Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

VAPOUR ABSORPTION MACHINES

(Under Technical Collaboration with Hitachi Ltd., Japan)

The most energy efficient and reliable advanced PARAFLOW technology.

VOLTAS AT ITS VERY BEST

VOLTAS OFFERS VAPOUR ABSORPTION MACHINES WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY FROM HITACHI.
Versatility Versatility is built into Voltas Vapour Absorption Machines. Single stage (Single Effect) machines can use low-pressure steam as well as hot water to drive the lithium bromide absorption cycle effectively. Two Stage (Double Effect) machines are designed to work on Hitachi Patented parallel flow cycle using medium pressure steam for a lower steam consumption rate with reduced energy cost. Converting waste into worth Waste heat sources can be used to produce cooling. The absorption machines are also used as a heat pump by utilising absorption refrigeration cycle heat energy in the hot water at outlet of absorber and condenser circuits for applications requiring simultaneous cooling and heating and in co-generation applications. Environment protection Li Br solution as absorbent, non-toxic lithium molibidate and lithium nitrate inhibitors and water, as refrigerant are harmless. Also these machines are ozone-friendly since no usage of CFC.

Vapour Absorption Machine

PRODUCT RANGE
Voltas' manufacturing range covers the following types of absorption machines.
Double Effect - Saturated steam (Pressure 3 to 10 kgs/ cm g) : 11 Models, 80 TR to 1250 TR. Single Effect - Saturated steam (Pressure 0.4 to 1.5 kg/cm g) : 5 Models, 200 TR to 1000 TR. Single Effect - High Temperature Hot Water (HW at 140C) Single Effect - Low Temperature Hot Water (HW at 85C) : 5 Models, 200 TR to 1000 TR. : 5 Models, 100 TR to 450 TR.
2 2

Ask for Voltas Direct Fired Absorption Machines 40 TR to 700 TR using oil, gas or kerosene.

SUPERIOR FEATURES
Technology

For double effect VAM in India, only Voltas offers world's most preferred Parallel-Flow technology originally patented by Hitachi, now followed by majority of renowned manufacturers in Japan, USA & other countries. For details refer page 6,7 & 8. Voltas Double Effect VAM offers lowest steam consumption when compared with others at identical operating parameters. Voltas offers standardisation of machine capacity with cooling water inlet temperature at 32C having large design margins compared to machines designed at 29.4C at identical capacity by others. Wide range available i.e. 80 TR to 1250 TR, in double effect VAM. In evaporator & absorber section, Hitachi's patented design SS nozzles provided for pressurised soft spray of refrigerant & absorbent for excellent heat transfer co-efficient & full coverage of heat transfer areas. Additional benefits are __ no clogging and no need for automatic cooling water shutoff valve (Absolutely essential in gravity feed system). In double effect VAM, U tube design is the best construction to take care of thermal expansion in high temperature zone. Voltas provides highest quality seamless grade Cu-Ni-70/30 or SS-316 L tubes compared to others generally provide ferretic grade cheaper ERW tubes. At strategic locations on the unit, Sight Glass Assembly is provided. Fused glass construction ensure no leakage from this port for life time and needs no replacements. Backed up by Hitachi's R&D, Lithium Molibidate & Lithium Nitrate mixture. This formula offers negligible non-congible generation compared to other system. They are totally nontoxic and environment friendly. Advanced PLC based System is a standard feature in Voltas VAM, with user-friendly key board, LED facia and LCD display system. High performance finned tubes are provided as per requirements, having double thickness compared to others. All VAMs mandotorily are performance tested under simulated load conditions at 100% actual capacity on the most modern test bench in Voltas factory prior to despatch. Different MOC of tubes i.e. Cu-Ni, SS or other special requirements can be offered in evaporator, absorber and condenser. Connectivity for communication, data logging, history charts, mimics to PC at remote location and or to BMS, DCS Systems. High performance tubes in absorber section. Bearing wear monitors for canned motor pumps. Narrow approach at installation site exist, then unit can be supplied in 2 or 3 major sections as per need. Automatic purge system avoiding need of removal of non-condensible gases through purge pump. For any other specific optional requirements, please ask Voltas for confirmation.

Highest Efficiency Large Design Margins

Capacity range Soft Spray System

HTG-U-tubes

Fused sight glasses Inhibitors

PLC based Control Panel High Performance Tubes Factory Performance Test Optional Features

SINGLE EFFECT MODELS HAU-D,N,H,L.


Single effect absorption machines work on low-pressure steam or hot water as heat source. A negligible amount of electrical energy is required to operate them. FEATURES Unique single shell leak tight construction maintaining excellent hermatic conditions. Perfect protection from thermal stresses due to floating end type generator design. Simple but efficient capacity control by steam condensate throttling. Better safety margin against crystallization. Easily openable water boxes. Efficient soft spray arrangement in evaporator and absorber sections for full coverage of heat transfer area. High performance tubes in evaporator for best approach there by possible to get consistent chilled water outlet temperature. Fully factory performance tested unit under simulated load conditions.

