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Instructional Design: The Big Picture


Peter E. Doolittle, Virginia Tech

General Goal

Specific Learning Specific Learning Specific Learning Objectives Objectives Objectives

Instruction d Instruction d Instruction

Assessment

Inference Educational Decision

Planning for Instruction


from Freiberg, H. & Driscoll, A. (2000). Universal teaching strategies. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Functions of Planning: 1. Planning gives an overview of instruction.

2. Planning facilitates good management and instruction.

3. Planning makes learning purposeful.

4. Planning provides for sequencing and pacing.

5. Planning ties classroom instruction events with community resources.

6. Planning reduces the impact of intrusions.

7. Planning economizes time.

8. Planning makes learner success more measurable, which assists in re-teaching.

9. Planning provides for a variety of instructional activities.

10. Planning creates the opportunity for higher-level questioning.

11. Planning assists in ordering supplies.

12. Planning guides substituted teachers.

13. Planning provides documentation of instruction.

14. Planning establishes a repertoire of instruction.

Instructional Planning: Introduction


from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Instructional Planning: Preparation for teaching and learning, including the construction of goals, objectives, and instructional and assessment methodology. Systematic planning, developing, evaluating, and managing the instructional process based on principles of learning and instruction. The big picture of what to teach and how to teach it. Key Principles: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify general goals and specific objectives Plan instructional activities Develop assessment instruments Revise instruction

Identify Instructional Goals

Identify Instructional Objectives

Plan Instructional Activities

Choose Instructional Media

Develop Instructional Assessment

Implement Instructional Activities

Revise Instruction

Why use systematic instructional planning? better instruction occurs more efficient learning results better evaluation occurs students become better self-evaluators

Identifying Instructional Goals


from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Instructional Goals: Instructional goals are general statements of intended student learning outcomes and the starting point for all subsequent instructional planning. Instructional goals are general in nature, focus on the action of the student, and designed to be implemented over the long term. Instructional goals are established through legislation, accrediting agencies, local school boards, special interest groups, curriculum supervisors, administrators, textbooks, and teachers. Instructional goals are used for developing curricula, for informing the public of school foci, for guiding assessment programs, and for providing direction for subsequent instructional activities. Instructional goals should be designed with student characteristics in mind, including students ability, prior knowledge, and attitudes.

Purpose of Instructional Goals: Instructional goals are designed to provide an overarching focus on learning outcomes. These general learning outcomes must then be interpreted through the use of specific learning objectives.

Three Components of an Instructional Goal: 1. Focuses on general learning outcomes 2. Focuses on student performance 3. Must be further defined by specific learning objectives Examples: The student will comprehend the meaning of relevant terms. The student applies the scientific method to new situations. The student distinguishes between valid and invalid assessments. The student identifies the relevant information in word problems. The student comprehends mathematical concepts and processes.

Example of an Instructional Goal with Subsequent Instructional Objectives: 1. The student will comprehend instructional goals. 1.1 TSWBAT write 3-component instructional goals. 1.2 TSWBAT use 3-component instructional goals within a lesson plan. 1.3 TSWBAT evaluate instructional goals for appropriate format & content.

Identifying Instructional Objectives


from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Instructional Objectives: A behavioral objective identifies the specific learning outcomes that the student must demonstrate so that the teacher may infer that they have or have not learned a particular skill or knowledge set.

What are the 3 Components of a Traditional Instructional Objective? 1. Behavior the specific behavior to be exhibited by the student 2. Condition the setting in which the student must demonstrate the behavior 3. Performance Level criteria to determine fulfillment of the objective Example: Given a map of the United States, the student will be able to write the names of at least 40 states within the correct states boundaries. Condition: Given a map of the United States. Behavior: Write the name of states within the correct states boundaries. Performance Level: At least 40 states.

Short Forms of Objectives: While objectives have traditionally be written using the 3component format, a new trend in writing objectives has focused on including only the behavior component. The condition or performance level components are included only when absolutely necessary for the clear understanding of the objective. Example: TSWBAT compose a 5 sentence expository paragraph.

Domains of Learning within Instructional Objectives Part I: Knowledge: Knowledge objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect memorization or recall of specific facts. Intellectual Skills: Intellectual skill objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect mental processing, such as concept learning, rule application, and problem solving. Motor Skills: Motor skill objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect any physical activity requiring the movement of all or part of the body, excluding trivial movements. Attitudes: Attitude objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect personal feelings or dispositions.

6 A Closer Look at the Cognitive Domain Blooms Taxonomy: Major Category in Cognitive Domain Knowledge: defined as the remembering of
previously learned material. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain.

Vague Objectives
Knows common terms. Knows specific facts. Knows methods. Knows basic concepts. Knows principles. Understands facts. Interprets verbal material. Interprets charts & graphs. Estimates data. Justifies methods. Applies concepts. Applies laws & theories. Solves math problems. Constructs charts & graphs. Demonstrates methods. Recognizes assumptions. Recognizes fallacies. Distinguishes facts/opinions. Analyzes structures. Writes an organized theme. Plans a new experiment. Integrative problem solving. New object classification. Judges material consistency. Judges data adequacy. Judges value of work. Judges value of art.

Illustrative Verbs
Defines, describes, identifies, labels, lists, matches names, outlines, reproduces, selects, states Converts, defends, distinguishes, infers, estimates, generalizes, gives examples, predicts, summarizes Changes, computes, demonstrates, predicts, discovers, solves, manipulates, uses, shows, prepares Breaks down, infers, diagrams, outlines, differentiates, divides, separate, discriminate, distinguishes Categorizes, creates, combines, compiles, composes, generates, modifies, plans, reorganizes, relates Appraises, compares, concludes, criticizes, judges, justifies, supports

Comprehension: defined as the ability to grasp


the meaning of material. Comprehension represents the lowest level of understanding in the cognitive domain.

Application: refers to the ability to use learned


material in new and concrete situations. Application outcomes require a higher level of understanding than comprehension outcomes.

Analysis: refers to the ability to break down


material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Analysis outcomes require understanding that includes both content and structural relationships. Synthesis: refers to the ability to put parts of material together in a new way to form a new whole. Synthesis outcomes stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. Evaluation: refers to the ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose. Evaluation outcomes are considered the highest level in the cognitive domain as they contain elements of all other levels.

Examples: 1. Given a list of ten terms, the student will able to alphabetize all ten terms. Condition: Behavior: Performance: Domain of Learning: Level of Blooms:

2. After reading Chapter 2 of Thoreaus Walden, the student will be able to write a three page essay on the use of metaphor according to the guidelines expressed in the Essay Scoring Rubric. Condition: Behavior: Performance: Domain of Learning: Level of Blooms:

Planning Instructional Activities


from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Instructional Activities: the events, procedures, or steps designed and later implemented during instruction whose purpose is to foster the development and completion of the specific instructional objectives. Instructional Methods: the general instructional techniques used during instructional activities (e.g., cooperative learning, reciprocal teaching, direction instruction).

General Outline of Instructional Activities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Motivating students Informing students of goals and objectives Helping students recall prerequisite knowledge or skills Presenting information and examples Providing practice and feedback Summarizing the lesson

Motivating students

Informing students of goals and objectives

Helping students recall prerequisite knowledge or skills

Presenting information and examples

Providing practice and feedback

Summarizing the lesson

Instructional Media
from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Instructional Media: Instructional media encompasses all the materials and physical means an instructor uses to implement instruction. This may include traditional materials such as chalkboards, overhead, chalk, pencils, pens, and paper, as well newer materials such as computers, DVDs, CD-ROMs, Internet, two-way audio/video, and interactive video conferencing.

Criteria for Adopting Instructional Media: 5. Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that the media is available, cost efficient, time efficient, and understood by the instructor? 6. Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the developmental and experiential levels of the students? 7. Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the planned instructional strategy? Will the media allow for the presentation of the proposed lesson in an efficient and effective manner? Will the media facilitate the students acquisition of the specific learning objectives?

Instructional Assessment
from Gronlund, N. (1998). Assessment of Student Achievement. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Essential Terms: Assessment: A general term used to denote the systematic collection and interpretation of data that is to be used in the making of educational decisions, including enhancing instruction. Measurement: The explicit quantification of the results obtained through testing that is designed to determine the degree of presence or absence of a particular characteristic, quality, or feature. Test: An instrument or formal process that presents tasks that yield a specific type of measurement. Evaluation: The placing of value or interpretation of a measurement. Evaluation encompasses the inferences that are drawn from measurements. An assessment is broad term that denotes the use of tests to obtain measures of specific student characteristics that are then evaluated for various purposes.

