated using the Ohm's law equation: using the Ohm's law equation:

IC

The vector diagram is drawn starting with a horizontal line representing the voltage vector E, which is the common quantity.

E
Currents IC and IL are 180 out-of-phase and the line current is equal to their vector sum.

ET = EC = EL
The voltage across the inductor is the same as, The voltage across the inductor is the same as, and therefore in-phase with, the voltage across and therefore in-phase with, the voltage across the capacitor. the capacitor.

IT = IL - IC

IC IT If the capacitive branch current is the If the capacitive branch current is the larger, the line current is capacitive, larger, the line current is capacitive, and leads the applied voltage by 90. and leads the applied voltage by 90.

IL

The inductor current (IL) lags the voltage by 90 and is drawn lagging the voltage vector by 90 .

IL

## Parallel RLC Circuits Parallel RLC Circuits

A parallel RLC circuit contains elements of resistance, parallel RLC circuit contains elements resistance, inductance and capacitance connected in parallel with inductance and capacitance connected in parallel with an AC source. AC source.

## Parallel RLC Circuits Parallel RLC Circuits

The currents in a parallel RLC circuit are all The currents in parallel RLC circuit are all out-of-phase with each other. out-of-phase with each other. -of

Parallel RLC Circuit Current Vector Diagram Parallel RLC Circuit Current Vector Diagram
IC

Parallel RLC Circuit Current Vector Diagram Parallel RLC Circuit Current Vector Diagram
IX = IL IC (if IL is larger than IC) (if is larger than
IC

IR

ET
ET ER EL EC

C
IC

IR

ER IL

EL
The inductive The inductive current (IL) lags the lags the voltage (EL) by voltage 90 90

EC

To combine the combine the currents, the two currents, the two reactive current reactive current values, which are values, which are 180 out-of-phase 180 out-of-phase with each other, are with each other, are subtracted. subtracted.

!
IT

E
Voltage reference Voltage reference line line

IR

!
IX (IL- IC) (I IT

In a parallel RLC circuit, the voltages across each In parallel RLC circuit, the voltages across each component are all equal and in-phase with one another: component are all equal and in-phase with one another: n ET = ER = EL = EC

The resistive The resistive current (IR) is is in phase with in phase with the voltage the voltage (ER)

The capacitive The capacitive current (IC) leads the leads the voltage (EC) voltage 90 by 90

IL

The total line current (IT) The total line current (I is the vector sum of the the vector sum f the current flow through the flow through the resistor (IR) and the resistor and the difference in current between IL and IC (IX). between and

When IL is greater is greater than IC the than the complete circuit complete circuit behaves as a behaves resistor and resistor and inductor in parallel inductor in parallel with the total line with the total line current lagging the current lagging the applied voltage by applied voltage by the phase angle the phase angle theta (!). theta (!).

IL

11

Parallel RLC Circuit Current Vector Diagram Parallel RLC Circuit Current Vector Diagram
IX = IC IL (if IC is larger than IL) (if is larger than
IC When IC is greater is greater than IL the complete the complete than circuit behaves circuit behaves as a resistor and resistor and capacitor in parallel capacitor in parallel with the total line with the total line current leading the current leading the applied voltage by applied voltage by the phase angle the phase angle theta (!). theta (!).

## Parallel RLC Circuit Impedance Parallel RLC Circuit Impedance

The impedance, Z, of a parallel RLC circuit can be The impedance, parallel RLC circuit can be found using either Ohm's Law or the product/sum found using either Ohm's the product/sum method for a parallel circuit. method r parallel circuit.
You must first must first find the net find the reactance "X" reactance "X" The product/sum The product/sum method however method however is more complex. complex.

## Parallel RLC Circuit Phase Angle

IC When IL is greater than IC, the total current in a parallel RLC circuit has a negative phase angle, which indicates the circuit has the characteristics of a parallel RL circuit. IL IC When IC is greater than IL, the phase angle will be positive indicating the circuit has the characteristics of a parallel RC circuit. IL IT ! IR E IR ! IT E

## Parallel RLC Circuit Power Parallel RLC Circuit Power

The true power (watts) any AC circuit is consumed The true power (watts) of any AC circuit is consumed only by the resistive component. Formulas used find only by the resistive component. Formulas used to find true power in parallel RLC circuit are similar that r true power in a parallel RLC circuit are similar to that previously used previously used for the series RLC circuit. the series RLC circuit. W = IR2x R