SINGLE EFFECT - VAPOUR ABSORPTION MACHINE


Chilled water suspension cutout Automatic start/stop relay Condenser Sight glass Vacuum Manometer Refrigerant level guage

Generator

Evaporator Control panel Absorber Drain control valve

Refrigerant pump Vacuum pump Solution-Heat Exchanger Solution pump Absorber level gauge

WORKING OF SINGLE EFFECT MACHINES HAU - D, N, H, L.


This is the Refrigeration cycle description.
OPERATION

Voltas single effect absorption machine consists of two sections in one shell. The lower section houses the evaporator and the absorber,. The upper section houses the generator and the condenser. The pressure in the lower section is of the order of 6 mm Hg (abs) while the pressure in the upper section is about 70 mm Hg(abs). LiBr-Water combination is used in the operation of vapour absorption cycle. Water acts as the refrigerant and LiBr as the absorbent. Solution pump, refrigerant pump, heat exchanger, purge unit and the control panel complete the machine.
1. EVAPORATOR

the absorber through a misteliminator. Concentrated LiBr-Water solution is sprayed over the absorber tube bundle. The refrigerant vapour is absorbed by the strong solution being sprayed and heat of absorption is removed by cooling water passing through the absorber tubes. The weak solution form the absorber is sent by the solution pump to the generator for recovering the refrigerant water vapour.
3. GENERATOR

heated in the generator with the help of low pressure steam / hot water. The refrigerant water vapour is evaporated and goes to the condenser. The strong solution is sent down to the absorber for further absorption of water vapour.
4. HEAT EXCHANGER

Weak solution from absorber is

To recover the heat energy form the strong solution returning to absorber a heat exchanger is used. The cold weak solution being pumped from the absorber picks up excess heat from the strong solution. This improves cycle efficiency.
5. CONDENSER

Refrigerant pump sprays the water over the evaporator tube bundle. The water to be chilled that is circulating in the evaporator tubes, gets cooled as the refrigerant water in the shell evaporates because of extremely low pressure in the evaporator shell.
2. ABSORBER

The water vapour evaporated in the generator at a higher temperature and pressure is condensed to liquid form in the condenser where the heat of condensation is picked up by the cooling water from the absorber inlet circulating in the condenser tubes. The condensed refrigerant water is returned to the evaporator through an expansion device.

L i B r - H 2O C Y C L E

Concentrated solution Mixed solution Diluted solution Refrigerant

DOUBLE EFFECT MODELS - HAU-W - H, N, S.


INTRODUCTION

Double effect absorption machines work on medium pressure saturated steam and a negligible amount of electrical energy is required to operate them. Voltas double effect vapour absorption machines use medium pressure saturated steam (pressure of 3 to 10 2 kg/cm g) to produce a refrigeration effect. It can also provide simultaneous heating by utilizing the heat that is removed during the vapour absorption cycle. At standard operating conditions steam consumption of Voltas, double effect steam absorption machines is just about 4 . 3k/g hr TR . Under the technical collaboration with Hitachi Ltd., Japan, Voltas manufactures the world famous Parallel Flow vapour absorption machines patented by Hitachi. These machines are surprisingly compact and are well known for their reliability and energy efficiency.
OPERATION
Hitachi patented parallel flow solution cycle

can be located at a lower level. Whereas in the Series Flow double effect machines used by other manufacturers, the high temperature generator has to be placed above the low temperature generator to allow draining of solution from a high temperature generator to a low temperature generator. Therefore, the overall height of the Voltas parallel flow machines is g reat ly red u c e d . Further more, the parallel flow method also contributes to increased safety levels, reliable cycle and easy maintenance. Comparison of parallel flow and series flow cycles can be seen in the diagram given below.
THE SOLUTION CONCENTRATION AT THE ABSORBER INLET (WHERE THE TEMPERATURE IS VERY LOW IN THE CYCLE) IS LOWER IN PATENTED PARALLEL FLOW CYCLE, UNIQUE IN VOLTAS-HITACHI MACHINES THUS ENSURING SAFE OPERATION, AWAY FROM THE CRYSTALLIZATION ZONE, WHEREAS SERIES FLOW MACHINES OF OTHER MANUFACTURERS OPERATING AT HIGHER CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE CLOSER TO CRYSTALLIZATION ZONE, ARE MORE PRONE TO CRYSTALLIZATION

In the double effect vapour absorption cycle employing the parallel flow principle, the weak solution from the absorber is pumped simultaneously to two generators, a high temperature generator and a low temperature generator. Since the solution is pumped simultaneously to the two generators, the high temperature generator

Comparison of Parallel Flow and Series Flow on Duhring Diagram

WORKING OF DOUBLE EFFECT MACHINES HAU-W- H,N,S.