Reasons Why We Assess: Diagnosing student's strengths and weaknesses. Assessing a student's weaknesses allows the teacher the opportunity to remediate those weaknesses. Assessing a student's strengths allows the teacher the opportunity to avoid (re)addressing known material and skills. Monitoring students' progress. Assessing students formatively allows the teacher the opportunity to determine whether or not a student is making adequate progress toward desired instructional outcomes. Assigning grades. Assessing students provides the teacher with at least one type of evidence to assist in assigning grades. Determining one's own instructional effectiveness. Assessing students can provide teachers with information related to teaching effectiveness. If students are achieving the desired instructional outcomes, then teaching is likely, although not definitely, effective.

10 Planning, Instruction, & Assessment Relationship: 1. The main function of assessment is to improve learning.

Goals

Objectives

Instruction

Assessment

Assessments should provide an evaluation of the degree to which the specific learning outcomes have been achieved. 2. The main function of assessment is to inform decision-making. Referral Existing Conditions Assessment Intervention Eligibility A situation or performance indicates the need for a decision and/or change. An assessment is used to measure a specific characteristic relative to that situation or performance. Finally, that measurement is interpreted and a decision is made based, at least in part, on that measurement.

Types of Assessment Methods: 15. Selected Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to select the correct or best answer (e.g., multiple-choice, true-false, matching questions). 16. Supply Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to respond to a question with a word, phrase, or essay answer (e.g., short answer, essay questions). 17. Restricted Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a limited task that is highly structured (e.g., selecting the appropriate tool for a task, determining the area of given rectangle, writing a brief paragraph on a given topic). 18. Extended Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a more comprehensive task that is less structured (e.g., writing a research report, drawing the water cycle, creating a structure out of Lego's that will support 10 pounds).

11 General Guidelines for Effective Assessment: 7. Effective assessment requires a clear conception of all intended learning outcomes. Instruction and assessment are both based on specific learning objectives. These specific learning outcomes must be clearly stated, involve both lower and higher order skills, and include evaluation criteria. 8. Effective assessment requires that a variety of assessment procedures be used. Different types of specific learning outcomes require different assessment procedures. Multiple choice items may sufficiently measure knowledge and comprehension outcomes, while a performance assessment may be necessary to measure a skill-based outcome. 9. Effective assessment requires that the instructional relevance of the procedures be considered. The assessment used must fit the specific learning outcome that it is designed to measure, the interpretations that one wishes to make, and the feedback one wishes to give to students. Does the assessment fit the classroom, students, learning outcomes, and teaching strategies? 10. Effective assessment requires an adequate sample of student performance. Not all tasks that are directly related to the specific learning outcomes of concern can be measured; thus, a sub-group or sample of these tasks must be used to infer back to the larger set of tasks. A sufficient number of sample tasks are necessary to be able to adequately infer the achievement of a specific learning outcome. 11. Effective assessment requires that the procedures be fair to everyone. Assessments must be clear, unbiased, appropriate, and used in pertinent ways. 12. Effective assessment requires the specifications of criteria for judging successful performance. Performance criteria for success must be determine prior to the administration of the assessment. These performance criteria are an integral component of a specific learning outcome, and these criteria should be conveyed to the students. 13. Effective assessment requires feedback to students that emphasizes strengths of performance and weaknesses to be corrected. Assessment results should be conveyed to students and used to strengthen successful performance and assist in the remediation of weak performance. This feedback should be (1) immediate, (2) detailed, (3) emphasize strengths and weaknesses of performance, (4) indicate remediation, and (5) should be positive in nature. 14. Effective assessment must be supported by a comprehensive grading and reporting system. All administered assessments should be used in the determination of grades. When multiple types of assessments are used, each of these assessments should contribute to the final grade, not just the objective assessments.

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Implementing Instruction
from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Traditional Instruction: An instructional process whereby the time spent on achieving specific learning objectives is the same for all student, regardless of need or performance. Mastery Instruction: An instructional process whereby the time spent on achieving specific learning objectives varies according to student need. Mastery instruction is premised on all students being able to master specific content and/or skills.

Traditional Approach to Instruction: Present the first unit of instruction to the entire class. Present the second unit of instruction to the entire class.

Assess all of the students.

Assess of all the students.

Mastery Approach to Instruction: Provide enrichment to students who achieve mastery. Yes Present the first unit of instruction to the entire class. Assess all of the students. Did students achieve mastery? No Remediate the nonmastery students. Reassess the students. Present the second unit of instruction to the entire class.

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Revising Instruction
from Reiser, R., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Revising Instruction: Revising instruction involves the collect of data relative to the performance of both the students and the teacher/instruction. Instruction is then revised based on results from this collection of data (e.g., tests, informal assessments, attitude surveys).

Information for Revising Instruction: Essential Information: Student performance on summative assessments. Student attitudes following instruction.

Additional Information: 4. Student performance on pretests and formative assessments. 5. Student attitudes prior to instruction. 6. Observation of students during instruction.

Revising Instruction: Revise/modify/discard inappropriate specific learning objectives. Revise/modify/discard ineffective/inaccurate test items. Revise/modify/discard ineffective instructional activities. Revise/modify/discard ineffective practice or feedback. Revise/modify/discard ineffective remedial activities.

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Table of Contents
Introduction The Big Picture: General 1 The Big Picture: Specific 2 Instructional Design Needs Assessment 3 Learner Characteristics 5 Context Assessment 7 Content Assessment 9 Instructional Objectives 11 Instructional Sequence 13 Instructional Strategy 15 Instructional Media 18 Achievement Assessment 20 Instructional Assessment 22

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The Big Picture: General


Instructional Design involves systematically planning, developing, evaluating, & managing the instructional process, based on principles of learning and instruction. The big picture concerning what to teach and how to teach it. Instructional Design Models are an iconic representation of the systematic processes of instructional design and serve as a set of visual directions for progressing through the processes.

An effective instructional design model is both flexible and adaptable. No two designers will approach a problem in the same manner and no two problems are exactly alike....Our experience has shown that projects start and end at different places in the design process. The design model must be flexible to accommodate the demands of the job, yet produce an effective product. (Kemp, Morrision, & Ross, 1998, ix)

A Generic Model of Instructional Design would include four basic components: Instructional Needs, Instructional Objectives, Instructional Strategies, and Instructional Assessment. Instructional Needs: Instructional Objectives: Instructional Strategies: Instructional Assessment: Why is instruction needed? What problems need to be addressed? Is instruction an effective means to address the problem? What is an individual supposed to learn as a result of the instruction in order to satisfy the instructional needs? What instructional methods will be used to achieve the instructional objectives and satisfy the instructional needs? How will an instructor know what students have achieved the instructional objectives and satisfied the instructional needs?

Instructional Need(s)

Instructional Objectives

Instructional Strategy

Instructional Assessment

Revision

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The Big Picture: Specific


There are many instructional design models from several authors; however, each model addresses the process of instructional design similarly. The model below is a synthesis of various models (see Dick, Carey & Carey, 2001; Kemp, Morrison, & Ross, 1998; Smith & Ragan, 1993). This model, and its ten component processes, will be explicated in the following sections.

Support Services

Instructional Assessment

Needs Assessment

Internet Based

Achievement Assessment

Learner Assessment

Instructional Media

Context Assessment

Instructional Strategy

Content Assessment

Learning Theory

Instructional Sequence

Instructional Objectives

Course Revision

The ultimate goal of instruction and instructional design is effective and efficient student learning, in its many forms.

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Needs Assessment
Needs Assessment is part of a more global process of determining the need for instruction. Once a problem has been identified, it must be determined that the use or modification of instruction is the answer to the problem. A needs assessment clearly delineates the goals and objectives of an instructional situation; identifies gaps between the current situation, what is, and the desired situation, what should be; prioritizes these gaps; and determines which of these gaps are amenable to instructional design (Smith & Ragan, 1993).
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

When is a Needs Assessment Essential? According to Smith & Ragan (1993) there are six typical questions that may indicate the necessity for a Needs Assessment. If a teacher, administrator, or designer answers "yes" to one or several of these questions, then a Needs Assessment would likely be in order. Insufficient: Inefficient: Uninteresting: perseverance? Ineffective: Incomplete: Inappropriate:

Are there learning goals that are not being met by students? Is exiting instruction being delivered inefficiently? Is instruction unappealing and impeding learners' motivation, interest, and Are unattained learning goals already being addressed by instruction? Is the curriculum to be expanded through the addition of new learning goals? Has there been a change in the composition of the learner population?