IX (IC- IL) (I

IT

!
IR

IL

Then, using "X" Then, using "X" you can find the you can find the impedance (Z) impedance (Z) the same way the same way you would in a you would in parallel RL or RC parallel RL or RC circuit circuit

## Parallel RLC Circuit Power Parallel RLC Circuit Power

The reactive component (VARs) in a parallel RLC The reactive component (VARs) in parallel RLC VA circuit will be produced by the circuit's inductive and circuit will be produced by the circuit's inductive and capacitive reactances. Since these two reactances are capacitive reactances. Since these two reactances are out-of-phase, the net volt-amps reactive 180 out-of-phase, the net or total volt-amps reactive (VARs) is equal the difference between the two. V if (VARs) is equal to the difference between the two.
When the inductive VARs are greater than the When the inductive VARs are greater than the capacitive VARs it indicates the net circuit effect is capacitive VARs it indicates the net circuit effect is inductive and the VARs can be found as follows: inductive and the VARs can be found follows:

## Parallel RLC Circuit Power Parallel RLC Circuit Power

The volt-amps (VA) or apparent power of the circuit The volt-amps (VA) r apparent power the circuit VA remains equal to the product of the applied voltage remains equal the product the applied voltage and circuit current flow. and circuit current flow. VA VA = ET x IT

Parallel RLC Circuit Power Factor (PF) Parallel RLC Circuit Power Factor (PF)
The circuit's power factor (PF) is always equal to the The circuit's power factor (PF) is always equal the r cosine the angle theta (!) that separates the circuit's cosine of the angle theta (!) that separates the circuit's applied voltage and applied voltage and total line current. line current. PF Cos (!) PF = Cos (!)

## Parallel RLC Circuit Power Factor (PF)

A leading power factor means the current leads the applied voltage and is always the case in a parallel RLC circuit when IC is greater than IL (or XC is less than XL).

VARs (Inductive VARs) (Capacitive VARs) VARs = (Inductive VARs) (Capacitive VARs) VARs VARs = (IL XL)
2

(IC2

XC )

## VARs VARs = (EL x IL) (EC x IC)

A lagging power factor means the current lags the applied voltage and is always the case in a parallel RLC circuit when IL is greater than IC (or XL is less than XC).

Parallel Resonant Circuits Parallel Resonant Circuits Any circuit in which the inductive reactance Any circuit in which the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance (XL = XC) is equals the capacitive reactance is known resonant circuit. known as a resonant circuit.
Recall that in a series Recall that in series RLC circuit the current the is at its maximum value is its maximum value when resonance is when resonance is reached; the effects of reached; the effects of XL and XC are cancelled and are cancelled out and the total applied out and the total applied voltage is applied across voltage is applied across the resistance of the the resistance of the circuit. This results in circuit. This results in the current and applied the current and applied voltage being in-phase. voltage being in-phase. XL

Parallel Resonant Circuits Parallel Resonant Circuits Parallel resonant circuits have some different Parallel resonant circuits have some different characteristics than series resonant circuits. characteristics than series resonant circuits.
The inductor current equals the capacitor current.

Parallel Resonant Circuits Parallel Resonant Circuits The The total line current and the resistive current line current and the resistive current are the same value. This means the source are the same value. This means the source current and voltage are in-phase, angle theta current and voltage are in-phase, angle theta (!) is zero, and the power factor (cos !) is 1. ( ) is zero, and the power factor (cos ) is r
IC Thus the Thus the RLC parallel RLC parallel resonant resonant circuit is circuit is purely resistive in resistive nature. nature.

Parallel Resonant Tank Circuit Parallel Resonant Ta k Circuit an The term tank circuit refers to the fact that the The term tank circuit refers the fact that the circuit stores energy in the magnetic field of the circuit stores energy in the magnetic field the coil and in the electrostatic field of the capacitor. coil and in the electrostatic field the capacitor. r
The stored energy is The stored energy transferred back and transferred back and forth between the forth between the capacitor and the coil capacitor and the coil on alternate halfon alternate halfcycles as the current cycles the current goes first in one one goes direction and then in direction and then in the other when the the other when the inductor de-energizes inductor de-energizes and the capacitor and the capacitor charges, and vice charges, and vice versa. versa.

