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Power Transformer

INTRODUCTION Transformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers. With this tool in hands it has become possible to harness the energy resources at far off places from the load centers and connect the same through long extra high voltage transmission lines working on high efficiencies. At that, it may be said to be the simplest equipment with no motive parts. Nevertheless it has its own problems associated with insulation, dimensions and weights because of demands for ever rising voltages and capacities. In its simplest form a Transformer consists of a laminated iron core about which are wound two or more sets of windings. Voltage is applied to one set of windings, called the primary, which builds up a magnetic flux through the iron. This flux induces a counter electromotive force in the primary winding thereby limiting the current drawn from the supply. This is called the no load current and consists of two components- one in phase with the voltage which accounts for the iron losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis, and the other 90 behind the voltage which magnetizes the core. This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load is connected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces a demagnetizing effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more current from the supply so that

IP.NP = IS.NS
Where Ip and Np are the current and number of turns in the primary while IS and NS are the current and number of turns in the secondary respectively. The ratio of turns in the primary and secondary windings depends on the ratio of voltages on the Primary and secondary sides. The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high grade silicon or other sheet steel which are insulated from each other by varnish or through a coating of iron oxide. The core can be constructed in different ways relative to the windings.

CONSTRUCTION 1- Transformer Core Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings and forms a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary. Fig (1), Fig. (6) and Fig. (7) Shows the core type

Fig (1) core type


The core of shell type is shown Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.(5), in which The winding is surrounded by the iron Circuit Consisting of two or more paths through which the flux divides. This arrangement affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuit conditions. In actual construction there are Variations from This simple construction but these can be designed With such proportions as to give similar electrical characteristics.

Fig (2) shell type

Fig. (5) 3- phase Transformer Shell type

Fig. (6) 3- phase Transformer core type

Fig. (7) Cross section of a three-phase Distribution Transformer (Core Type)

Three-phase Transformers usually employ three-leg core. Where Transformers to be transported by rail are large capacity, five-leg core is used to curtail them to within the height limitation for transport. Even among thermal/nuclear power station Transformers, which are usually transported by ship and freed from restrictions on in-land transport, gigantic Transformers of the 1000 MVA class employ five-leg core to prevent leakage flux, minimize vibration, increase tank strength, and effectively use space inside the tank. Regarding single-phase Transformers, two-leg core is well known. Practically, however, three leg cores is used, four-leg core and five-leg core are used in large capacity Transformers. The sectional areas of the yoke and side leg are 50 % of that of the main leg; thus, the core height can be reduced to a large extent compared with the two leg core.

- Winding Various windings are used as shown below. According to the purpose of use, the optimum winding is selected so as to utilize their individual features. 1 - Helical Disk Winding (Interleaved disk winding) In Helical disk winding, electrically isolated turns are brought in contact with each other as shown in Fig. (10) Thus, this type of winding is also termed "interleaved disk winding." Since conductors 1 - 4 and conductors 9 - 12 assume a shape similar to a wound capacitor, it is known that these conductors have very large capacitance. This capacitance acts as series capacitance of the winding to highly improve the voltage distribution for surge. Unlike cylindrical windings, Helical disk winding requires no shield on the winding outermost side, resulting in smaller coil outside diameter and thus reducing Transformer dimension. Comparatively small in winding width and large in space between windings, the construction of this type of winding is appropriate for the winding, which faces to an inner winding of relatively high voltage. Thus, general EHV or UHV substation Transformers employ Helical disk winding to utilize its features mentioned above. 2 - Continuous Disk Winding This is the most general type applicable to windings of a wide range of voltage and current Fig. (11). this type is applied to windings ranging from BI L of 350kV to BI L of 1550kV. Rectangular wire is used where current is relatively small, while transposed cable Fig. (12) is applied to large current. When voltage is relatively low, a Transformer of 100MVA or more capacity handles a large current exceeding 1000A. In this case, the advantage of transposed cable may be fully utilized.