Steps in Completing a Needs Assessment typically include identifying a possible need, gathering data, identifying discrepancies, completing a performance analysis, identifying learner characteristics, identifying instructional goals. 1. Identifying a Potential Need: The identification of a potential instructional need may come from various sources, including performance comparisons with national norms (normative needs); performance comparisons with local, non-normed, performance (comparative needs); individual desires to alter instruction (felt needs); behavioral evidence that expresses a desire (expressed needs); anticipation of future needs (future needs); and the occurrence of specific and significant event (critical incident needs) (Burton & Merrill, 1991). 2. Gathering Relevant Data: The process of gathering data will reveal learners' competencies and responsibilities, resource allocations, and learners' characteristics. Data may be collected through interviews, questionnaires, document analysis, critical incident analysis, performance analysis, observation, or focus groups. 3. Identifying Discrepancies: As data is gathered, a constant comparison between the current situation and the desired or needed situation is made to recognize discrepancies. The identification of such discrepancies leads to the possible gathering of additional data to clarify the nature of the discrepancy through the process of performance analysis.

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4. Completing Performance Analysis: A performance analysis is an in-depth examination of a performance discrepancy with the goal of identifying the cause of that discrepancy. A performance analysis includes making clear the goals or mission statements that describe the desired outcome or behavior, the delineation of the behaviors needed to complete a specific performance, a description of the learner's current performance level, the identification of desired performance / current performance gaps or needs, and the identification of the causes of those gaps. The conclusion of a performance analysis includes recommendations for remediation of the identified gaps or needs. A critical question at this point is "Based on the identified need, is instruction the answer?" If not, there is not need to proceed with further instructional design. 5. Identifying Learner Characteristics: All instruction is affected by the characteristics of the learner, such as age, sex, socioeconomic background, academic experience, vocational experience, attitudes, and needs, to name but a few. Information concerning learner characteristics may influence the selection of goals and objectives, instructional strategies, instructional media, or assessment mechanisms. 6. Identifying Instructional Goals: Once instructional discrepancies have been identified, described, and understood, it is essential to prioritize the creation of solutions to these discrepancies using goal statements. Goal statements are broad, general statements identifying the knowledge and skills that students should posses, and are able to perform, following the implementation of specific instruction. Instructional goals typically focus on student performance of general learning outcomes and are further clarified through the use of instructional objectives.

Exercise #1: What is one possible web-based instructional need?

Upon what data is this need identified?

What is the discrepancy that identifies the need?

What is the cause of this discrepancy?

Who are your learners?

What is your instructional goal?

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Learner Characteristics
Learner Characteristics: Leaner characteristics are those personal, social, academic, vocational, and historical characteristics of individuals that warrant consideration during the instructional design process. Important characteristics of learners also include domains such as capabilities, needs, and interests. Identifying these learner characteristics potentially influence the goals and objectives of instruction, topics addressed, instructional strategies and media employed, level of topic addressed, and method of assessment utilized.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

What Learner Characteristics Should be Examined? According to Dick, Carey, and Carey (2001), there are eight fundamental areas that should be examined in assessing learner characteristics. This list is not exhaustive and one must always be willing to include other areas when circumstances necessitate. 1.

Instructional Sequence

Entry Knowledge or Skills: What prerequisite knowledge or skills should students possess prior to beginning instruction? In addition to prerequisite knowledge and skills, students may also need particular experiences, equipment, or attitudes prior to the beginning of instruction in order to be successful. Prior Knowledge of Specific Domain: Adequate instruction and subsequent performance is often determined by a student's prior knowledge relative to the specific domain of instruction. An examination of a student's specific prior knowledge may reveal both depth of knowledge and significant misconceptions. Attitudes Toward Content and Delivery: Students' attitudes toward the topic domain and/or the delivery method may affect a student's performance. For example, high self-efficacy or interest may enhance a student's learning, while low self-efficacy or anxiety may inhibit a student's learning. Similarly, a student familiar with and comfortable within computer technology may perform well when instruction is delivered in using computer technology, while a student that is computer anxious may perform artificially poorly. Academic Motivation: An important aspect of student achievement is the level and type of motivation. Students that have high levels of intrinsic motivation are more likely to be successful than students with low levels. In addition, students' levels of extrinsic motivation may also affect instructional success. Educational and Ability Levels: Students' prior experience and expertise within the educational environment and their natural ability levels may impact the level of instruction provided and/or nature of the instructional delivery. General Learning Preferences: Students tend to gravitate toward a specific style, or styles, of instruction with which they are comfortable. Is students prefer, and are adept at, direction instruction, they may be hesitant to engage in group oriented learning, and vice-versa. Attitudes Toward Teaching Institution: Students' attitudes toward the organization or school providing the instruction may influence their levels of participation, engagement, or effort. Their

2.

3.

4.

1.

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attitudes may also affect the effectiveness of specific media or strategies, such as team building, group work, or conferencing. Group Characteristics: While an analysis of the individuals is important, it is also beneficial to examine the group characteristics that emerge from the coherence of the individuals. How heterogeneous or homogeneous is the group, based on relevant characteristics? What is the general demeanor of the group? Potential Learner Characteristics of Interest cover a broad arena of factors such as personal, academic, preference, historical, or social characteristics. The following list is only a partial list of potential characteristics. Personal Sex Age Talents Culture Maturity Vocation Experience Self-Esteem Expectations Academic Grades Courses Degrees Locality Literacy Training Test Scores Experiences Cognitive Style Entry Attitudes Motivation General Skills Specific Skills Job Experience Problem Solving Profss'l Experiences General Knowledge Specific Knowledge Individual Differences Culture Interests Attributions Special Needs Belief Systems Emotional State Practical Knowledge Intelligence/Aptitude Child/Adolescent/Adult

Ways of Examining Learner Characteristics are varied, although a few types have proven to be extremely useful. Observations Interviews Surveys Questionnaires Assessments Document Analysis Self-Descriptions Research Reviews

Implications of Learner Characteristics for instructional design and delivery are varied and depend upon the nature of the needs, learners, and instruction. Pace of Instruction Types of Examples Methods for Gaining Attention Medium Used for Instruction Response Mode (e.g., oral, written) Amount and Type of Reading Amount and Type of Incentives Nature of Practice Nature of Feedback Amount of Structure Level of Abstractness Grouping of Students Amount of Scaffolding Teaching Strategies Used

Characteristics of Effective Web-based Learners regardless of their age, gender, and proximity to campus are synonymous with those of the successful adult learner. These characteristics include 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. intrinsic motivation work commitment perceived benefit of instruction resourcefulness independence efficiency expediency

Exercise #2: What are 3 characteristics of your learners that may significantly impact their ability to be successful in your course?

What adjustments in your instruction might you be able to complete that would increase the success rates of your students in your course?

21 Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Context Assessment
Context Assessment: Context assessment refers to both the context in which the instruction will take place and the context in which the student will be asked to demonstrate the use of their recently acquire knowledge and skills. The instructional context includes the learners themselves, the instructional medium (e.g., face-to-face, web-based, video conferencing), the specific instructional equipment, the instructional materials, and the physical locality of the instruction. The performance context includes the performance medium, the performance equipment and materials, the social makeup, the congruence between the instructional context and the performance context and the physical locality of the performance site.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

Instructional Context Assessment may be probed through the use of several questions. The following questions address the efficacy and influence of the instructional context (see Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001; Smith and Ragan, 1993). What are the characteristics of the teachers and students that will be using the instructional materials? What preferences do teachers and learner have for the use of media in instruction? What media are available to the teachers and learners, and what is their availability? What is the curricular context within which the instruction must fit? What are the characteristics of the classrooms and greater locality in which instruction will occur? What are the philosophies or taboos of the social community in which the instruction will take place? Is the instructional site compatible with the needs of instruction? Is the instructional site compatible with the performance site or workplace? Is the instructional site flexible enough to allow for diverse instruction and diverse populations?