IT
ER=ET Z=R Zmin

Equals

IR

IL

Equals

IC

Imax max

XC=XL IC=IL

IR=IT !=zero PF = 1

Tank Circuit

XL=XC
IL

XC

## Parallel Resonant Circuits Parallel Resonant Circuits

For any given values inductance and capacitance, the For any given values of inductance and capacitance, the r frequency which parallel resonance takes place is frequency at which parallel resonance takes place is identical the frequency which series resonance would identical to the frequency at which series resonance would take place r the same values take place for the same values of L and C. and C.

## Circuit Factor Common Element

RLC Series Circuit Current Circuit considered inductive and IT will lag ET Circuit considered capacitive and IT will lead line ET XL will increase XC will decrease XL will decrease XC will increase Voltage drop on individual components can be greater than the applied source voltage Z is minimum IT is maximum

RLC Parallel Circuit Voltage Circuit considered capacitive and IT will lead line ET Circuit considered inductive and IT will lag ET XL will increase XC will decrease XL will decrease XC will increase Current through any single branch can be greater than the line current Z is maximum IT is minimum

## Power Factor Correction Power Factor Correction or

Power factor correction is the process changing the Power factor correction is the process of changing the r power factor of a circuit or system to approach 1, or power factor o circuit r system approach r below 1, but above the existing power factor. below but above the existing power factor.
Existing PF = 0.60 Existing Corrected PF = 0.90 Corrected 0.90

## Apparent Power Apparent Power

Apparent power (VA) is equal to or greater than the true Apparent power (VA) is equal VA) g greater than the true power (watts) depending power (watts) depending on the power factor (PF). the power factor (PF). r Therefore, when sizing circuits or equipment, it is Therefore, when sizing circuits equipment, it is important that you size the circuit equipment important that size the circuit equipment according to the apparent power (volt-amperes) and according the apparent power (volt-amperes) and not the true power (watts). not the true power (watts). t
Apparent Power (VA) Volts Ampere (single phase) Apparent Power (VA) = Volts x Ampere (single phase) VA Apparent Power (VA) = Volts x Ampere x 1.73 (three phase) Apparent Power (VA) Volts Ampere VA (three phase)

XL > XC XC > XL
Frequency Increases

There will be only one There will be only one resonant frequency at resonant frequency which the inductive which the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance and capacitive reactance will become reactance will become equal. equal.

## VA VARs VARs VARs VARs VA

Frequency Decreases

!
Watts Watts Watts remain Watts remain the same the same

!
Watts Watts

## Impedance at Resonance Line Current at Resonance

Power factor gets smaller as reactive power (VARs) increases in comparison to usable true power (Watts).

12

## True Power True Power

True power (watt is the energy consumed by the True power (watts) is the energy consumed by the (watts) at resistive part AC circuit. The true power resistive part of an AC circuit. The true power of a circuit that contains inductive and/or capacitive circuit that contains inductive and/or capacitive reactance in addition resistance is measured with reactance in addition to resistance is measured with a wattmeter and can be calculated by use one the wattmeter and can be calculated by use of one of the following formulas: following formulas:
True Power (W) = Volts x Ampere x Power Factor (single-phase) True Power Vol ts Ampere Power Factor (single-phase) True Power = Volts x Ampere x Power Factor x 1.73 (three-phase) True Power Vo ts Ampere Power Factor ol (three-phase)

## Reactive Power Reactive Power

Reactive power (VARs) is power supplied to a reactive Reactive power (VARs) is power supplied VARs s reactive load. Almost all AC circuits include reactive power in load. Almost all AC circuits include reactive power in r the form of inductive reactance and/or capacitive the form inductive reactance and/or capacitive reactance. Inductive reactance is by far the most reactance. Inductive reactance is by r the most common, since all motors, transformers, solenoids, and common, since all motors, transformers, solenoids, and coils have inductive reactance. coils have inductive reactance.
Reactive Power (VARs) = Volts x Ampere x Sin ! (single-phase) Reactive Power (VARs) Volts Ampere Sin (single-phase) (VA Reactive Power = Volts x Ampere x Sin ! x 1.73 (three-phase) Reactive Power Volts Ampere Sin (three-phase)