Fig. (10)

Fig. (11). Continuous Disk Winding

Fig. (12) Transposed conductor construction Diagram Further, since the number of turns is reduced, even conventional continuous disk construction is satisfactory in voltage distribution, thereby ensuring adequate dielectric characteristics. Also, whenever necessary, potential distribution is improved by inserting a shield between turns. 3 - Helical windings For windings of low voltage (20kV or below) and large current, a helical coil is used which consists of a large number of parallel conductors piled in the radial Direction and wound. Adequate transposition is necessary to equalize the share of current among these parallel conductors. Fig (12) illustrates the transposing procedure for double helical coil. Each conductor is transposed at intervals of a fixed number of turns in the order shown in the figure, and as a result the location of each conductor opposed to the high voltage winding is equalized from the view point of magnetic field between the start and the end of winding turn.

Fig. (13) double helical coil


3 - Tank. The tank has two main parts: a The tank is manufactured by forming and welding steel plate to be used as a container for holding the core and coil assembly together with insulating oil. The base and the shroud, over which a cover is sometimes bolted. These parts are manufactured in steel plates assembled together via weld beads. The tank is provided internally with devices usually made of wood for fixing the magnetic circuit and the windings. In addition, the tank is designed to withstand a total vacuum during the treatment process. Sealing between the base and shroud is provided by weld beads. The other openings are sealed with oil-resistant synthetic rubber joints, whose compression is limited by steel stops. Finally the tank is designed to withstand the application of the internal overpressure specified, without permanent deformation.

Fig (14) Power Transformer 30 MVA 132 / 11 KV

b - Conservator The tank is equipped with an expansion reservoir (conservator) which allows for the expansion of the oil during operation. The conservator is designed to hold a total vacuum and may be equipped with a rubber membrane preventing direct contact between the oil and the air.

Fig. (15)

Fig. (16) 4 - Handling devices: Various parts of the tank are provided with the following arrangements for handling the Transformer. - Four locations (under the base) intended to accommodate bidirectional roller boxes for displacement on rails. - Four pull rings (on two sides of the base) - Four jacking pads (under the base) - Tank Earthing terminals: The tank is provided with Earthing terminals for Earthing the various metal parts of the Transformer at one point. The magnetic circuit is earthed via a special external terminal.

5 - Valves: The Transformers are provided with sealed valves, sealing joints, locking devices and position indicators. The Transformers usually include: - Two isolating valves for the "Buchholz" relay. - One drainage and filtering valve located below the tank. - One isolating valve per radiator or per cooler. - One conservator drainage and filtering valve. And when there is an on-load adjuster: - Two isolating valves for the protection relay. - One refilling valve for the on-load tap-changer. - One drain plug for the tap-changer compartment. 6 - Connection Systems Mostly Transformers have top-mounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN or IEC in their standard version. Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct Connection of bare or insulated wires, three basic insulated termination systems is available. Fully enclosed terminal box for cables Fig. (17&18) Available for either HV or LV side, or for both. Horizontally split design in degree of protection IP 44 or IP 54. (Totally enclosed and fully protected against contact's With live parts, plus protection against drip, splash, or spray water.) Cable installation through split cable glands and removable plates facing diagonally downwards. Optional conduit hubs suitable for single-core or three-phase cables with solid dielectric insulation, with or without stress cones. Multiple cables per phase are terminated on auxiliary bus structures attached to the bushings removal of Transformer by simply bending back the cables.

Fig. (17)

Fig. (18) HV Side 300 KV

Fig. (19) LV Side (11KV) connection terminal 3-cable for each phase 7 - The dehydrating breather The dehydrating breather is provided at the entrance of the conservator of oil immersed equipment such as Transformers and reactors. The conservator governs the breathing action of the oil system on forming to the temperature change of the equipment, and the dehydrating breather removes the moisture and dust in the air inhaled and prevents the deterioration of the Transformer oil due to moisture absorption. Construction and Operation See Fig. (20) The dehydrating breather uses silica - gel as the desiccating Agent and is provided with an oil pot at the bottom to filtrate the inhaled air. The specifications of the dehydrating breather are shown in Table (1) and the operation of the component parts in Table (2).