Instructional Context Control is an essential aspect of instructional design. What factors, within the instructional context, are under the control of the instructor or designer? The following is a list of factors that are common to instruction. Within Teacher's Control q q q q q q q q q Beyond Teacher's Control q q q q q q q q q

Media Availability Seating Arrangement Physical Size of Classroom Number of Students in Class Students' Social Characteristics Students' Academic Characteristics Students' Emotional Characteristics Technology: Hardware Availability Technology: Software Availability

Copyright 2001, Peter E. Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Performance Context Assessment emphasizes the nature of transfer within instruction. That is, instruction is rarely for the sole purpose of excelling on an in-class assessment. Normally, the value of instruction is demonstrated beyond the classroom. Understanding the performance context will increase the relevancy of the instruction, the motivation of the students, and the transfer from class performance to extra-class performance. 8. Performance Support: The use of new behaviors and skills is dependent, largely, upon the support for using them. In situations where demonstrating new behaviors and skills is punished, implicitly or explicitly, the new behaviors and skills are less likely to be demonstrated. Physical Factors: New behaviors and skills are often dependent upon the presence of specific materials, equipment, or facilities. If these resources are not available, then students will not be able to perform. Beyond the mere presence of the physical resources, the greater the congruence between the performance resources and the instructional resources, the greater the amount of learning transfer and performance.

9.

10. Social Factors: There are several social factors that affect the efficacy of performance, including the type of social interaction (e.g., individual versus group orientation), social milieu (e.g., cooperative versus competitive), or responsibility hierarchy (e.g., vertical versus horizontal). Understanding the social context will allow instruction to address issues designed to facilitate performance within the specific social confines.

Research in the Context of Distance Education indicates the following tentative conclusions. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Distance education is just as effective as traditional education in regard to learner outcomes. Distance education learners have a better attitude toward distance education than non-distance learners. While interaction seems intuitively important, interaction should not be added without real purpose. Building collaboration and group interaction may be more important than individual participation. Each form of distance education technology has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Exercise #3: Describe the context in which instruction will take place?

What are 3 essential components of the instructional context?

What are 3 concerns relative to the instructional context's adequacy for instruction?

Describe the context in which the student will ultimately be asked to perform?

What are 3 essential congruencies between the instructional and performance contexts?

Copyright 2001, Peter E. Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Instructional Planning 23

Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Content Assessment
Content Assessment: Content assessment, or task analysis, is a process designed to delineate the specific content to be addressed in an instructional unit, the prerequisite skills necessary to be successful, and the orientation of the content relative to itself. Determining the orientation of content involves breaking the task down into skills, subordinate skills, and superordinate skills. Further, task analyses often classify the analysis according to topic analyses, procedural analyses, and critical incident analyses.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment

Content Assessment or Task Analysis Format is generally hierarchical. Instructional Instructional Sequence Objectives Since the general approach of a task analysis is to break knowledge or skills down into components and sub-components, the hierarchical approach makes these relationships apparent. In the model below, Task 1 must be completed or known prior to engaging Task 2. Task 2 must be completed or known prior to engaging Task 3, and so on. In addition, in order to complete Task 1, subtask 1 2 3 4 A must be completed or known. Likewise, in order to complete Task 3, subtasks B and C must be completed or know. In each case, a "Task" may be either a set of knowledge to be understood or a procedure, mental or physical, A B to be completed. At each point in the hierarchy the designer must ask, "What does the student need to know or need to be able to do, in order to complete this task successfully?" This single question, applied at each Task or Sub-Task, creates the hierarchical structure. Typically, C boxes or rectangles indicate the Task knowledge or skill, while the arrows indicate rank or level. 3 Types of Content Assessments or Task Analyses include topic analyses, procedural analyses, and critical incident analyses. Each of these analyses may be conducted using the hierarchical approach. While other types of analyses may be conducted, these three represent the main analysis types (see Kemp, Morrison, & Ross, 1998). 1. Topic Analysis: A Topic Analysis provides two primary pieces of information, the content to be addressed by the instruction and the structure of the content (i.e., components and subcomponents). A topic analysis essentially consists of ever more detailed outlines of content. Typically, the topic analysis will involve at least three levels of outline, a general outline, an expanded outline, and a detailed outline. General Outline: Contains only major headings. Expanded Outline: Major headings are expanded to include essential sub-headings. Detailed Outline: Sub-headings are expanded to provide all the essential detail. General Outline I. Sensory Memory II. Working Memory Expanded Outline I. Sensory Memory A. Capacity Detailed Outline I. Sensory Memory A. Capacity: Unlimited, bound by perception

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Instructional Planning 24

III. Long-Term Memory

B. Duration: Dependent on sense 1. Visual: < 1 second 2. Auditory: < 4 seconds 3. Tactile: < 5 seconds 2. Procedural Analysis: A procedural analysis is designed to reduce a mental or physical task into the discrete steps needed to complete the task. Similar to a topic analysis, a procedural analysis is best created by first listing the major steps needed to complete a task, followed by a finer and finer grained analysis of what additional steps are needed. Three guiding questions for the assessment of each step are: What does the learner do? What does the learner need to know to do this step? What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed?

B. Duration C. Perception D. Attention

While it is possible to use a hierarchical structure for a procedural analysis, most procedural analyses are linear in nature. This linearity allows one to use a simple listing process for each step, including relevant cues for each step. The following is a partial procedural analysis for Step 1. Pickup the handset. 2. Place handset by head. a. Place ear piece by ear, and receiver piece by mouth. b. Hold gently against one's ear. 3. Listen. Cue Phone is ringing. Phone cord is attached to the receiver end. Sore ear indicates too much pressure. A voice is heard through the phone.

3. Critical Incident Analysis: A critical incident analysis is used to determine the core components within a task that varies according to circumstance and the person involved. Events that typically have significant variations (e.g., teaching, selling, debating, and sailing) also tend to have fairly stable core components that lead to success. A critical incident analysis is often completed through the use of observations or interviews. According to Kemp, Morrison, and Ross (1998) a critical incident interview is based on fundamental questions: 11. What were the conditions before, during, and after the incident? 12. What did you do? 13. How did this incident help or hinder you from achieving your goals? The critical incident analysis is appropriate for analyzing interpersonal exchanges, attitudes, and the solutions to ill-structured problems.

Exercise #4: When considering your need, which type of task analysis would be most appropriate (e.g., topic analysis, procedural analysis, or critical incident analysis)?

Briefly, sketch out an appropriate analysis.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Instructional Objectives
Instructional Objectives: An instructional objective (i.e., performance objective, behavioral objective) identifies the specific learning outcomes that students must demonstrate so that the teacher may infer that they have or have not learned a particular skill or knowledge set. Instructional objectives serve as a foundation from which to create appropriate instructional strategies, instructional assessments, and learner expectations.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

What are the 3 Components of a Traditional Instructional Objective? Perhaps the most crucial aspect of an instructional objective is that it is stated in terms of specific, observable, and measurable student behaviors that reflect a desired instructional goal. Mager (1984) proposed the writing of objectives that have 3 essential components, the behavior, the performance condition, and the performance criteria.

Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence

12. Behavior the specific, observable behavior to be exhibited by the student 13. Condition the setting or conditions in which the student must behave or perform 14. Performance the criteria used to determine fulfillment of the objective Example: Given a map of the United States, the student will be able to write the names of at least 40 states within the correct states boundaries. Condition: Given a map of the United States. Behavior: Write the name of states within the correct states boundaries. Performance Level: At least 40 states.

Short Forms of Objectives: While objectives have traditionally been written using the 3-component format, a new trend in writing objectives has focused on including only the behavior component. The condition or performance level components are included only when absolutely necessary for the clear understanding of the objective. Example: TSWBAT compose a 5 sentence expository paragraph

Goal-Objectives: While Mager-style and short form objectives dominate most of instructional design, a third type of objective relates the broader goal to the defining objectives. Example: 1. The student will comprehend instructional goals. 1.1 TSWBAT write 3-component instructional goals. 1.2 TSWBAT use 3-component instructional goals within a lesson plan. 1.3 TSWBAT evaluate instructional goals for appropriate format & content.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Why use instructional objectives? Instructional objectives have been supported as providing for: better instruction better evaluation more efficient learning increases in students' level of self-evaluation and metacognition.