## Power Factor Power Factor

Power factor (PF) is the ratio true power (watts) Power factor (PF) is the ratio of true power (watts) to to P PF) apparent power (VA) and expressed as a percentage percentage apparent power (VA) and expressed VA When the power factor is less r does not exceed 100%. When the power factor is less does not exceed than 100% , the circuit is less efficient and has a higher the circuit is less efficient and has higher than operating cost because not all current is performing operating cost because not all current is performing useful work. useful work.
The formulas for The formulas determining current are: determining current are:

## Power Factor Correction

Any time the power factor drops to less than 85%, the circuit or system is considered to have a poor power factor. The benefits of power factor correction include:
Freeing up of electrical system capacity which can be used for additional loads. Increased components lifetime due to reduced heating. Lower utility bills through reduced losses. Elimination of power factor penalties imposed by the utility. Minimization of current-induced voltage sags.

## Power Factor Correction

A poor power factor can be the result of either a significant phase difference between the voltage and current at the load terminals, or it can be due to a high harmonic content or distorted/discontinuous current waveform.
E

## DPF And PF DPF And PF

The two power factor measurements are total power The two power factor measurements are total power r lp factor (PF) and displacement power factor (DPF). factor (PF) and displacement power fa tor (DPF). o PF) i pl fac r F
E The displacement power factor The displacement power factor (DPF) equals the cosine of the phase (DPF) equals the cosine the phase angle between the applied voltage angle between the applied voltage wave and current. wave and current. DPF = COS ! DPF COS I

## DPF And PF DPF And PF

The total power factor is the ratio of the true RMS real The power factor is the ratio the true RMS real power to the true RMS apparent power (kW/kVA). power the true RMS apparent power (kW/kVA). kW/
Fundamental Frequency Fundamental Frequency Total PF takes into account Total PF takes into account ota the power factor of the the power factor the fundamental line frequency fundamental line frequency (60 Hz) as well as the power Hz) well the power factor of any harmonic factor any harmonic or frequencies that may be on the frequencies that be the power line. power line. Harmonic Frequencies Since DPF is the power factor of the fundamental frequency (60 Since DPF is the power factor o the fundamental frequency Hz) only, both DPF and PF give exactly the same power factor if Hz) only, both DPF and PF give exactly the same power factor if no harmonics are present. no harmonics are present.

## Combination RLC Circuits

AC combination or complex circuits, like their DC counterparts, are made up of both parallel and series parts.
The values and phase relationships of the voltages and currents for each particular part depend on whether the part is series or parallel.

## Phase Difference Between Voltage And Current

I DPF represents the DPF represents the power factor of the power factor o the fundamental (60 Hz) line fundamental Hz) line frequency. frequency.

## Combination RLC Circuits Combination RLC Circuits

The step-by-step solution is similar to the method The step-by-step solution is similar the method r used to solve DC combination circuits. The parts of used solve DC combination circuits. The parts the circuit are first considered separately, and then the circuit are first considered separately, and then the results are combined. the results are combined.
No matter how complicated, a No matter how complicated, combination RLC circuit may be combination RLC circuit be reduced to a single impedance reduced single impedance with a single source of voltage. with single source voltage.

Transformer Operation
A transformer is a static device (no moving parts) used to transfer energy from one AC circuit to another.

Transformer Operation
A basic transformer consists of two coils wound around an iron core and linked together by magnetic flux.
Laminated steel core Primary coil Secondary coil

Mutual Induction
The principle of operation of a transformer is based on mutual induction.
Magnetic Field Mutual induction occurs when the magnetic field surrounding one conductor cuts across another conductor, inducing a voltage in it.

This transfer of energy may involve an increase or decrease in voltage, but the frequency will be the same in both circuits.

## AC Source Mutual Flux path Load

Transformer Cores
Eddy currents are caused by the alternating current that induces a voltage in the core of the transformer itself. Because the iron core is a conductor, it produces a current by the induced voltage.
Induced core voltage Eddy currents are reduced by using laminations coated with an insulating material on the flat surfaces of the lamination.

## Transformer Turns Ratio Transformer Turns Ratio u

The transformer's turns or transformation is the ratio of The transformer's turns r transformation is the ratio a transformer's primary to secondary coil turns. This will transformer's primary secondary coil turns. This will r determine the factor by which a voltage is stepped-up or determine the factor by which voltage is stepped-up is stepped-down. is stepped-down.