1. Case 2. Peep window 3. Flange 4. Oil pot 5. Oil pot holder 6. Breathing pipe 7.Filter 8. silica-gel 9.Absorbent 10. Oil (Transformer oil) 11. Wing nut 12.Cover 13. Suppression screw 14. Set screw 15. Oil level line (Red

Fig. (20) Dehydrating breather

Table - 1
Type Weight of desiccating agent 4.5 kg Desiccating agent

FP4.5A

Material --- Silica-gel (Main component SiO2) Shape, Size --- spherical, approx. 4 5 Mixed ratio --- white silica-gel 75% blue silica-gel 25%

Table - 2
Item Silica-gel Blue silica-gel Action Removes moisture in the air inhaled by the Transformer Or reactor. In addition to the removal of moisture, indicates the Extent of moisture absorption by discoloration. (Dry condition) (Wet condition ) Blue ------ Light purple ----- Light pink Removes moisture and dust in the air inhaled by: the Transformer or reactor. In addition, while it is not performing breathing action, it seals the desiccating agent from the outer air to prevent

Oil pot

Oil and filter

unnecessary moisture Absorption of the desiccating agent. absorbent Absorbs dust and deteriorated matter in the oil pot, to Maintain the oil pot in a good operating condition.

Bushing
Having manufactured various types of bushings ranging from 6kV-class to 800kV-class, Toshiba has accumulated many years of splendid actual results in their operation. Plain-type Bushing Applicable to 24 kV-classes or below, this type of bushing is available in a standard series up to 25,000A rated current. Consisting of a single porcelain tube through which passes a central conductor, this bushing is of simplified construction and small mounting dimensions; especially, this type proves to be advantageous when used as an opening of equipment to be placed in a bus duct Fig. (21).

Fig. (21) 24 KV Bushing Oil-impregnated, Paper-insulated Condenser Bushing

Fig. (22) 800 KV bushing The oil-impregnated, paper insulated condenser bushing, mainly consisting of a condenser cone of oil-impregnated insulating paper, is used

For high-voltage application (Fig. 22&23). This bushing, of enclosed construction, offers the Following features: High reliability and easy maintenance. Partial discharge free at test voltage. Provided with test tapping for measuring electrostatic capacity and tan . Provided with voltage tapping for connecting an instrument Transformer if required.

Fig. (23) Bushing type GOEK 1425 for direct connection of 420 KV Power Transformer to gas insulated Switchgear or high voltage cable

Fig. (24) Cut away view of Transformer bushing type GOE Construction of Cable Connection and GIS Connection Cable Connection

In urban-district substations connected with power cables and thermal power stations suffered from salt-pollution, cable direct-coupled construction is used in which a Transformer is directcoupled with the power cable in an oil chamber. Indirect connection system in which, with a cable connecting chamber attached to the Transformer tank, a coil terminal is connected to the cable head through an oil-oil bushing in the cable connection chamber. Construction of the connection chamber can be divided into sections. Cable connections and oil filling can be separately performed upon completion of the tank assembling.

Fig. (26) Indirect Cable Connection

GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) Connection There is an increasing demand for GIS in substations from the standpoint of site-acquisition difficulties and environmental harmony. In keeping with this tendency, GIS connection-type Transformers are ever-increasing in their applications. The SF6 gas bus is connected directly with the Transformer coil terminal through an oil-gas bushing. Oil-gas bushing support is composed of a Transformer-side flange and an SF6 gas bus-side flange, permitting the oil side and the gas side to be completely separated from each other.

Fig. (27) Direct GIS Connection

Buchholz Relays
The following protective devices are used so that, upon a fault development inside a Transformer, an alarm is set off or the Transformer is disconnected from the circuit. In the event of a fault, oil or insulations decomposes by heat, producing gas or developing an impulse oil flow. To detect these phenomena, a Buchholz relay is installed. Buchholz Relay The Buchholz relay is installed at the middle of the connection pipe between the Transformer tank and the conservator. There are a 1st stage contact and a 2nd stage contact as shown in Fig. (28). the 1st stage contact is used to detect minor faults. When gas produced in the tank due to a minor fault surfaces to accumulate in the relay chamber within a

certain amount (0.3Q-0.35Q) or above, the float lowers and closes the contact, thereby actuating the alarm device.

Fig. (28). Buchholz Relay

The 2nd stage contact is used to detect major faults. In the event of a major fault, abrupt gas production causes pressure in the tank to flow oil into the conservator. In this case, the float is lowered to close the contact, thereby causing the Circuit Breaker to trip or actuating the alarm device.

