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Chapter 1 1.

Introduction to Electricity Supply System

Power Distribution system The main function of a distribution system is to receive power from large bulk power sources and to distribute electric power to consumers at various voltage levels and with acceptable degree of reliability. Most commonly used nominal voltages are 3.3kV, 6.6kV, 11kV, 22kV and 33kV, sometimes referred to 3.6kV, 7.2kV, 12kV , 24kV and 36kV. By selecting a higher distribution voltage, appreciable saving in overall cost can be achieved if load density within the service area is high. 3 important considerations of a distribution system: Provide service with a minimum voltage variation and a minimum supply interruption. Overall system cost should be as low as possible and to be consistent with the quality of service. Flexible to allow expansion in small increments to meet changing load conditions The schemes of connection in a distribution network normally consist of radial, ring and network systems.

Radial circuit

Ring circuit

Network Ring circuit

Basic Components of Electrical System A Busway (Busducts) and Cables There are two methods to route power into a building or distribute power throughout a building. Electrical cable can be run inside conduit or busway can be used. The distribution system in a building frequently consists of a combination of busways, cables and conduits.

Busway is a prefabricated electrical distribution system consisting of busbars in a protective enclosure, including straight lengths, fittings, devices, and accessories. Busbars are the electrical conductors that carry power. The bars are sometimes individually insulated and enclosed in a housing.

B Circuit Breakers Circuit breakers provide a manual means of energising and de-energising a circuit. In addition, circuit breakers provide with an internal or external automatic means of detecting and isolating faults in a circuit.

C Metering Power meter measures power or the rate of using energy in kW Energy or kWh meter is used by the power company to determine how much electricity has been consumed for billing purposes.

D Motors & Motor Control Centres Motors ae widely used as fans, pumps, elevators, escalators and conveyors. Motors convert electric energy to motion. When a larger number of motors are used these components are often concentrated in a motor control centre (MCC). A motor control centre is a type of enclosure that is sectionalised so that control circuits associated with each motor are mounted in a removable container called a tray. Motor control centres can also include items such as reduced-voltage controllers, variable speed drives and programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

Power Supplies There are several sources used to produce power. Coal, oil, and uranium are fuels used to convert water into steam which in turn drives a turbine. Some utilities also use gas turbines, or both gas and steam turbines, for combined cycle operation. The output shaft of the turbine is connected to a generator. Thegenerator is rotated by the turbine. It is the generator which converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Switchboards Switchboards can be used in commercial applications as service entrance equipment and for distribution of electrical power throughout the building. Switchboards typically consist of one or more incomers and several outgoing feeders. The incomer can be fed directly from the utility transformer, cable or a generator.

G Switchgear The term switchgear is used to describe coordinated devices used for control and protection of equipment such as generators, transformers, capacitor banks, motors and cables. Switchgear is accessible from the front and rear. There are switchgears for low- (up to 1kV) and medium voltage (1kV 36kV) applications. Switchgear normally conforms to design requirements for metal-clad switchgear.

H Transformers A transformer is used to step up the voltage at the generator end for transmission at high voltages over long distances and step down the voltage for distribution and use at the load end. Lage HV transfomers are called power transformers. Smaller transformers (250kVA 3000kVA) used to step the voltage down to 415/240V are called distribution transformers. Transformers are normally fitted with tap changers to adjust the secondary voltage either automatically for large power transformers or manually for smaller power and all distribution transformers. Power transformers usually use insulating oil for insulation and cooling purposes. Oil is a fire hazard. Distribution transformers may be of the oil- or dry-type, which uses cast resin as insulation and air for cooling.


Genset system (N+1) system configurations An N+1 redundancy is a system configuration in which multiple components (N) have at least one independent backup component to ensure continuity of supply in the event of a unit failure. The standby unit can be run on free-spinning or completely shutdown when not required. UPS system configurations Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electrialc power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. It differs from an auxiliary power supply or standby generator, which does not provide instant protection from a momentary power interruption. A UPS, however, can be used to provide uninterrupted power to equipment for 120 minutes until a generator can be turned on or utility power is restored. There are two distinct UPS types: a. Off-line: remains idle until a power failure occurs, and then switches from utility power to its own power source, almost instantaneously. b. On-line: continuously powers the protected load from its energy reserves stored in a lead acid battery or flywheel, while simultaneously replenishing the reserves from the ac power. It also provides protection against all common power problems, and for this reason it is also known as a power conditioner. While not limited to safeguarding any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss. UPS units come in sizes ranging from units which will back up a single computer without monitor (around 200 VA) to units which will power entire data centres or buildings (several megawatts). Historically, UPSs were expensive and were most likely to be used on expensive computer systems and in areas where the power supply is interrupted frequently. As prices have fallen, UPS units have become an essential piece of equipment for data centres and business computers, and are also used for personal computers, entertainment systems, etc.