A transformer automatically adjusts its input current transformer automatically adjusts its input current a to meet the requirements of its output or load current. meet the requirements its output load current.
When no current is being used from the secondary When no current is being used from the secondary winding, no current flows in the primary except winding, no current flows in the primary except excitation current. excitation current. Primary acts as Primary acts an inductor inductor

When transformer is first switched on, transient When a transformer is first switched on, a transient inrush current flows. inrush current flows.
The value of this inrush current The value this inrush current can be as high as 15 times that of can be high times that the rated current depending on the the rated current depending the magnetic state of the core and magnetic state the core and where on the voltage waveform the where the voltage waveform the transformer is switched on. This transformer is switched on. This current decays exponentially over current decays exponentially over several cycles until normal several cycles until normal magnetizing current flows. magnetizing current flows.

Example: If a transformer has 250 turns in its primary Example: If transformer has 250 turns in its primary winding and 750 turns in its secondary winding, then its winding and 750 turns in its secondary winding, then its turns ratio is equal to 1:3. Which indicates there is one turns ratio is equal to 1:3. Which indicates there is one turn in the primary for every three turns in the secondary. turn in the primary for every three turns in the secondary. Example: If the AC primary voltage is 100 V and the turns Example: If the AC primary voltage is 100 and the turns ratio is 1:3 the secondary voltage will be three times that ratio is 1:3 the secondary voltage will be three times that of the primary, or 300 V, because the magnetic flux cuts of the primary, or 300 V, because the magnetic flux cuts more turns in the secondary and therefore induces a more turns in the secondary and therefore induces higher voltage. higher voltage.

## IP = magnetizing magnetizing current

Eddy currents

The eddy currents that do exist are very small and represent wasted power dissipated as heat in the core.

IS = Zero

13

When a load is connected across the secondary of a transformer:
The induced secondary coil voltage causes a load current to flow through the load and through the secondary coil.

## Transformer Current Ratio Transformer Current Ratio

The current in the primary and secondary windings is in The current in the primary and secondary windings is in inverse proportion to the voltage and turns ratio. That inverse proportion the voltage and turns ratio. That means that the winding with the higher value in the means that the winding with the higher value in the voltage ratio will have the lower current. voltage ratio will have the lower current.

## Transformer Power Transformer Power

For many transformer calculations, zero losses are For many transformer calculations, zero losses are assumed. assumed.

Transformer Taps
Transformers are supplied with winding taps to adjust the transformer voltage to the correct input or output voltage or to permit selecting various voltages for different applications. ES IS
Secondary B A Load Tap Changer C If the tap changer is switch to position "C" the net effect will be for the secondary voltage to increase. Primary If the tap changer is switch to position "A" the net effect will be for the secondary voltage to decrease.

IP
Source Source Primary Low Voltage Few Turns High Current Secondary High Voltage Many Turns Low Current Load Load

EP

Taps

The load current flowing through the secondary coil sets up a magnetic flux in the core that opposes the flux produced by the magnetizing current in the primary coil (Lenz's law).

## Two Winding Transformer

A two winding transformer has the primary and secondary winding electrically insulated from each other.

Isolation Transformers
Special isolation transformers are commonly used to provide voltage correction through primary taps, to establish an isolated ground on the secondary side, and to magnetically isolate the incoming power lines from loads connected to the secondary side.
Specially designed isolation transformers keep line noise from contaminating data and causing computers and other electronics instruments to malfunction. They are particularly good at limiting line noise and spikes, eliminating the need for dedicated AC lines.

Autotransformers Autotransformers
Unlike two winding transformers, autotransformers Unlike two winding transformers, autotransformers have their primary and secondary windings connected have their primary and secondary windings connected to each other electrically. each other electrically.
L1 L2

Autotransformers
The main disadvantages to the use of autotransformers are that the primary and secondary windings are connected together and their voltage ratios are low. With the two windings connected together, the lowvoltage winding is subject to high voltage in case of breakdown. This is an important safety consideration when deciding to use an autotransfomer in a given application.
Output L1

Primary

Autotransformers Autotransformers offer the benefits of offer the benefits smaller size, lower smaller size, lower weight, and lower weight, and lower cost. cost.

Primary

All of the power transfer through the transformer is done by transformer action via the magnetic field.