This is the Refrigeration cycle of the patented Parallel Flow method. 1. EVAPORATOR 4. LOW TEMPERATURE GENERATOR

The refrigerant pump sprays the water over the evaporator tube bundle. The water to be chilled, circulating in the evaporator tube gets cooled, as the refrigerant water evaporates because of extremely low pressure in the evaporator. The refrigerant water vapour goes to the absorber through the mist-eliminator. Concentrated LiBr-water solution is sprayed over the absorber tube bundle. The refrigerant vapour is absorbed by the strong solution being sprayed and the heat of absorption is removed by cooling water passing through the absorber tube. Weak solution from the absorber is sent by the solution to the high temperature and low temperature generators to recover the refrigerant water vapour.
3. HIGH TEMPERATURE GENERATOR

The hot evaporated water vapour from high temperature generator is used to heat the weak solution that has been pumped into the low temperature generator to concentrate it.
5. CONDENSER

The water vapour evaporated in the generator at a higher temperature and pressure is condensed to liquid form in the condenser, where the heat of condensation is picked up by the cooling water from an absorber outlet circulating in the condenser tubes. The condensed refrigerant water is returned to the evaporator through an expansion device.
6,7. HEAT EXCHANGERS

The weak solution is headed by the steam from the generator tubes. Due to the heat supplied in the high temperature generator, the weak solution of lithium bromide and water gets concentrated and refrigerant water is separatedbyevaporation.

To recover the heat energy from the strong solution returning to the absorber, two heat exchangers are used. The cold weak solution being pumped from the absorber picks up excess heat from the strong solution in the heat exchangers. This improves cycle efficiency. The adjoining diagram explains the operation of the ParallelFlowCycle.

L i B r - H 2O C Y C L E

L T G

HTG

Para Flow

EXCLUSIVE FEATURES
Exclusive Features of Hitachi Parallel Flow Cycle Lower First-Stage Generator Pressure
Higher Corrosion Allowance Higher Operational Allowance on fouling of condenser/ absorber tubes

Lower First-Stage Generator Temperature

Lower Solution Flow Rate

Less Heating Energy Input

Increased Efficiency

Enabling Floor installation of First-Stage Generator

Compact Design & Single Package Unit

Highly reliable since no site welding is required

Scope of Supply
Items Absorption chiller main unit Cooling water connection piping Foundation bolts Vibration-isolator (rubber pads) Refrigerant water 1. Equipment Steam inlet control valve Steam inlet pressure gauge Steam inlet shut-off valve Drainage back pressure setting valve Steam-safety valve Other safety and control devices LiBr solution Factory performance tests 2. Testing Customer witness tests Shipping 3. Transportation Unloading etc. x Optional items
Note: O indicates Scope of supply by Voltas x indicates Out of scope of supply by Voltas

Scope of supply 0 0 x x 0 0 x x x x 0 0 0 x x

Remarks Factory supply Piping between absorber and condenser

Optional item First charge only Pneumatic type (loose supply)

For details refer to Voltas First charge only Only one unit when multiple units are ordered Optional Shipped on truck or trailer (Optional)

PLANN ING AND CONSTRUCTION


STEAM PIPING SCHEMATIC FOR SINGLE EFFECT MACHINE

PIPING SCHEMATIC FOR TWO EFFECT MACHINE


(A) WATER SIDE
Voltas scope of supply

(B) STEAM AND CONDENSATE SIDE


Voltas scope of supply
Separate shipment Voltas supply

DIMENSIONS
Single Effect
Models HAU-

Dimensions and weights


200N H-200N L-200N 16D 18D H-16D H-18D L-16D L-18D 20D 19D H-19D H-20D L-19D L-20D

Length (L) Width (W) Height (H) Tube replacement length Rigging weight (t)

3290 1750 2055 3200 5.0

4815 7185 7275 8975 2180 2180 2560 2560 2885 2920 3290 3290 4300 6600 6600 8300 11.0 13.0 17.4 22.1

All dimensions in mm

Double Effect

(B- side)

(A- side)

Layout Dimensions

Overall Dimensions and Weight


Model: HAU - W Length (L) Width (W) Height (H) Rigging weight (t) 80S 2460 1495 1902 4.1 1 2 0 S 2 0 0 N 2 5 3 1 0 H2 5 4 0 0 H2 5 5 0 0 H2 5 6 0 0 H 2 5 7 0 0 H2 5 8 0 0 H 2 5 1 0 0 0 H2 5 1 2 5 0 H2 5 2870 1720 2126 5.5 3370 1800 2060 6.5 4600 2130 2515 11.6 4600 2130 2515 15.0 5600 2130 2580 16.0 6600 2130 2600 20.0 7500 2130 2670 25.5 8610 2330 2670 26.0 8670 2670 2830 30.0 8670 3350 3300 42.0

