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# EINSTEIN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12

## Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Subject Code: ME 39
Electrical Engineering Lab

: : : :

S.No

Date

Page No.

Marks

Staff Initial

Remarks

## Open Circuit Test and Load Test on Separately Excited Dc Generator

Load Test on Dc Shunt Motor Load Test on Dc Series Motor Speed Control of Dc Shunt Motor Load Test on 3 Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

3 4 5 6

Load Test on Single Phase Induction Motor Regulation of Three Phase Alternator By EMF And MMF Methods

## V Curves and Inverted V Curves of Three Phase Synchronous Motor

Load Test on Single Phase Transformer Open Circuit and Short Circuit Test on Single Phase Transformer

10

11

12

## OPEN CIRCUIT TEST AND LOAD TEST ON SEPARATELY EXCITED DC GENERATOR

To conduct the open circuit test on a given separately excited DC generator and to draw the characteristics curves

APPARATUS REQURED: S.No 1 Apparatus Ammeter Range (0-2A)MC (0-20A)MC 2 3 Voltmeter Rheostat (0-300V)MC 300/1.1A 210/2A 4 5 Tachometer Resistive load 5Kw Quantity 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

FORMULAE USED:

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

TABULATION: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST Field current If(A) Open circuit voltage Eg(V)

## Ia is the armature current IL is the line current Eg is the generated emf

THEORY: In separately excited DC generator the exciting field current is supplied by a separate source. The terminal voltage applied across the armature can be taken as the induced voltage. Thus it is possible to obtain the open circuit voltage as a shunt of field current. By field rheostat variation we can vary the field current. Hence we can obtain the variations in the no load voltage. Because of the residual flux in the magnetic poles so far, there is a small amount of emf is induced, even when the field current is zero. Since the generated emf is directly proportional to the flux, the open circuit characteristic is a straight line at initial position.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram 2. The motor is started with the help of the three-point starter and it is made to run it rated speed when the generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch. 3. By varying the generator field rheostat gradually, the open circuit voltage (E0) and corresponding field current (If) readings are observed at no load condition 4. The motor is switched off by using the DPST switch after bringing all the rheostats to initial position

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 6 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab LOAD TEST Line Voltage VL (V) Field current If (A) Load current IL(A) Armature current Ia(A) Armature drop IaRa(V) Eg= VL+IaRa

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

2. The motor is started with the help of the three-point starter and it is made to run it rated speed when the generator is disconnected from the load by DPST switch. 3. By varying the generator field rheostat gradually the rated voltage is obtained 4. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are observed at no load condition 5. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are observed for different load up to rated current by closing the DPST switch. 6. After tabulating all the readings the load is brought to initial positions. 7. The motor is switched off using the DPST switch after bringing all the rheostat to initial position.

MODEL GRAPH

RESULT:

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Purpose of this experiment? 2. How will you bring the Dc generator to its rated speed? 3. What is mean by external resistance? 4. How will you find the armature resistance? 5. Condition of excited on open circuit? 6. What will happen it you interchange the shunt field connection? 7. What will happen in shunt generator if load is applied? 8. What is the maximum voltage in shunt generator? 9. What is commutator? 10. Write the relation between load and terminal voltage or generator voltage

## LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

To conduct the load test on DC shunt motor and draw its performance characteristic. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Rheostat Connecting wire Tacho meter Range (0-300)V mc (0-20A)mc 500,0.8A Quantity 1 1 1set As required 1

FORMULAE USED:

1. Torque T=T1~T2*9.81*r*Nm Where, (T1~T2) - Difference in the load r Radius of brake drum. 2. Power P= VLIL watts VL Line Voltage IL Line current 3. Output power = 2NT/60 watts Where, N Speed in rpm T Torque in Nm 4. Efficiency () = O/p/I/p *100%

S.No

T2 (kg)

T1~T2

N (rpm)

Torque (NM)

I/P (w)

O/P (w)

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 15 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab THEORY: The shunt motor has a definite no load speed the drop in speed from no load to full load is small is 5 to 10% of no load speed. So the motor is usually referred to as constant speed motor. The speed for any load within the operating range of the motor can be readily obtained by varying the field current by means of field rheostat. The shunt motor has a lower starting torque. If twice full load torque is required at starting then the shunt motor draws the full load current. To start a shunt motor it should have enough starting torque and the armature current should be within its safe limit. A there point starter is used for the shunt motor. The efficiency curve usually of the same shape for all motors or generator.