Isolation Transformer

Secondary Secondary

Variable Autotransformer

L2

Output

Q 1-10

Transformer Efficiency
Transformers rank among the most efficient of electrical apparatus. In a standard power transformer the full-load efficiency is generally from 96% to 99%.
!!The core losses are approximately constant from no- load to full-load. !!The copper losses vary with the square of the current in the winding and the winding resistance. !!The no-load efficiency of a transformer is lower than its full-load efficiency. Therefore sizing power transformers to meet their expected loading greatly influences transformer efficiency. !!Oversized transformers can contribute to inefficiency, but when transformers are appropriately matched to their loads, efficiency increases.

## Transformer Voltage Regulation Transformer Voltage Regulation o

Voltage regulation is the measure how well power Voltage regulation is the measure of how well a power transformer can maintain constant secondary voltage transformer can maintain constant secondary voltage given a constant primary voltage and wide variance in given constant primary voltage and wide variance in load current. load current.
Voltage regulation in transformers is the difference Voltage regulation in transformers is the difference between the no-load voltage and the full-load voltage. between the no-load voltage and the full-load voltage.

## Transformer Power Rating Transformer Power Rating

The primary and secondary full-load currents usually The primary and secondary full-load currents usually are not given but can be calculated from the rated VA are not given but can be calculated from the rated VA l r kVA. or kVA.

## Transformer Impedance Transformer Impedance

The impedance rating is used for determining the The impedance rating is used r determining the interrupting capacity of a circuit breaker or fuse interrupting capacity circuit breaker r fuse employed to protect the primary of a transformer. The employed protect the primary transformer. The transformer short circuit secondary current available transformer short circuit secondary current available can be determined using the formula: can be determined using the formula:

Single-Phase Single-Phase

## Single-Phase Transformer Connections Single-Phase Transformer Connections

Transformers, like other electrical devices, may be Transformers, like other electrical devices, be connected into series or parallel arrangements. connected into series parallel arrangements.
For example, For example, distribution distribution transformers are transformers are normally wound normally wound with the secondary with the secondary or low-voltage or low-voltage windings that can windings that can connected be connected in series or parallel. series or parallel. 20 V) (120 V) Prima Primary (4,800 V) (4,800 Secondary Secondary Low-Voltage Low-Voltage Windings Windings (120 V) 20 V)

Transformer Polarity
Power transformer leads are generally brought out of the transformer's steel casing through insulating bushings. The standards developed state that the leads from the high-voltage coils are to be marked HI and H2, and the leads from the low-voltage coils are to be marked X1 and X2. High-Voltage

Transformer Polarity
By convention, Hl and Xl have the same polarity, which means that when H1 is instantaneously positive, X1 is also instantaneously positive.
H2 H1 (+) X2

In practice, the four terminals on a transformer are In practice, the four terminals transformer are mounted in a standard way so that the transformer has mounted in standard way so that the transformer has i t either additive or subtractive polarity. either additive subtractive polarity. .
H1 X2 H2 X1 Primary Primary Bushing Bushing H1 Primary rimary Bushing ushing H2

H1 X1

H2 X2

X1 (+)

The availability of primary voltages and the The availability of primary voltages and the requirements of the load dictate how the transformer requirements of the load dictate how the transformer will be wired. will wired.

Instantaneous polarity depends on direction in which the two windings are wound.

A transformer is transformer is said to have said to have additive when additive when terminal H1 is terminal H1 is diagonally diagonally opposite opposite terminal X1 terminal X1

## Secondary Secondary Bushing Bushing X1

Distribution Transformer 50 kVA

14

## Subtractive Transformer Polarity Subtractive Transformer Polarity

A transformer has subtractive polarity when terminal H1 transformer has subtractive polarity when terminal H1 t is adjacent to terminal Xl. is adjacent terminal Xl.

## Transformer Polarity Test

If transformer leads are unmarked, a polarity test can be made to identify and mark the leads.
!! The top-left terminal is labeled H1 and the other H2. !! A jumper is connected between the Hl lead and the low-voltage lead adjacent to it.