Domains of Learning within Instructional Objectives typically address three areas, cognitive objectives, psychomotor objectives, and attitude objectives. Each of these domains uses a specific taxonomy to classify objectives. Cognitive: Cognitive objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect memorization or recall of specific facts, mental processing, such as concept learning, rule application, and problem solving. Psychomotor: Psychomotor objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect any physical activity requiring the movement of all or part of the body, excluding trivial movements. Attitude: Attitude objectives focus on student behaviors that reflect personal feelings or dispositions, such as appreciations, values, and emotions (e.g., enjoying, conserving, and respecting).

Exercise #5: Create three objectives, from any domain, and write them using either the 3-component method of writing objectives or the short form method of writing objectives.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Instructional Sequence
Instructional Sequence: Once an instructor understands the nature of their content and has created specific instructional objectives, it is time to create an instructional sequence - the order in which knowledge or skills will be presented or experienced by the learner. Often there are several different obvious sequences, while at other times the sequence of instruction may be rather fixed.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

4 Sequencing Schemes have been proposed by Posner and Strike (1976), and include a learning-related sequence, a world-related sequence and a conceptrelated sequence. A forth sequence may be added to this list of three using Gagn's prerequisite method or hierarchical-related sequence.

Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence

1. Learning-Related Sequence: Learning-related sequences are based on the application of five factors, prerequisites, familiarity, difficulty, interest, and development. Prerequisites: Familiarity: skills. Difficulty: Interest: Development: The order of teaching would depend directly on the learner Teach easier skills before more difficult skills. Teach HTML before XML Teach more interesting skills before less interesting skills. The order of teaching would depend directly on the learner Teach skills that are developmentally appropriate The order of teaching would depend directly on the learner Teach prerequisite skills prior to teaching a main task. Teach mean, median, and mode prior to teaching deviations and t-tests Teach skills that are more familiar/known before unfamiliar/unknown

2. World-Related Sequence: World-related sequences are based on the needs of a target audience and may vary from audience to audience. Thus, instruction related to web-based instruction may vary depending on the perspective of the audience. Instruction related to web-based instruction delivered to technicians, instructional designers, and students would all be different. Typically, there is one-to-one relation between the real-world object, person, or event and the instruction. Instruction designed to address the creation of a web page would proceed step-bystep, where each step corresponds to an action that is necessary to the completion of the task, creating a web page. Finally, world-related sequences may be classified as spatial, temporal, or physical. Spatial: Temporal: Physical: attributes addressing knowledge or skills based on spatial location; top to bottom; front to back; left to right; outside to inside addressing knowledge or skills based on time factors; historical/chronological; first step, second step, third step; fast to slow addressing knowledge or skills based on commonalties in physical hard to soft; large to small; light to dark; smooth to rough

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Instructional Planning 29

3. Concept-Related Sequence: Concept-related sequences are based on four characteristics of concepts, class relations, propositional relations, sophistication, and logical prerequisites. These characteristics may be used as the foundation for sequencing instruction based on the nature of the concept. Class Relations: teaching the main concept first, then teaching specific instances of the concept teaching the concept of strategy before teaching inquiry or cooperative learning Propositional Relations: teaching specific instances of the concept, then teaching the main concept teaching cellular structures, then teaching organ function Sophistication: teaching easy, concrete, or simple concepts, then difficult, abstract, or complex teaching t-test analyses, then teaching ANOVA analyses Logical Prerequisite: teaching the foundational or prerequisite concepts before the main concept teaching HTML before XML

4. Hierarchical-Related Sequence: Hierarchical-related sequences simply start at the bottom of a task analysis hierarchy and teach sub-tasks then tasks.

Exercise #6: Order the content that was written in response to Exercise 4-2 according to an appropriate instructional sequence.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Instructional Strategy
Instructional Strategy: Instructional strategies include the events, procedures, or steps designed and later implemented during instruction whose purpose is to foster the development and completion of the specific instructional objectives. Strategies often focus on the general instructional techniques used during instructional activities (e.g., cooperative learning, reciprocal teaching, and direction instruction). The concept of instructional strategies is often used broadly to include instructional sequencing and the selection of instructional media.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

3 Types of Strategies for different aspects of the instructional process. In each case, the strategy employed should be chosen to maximize student learning given the instructional objectives, content, and context.

Instructional Sequence

1. Lesson Strategies: Lesson strategies are broad strategies that may encompass several other activity or task strategies. Lesson strategies are extremely flexible in their application and may be used in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes, and with a variety of contents. Lesson strategies may take from an hour to several days to implement. 14. Direct Instruction 15. Cooperative / Group Instruction 16. Inquiry Instruction 2. Activity Strategies: Activity strategies are appropriate when addressing a specific aspect of instruction (i.e., specific content or skills). Activity strategies are narrower in scope than lesson strategies; therefore, a specific lesson may incorporate several different activity strategies to several different purposes. Activity strategies may take minutes to an hour to implement. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Problem-based Instruction Questioning and Discussion Techniques Concept Development Instruction Reciprocal Teaching Advance Organizer Discovery Learning Synectics Graffiti

3. Task Strategies: Task strategies are designed to foster student learning, metacognition, and assessment (informal) within a very small timeframe. Task strategies are often used to supplement and provide active pauses in activity and lesson strategies. Task Strategies may take only a couple of minutes to implement. Whip Around Outcome Sentences Think-Pair-Share Minute Reflections Think Aloud Entry/Exit Slips Response Cards 3-Minute Standing Conversation 3-2-1 Processor Background Knowledge Probes Sudden Brainstorm KWL Connect 12 Best Choice Debate

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Instructional Strategies and Learning Theory are inexorably linked. The selection of any instructional strategy should be based not only on the instructional objectives, content, and context, but also on one's understanding of the learning process. There are several learning theories (e.g., behaviorism, social cognitive theory, information processing theory, and constructivism) and each provides tenets from which to select or create instructional strategies. The following is one example of a theoretical framework from which to select or create an instructional strategy. Typical Constructivist Pedagogy 1. Learning should take place in authentic and real-world environments. 2. Learning should involve social negotiation and mediation. 3. Content and skills should be made relevant to the learner. 4. Content and skills should be understood within the framework of the learners prior knowledge. 5. Students should be encouraged to become self-regulatory, self-mediated, and self-aware. 6. Students should be assessed formatively, serving to inform future learning experiences. 7. Teachers serve primarily as guides and facilitators of learning, not instructors. 8. Teachers should provide for and encourage multiple perspectives and representations of content.

Instructional Strategies and Delivery Systems are related, but not identical concepts. Dick, Carey, and Carey (2001) state that an instructional strategy reflects the methods, materials, content, and processes specified in learning activities, while a delivery system is the means by which instruction will be provided. For example, cooperative learning is an instructional strategy, but implementing that strategy via classroom instruction or web-based instruction reflects the delivery system.

Instructional Strategy Advance Organizers Concept Development Cooperative Learning Direct Instruction Discovery Learning Drill and Practice Games Graffiti Group Work Inquiry Instruction Microworlds Problem-Based Instruction Questioning & Discussion Reciprocal Teaching Simulations Synectics Tutorials Think-Pair-Share Jurisprudential Inquiry Role Playing Memorization Mastery Learning Programmed Instruction Critical Incident

Delivery System Animation AudioConferencing AudioGraphics Bulletin Boards CD-ROM Chat Rooms Electronic Books Electronic Whiteboards Email Face-to-Face Classrooms Groupware HTML/DHTML/XML Hypermedia Listservs MOOs, MUDs Print/Text Streaming Audio/Video Tape Recordings TeleConferencing Television/Cable TV/Radio/Satellite Threaded Discussions Two-Way Audio/Video Conferencing Virtual Reality Web Pages (text & graphics)

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Media Effects research examines the relationship between the delivery method employed during instruction and the eventual effect of that method. Clark (1994) states that media selection and implementation do not directly affect learning, that media are but "vehicles" that provide the conduit through which instruction is delivered. Clark's conclusion identifies a serious aspect of media, it is not the media itself that is important, but the manner in which is wielded.