Temperature Measuring Device


Liquid Temperature Indicator (like BM SERIES Type) is used to measure oil temperature as a standard practice. With its temperature detector installed on the tank cover and with its indicating part installed at any position easy to observe on the front of the Transformer, the dial temperature detector is used to measure maximum oil temperature. The indicating part, provided with an alarm contact and a maximum temperature pointer, is of airtight construction with moisture absorbent contained therein; thus, there is no possibility of the glass interior collecting moisture whereby it would be difficult to observe the indicator Fig. (30&31). Further, during remote measurement and recording of the oil temperatures, on request a search coil can be installed which is fine copper wire wound on a bobbin used to measure temperature through changes in its resistance. Winding Temperature Indicator Relay (BM SERIES) The winding temperature indicator relay is a conventional oil temperature indicator supplemented with an electrical heating element. The relay measures the temperature of the hottest part of the Transformer winding. If specified, the relay can be fitted with a precision potentiometer with the same characteristics as the search coil for remote indication.

Fig. (29) Construction of Winding Temperature Indicator Relay

Fig (30) Oil Temperature Indicator

Fig. (31) Winding Temperature Indicator The temperature sensing system is filled with a liquid, which changes in volume with varying temperature. The sensing bulb placed in a thermometer well in the Transformer tank cover senses the maximum oil temperature. The heating elements with a matching resistance is fed with current from the Transformer associated with the loaded winding of the Transformer and compensate the indicator so that a temperature increase of the heating element is thereby proportional to a temperature increase of the winding-over-the maximum- oil temperature. Therefore, the measuring bellows react to both the temperature increase of the winding-over-themaximum-oil temperature and maximum oil temperature. In this way the instrument indicates the temperature in the hottest part of the Transformer winding. The matching resistance of the heating element is preset at the factory.

Pressure Relief Device


When the gauge pressure in the tank reaches abnormally To 0.35-0.7 kg/cm.sq. The pressure relief device starts automatically to discharge the oil. When the pressure in the tank has dropped beyond the limit through discharging, the device is automatically reset to prevent more oil than required from being discharged.

Fig. (32) Pressure Relief Device

Cooling System
METHODS OF COOLING The kinds of cooling medium and their symbols adopted by I.S. 2026 (Part 11)-1977 are: (a) Mineral oil or equivalent flammable insulating liquid O (b) Non flammable synthetic insulating liquid L (c) Gas G (d) Water W (e) Air A The kids of circulation for the cooling medium and their symbols are: (a) Natural N (b) Forced (Oil not directed) F (c) Forced (Oil directed) D Each cooling method of Transformer is identified by four symbols. The first letter represents the kind of cooling medium in contact with winding, the second letter represents the kind of circulation for the cooling medium, the third letter represents the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling system and fourth symbol represents the kind of circulation for the external medium. Thus oil immersed Transformer with natural oil circulation and forced air external cooling is designated ONAF. For oil immersed Transformers the cooling systems normally adopted are: 1- Oil Immersed Natural cooled Type ONAN. Fig. (33 & 34) In this case the core and winding assembly is immersed in oil. Cooling is obtained by the circulation of oil under natural thermal head only. In large Transformers the surface area of the tank alone is not adequate for dissipation of the heat produced by the losses. Additional surface is obtained with the provision of radiators. 2. Oil Immersed Air Blast - Type ONAF Fig. (35 & 36) In this case circulation of air is obtained by fans. It becomes possible to reduce the size of the Transformer for the same rating and consequently save in cost.

Fig. (33) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN

Fig. (34) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN

Fig. (35) Oil Immersed Air Blast - Type ONAF

Fig. (36) Oil Immersed Air Blast - Type ONAF 3. Oil Immersed Water Cooled - Type ONWN In this case internal cooling coil is employed through which the water is allowed to flow. Apparently this system of cooling assumes free supply of water. Except at hydropower stations this would off-set the saving in cost when special means have to be provided for adequate supply of water. The circulation of oil is only by convection currents. This type of cooling was employed in older designs but has been

almost abandoned in favor of the Type OFWF discussed later. 4. Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled - Type OFAF Fig. (37) In this system of cooling also circulation of oil is forced by a pump. In addition fans are added to radiators for forced blast of air. 5. Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled - Type OFAN Fig. (38) In this method of cooling, pump is employed in the oil circuit for better circulation of oil.