## Transformer Polarity Test Transformer Polarity Test e

If the voltmeter reading is greater than the applied If the voltmeter reading is greater than the applied voltage, the transformer is additive and Xl will be the voltage, the transformer is additive and will be the g lead on the right. lead the right.
120 V H1 H2 120 V 132 V 12 V 132 V Equivalent Battery Circuit Equivalent Battery Circuit X1 120 V Vector Diagram Vector Diagram Resultant Resultant = 132 V 132 1 12 V 12 V

Boost-Buck Transformer
!! Boost-buck transformers have four windings to make them versatile. !!Their two primary and two secondary windings can be connected eight different ways to provide a multitude of voltage and kVA outputs. !!The manufacturer's literature for a boost-buck transformer can be referred to in order to determine the different combinations of voltages and kVA ratings available. !!They cannot be used to stabilize voltage, however, because the output voltage is a function of the input; i.e., if the input voltage varies, the output voltage will also vary by the same percentage.

H1

H2 H1 H2

X1

## X2 24 kV Potential Potential Transformer Transformer X2

!! A voltmeter is connected between H2 and the other low-voltage lead. !! A low voltage is then applied to the Hl and H2 leads. H1 H2 120 V Vm 12 V

X2

X1

Q 11-20

## Three-Phase Transformer Systems Three-Phase Transformer Systems

Single-phase (1!) transformers can be electrically Single-phase (1!) transformers can be electrically connected to form three-phase (3!) transformer ) connected form three-phase (3!) transformer banks. However, the norm is combine the individual banks. However, the norm is to combine the individual phase coils into one overall three-phase transformer phase coils into one overall three-phase transformer unit unit on a common core. common core.

## Three-Phase Transformer Systems Three-Phase Transformer Systems

The main advantage to using a bank of single-phase The main advantage using bank single-phase transformer units occurs in the case of a fault. With a transformer units occurs in the case fault. With single three-phase transformer, if one of the phase single three-phase transformer, if one the phase windings becomes defective the entire three-phase unit windings becomes defective the entire three-phase unit must be taken out service. must be taken out of service.

## 3-Phase Wye (Star) Configuration 3-Phase Wye (Star) Configuration

A 3-phase wye system is a connection in which one end 3p 3-phase wye system is connection in which one end each the windings polyphase transformer is of each of the windings of a polyphase transformer is connected common point (the neutral point) and the connected to a common point (the neutral point) and the other end is connected to its appropriate line terminal. other end is connected its appropriate line terminal.

## 3-Phase Wye (Star) Configuration 3-Phase Wye (Star) Configuration

The polarity markings are fixed on any transformer. In The polarity markings are fixed any transformer. In the wye connection of the high-voltage transformer coils, the wye connection the high-voltage transformer coils, the coil ends with the polarity H2 are connected together. the coil ends with the polarity H2 are connected together. The H2 terminals are then connected to the neutral (N). The H2 terminals are then connected the neutral (N). A line wire (A, B, and C) is then connected to each of the line wire (A, and C) is then connected each the remaining Hl coil ends. remaining Hl coil ends.

Phase "A"

Phase "B"

## Three-Phase Three-Phase Transformer Transformer

If a single-phase transformer in a three-phase bank If single-phase transformer in three-phase bank becomes defective it can usually be disconnected and becomes defective it can usually be disconnected and partial service restored until a replacement is obtained. partial service restored until replacement is obtained.

Phase "C"

High-Voltage Wye Connected Primary Windings High-Voltage Wye Connected Primary Windings

High-Voltage Wye Connected Primary Windings High-Voltage Wye Connected Primary Windings

## 3-Phase Wye (Star) Configuration 3-Phase Wye (Star) Configuration

The wye connection of the low voltage secondary coils is The wye connection the low voltage secondary coils is similar to the primary coil connections with all X2 leads similar the primary coil connections with all X2 leads r connected together to the neutral, and the X1 terminal connected together the neutral, and the X1 terminal ends connected to the line wires. ends connected the line wires.

## 3-Phase Delta (! Configuration 3-Phase Delta ( ) Configuration (!)

A 3 phase "delta" connection has the windings of a 3" 3-p 3-phase "delta connection has the windings a" transformer connected in series to develop a closed transformer connected in series develop closed circuit. circuit.
High-Voltage Delta Connected Primary Windings High-Voltage Delta Connected Primary Windings

## 3-Phase Delta (!) Configuration

Each primary winding end H2 is connected to the beginning Hl of another primary winding. At each point where windings are connected together one of the threephase lines is also connected. The primary winding of each transformer is connected directly across the line voltage.