Social Interaction within web-based courses creates a sense of belonging and has the potential for providing meaningful educational experiences. The exact role of social interaction in the learning process, however, is unclear. Moore (1996) identifies three types of interaction, to which Kozma (1991) has added a forth. Learner-Content Interaction: Learner-content interaction involves the learner interacting with the content in meaningful and knowledge producing ways. The primary reason to interact with content is to change the learners perspective relative to the content. Learner-Instructor Interaction: The learner-instructor interaction benefits from the instructor taking the role of facilitator. The instructor is able to provide guidance, resources, support, and instruction. Learner-Learner Interaction: Learner-learner interactions allow learners to view instruction from multiple perspectives, to be assisted by peers, and to challenge ideas among peers (as opposed to "instructors"). Learner-Medium Interaction: Learner-media interactions, or learner-interface interactions, address the ease or difficulty a learner has in mediating his or her instruction through the use of technology. When learners are at ease with the use of technologies they generally perform better and have better attitudes.

Exercise #7: Considering your objectives, content, context, and learners, what instructional strategy do you believe might be effective in providing for student learning and the achievement of you objectives? Why?

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Instructional Media
Instructional Media: Instructional media encompasses all the materials and physical means an instructor uses to implement instruction and facilitate students' achievement of instructional objectives.. This may include traditional materials such as chalkboards, overhead, chalk, pencils, pens, and paper, as well newer materials such as computers, DVDs, CD-ROMs, Internet, two-way audio/video, and interactive video conferencing.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

3 Criteria for Adopting Instructional Media include the media's practicality, student appropriateness, and instructional appropriateness (Reiser & Dick, 1996). 17. Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that the media is available, cost efficient, time efficient, and understood by the instructor?

Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence

18. Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the developmental and experiential levels of the students? 19. Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended media appropriate for the planned instructional strategy? Will the media allow for the presentation of the proposed lesson in an efficient and effective manner? Will the media facilitate the students acquisition of the specific learning objectives?

3 Constraining Factors in Selecting Instructional Media include the availability of pre-existing materials, production difficulties, and instructor facilitation. Each of these factors may facilitate the selection of instructional materials, but often impeded the selection process (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001). 1. Existing Materials: The selection of existing instructional materials can facilitate the creation of instructional units; however, if no appropriate materials already exist, then the instructional designer is left with the task of creating the materials. 2. Production Constraints: Creating quality instructional media can be a costly, in both time and money, enterprise. A central question to answer is what level of media quality is acceptable, that is, both time and cost efficient as well as instructionally effective. 3. Instructor Facilitation: Most forms of instructional media involve teacher modeling, demonstration, implementation, or more broadly, facilitation. The amount or difficulty of this processes of media facilitation may inhibit a teacher's ability to effectively utilize the particular media.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Instructional Planning 35

Evaluating Instructional Media and Materials may be accomplished from several perspectives. Each of these perspectives on evaluating instructional media contributes to the use of valid and appropriate materials (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001). Goal-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Goal-centered criteria focus on the content of the instruction; specifically, "(a) congruence among the content in the materials and your performance objectives, (b) adequacy of content coverage and completeness, (c) authority, (d) accuracy, (e) currency, and (f) objectivity." Learner-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Learner-centered criteria focus on the appropriateness of the instructional materials for the specific target group; specifically, "(a) vocabulary and language levels, (b) developmental, motivational, and interest levels, (c) backgrounds and experiences, and (d) special language or other needs." Context-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Context-centered criteria focus on the appropriateness of the instructional materials for one's instructional and performance settings; specifically, (a) feasibility of materials for one's budget, (b) authenticity of materials, (c) quality of materials, and (d) design of materials. Learning-Centered Criteria for Evaluating Materials: Learning-centered criteria focus on the effectiveness of the instructional materials to positively delivery the instruction; specifically, "(a) the content sequencing is correct, (b) motivational concerns are addressed, (c) student participation and practice exercises exist, (d) adequate feedback is included, (e) appropriate assessments are available, (f) adequate follow-through directions are included for enhancing memory and transfer, (g) delivery system and media formats are appropriate for the objectives and learning context, and (h) adequate learner guidance is provided to move students from one component or activity to the next."

Copyright Myths and the Internet Myth 1: A work has to be published and registered with the U.S. Copyright Office to receive copyright protection. Myth 2: If it does not have a copyright notice, it is public domain. Myth 3: Anything on the Internet is public domain. Myth 4: A work copyrighted in another country is public domain in the U.S. Myth 5: The doctrine of "fair use" means that copyrighted materails can be used in an educational setting without permission.

Exercise #8: Considering your objectives, content, context, and learners, and instructional strategy, what media and materials do you anticipate needing?

For each of the above medial or materials, evaluate each according to its practicality, student appropriateness, and instructional appropriateness.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Achievement Assessment
Assessment: A general term used to denote the systematic collection and interpretation of data that is to be used in the making of educational decisions, including enhancing instruction. Measurement: The explicit quantification of the results obtained through testing that is designed to determine the degree of presence or absence of a particular characteristic, quality, or feature. Test: An instrument or formal process that presents tasks that yield a specific type of measurement. Evaluation: The placing of value or interpretation of a measurement. Evaluation encompasses the inferences that are drawn from measurements.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

Types of Assessment Methods vary and are appropriate based on congruence with instructional objectives, instructional strategies, and content, context, and learner characteristics. Selected Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to select the correct or best answer (e.g., multiple-choice, true-false, matching questions). Supply Response Testing: Tests that use items that require the student to respond to a question with a word, phrase, or essay answer (e.g., short answer, essay questions). Restricted Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a limited task that is highly structured (e.g., selecting the appropriate tool for a task, determining the area of given rectangle, writing a brief paragraph on a given topic). Extended Performance Assessment: Assessments that require a student to complete a more comprehensive task that is less structured (e.g., writing a research report, drawing the water cycle, creating a structure out of Lego's that will support 10 pounds).

The 3 Necessities of Assessment include the reliability of the assessment processes, the validity of the assessment results, and the absence-of-bias in the entire process. Each of these components must be present for a fair, appropriate, and accurate assessment of student achievement. Reliability: The consistency of results (measurement) obtained from an assessment, based on the control, reduction, and/or elimination of measurement error. Reliable assessments yield similar results across similar applications with similar populations. Validity: The accuracy and appropriateness of the interpretations and inferences (evaluation) drawn from the results of a test (measurement). Validity always refers to the appropriate use of a measurement, and not the measurement itself. Absence-of-Bias: The absence of any characteristic associated with an assessment that might offend or unfairly penalize those being assessed and thus distort a student's score. Absence-of-bias comes in many forms and appropriate judgements must be made with specific populations in mind.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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General Guidelines for Effective Assessment (Gronlund, 1998; Linn & Gronlund, 1995): Effective assessment requires a clear conception of all intended learning outcomes. Instruction and assessment are both based on the intended learning outcomes. These specific learning outcomes must be clearly stated, involve both lower and higher order skills, and include evaluation criteria. Effective assessment requires that a variety of assessment procedures be used. Different types of specific learning outcomes require different assessment procedures. Multiple choice items may sufficiently measure knowledge and comprehension outcomes, while a performance assessment may be necessary to measure a skill-based outcome. Effective assessment requires that the instructional relevance of the procedures be considered. The assessment used must fit the specific learning outcome that it is designed to measure, the interpretations that one wishes to make, and the feedback one wishes to give to students. Does the assessment fit the classroom, students, learning outcomes, and teaching strategies? Effective assessment requires an adequate sample of student performance. Not all tasks that are directly related to the specific learning outcomes of concern can be measured; thus, a subgroup or sample of these tasks must be used to infer back to the larger set of tasks. A sufficient number of sample tasks is necessary to be able to adequately infer the achievement of a specific learning outcome. Effective assessment requires that the procedures be fair to everyone. Assessments must be clear, unbiased, appropriate, and used in pertinent ways. Effective assessment requires the specifications of criteria for judging successful performance. Performance criteria for success must be determine prior to the administration of the assessment. These performance criteria are an integral component of a specific learning outcome, and these criteria should be conveyed to the students. Effective assessment requires feedback to students that emphasizes strengths of performance and weaknesses to be corrected. Assessment results should be conveyed to students and used to strengthen successful performance and assist in the remediation of weak performance. This feedback should be (1) immediate, (2) detailed, (3) emphasize strengths and weaknesses of performance, (4) indicate remediation, and (5) should be positive in nature. Effective assessment must be supported by a comprehensive grading and reporting system. All administered assessments should be used in the determination of grades. When multiple types of assessments are used, each of these assessments should contribute to the final grade, not just the objective assessments.