PROCEDURE: i) ii) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Set the rheostat at minimum position and start the motor using starter. By varying the rheostat set the rated speed of the motor. iii) Note down the speed, ammeter and voltmeter readings for various load. iv) The graph is plotted between output and various efficiency, line current, torque and speed.

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab MODEL GRAPH PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

RESULT:

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. What is the other name for DC shunt motor? 2. What is the field winding nature in DC shunt motor? 3. How will you connect the field winding in DC shunt motor? 4. What is the purpose of this experiment? 5. Relation between load & speed? 6. Relation between efficiency & load? 7. What is speed nature of shunt motor? 8. What is the starting torque nature of DC shunt motor? 9. What is the application of D shunt motor? 10. Whether we can run the DC shunt motor initially with load or without load? 11. Whether the field rheostat is kept in maximum or minimum position during initial Condition?

## LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR

To conduct the load test on DC Series motor and draw its characteristic.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter 3Point starter Tachometer Connecting wire Range (0-300)V mc (0-15)A Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

FORMULAE USED: 1. Torque T=T1~T2*9.81*r*Nm T1~T2 - Difference in load r Radius of the break drum. 2. Input power = VLIL watts VL Line Voltage IL Line current 3. Output power = 2NT/60 watts N Speed in rpm T Torque in Nm 4. Efficiency () = Output/Input *100

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 22 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab TABULATION: S.No VL (v) IL (A) TL (kg) T2 (kg) T1~T2 N(rpm) Torq ue (nm) I/P (w) O/P (w) %

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 23 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab THEORY: It is early observed that at no load the motor current and hence the flux per pole tends to zero and as a consequence the motor speed tends to increase to infinite. This is a dangerous situation and the centrifugal force will destroy the armature flux a series motor must never to allowed to run at no load torque increases the motor speed drops heavily there by the KW load on the motor of this type of speed torque characteristics and is ideally switched for function, cranes, etc., Application were as during starting a large accelerating torque is demanded by the load is at ways on the motor to there is no danger of under loading or no-loading.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. Apply some load to the break drum and then start the motor. 3. Note down the speed and load current. 4. Just by increasing the load note down the voltmeter, Ammeter readings. 5. Note down the speed torque and load current various load up to the rated current.

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab MODEL GRAPH PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

RESULT:

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 26 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. What is the starting torque nature in DC series motor? 2. What is the other name for DC series motor? 3. What is the field winding nature for DC series motor? 4. How will you connect field winding in series motor? 5. What is the purpose of this experiment? 6. Application of DC series motor? 7. How will you differentiate torque curve between DC series, DC shunt and DC Compound motor? 8. Whether we can run the DC series motor initially with load or without load? 9. Which starter is used for DC series motor? 10. What is the speed nature of DC series motor?

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 29 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab Ex.No. Date: AIM: SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

To control the speed of the dc shunt motor by using armature control and field control method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No 1 2 3 4

Quantity

1 set

## THEORY Field control Method:

We know that N1/ by decreasing the flux the speed can be increased vice versa the flux could be changed by changing Ish with the help of a field rheostat has to carry only a small current which means I2R losses is small so that rheostat is small in size. This method is therefore efficient in non Interpol or machine the speed could increase in the ratio 2:1. Any further weakening of flux effect the commutation and hence put a limit to the maximum speed obtained with this method.

## ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD:

This method is used when the speed below the no load speed are required. As the supply voltage is normally a constant the voltage across armature is varied by a variable resistance is series with the armature circuit. As this resistance increase a potential difference across the armature decreased by decreasing the armature speed.