Fig. (37) Forced-oil, Forced-air-cooled - Type OFAF

Fig. (38) Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled - Type OFAN 6. Forced Oil Water Cooled - Type OFWF In this type of cooling a pump is added in the oil circuit for forced circulation of oil, through a separate heat exchanger in which water is allowed to flow. 7. Forced Directed Oil and Forced Air Cooling -ODAF. It should be remembered that Transformers cooling type OFAF and OFWF will not carry any load if air and water supply respectively is removed. It is quite common to select Transformers with two systems of Cooling e.g., ONAN/ONAF or ONAN/OFAF or sometimes

three systems e.g., ONAN/ONAF/ OFAF. These determine the type of cooling upto certain loading. As soon as the load exceeds a preset value, the fans/pumps are Switched on. The rating of a Transformer with ONAN/ONAF cooling may be written, say, as 45/60 MVA. This means that so long as the load is below 45 MVA, the fans will not be working. These are Switched on automatically when the load on the Transformer exceeds 45 MVA. Type of cooling has a bearing on the cost of the Transformer. It shall be appreciated that the ONAN cooling has the advantage of being the simplest with no. fans or pumps and hence no auxiliary motors. On smaller units say up to 10 MVA, saving in price in changing from ONAN cooling to other forms of cooling is negligible. On bigger units not only there is a saving in price but also the reduced weights and dimensions, with other systems of cooling of Transformers, render the transport easy and decrease the cost of Foundations etc. Site conditions sometimes influence the preferred cooling arrangement. For example the advantage of reduced price, dimensions and weight in case of type OFWF can be fully realised only where water supply is readily available. Where special arrangements have to be made for water supply and disposal of the water, the installation costs for OFWF Transformers may increase.

INSULATING OIL (SPECIFICATIONS AND DEHYDRATION AT SITE)


In Transformers, the insulating oil provides an insulation medium as well as a heat transferring medium that carries away heat produced in the windings and iron core. Since the electric strength and the life of a Transformer depend chiefly upon the quality of the insulating oil, it is very important to use a high quality insulating oil. The insulating oil used for Transformers should generally meet the following requirements: (a) Provide a high electric strength. (b) Permit good transfer of heat. (c) Have low specific gravity-In oil of low specific gravity particles which have become suspended in the oil will settle down on the bottom of the tank more readily and at a faster rate, a property aiding the oil in retaining its homogeneity. (d) Have a low viscosity- Oil with low viscosity, i.e., having greater fluidity, will cool Transformers at a much better rate. (e) Have low pour point- Oil with low pour point will cease to flow only at low temperatures. (f) Have a high flash point. The flash point characterizes its tendency to evaporate. The lower the flash point the greater the oil will tend to vaporize. When oil vaporizes, it loses in volume, its viscosity rises, and an explosive mixture may be formed with the air above the oil.

(g) Not attack insulating materials and structural materials. (h) Have chemical stability to ensure life long service. Various national and international specifications have been issued on insulating oils for Transformers to meet the above requirements. The specifications for insulating oil stipulated in Indian Standard 335: 1983 are given below.
characteristic Appearance Requirement The oil shall be clear and transparent and free from suspended matter or sediments. 0.89 g/cm3 0.04 N/m. 104 C - 9 C Non-corrosive.

2 3 4 5 6

8 9

10

11 12

Density at 29.5C, Max Interfacial tension at 270C, Min. Flash point Min. Pour Point Max. Corrosive Sulphur (in terms of classification of copper strip). Electric strength (breakdown voltage) Min. (a) New unfiltered oil (b) After filtration Dielectric dissipation factor (tan ) at 90 C Max. Specific resistance (resistivity): (a) At 9 0 C Min. (b) at 2 7 0 C Min. Oxidation stability. (a) Neutralization value, after oxidation Max. (b) Total sludge, after oxidation, Max. Presence of oxidation inhibitor Water content, Max.

30 kV (rms) 60 kV (rms).