Exercise #9: Based on the previously stated context, content, and learner assessments, as well as the delineated instructional objectives, strategies, and media, describe the nature of an appropriate assessment of student achievement strategy.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Instructional Design for Web-based Instruction

Instructional Assessment
Instructional Assessment: Assessing the viability and effectiveness of the instructional process involves both formative assessments and summative assessments. Formative assessments are evaluations of the instructional process (i.e., task, content, and context analyses, instructional objectives, sequences, strategies, and media), during the instructional design process itself. Summative assessments are evaluations that occur after the instruction has been created and implemented. While both formative and summative assessments may lead to revisions in the instruction, formative assessments are used with the purpose of revising instruction as it is developed, while summative assessments are used on a more global level to indicate if instruction has resulted in the satisfaction of the instructional goals.
Instructional Assessment Achievement Assessment Instructional Media Instructional Strategies Instructional Sequence Needs Assessment Learner Assessment Context Assessment Content Assessment Instructional Objectives

Formative Assessment enters almost every phase of the instructional design process. For example, once a content analysis is complete, the content analysis may be formatively assessed by asking learners from the target population to examine the content for relevancy. The content analysis may also be assessed by a subject-matter expert to check for technical accuracy. In addition, the instructional objectives may likewise be assessed by learners and subject-matter experts. Finally, the instructional strategies themselves may be assessed by using the strategies in a pilot of the instruction with members of the target population. Formative assessments will often take the form of single user assessments, small group assessments, and a field test. Single-User Assessment: A single-user formative assessment involves the designer working closely with an individual user as the user interacts with the instruction. In this one-on-one situation, the designer may probe the user's thoughts, relative to the instruction, asking the user to evaluate various aspects of the instruction and making suggestions for the improvement of the instruction. Small Group Assessment: A small group assessment typically follows a single-user assessment and after changes in the instruction have been made based on the feedback attained from the single-user assessment. The small group assessment relies on having several users engage in the instruction simultaneously. The small group assessment will reveal potential areas of concern related to addressing various individual differences and group processing difficulties. Field Test: Eventually, before administering the instruction to the target audience, a field test of the instruction is undertaken. The field test involves using the instruction in the real-world context in which it will ultimately be applied with representative of the target population. The field test should be designed to be as realistic as possible to identify any problems that may arise in the actual use of the instruction.

Concerns Influencing the Use of Formative Assessments should be addressed whenever possible. Context Concerns: In using formative assessments it is important to mimic the conditions under which the instruction will ultimately be used. However, formative assessments will frequently begin in rather controlled situations to obtain early feedback, and only later will implementation be in real situations.

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Learner Concerns: The characteristics of the learners that are used in formative assessments influence the conclusions drawn from the assessments. Learners should be heterogeneous, to assess the instruction across a wide range of learner characteristics. Outcome Concerns: Often, during formative assessments, the efficacy of the designed instruction is less than desired. This should not be seen as a failure, but rather an opportunity to improve instruction. Ultimately it is the purpose of the formative assessment to indicate what is wrong, not what is right. Implementation Concerns: The formative evaluation process is sometimes overlooked or shortened due to time constraints. In all cases, it is essential to obtain as much feedback from potential users as possible, even if this must come during the first actual use of the instruction.

Summative Assessment is focused on evaluating the overall effectiveness of the instruction in meeting or satisfying the stated instructional goals and objectives. Summative assessments are often focused not only on learner achievement, but also on efficiency of learning, cost of instruction, attitudes toward the instruction, and long-term and side-effect benefits of the program. Ultimately, summative assessments tend to focus on whether or not the instruction should be used again or if new instruction needs to be designed. In arriving at these decisions a two-phase model (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2001) is often used. In the expert judgement phase, experts assess the planned instruction for its potential for effectiveness. In the field trial phase, the instruction is implemented with target population learners and evaluated for effectiveness. The following chart represents the key questions asked and answered during these two phases of summative assessment. Summative Evaluation Expert Judgement Phase Overall Decision Do the materials have the potential for meeting the organization's needs? Specific Decisions Congruence Analysis: Are the needs and goals of the organization congruent with those in the instruction? Content Analysis: Are the materials complete, accurate, and current? Design Analysis: Are the principles of learning, instruction, and motivation clearly evident in the materials? Feasibility Analysis: Are the materials convenient, durable, cost-effective, and satisfactory for current users? Learner Impact: Are the achievement and motivation levels of learners satisfactory following instruction? Performance Impact: Are learners able to transfer the information, skills, and attitudes from the instructional setting to the "job" setting or to subsequent units of related instruction? Organizational Impact: Are learners' changed behaviors making positive differences in the achievement of the organization's mission or goals? Are the materials effective with target learners in the prescribed setting? Field Trial Phase

Exercise #10: How might the designed instruction be assessed summatively? What aspects of the instruction would be most important to assess?

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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References Burton, J. K., & Merrill, P. F. (1991). Needs assessment: Goals, needs, and priorities. In L. Briggs, K. Gustafson, & M. Tillman (Eds.). Instructional design: Principles and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 21-29. Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2001). The systematic design of instruction. New York: Longman. Gronlund,N. E. (1998). Assessment of student achievement. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Kemp, J. E., Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. M. (1998). Designing effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Kozma, R. B. (1991). Learning with media. Review of Educational Research, 61, 179-211. Linn, R. L., & Gronlund, N. E. (1995/2000). Measurement and Assessment in Teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Mager, R. F. (1984). Preparing instructional objectives. Belmont, CA: Pitman. Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A systems view. Boston: Wadsworth. Posner, G. J., & Strike, K. A. (1976). A categorization scheme for principles of sequencing content. Review of Educational Research, 46, 665-690. Reiser, R. A., & Dick, W. (1996). Instructional planning: A guide for teachers. Boston: Allyn adn Bacon. Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2000). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (1993). Instructional design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

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Bibliography A le s s i, S . M . , & T r o ll i p , S . R . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . M u lt i m e d ia f o r l e a r n in g : M e th o d s a n d d e v e lo p m e n t. B o s to n : A ll y n a n d B a c o n . B u r g e , L . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . B e y o n d a n d r a g o g y : S o me e x p lo r a ti o n s f o r d is ta n c e l e a r n in g d e s ig n . J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 3 ( 1 ) , 5 - 2 3 . C h u te , A . G . , T h o mp s o n , M . M . , & H a n c o c k , B . W . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . T h e M c G r a w - H il l h a n d b o o k o f d is ta n c e l e a r n in g. N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H il l . C o n n ic k , G . P . ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . T h e d is ta n c e l e a r n e r s g u id e . U p p e r S a d d le R iv e r , N J : P r e n ti c e H a ll . F u lf o r d , C . P . & Z h a n g S . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . P e r c e p ti o n s o f i n te r a c ti o n : T h e c r it i c a l p r e d ic to r i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 7 ( 3 ) , 8 - 2 0 . F u lf o r d , C . P . & Z h a n g S . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . I n te r a c ti v it y i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n t e le v is io n : A c o n s tr u c te d r e a li t y . I n C . C . G ib s o n ( E d . ) , D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n s y m p o s iu m 3 : L e a r n e r s a n d l e a r n in g ( p p . 5 2 - 6 0 ) . U n iv e r s it y P a r k , P A : T h e A me r ic a n C e n te r f o r t h e S tu d y o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . G a g n . R . M . , B r ig g s , L . J . , & W a lt e r , W . W . ( 1 9 9 2 ) . P r in c ip le s o f i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n . O r la n d o : H a r c o u r t B r a c e . G a r r is o n , D . R . & S h a le , D . G . ( E d s . ) . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . E d u c a ti o n a t a d is ta n c e : F r o m i s s u e s t o p r a c ti c e . M a la b a r , F L : K r ie g e r . G ib s o n , C . C . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . T o w a r d a b r o a d e r c o n c e p tu a li z a ti o n o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . I n D . K e e g a n ( E d . ) , T h e o r e ti c a l p r in c ip le s o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n ( p p . 8 0 - 9 2 ) . O x f o r d : P e r g a mo n . G ib s o n , C . C . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . T o w a r d a n u n d e r s ta n d in g o f a c a d e mi c s e lf c o n c e p ti o n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 1 0 ( 1 ) , 2 2 - 3 6 . G il b e r t, L , & M o o r e , D . R . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . B u il d in g i n te r a c ti v it y i n to w e b c o u r s e s : T o o ls f o r s o c ia l a n d i n s tr u c ti o n a l i n te r a c ti o n . E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y , 3 8( 3 ) , 2 9 - 3 5 . G r a b e , M . , & G r a b e , C . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . I n te g r a ti n g t e c h n o lo g y f o r m e a n in g fu l l e a r n in g . B o s to n : H o u g h to n M if f li n .