Nrpm

Va= If(A)

v Nrpm

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab PROCEDURE:

The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD: 2. By adjusting the field rheostat, the field current is kept at constant value. 3. Then by varying the armature voltage, the speed is measured. 4. The graph is plotted across the different value of armature voltage and speed. FIELD CONTROL METHOD: 1. By adjusting the armature rheostat, the armature voltage is kept at constant value. 2. Then by varying the field current, the different speeds are tabulated. 3. The procedure is repeated and graph is plotted between field current and speed.

RESULT:

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. Purpose of this experiment? 2. How many types of speed controls are there? 3. By which method we can control the speed of dc shunt motor above rated speed? 4. Explain the armature control method? 5. By which method we can control the speed of dc shunt motor below rated speed ? 6. Explain the field control method? 7. Application of DC shunts motor? 8. If you vary the armature rheostat from minimum to maximum what will happen to the speed of the motor? 9. If you vary the field rheostat from minimum to maximum position what will happen to the speed of the motor? 10. What type of starter is used in DC shunt motor?

Ex.No. Date:

## LOAD TEST ON 3 SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM: To conduct the load test on 3 induction motor and to draw its characteristic graph. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Apparatus Wattmeter Voltmeter Ammeter Tachometer Autotransformer Connecting wire 415V/(0-470V)0.8A Range 600V/15A UPF (0-600V)mi (0-10)A mi Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 1 set

FORMULAE USED: 1. Input power = w1+w2 watt W1 Power measured in I wattmeter W2 Power measured in II wattmeter 2. Torque =(T1 ~ T2)*9.81*r nm T1~ T2 difference in weight (kg) R The radius of brake drum. 3. Output power = 2NT/60 watt N Speed in rpm T Torque in nm 4. % Efficiency = (output power/input power) *100 5. % Slip = (Ns-Nr/Ns) *100 Ns Synchronous speed of motor in rpm

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 38 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab TABULATION: S. No VL V ILA I/P (watts) W1 (Watts) act div W2 (watts) act div T1 (kg) T2 (kg) T1~ T2 (kg) T (Nm) O/p (w) N rpm p.f % % sl i p

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

Nr Speed of the motor 6.Power factor = (w1+w2)/root 3 VLIL W1+w2 i/p power in watt VL line voltage in volt IL line current in amps THEORY: Induction Machines:

Induction motor is one of the most important machines, which is used in industrial and domestic applications. These induction motors are classified into different types namely squirrel cage induction motor and slip ring induction motor. Where the first one is most preferable because of its rugged construction and its performance characteristics.

## Three Phase Induction Motor:

This motor has normal starting torque and adjustable speed so that speed control can be acheived easily. Its starting torque increases with increase in the value of rotor resistance . However maximum torque remains constant and it is independant of the rotor resistance. But slip varies at above said condition. Normally DOL, star-delta and autotransformer starter are used to start the motor. This motor may sometime show a tendency to run at very low speed usually one seventh of its normal speed. This is because of presence of the harmonics in the sinusoidal flux wave produced by the stator mmf it is called by the name of crawling. This motor may exhibit a peculiar behaviour in starting for certain relationship between the numbers of stator slots equal to an integral multiple of rotor slots. The variations of reluctance as a function of space will be introduced. This inturn creates as aligning torque stronger than the accelerating torque with consequent failure of motor start. This phenomenon is known as cogging.

RESULT:

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. What is the purpose of this experiment? 2. what are the applications of induction motor? 3. Which type of connection is applied for stator? 4. why we call this motor as squirrel cage induction motor? 5. Which starter is used for 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor? 6. What is the principle of 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor?

## LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

To conduct the load test on single phase induction motor and to draw its performance characteristics. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No Apparatus 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ammeter Voltmeter Wattmeter 1 Autotransformer Tachometer Connecting wire Range (0-10)A (0-300)V (300V/10A) (230V/10-270V) varial Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 set

## 2. Output power= 2NT/60 watts

3. % efficiency=output/input*100 Where, O/p is the out power in watts, I/p is the input power in watts 4. % slip=Ns-Nr/N0*100 Where, Ns Synchronous speed, Nr Rotor Speed

T2

T (NM)

N rpm

O/P

P.f

% slip

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

THEORY: Construction ally this motor is more or less similar to a poly phase induction motor, except that Its stator is provided with a single phase winding. A centrifugal switch is used in some type of motor in order to cut out a winding, used in some type of motor, in order to cut out a winding, used in some type of motors for starting squirrel cage rotor, when fed from a single phase only alternating. One which alternates along one phase axis only. Now, alternating or pulsating flux acting on a stationary squired cage rotor cannot produce rotation that is why a single phase motor is not self starting. PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. Set the rated voltage in the voltmeter by varying the auto transformer and note down the no load readings. 3. By increasing the load, note down the various loaded readings.