0.002 35 X 1500 X / cm

/ cm 0.4 mg KOH/g 0.10 percent by weight

The oil shall not contain antioxidant additives. 15 ppm

Gases analysis
The analysis of gases dissolved in oil has proved to be a highly practical method for the field monitoring of power Transformers. This method is very sensitive and gives an early warning of incipient faults. It is indeed possible to determine from an oil sample of about one litre the presence of certain gases down to a quantity of a few mm3 , i.e., a gas volume corresponding to about 1 millionth of the volume of the liquid (ppm). The gases (with the exception of N2 and O2) dissolved in the oil are derived from the degradation of oil and cellulose molecules that takes place under the influence of thermal and electrical stresses. Different stress

modes, e.g., normal operating temperatures, hot spots with different high temperatures, partial discharges and flashovers, produce different compositions of the gases dissolved in the oil. The relative distribution of the gases is therefore used to evaluate the origin of the gas production and the rate at which the gases are formed to assess the intensity and propagation of the gassing. Both these kinds of information together provide the necessary basis for the evaluation of any fault and the necessary remedial action. This method of monitoring power Transformers has been studied intensively and work is going on in international and national organizations such as CIGRE, IEC and IEEE. APPLICATION. The frequency with which oil samples are taken depends primarily on the size of the Transformer and the impact of any Transformer failure on the network. Some typical cases where gas analysis is particularly desirable are listed in the following: 1 - When a defect is suspected (e.g., abnormal noise). 2 - When a Buchholz (gas-collecting) relay or pressure monitor gives a signal. 3 - Directly after and within a few weeks after a heavy short circuit 4 - In connection with the commissioning of Transformers that are of significant importance to the network, followed by a further test some months later. Different routines for sampling intervals have been developed by different utilities and in different countries. One sampling per year appears to be customary for large power Transformers (Rated >= 300 MVA >= 220 kV). The routine that has been used over a long period of time of checking the state of the oil every other year by measuring the breakdown strength, the tan value, the neutralization coefficient and other physical quantities is not replaced by the gas analysis. Extraction and analysis To be able to carry out a gas analysis, the gases dissolved in the oil must be extracted and accumulated. The oil sample to be degassed is sucked into a pre-evacuated degassing column. A low pressure is maintained by a vacuum pump. To assure effective degassing (> 99 per cent), the oil is allowed to run slowly over a series of rings which enlarge its surfaces. An oil pump provides the necessary circulation. The gas extracted by the vacuum pump is accumulated in a vessel. Any water that may have been present in the oil is removed by freezing in a cooling trap to ensure that the water will not disturb the vacuum pumping. The volumes of the gas and the oil sample are determined to permit calculation of the total gas content in the oil. The accumulated gas is injected by means of a syringe into the gas chromatograph, which analyses the gas sample. The result is plotted on a recorder in the form of a chromatogram. Using calibration gases it is possible to identify the different peaks on a chromatogram. Recalculation of the height of a peak to the content of this gas is done by comparison with chromatogram deflections from calibration gases. With the composition of the gas mixture and the total gas content in the oil sample known; the content (in ppm) of the individual gases in the oil is obtained. The following gases are analyzed: 1 - CARBON MONOXIDE CO 2 - CARBON DIOXIDE CO2 3 - HYDROGEN H2 4 - ETHANE C2H6 5 - ETHENE C2H4 6 - ACETYLENE C2H2

7 - METHANE 8 - PROPANE

CH4 C3H6

The detection limits depend partly on the total gas content; for hydrocarbons (except methane) the limit lies below 0,5 ppm, for hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide about 5 ppm and for carbon dioxide about 2 ppm. This high sensitivity is necessary in those cases where it is desired to determine a trend in the gas evolution at short sampling intervals, e.g., during a heat run test or when oil samples are taken at intervals of only a few days. Identification of faults. The fault types that can and should be identified are corona, electrical discharges, excessively hot metal surfaces and fast degradation of cellulose. It is possible to obtain an idea of the type of fault by using a diagnosis scheme. A number of different schemes of this type have been prepared. To avoid having to deal with the contents of the individual gases, one frequently uses quotients between different gases. Some schemes give an appearance of great precision, but certain care should be observed when making assessments, until all factors influencing the gassing rate are known. GAS ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER
Type Of Gas CARBON MONOXIDE, CO CARBON DIOXIDE, CO2 HYDROGEN, H2 ACETYLENE, C2H2 ETHANE, C2H6 ETHENE, C2H4 PROPANE, C3H6 HYDROGEN, H2 METHANE, CH4 Caused By AGEING ELECTRIC ARCS LOCAL OVERHEATING