## 3-Phase Delta (! Configuration 3-Phase Delta ( ) Configuration (!)

The delta connection of the low voltage secondary coils is The delta connection the low voltage secondary coils is l ar r similar to the primary coil connections with each similar the primary coil connections with each r winding end X2 connected to the beginning X1 of winding end X2 connected the beginning X1 another secondary winding. another secondary winding.

Wye Connected Primary And Secondary Windings Wye Connected Primary And Secondary Windings

Delta Connected Primary And Secondary Windings Delta Connected Primary And Secondary Windings

## 3-Phase Delta ( ) Configuration 3-Phase Delta (! Configuration (!)

Although the three secondary coils are connected to Although the three secondary coils are connected form a closed circuit, no current flows in the circuit at form closed circuit, no current flows in the circuit r no load because the vector sum of three equal voltages no load because the vector sum three equal voltages 120 out-of-phase with each other is always zero. out-of-phase with each other is always zero.

## 3 ! Open-Delta Transformer Connection Open-Delta Transformer Connection

An "open-delta" An "open-delta" T3 Defective Defective (all leads (all leads connection makes it connection makes it Disconnected) Disconnected) possible to maintain possible maintain operation if one operation if one single-phase single-phase transformer o e on transformer or one winding winding of a 3phase shell-type phase shell-type transformer in transformer in a delta-to-delta delta-to-delta system becomes system becomes defective. defective. 3 ! output reduced to 57.8% of original output reduced original

## Corner Grounded Delta Connection Corner Grounded Delta Connection

On some installations one corner the delta system is On some installations one corner of the delta system is deliberately grounded. deliberately grounded.
When delta banks When delta banks are not grounded, it are not grounded, it t is possible for one is possible r one phase to accidentally phase accidentally y become grounded become grounded without signaling a without signaling problem. Not until problem. Not until another phase another phase grounds out will the grounds out will the problem become problem become apparent. apparent.

3 ! Tee-Connected Transformer
The Tee-connected transformer is connected in a manner resembling the capital T. On the primary side each high-voltage terminal is wired to the appropriate phase of the supply.

A B C
Equipment grounding conductor

With no-load connected the secondary winding current With no-load connected the secondary winding current will be zero. will zero.

15

Instrument Transformers
Instrument transformers step down the voltage or current of a circuit to a low value that can be effectively and safely used for the operation of instruments.

## Testing Transformer Insulation Testing Transformer Insulation e

Both the resistance insulation to ground and as well as the resistance insulation to ground and well between coils should be tested. betw en coils should be tested. we
Resistance Insulation To Ground Test Resistance Insulation To Ground Test Megger

## Transformer Overcurrent Protection

Rules for sizing overcurrent protection for a transformer operating at 600 volts or less are covered in Section 450.3 (B) and Table 450.3(B) of the Code. Where only primary protection is provided, the general rule is that the fuse or circuit breaker shall not exceed 125% of the full-load primary current. The exceptions made to this rule based on the maximum primary current are summarized in the following chart:
Rated Primary Current Less than 2 A 600 V or less Primary protection only Maximum OCPD 300% or next smaller size 167% or next smaller size 125% or next larger size

## Transformer Overcurrent Protection

For transformers 600 volts and less, the overcurrent device protecting the primary of a transformer is permitted to be rated as large as 250% (or the next smaller size) of the primary full-load current, provided the transformer secondary winding is protected. The transformer secondary overcurrent device rating is not permitted to be greater than 125% (or the next larger size) of the secondary fullload current.

High High resistance resistan a indicates indicate resistance resistan a acceptable accepta

Case

When making the making the insulation to insulation to ground test, ground test, all windings all windings should should be grounded grounded except the the winding winding tested. being tested. Ground Ground

9 A or greater

## Distribution Systems Distribution Systems

The very existence of an AC power system is dependent The very existence AC power system is dependent upon the availability of transformers. Without them it upon the availability transformers. Without them it could not operate. could not operate. TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION
PO ER PLANT POWER PLAN OW NT
18 kV 360 kV

LINES LINES

LINES LINES

18 kV

4600 V

120 V 120 V

240 V

RESIDENTIAL CUSTOMER RESIDENTIAL CUSTOMER In its broadest sense distribution system refers to the In its broadest sense distribution system refers to the manner in which electrical energy is transmitted from the manner in which electrical energy is transmitted from the generators to the many points of use. generators to the many points of use.

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