RESULT:

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 50 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. What is the purpose of this experiment? 2. Whether single phase induction motor self starting motor? 3.What are the starting methods of single phase induction motor?

Ex.No. Date:

## REGULATION OF THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS

AIM : To predetermine the regulation of three phase alternator by EMF and MMF method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Name of the Apparatus Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Voltmeter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer

S.NO

Type

Range

Quantity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

## (0-2)A (0-10)A (0-5)A (0-10)A (0-600)V (0-150V) (500,1.2A) (300,1.7A)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

PRECAUTION: The motor field rheostat should be kept at the minimum resistance position while starting. The Alternator field Potential divider should be in the maximum voltage position. Initially all switches are in open position.

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 54 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab TABULATION : OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: Open circuit Voltage (V) Volts Open circuit Phase voltage (Vo(ph)) volts

S.NO

## Field current (If)

Amps

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST : Field current (If) Amps Short circuit current (120 to 150% of rated current) (Isc) Amps

S.NO

TO FIND THE ARMATURE RESISTANCE(Ra) Armature current S.NO (Ia) Amps Armature voltage (Va) Volts Armature resistance Ra = Va /Ia Ohms

## Average value of Ra = Einstein College of Engineering Page 55 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab PROCEDURE FOR BOTH EMF AND MMF METHOD: Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. The supply is given by closing the DPST switch. The motor is started to run at its rated speed by varying the motor field rheostat. The open circuit test is conducted by varying the potential divider for various values of field current and all the meter readings are noted down. By closing the TPST switch the short circuit test is conducted with the rated armature current which has been set by adjusting the potential divider and corresponding field current is noted down. By giving connection as per the circuit diagram for stator resistance test the stator windings is loaded gradually and all the meter readings are noted down for different values of load. The supply is switched off after bringing the load gradually to its initial position. FORMULAE USED: EMF METHOD : 1. Armature resistance,Ra = 1.6Rdc Rdc is the resistance in the DC supply 2. Synchronous impedence,Zs = open circuit voltage (E1(ph)) / short circuit current (Isc) 3. Synchronous reactance,Xs = 4. Open circuit voltage,Eo =

(Zs 2 Ra 2 )

## (Vrated cos IaRa) 2 (V rated sin IaXs) 2

(For lagging power factor)

## (Vrated cos IaRa) 2 (V rated sin - IaXs) 2

6. Open circu it voltage, Eo = (Vrated IaRa) 2 (IaXs) 2 (For unity power factor) 7. Percentage regulation=

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 56 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab RESULTANT TABULATION FOR REGULATION THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS PERCENTAGE OF REGULATION S.No Power factor EMF method Lagging Leading Unity MMF Method Lead Lagging Unity ing Vector Diagram Lead Lagging Unity ing -

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

## THEORY: EMF METHOD

This method is otherwise called Behn Eschenberg method or pessimistic method. In this method armature reaction is treated as additional voltage drop by introduction of a fictitious reactance called armature reaction reactance ,Xa i.e., the reaction is replaced by reactance. Under short circuit test a small amount of field current is necessary to circulate the full load current through the windings. The induced Emf corresponding to this excitation is more under actual load. Hence this method is called pessimistic method.

MMF METHOD

This method is otherwise called as Ampere turns method or optimistic method. In this method leakage reactance is treated as additional reaction. The regualtion determined by this method is less than the actual value. The field current taken from the short circuit characteristics refers to unsaturated condition. But under normal load the magnetic circuit is saturated and the mmf required for leakage drop is much more. Therefore regulation calculated by mmf method is less.