CORONA

Gas concentration limits used in the Interpretation of DGA data A statistical survey concerning gas concentrations in Transformer Oil using the results of that survey the following limits have been set: Threshold Warning Fault Unit Limit Limit Limit H2 20 200 400 ppm CH4 10 50 100 ppm C2H6 10 50 100 ppm C2H4 20 200 400 ppm C2H2 1 3 10 ppm CO 300 1000 ppm CO2 5000 20000 ppm The limits above are for a Transformer which are open with a breather and have no OLTC or has a separate conservator for the OLTC. If the Transformer tank and the OLTC have a common conservator the warning and fault limits are 30 ppm and 100 ppm respectively for C2H2

Standard
IEC 60475 IEC 60422 Method of sampling liquid dielectrics Supervision and maintenance guide for mineral Insulating oils in electrical equipment IEC 60567 Guide for the sampling of gases and of oil from oil filled electrical equipment and for the analysis of free and dissolved gases IEC 60599 Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in Service -Guide to the interpretation of dissolved and Free gases analysis IEC 60296 Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for Transformers and Switchgear ASTM Dl 17-96 Standard guide for sampling, test methods, Specifications, and guide for electrical insulating oils Of petroleum origin ASTM D923-97 Standard practices for sampling electrical insulating liquids ASTM D3613-98 Standard test methods of sampling electrical Insulting oils for gas analysis and determination of Water content ASTM D36 12-98 Standard test method for analysis of gases dissolved In electrical insulating oil by gas chromatography ASTM D3487-88(1993) Standard specification for mineral insulating oil Used in electrical apparatus

PARALLEL OPERATION OF THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS


Ideal parallel operation between Transformers occurs when (1) there are no circulating currents on open circuit, and (2) the load division between the Transformers is proportional to their kVA ratings. These requirements necessitate that any - two or more three phase Transformers, which are desired to be operated in parallel, should possess: 1) The same no load ratio of transformation; 2) The same percentage impedance; 3) The same resistance to reactance ratio; 4) The same polarity; 5) The same phase rotation; 6) The same inherent phase-angle displacement between primary and secondary terminals. The above conditions are characteristic of all three phase Transformers whether two winding or three winding. With three winding Transformers, however, the following additional requirement must also be satisfied before the Transformers can be designed suitable for parallel operation.

7) The same power ratio between the corresponding windings. The first four conditions need no explanation being the same as in single phase Transformers. The fifth condition of phase rotation is also a simple requirement. It assumes that the standard direction of phase rotation is anti-clockwise. In case of any difference in the phase rotation it can be set right by simply interchanging two leads either on primary or secondary. It is the intention here to discuss the last two i.e., sixth and seventh conditions in detail. Connections of Phase Windings The star, delta or zigzag connection of a set of windings of a three phase Transformer or of windings of the same voltage of single phase Transformers, forming a three phase bank are indicated by letters Y, D or Z for the high voltage winding and y, d or z for the intermediate and low voltage windings. If the neutral point of a star or zigzag connected winding is brought out, the indications are Y N or Z N and y n and z n respectively. Phase Displacement between Windings The vector for the high voltage winding is taken as the reference vector. Displacement of the vectors of other windings from the reference vector, with anticlockwise rotation, is represented by the use of clock hour figure. IS: 2026 (Part 1V)-1977 gives 26 sets of connections star-star, star-delta, and star zigzag, delta-delta, delta star, delta-zigzag, zigzag star, zigzag-delta. Displacement of the low voltage winding vector varies from zero to -330 in steps of -30, depending on the method of connections. Hardly any power system adopts such a large variants of connections. Some of the commonly used connections with phase displacement of 0, -300, -180" and -330 (clock-hour setting 0, 1, 6 and 11) are shown in Table ( below) Symbol for the high voltage winding comes first, followed by the symbols of windings in diminishing sequence of voltage. For example a 220/66/11 kV Transformer connected star, star and delta and vectors of 66 and 11 kV windings having phase displacement of 0 and -330 with the reference (220 kV) vector will be represented As Yy0 - Yd11. If a pair of three phase Transformers have the same phase displacement between high voltage and low voltage windings and possess similar characteristics (Such as no load ratio of transformation phase rotation, percentage impedance) these can be paralleled with each other by connecting together terminals which correspond physically and alphabetically. Thus taking the case of two three phase Transformers having vector symbols Dd0 and Yy0, these can be put into parallel operation by connecting H.V terminals U1, V1 and W1 of one Transformer to HV terminals U1, V1 and W1 of the other Transformer. Similarly, low voltage terminals U1V1 and of one Transformer should be connected to U1, V1 and W1 terminals of the second Transformer. Sometimes it may be required to operate a three-phase Transformer belonging to one group with another three-phase Transformer belonging to a different group. This is possible with suitable changes in external connections. For example, let us consider a three-phase Transformer with vector symbol Dy1 and see how this can be operated in parallel with a three-phase Transformer of similar characteristics but having vector symbol Yd11. Referring to Table (below) the phasor diagrams of the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings of the two Transformers, with the phase sequence of the supply connected to terminals U,V, W of the two being RYB in the anti-clockwise direction are as shown in Figs. (39a) and (39b) respectively.