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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G u s ta f s o n , K . , & B r a n c h R . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . S u r v e y o f i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n m o d e ls . S y r a c u s e , N Y : I n f o r ma ti o n R e s o u r c e P u b li c a ti o n s . H a y e s , E . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . A d u lt e d u c a ti o n : C o n te x t a n d c h a ll e n g e f o r d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 4 ( 1 ) , 25-34. H il l , J . R . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . D is ta n c e l e a r n in g e n v ir o n me n ts v ia t h e w o r ld w id e w e b . I n B . H . K a h n ( E d . ) , W e b - b a s e d i n s tr u c ti o n . ( p p . 7 5 - 8 0 ) . E n g lw o o d C li f f s , N J : E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . H il l m a n D . C . , W il l i s D . J . , & G u n a w a r d e n a , C . N . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . L e a r n e r i n te r f a c e i n te r a c ti o n i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : A n e x te n s io n o f c o n te mp o r a r y m o d e ls a n d s tr a te g ie s f o r p r a c ti t i o n e r s . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 8 ( 2 ) , 3 0 - 4 2 . J o n a s s e n , D . H . ( 2 0 0 0 ) . C o m p u te r s a s m in d to o ls f o r s c h o o ls . U p p e r S a d d le R iv e r , N J : M e r r il l . J o n a s s e n , D . H . , P e c k , K . L . , & W il s o n , B . G . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . L e a r n in g w it h t e c h n o lo g y : A c o n s tr u c ti v is t p e r s p e c ti v e . U p p e r S a d d le R iv e r , N J : M e r r il l . K e e g a n , D . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . F o u n d a ti o n s o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n ( 3r d e d . ) . L o n d o n : C r o o m H e lm . M a d d u x , C . D . , J o h n s o n , D . L . , & W il l i s , J . W . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . E d u c a ti o n a l c o m p u ti n g : L e a r n in g w it h t o m o r r o w ' s t e c h n o lo g ie s . B o s to n : A ll y n a n d Bacon. M c I s a a c , M . S . , & G u n a w a r d e n a , C . N . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . I n D . H . J o n a s s e n ( E d . ) , H a n d b o o k o f r e s e a r c h f o r e d u c a ti o n a l c o m m u n ic a ti o n s a n d t e c h n o lo g y ( p p . 4 0 3 - 4 3 7 ) . N e w Y o r k : S im o n S c h u s te r M a c mi l l a n . M o o r e , M . G . , & T h o mp s o n M . M . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . T h e e ff e c ts o f d is ta n c e l e a r n in g . U n iv e r s it y P a r k , P A : A me r ic a n C e n te r f o r t h e S tu d y o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n . M o o r e , M . G . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . R e c e n t c o n tr ib u ti o n s t o t h e t h e o r y o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . O p e n L e a r n in g , 5 ( 3 ) , 1 0 - 1 5 . M o o r e , M . G . ( 1 9 9 1 ) . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n t h e o r y . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 5 ( 3 ) , 1 - 6 .

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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M o o r e , M . G . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . T h e o r y o f t r a n s a c ti o n a l d is ta n c e . I n D . K e e g a n ( E d . ) , T h e o r e ti c a l p r in c ip le s o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n ( p p . 2 2 - 3 8 ) . N e w Y o r k : R o u tl e d g e . P e te r s , O . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . L e a r n in g a n d t e a c h in g i n d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : A n a ly s e s a n d i n te r p r e ta ti o n s f r o m a n i n te r n a ti o n a l p e r s p e c ti v e . L o n d o n : Kogan Page. R e p ma n J . , & L o g a n , S . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . I n te r a c ti o n s a t a d is ta n c e p o s s ib le b a r r ie r s a n d c o ll a b o r a ti v e s o lu ti o n s . T e c h tr e n d s , 4 1( 6 ) , 3 5 - 3 8 . R o w la n d , G . ( 1 9 9 2 ) . W h a t d o i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n e r s a c tu a ll y d o ? A n i n it i a l i n v e s ti g a ti o n o f e x p e r t p r a c ti c e . P e r fo r m a n c e I m p r o v e m e n t Q u a r te r ly , 5 ( 2 ) , 6 5 - 8 6 . S a b a , F . , & S h e a r e r , R . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . V e r if y in g k e y t h e o r e ti c a l c o n c e p ts i n a d y n a mi c m o d e l o f d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 8 ( 1 ) , 3 6 - 5 9 . S a n d e r s , W . G . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . C r e a ti n g l e a r n in g - c e n te r e d c o u r s e s f o r t h e w o r ld w id e w e b . B o s to n : A ll y n a n d B a c o n . S c h lo s s e r , C . A . , & A n d e r s o n , M . L . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : R e v ie w o f t h e l i t e r a tu r e. W a s h in g to n , D . C . : A s s o c ia ti o n f o r E d u c a ti o n a l C o mm u n ic a ti o n s a n d T e c h n o lo g y . S ma ld in o , S . ( 1 9 9 9 ) . I n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n : F o r d is ta n c e l e a r n in g . T e c h tr e n d s , 4 3( 5 ) , 9 - 1 3 . T e s s me r M . , & R ic h e y , R . C . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . T h e r o le o f c o n te x t i n l e a r n in g a n d i n s tr u c ti o n a l d e s ig n . E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y , R e s e a r c h , & D e v e lo p m e n t, 4 5( 2 ) , 8 5 - 1 1 5 . V e r d u in , J . R . , & C la r k , T . A . ( 1 9 9 1 ) . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n t h e f o u n d a ti o n s o f e ff e c ti v e p r a c ti c e . S a n F r a n c is c o , C A : J o s s e y - B a s s . Vrasidas, C., & McIsaac, M. S. (1999). Factors influencing interaction in an online course. The American Journal of Distance Education, 13(3), 22-36. W a g n e r , E . D . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . I n s u p p o r t o f a f u n c ti o n a l d e f in it i o n o f i n te r a c ti o n . T h e A m e r ic a n J o u r n a l o f D is ta n c e E d u c a ti o n , 8 ( 2 ) , 6 - 2 9 . W a g n e r , E . D . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . I n te r a c ti v it y f r o m a g e n ts t o o u tc o me s . N e w D ir e c ti o n s f o r T e a c h in g a n d L e a r n in g , 7 1( 3 ) , 1 9 - 2 6 .

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W a g n e r , E . D . , & M c C o mb s , B . L . ( 1 9 9 5 ) . L e a r n e r c e n te r e d p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r in c ip le s i n p r a c ti c e : D e s ig n s f o r d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y , 3 5( 2 ) , 3 2 - 3 5 . W e s to n , C . , & C r a n to n , P . A . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . S e le c ti n g i n s tr u c ti o n a l s tr a te g ie s . J o u r n a l o f H ig h e r E d u c a ti o n , 5 7( 3 ) , 2 5 9 - 2 8 8 . W h it e , K . W . , & W e ig h t, B . H . ( 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e o n li n e t e a c h in g g u id e . B o s to n : A ll y n a n d B a c o n . W il l i s , B . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . D is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n : A p r a c ti c a l g u id e . E n g le w o o d C li f f s , N . J . : E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y . W o lc o tt , L . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . D is ta n c e d b u t n o t d is ta n c e d a l e a r n e r - c e n te r e d a p p r o a c h t o d is ta n c e e d u c a ti o n . T e c h tr e n d s , 4 1( 7 ) , 2 3 - 2 7 . Z h a n g S . , & F u lf o r d , C . P . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . A r e i n te r a c ti o n t i m e a n d p s y c h o lo g ic a l i n te r a c ti v it y t h e s a me t h in g i n t h e d is ta n c e l e a r n in g t e le v is io n c la s s r o o m? E d u c a ti o n a l T e c h n o lo g y , 3 4( 6 ) 5 8 - 6 4 .

Copyright 2002 by Peter Doolittle Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University