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 59 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE GRAPH FOR EMF METHOD: Draw the open circuit characteristics curve (Generated voltage per phase Vs Field current) Draw the short circuit characteristics curve (Short circuit current Vs Field current) From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase (E1(ph)) for the rated short circuit current (Isc). By using respective formulae find the Zs, Xs, Eo and percentage regulation. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE GRAPH FOR MMF METHOD: Draw the open circuit characteristics curve (Generated voltage per phase Vs Field current) (V). Draw the line LA at an angle (90) to represent Ir which gives the Draw the short circuit characteristics curve (Short circuit current Vs Field

current) Draw the line OL to represent Ir which gives the rated generated voltage

rated full load current (Isc) on short circuit [(90 + ) for lagging power factor and (90 ) for leading power factor ]. Join the points O and A and find the field current ( If by measuring the

distance OA that gives the open circuit voltage (Eo) from the open circuit characteristics. Find the percentage regulation by using suitable formula.

RESULT:

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 64 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. Full form of EMF? 2. Full form of MMF? 3. Purpose of this experiment? 4. In which machine this experiment is performed? 5. What is meant by alternator? 6. What is meant by voltage regulation? 7. In which field current is greater, open circuit or short circuit? 8. In which regulation is greater, EMF method or MMF method? 9. What is meant by unity power factor?

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 66 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab V AND INVERTED V CURVES OF THREE PHASE SYNDHRONOUS MOTOR

## V AND INVERTED V CURVES OFTHREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

To draw the V and inverted V curves of three phase synchronous motor. APPARATUS REQUIRED : S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name of the Apparatus Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Power factor meter Rheostat Tachometer Type MC MI MI Double element Wire wound Range (0-2)A (0-10)A (0-600)V (500V,10A) (500,1.2A) Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1

FORMULAE USED: Cos =Ia(min)/Ia THEORY: V curve and Inverted V curve of synchronous motor: Synchronous motor is constant speed motor, which are not self starting in nature. So that we have to start this motor by any one of the following starting methods, 1. Pony motor method starting 2. DC exciter starting 3. Auto induction start (or) Damper winding method of starting By construction there is no difference between synchronous generator and synchornous motor. It is capable of being operated under wide range of power factor hence it can be used for power factor correction. 4. The value of excitaiton for which back EMF is equal to applied voltage is known as 100% excitation. The other two possible excitations are over excitation and under excitation if the back emf is more or less to the applied voltage respectively Einstein College of Engineering Page 68 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab TABULATION: Without Load Excitation Armature S.No current (If) current (Ia) Power factor. (cos ) With load(1/4) Excitation Armature current (If) current (Ia) Power factor. (cos ) Armature voltage: With load (1/2) Power factor. (cos )

Amps

Amps

Amps

Amps

Amps

Amps

RESULT:

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 72 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. In which motor we perform this experiment? 2. What is the speed nature of 3-phase synchronous motor? 3. What is the propose of this experiment? 4. What is the characteristic of v curve? 5. What is the characteristic of curve? 6. What are the different range of loads used in this experiment? 7. How will you apply load in this experiment? 8. Application of synchronous motor? 9. What is the armature current nature when load is applied in V curve? 10. What is the field current nature when load is applied in curve?

## LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

To conduct a load test on a single-phase transformer to determine the efficiency and regulation of single-phase transformer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1 Apparatus Voltmeter Range (0-300V)MI (0-150V)MI 2 Ammeter (0-5A)MI (0-10A)MI 3 4 5 Autotransformer Load rheostat Wattmeter 230V/(0-270)V8A 230V/2-5KW 300V/10A(UPF) 150V/20A(LPF) 6 7 Transformer Connecting wire Step down 230:115 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

FORMULAE USED: i) ii) iii) Where V02- Secondary terminal voltage at no load condition V2- Secondary terminal voltage at load condition W1- Wattmeter reading at primary side. W2- Wattmeter reading at secondary side. % Efficiency =w2/w1*100 % Regulation up = V02-V2/V2*100 % Regulation down= V02-V2/V02*100

VL

IL

MODEL GRAPH

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 77 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab THEORY A transformer is a device by means of which electric power can be transformed from one circuit to another circuit without change in frequency either by step up or step down the voltage. The transformer works on the principle of mutual induction if the coil is connected in a source or alternating voltage a flux is step up on laminated core most of which it is linked mutually induced emf of the coil where AC supply is fed is called primary winding and from which the energy is drawn out is called secondary winding.