Installation Layout Requirements


Model: HAU - W A B C D E F 80S 4460 1705 2495 500 1495 500 120S 4870 1930 2720 500 1720 500 2 0 0 N 25 3 0 0 H 25 4 0 0 H 25 5 0 0 H 25 6 0 0 H 25 7 0 0 H 25 8 0 0 H 25 1 0 0 0 H 25 1 2 5 0 H 25 5570 2200 2800 500 1800 500 6600 2450 3840 855 2130 855 6600 3300 3840 855 2130 855 7600 4300 3840 855 2130 855 8600 5300 3840 855 2130 855 9500 6300 3840 855 2130 855 10610 7300 4330 1000 52330 1000 10670 7300 4670 1000 2670 1000 10670 7300 5350 1000 3350 1000

All dimensions in mm

10

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
Double Effect Steam Models : HAU - W - H, N, S.
Model Units Chilling capacity (Nominal) Steam pressure (saturated) Temperature Chilled water Flow rate Piping Size Temperature Cooling water Flow rate Piping Size Elect. Reqt:(415 V,50Hz,30) Flow rate Steam Steam piping size Drain piping size RT Kg/cm g
0 2

HAU - W: 2Stage Steam 80S 80 120S 120 200N25 310H25 200 310 12 CIn 49 3 83 4 1.3 344 2 73 4 125 5 2.1 516 2 121 5 208 6 4.7 860 2 187 6 320C In 322 8 5.8 1333 3 416 8 6.9 1720 3 242 6
0

400H25 500H25 600H25 700H25 800H25 1000H25 1250H25 400 500 600 700 70C Out 363 8 624 12 9.6 2580 5 423 10 37.40C Out 728 12 9.6 3010 5 1 832 12 15 3440 6 1 1040 14 15 4300 6 1 1300 16 16.6 5375 6 1 484 10 605 12 755 12 800 1000 1250 8.0

m3/h in
0

302

m3/h in KW kg/h in in

520 10 7.6 2150 4

Single Effect High Temp. And Low Temp. Hot Water Models : HAU - H/ L-N, D
Model Units Chilling capacity (Nominal) Temperature Flow rate Temperature Flow rate Flow rate H. W. Temp RT
0

HAU - H: 1Stage High Temp. Hot Water 200N 200 121 170 3.6 36 16D 400 12 C In 242 32 C In 340 7.6 72 140 C In
0 0 0

HAU - L: 1Stage Low Temp. Hot Water 200N 100 61 191 3.6 89 16D 180 14 C In
0

18D 630

19D 800 7 C Out 484 37.4 C Out 680 9.6 144 115 C Out
0 0 0

20D 1000 605 850 11.0 180

18D 283

19D 360 9 C Out 218 36 C Out 688 9.6 321 80 C Out


0 0 0

20D 450 273 860 11.0 401

C C

m3/h
0

381 536 7.6 114

109 31 C In 344 7.6 161 85 C In


0 0

172 541 7.6 252

m3/h kW t/h
0

Hot water

Single Effect Steam Models : HAU - D, N


Model Chilling capacity (Nominal) Chilling capacity (saturated) Temperature Chilled Flow rate water Piping size Cooling Temperature water Flow rate Piping size Elect. Reqt:(415 V,50Hz,30) Flow rate Steam piping size Steam Drain piping size Units RT Kg/cm2g 0 C m3/h in 0 C m3/h in kW kg/h in in 200N 200 HAU : 1Stage Steam 16D 400 120C In 242 8 0 32 C In 340 8 7.6 3400 6 2 18D 630 19D 800 20D 1000 Notes: 1. Steam pressure and steam flow rates mentioned above are for Dry Saturated steam. 2. Fouling factor for CHW, CW and HW considering as 0.0001 metric units. 3. Above are the nominal chilling capacities based on duty conditions given in the table. For capacities, steam consumption, etc, at duty conditions other than above, contact your nearest Voltas office or refer quotations. 4. Specifications and data are subject to change without notice.

121 5 170 6 3.6 1700 4 1

70C Out 484 10 12 0 41 C out 536 680 10 12 7.6 9.6 5355 6800 8 10 2 3

381 -

605 12 850 14 11.0 8500 12 4

11

Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Business Group Voltas House B, T. B. Kadam Marg, Chinchpokli, Mumbai 400 033. Tel.: 4617777. Fax: 3771970.

(Product development is a continuous process in Voltas, hence specifications and technical data are subject to alterations without notice.)