Fig. (39) Example of parallel operation of Transformers of groups 3 and 4 (Transformers having symbols Dy 1 and Yd 11 operating in parallel It may be seen from these diagrams that the phase displacement between the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings is -30 in the first Transformer and it is -330 in the second Transformer. However, for the successful parallel operation of these Transformers, the phase displacement must be the same in the two. This can be achieved by interchanging externally two of the h-v connections of the incoming Transformer to the supply, i.e., by connecting 1V to bus B and 1W to bus Y as shown in Fig. (39c) by full lines instead of Connecting 1V to bus Y and 1W to bus B as shown in Fig (39b) by dotted lines.

Vector Group
This results in the reversal from anticlockwise direction to clockwise direction of the phase rotation of the induced voltages as shown by arrows in Fig. (39c) and therefore results in a phase displacement of -30 between the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings [see Fig. (39c)]. The change in two of external it-v connections of the second Transformer thus brings it -30. The secondary voltages of this Transformer, however, have a phase rotation reversed with respect to that of the secondary voltages of the first Transformer. This can be set right by changing again the two corresponding l-v external connections, i.e., by connecting 2V to bus b and 2W to busy as shown in Fig. (39c) instead of connecting 2V to busy and 2W to bus b as shown in Fig. (39b). Thus Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No. 1 and 11 can be operated in parallel with one another by interchanging two of the external h-v and also the corresponding l-v connections of one Transformer.

Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No. 0 and 6 however, cannot be operated in parallel with one another without altering the internal connections of one of them as change of external connections only brings about change in phase rotation. The general principle applying to the parallel operation of a three winding Transformer with another three winding Transformer are the same as those for the paralleling of two winding Transformers. However, to obtain the same percentage impedance. Between the three pairs of windings of the two (or more) Transformers (being paralleled) it is imperative that the power ratio of the corresponding windings of the Transformers should be the same,

Where (PH)1 and (PH)2 represent the powers of the h-v windings (say primary), (PM)1 and (PM)2 represent the powers of the medium voltage windings (say secondary) and (PL)1 and (PL)2 represent the powers of the low voltage windings (say tertiary) of the two Transformers labeled 1 and 2. This is proved below. Fig. (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented by their equivalent circuits) connected in parallel. The currents flowing in the various circuits and windings are shown in the figure.

Fig (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented)

Thus the power ratios of the corresponding windings are similar. This as is evident also fulfils the second condition of same percentage impedance. When Transformers which do not fulfilling this condition are paralleled the operation may be satisfactory without fulfilling the ideal conditions so long as the loads to be carried do not overload either Transformer. Therefore, when new three-phase 3 winding Transformers are to be purchased for parallel operation with existing three-phase 3-winding Transformers the purchase order must specify the power ratings of the various windings of the existing Transformers along with other specifications and indicate that the power ratios of the corresponding windings of the various Transformers must be identical failing which it will be impossible to design Transformers with same percentage impedances for the corresponding windings