PROCEDURE: i) ii) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. By varying the autotransformer set the rated voltage on the primary side. iii) At on load condition the input and output voltage current and power are noted. iv) As the load is measured is step-by-step using a load rheostat take all the input, output reading up to the rated current.

RESULT:

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 80 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. What is the other name of single phase transformer? 2. What is the purpose of this experiment? 3. What is the application of single phase transformer? 4. What is the principle of transformer? 5. What is the relationship between efficiency and load? 6. What is the relation between load and regulation? 7. Which type of load is used in this experiment? 8. Relationship between load & output power? 9. How will you set the primary winding voltage? 10. What will be the efficiency at zero load?

Ex.No. Date:

## OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM: To conduct the Oc test and Sc test on single phase transformer and to draw the equivalent Circuit diagram APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1 2 Apparatus 1 Auto transformer Voltmeter Range 230V/(0-270V)8A (0-150V)MI (0-300V)MI 3 Ammeter (0-2A)MI (0-5A)MI 4 Wattmeter 300V/5A UPF 300V/5A LPF 5 Step down transformer 230/115V Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

FORMULAE USED: 1. OC Test W0=V0I0 cos 0 Iw= I0 cos 0 I= I0 sin 0 R0=V0/Iw X0=V0/ I Where, W0_-no load power I0 -no load current V0 -no load voltage Iw -working current component I -Magnetizing current component R0 - circuit resistance X0 - circuit reactance Cos 0-PF between no load current and voltage

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 85 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab 2. SC Test Wsc=Vsc Isc cos sc R01=Vsc/Isc2 Z01=Vsc/Isc X01= square root of Za2-Ra2 Where Wsc= Short circuit power Vsc =Short circuit voltage Isc=Short circuit current R01=Total effective resistance Z01=total effective impedance X01=total effective reactance % Regulation

1) % lagging power factor= Isc [R01 cos 0+X01 sin 0]*100/V0 2) % leading power factor= Isc [R01 cos 0-X01 sin 0]*100/V0 3) Efficiency=x*KVA*PF/[x*KVA*PF]+W0+x2 Vsc

Vo(V)

Io(A) div

Wo Actual(mf= )

S.No

Vsc(V)

Isc(A) div

Wsc Actual(mf= )

S.No

cos

sin

Efficiency

X=0.25

X=0.5

X=0.75

X=1

## Einstein College of Engineering Page 87 of 111

ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab THEORY: Open circuit test: The purpose of this test is to determine no load loss or core loss and no load current I0 which is helpful one winding in open circuited and a voltage usually noted voltage at rated frequency is applied to the other winding the voltage power and current terminals of this are measured with normal voltage applied to the primary normal flux will setup in the core hence normal iron loss will occur which will be recorded in the wattmeter. As the primary and nill in the secondary. Hence the wattmeter reading represents practically under no load condition. Short Circuit test: In this test one winding is short circuited across its terminals and reduced voltage is applied to the other winding. A low winding voltage at correct frequency is applied to the primary and its continuously increases till full load and flux in the primary and secondary since in this test the primary and secondary percentage at normal flux is produced. It is also a small percentage of the normal voltage hence core losses are very small with the result that the wattmeter reading represents the full load copper losses or I2R loss in the whose transformed. We also obtain the equivalent circuit transformer under shortcircuited condition.

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. The autotransformer is varied up to rated voltage. Note the no load reading from which the equivalent circuit impedance parameter. R0 and X0 are calculated. 3. The SC readings are noted from the sc test from which the equivalent circuit parameter X0 and R0 are determined.

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab MODEL GRAPH

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:

RESULT:

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTUIONS:

1. Write the purpose of this experiment? 2. What are the main parameters of the equivalent circuit? 3. What is the other name of O.C Test? 4. What is the other name of S.C Test? 5. What is the purpose of O.C Test? 6. What is the purpose of S.C Test? 7. Why transformer power rating is in KVA?

## SPEED CONTROL OF 3 SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR

To Conduct the experiment for the speed control of 3 slip ring induction motor by Stator Voltage Control

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1 2 3 4 Apparatus Voltmeter Tachometer 3 Auto transformer Connecting Wires Range (0-600V)MI Digital/Analog Quantity 1 1 1 Few

THEORY: The slip ring or wound rotor motor is an induction machine where the rotor comprises a set of coils that are terminated in slip rings. These are metal rings rigidly mounted on the rotor, and combined with brushes (as used with commutators), provide continuous unswitched connection to the rotor windings. In the case of the wound-rotor induction motor, external impedances can be connected to the brushes. The stator is the same as is used with a standard squirrel cage motor. By changing the impedance connected to the rotor circuit, the speed/current and speed/torque curves can be altered.(Slip rings are also often used in alternators as well as in synchro angular data-transmission devices, among other applications.) The slip ring motor is used primarily to start a high inertia load or a load that requires a very high starting torque across the full speed range. By correctly selecting the resistors used in the secondary resistance or slip ring starter, the motor is able to produce maximum torque at a relatively low supply current from zero speed to full speed. This type of motor also offers controllable speed.

MODEL GRAPH

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ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab Motor speed can be changed because the torque curve of the motor is effectively modified by the amount of resistance connected to the rotor circuit. Increasing the value of resistance will move the speed of maximum torque down. If the resistance connected to the rotor is increased beyond the point where the maximum torque occurs at zero speed, the torque will be further reduced. When used with a load that has a torque curve that increases with speed, the motor will operate at the speed where the torque developed by the motor is equal to the load torque. Reducing the load will cause the motor to speed up, and increasing the load will cause the motor to slow down until the load and motor torque are equal. Operated in this manner, the slip losses are dissipated in the secondary resistors and can be very significant. The speed regulation is also very poor. PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram 2. Keep the 3 autotransformer in minimum position and switch ON the power supply. 3. Start the 3 sip ring induction motor by using auto transformer 4. By varying the auto transformer and change the voltage then the speed of the motor can be controlled.

RESULT:

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ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. Purpose of this experiment? 2. Other name of induction motor? 3. What type of starter is used in induction motor? 4. Which type of connection is applied for stator? 5. Which type of connection is applied for rotor? 6. Relation between voltage and speed? 7. How can the direction of rotation can be revered? 8. Define slip? 9. Does the starter is required for induction motor? 10. Application of induction motor. 11. What is the nature of torque in induction motor?

## ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab

Ex.No. Date:

STUDY OF DC AND AC STARTERS Three point starter A 3-point starter is extensively used to start a D.C shunt motor. It not only

overcomes the difficulty of a plain resistance starter, but also provides additional protective features such as over load protection and no volt protection. The diagram of a 3-point starter connected to a shunt motor is shown in figure. Although, the circuit looks a bit clumsy at a first glance, the basic working principle is same as that of plain resistance starter The starter is shown enclosed within the dotted rectangular box having three terminals marked as A, L and F for external connections. Terminal A is connected to one armature terminal Al of the motor. Terminal F is connected to one field terminal F1 of the motor and terminal L is connected to one supply terminal as shown. F2 terminal of field coil is connected to A2 through an external variable field resistance and the common point connected to supply (-ve). The external armatures resistances consist of several resistances connected in series and are shown in the form of an arc. The junctions of the resistances are brought out as terminals (called studs) and marked as 1, 2,.. .12. Just beneath the resistances, a continuous copper strip also in the form of an arc is present. There is a handle which can be moved in the clockwise direction against the spring tension. The spring tension keeps the handle in the OFF position when no one attempts to move it. Now let us trace the circuit from terminal L (supply + ve). The wire from L passes through a small electro magnet called OLRC, (the function of which we shall discuss a little later) and enters through the handle shown by dashed lines. Near the end of the handle two copper strips are firmly connected with the wire. The furthest strip is shown circular shaped and the other strip is shown to be rectangular. When the handle is moved to the right, the circular strip of the handle will make contacts with resistance terminals 1, 2 etc. progressively. On the other hand, the rectangular strip will make contact with the continuous arc copper strip. The other end of this strip is brought as terminal F after going through an electromagnet coil (called NVRC). Terminal F is finally connected to motor field terminal Fl.

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ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab Working principle Let us explain the operation of the starter. Initially the handle is in the OFF position. Neither armature nor the field of the motor gets supply. Now the handle is moved to stud number 1. In this position armature and all the resistances in series gets connected to the supply. Field coil gets full supply as the rectangular strip makes contact with arc copper strip. As the machine picks up speed handle is moved further r to stud number 2. In this position the external resistance in the armature circuit is less as the first resistance is left out.All resistances will be left out when stud number 12 (ON) is reached. In this position, the electromagnet (NVRC) will attract the soft iron piece attached to the handle. Even if the operator removes his hand from the handle, it will still remain in the ON position as spring restoring force will be balanced by the force of attraction between NVRC and the soft iron piece of the handle. The no volt release coil (NVRC) carries same current as that of the field coil. In case supply voltage goes off, field coil current will decrease to zero. Hence NVRC will be deenergised and will not be able to exert any force on the soft iron piece of the handle. Restoring force of the spring will bring the handle back in the OFF position. The starter also provides over load protection for the motor. The other electromagnet, OLRC overload release coil along with a soft iron piece kept under it, is used to achieve this. The current flowing through OLRC is the line current IL drawn by the motor. As the motor is loaded, Ia hence IL increases. Therefore, IL is a measure of loading of the motor. Suppose we want that the motor should not be over loaded beyond rated current. Now gap between the electromagnet and the soft iron piece is so adjusted that for However, if the iron piece will not be pulled up.

## rated I I force of attraction will be sufficient to pull up iron

piece. This upward movement of the iron piece of OLRC is utilized to de-energize NVRC. To the iron a copper strip ( shaped in figure) is attached. During over loading condition, this copper strip will also move up and put a short circuit between two terminals B and C. Carefully note that B and C are nothing but the two ends of the NVRC. In other words, when over load occurs a short circuit path is created across the NVRC. Hence NVRC will not carry any current now and gets reenergized.

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ME 39 Electrical Engineering Lab The moment it gets deenergised, spring action will bring the handle in the OFF position thereby disconnecting the motor from the supply. Three-point starter has one disadvantage. If we want to run the machine at higher speed (above rated speed) by field weakening (i.e., by reducing field current), the strength of NVRC magnet may become so weak that it will fail to hold the handle in the ON position and the spring action will bring it back in the OFF position. Thus we find that a false disconnection of the motor takes place even when there is neither over load nor any sudden disruption of supply. In electrical engineering, a direct on line (DOL) or across the line starter starts electric motors by applying the full line voltage to the motor terminals. This is the simplest type of motor starter. A DOL motor starter also contain protection devices, and in some cases, condition monitoring. A direct on line starter can be used if the high inrush current of the motor does not cause excessive voltage drop in the supply circuit. The maximum size of a motor allowed on a direct on line starter may be limited by the supply utility for this reason. For example, a utility may require rural customers to use reduced-voltage starters for motors larger than 10 kW.DOL starting is sometimes used to start small water pumps, compressors, fans and conveyor belts. In the case of an asynchronous motor, such as the 3-phase squirrel-cage motor, the motor will draw a high starting current until it has run up to full speed. This starting current is commonly around six times the full load current, but may as high as 12 times the full load current. To reduce the inrush current, larger motors will have reduced-voltage starters or variable speed drives in order to minimise voltage dips to the power supply. DOL reversing starter A reversing starter can connect the motor for rotation in either direction. Such a starter contains two DOL circuitsone for clockwise operation and the other for counter-clockwise operation, with mechanical and electrical interlocks to prevent simultaneous closure. For three phase motors, this is achieved by transposing anytwo phases. Single phase AC motors and direct-current motors require additional devices for reversing rotation.