Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22
CS Study Material Skill + Learning Academy

CS Study Material

CS Study Material Skill + Learning Academy

Skill + Learning Academy

CS Study Material Networking Essentials Introduction A network is a group of systems that are

CS Study Material

Networking Essentials

Introduction

A network is a group of systems that are interconnected to allow sharing of files or sharing of resources (like printers) or for the purpose of sharing services like internet.

Objective

This module will focus on

ÿ Understanding computer networks and its importance.

ÿ Different ways of classifying computer networks.

ÿ Transmission Media

ÿ Media Access Methods

ÿ LAN Technologies

Classification of computer networks

Network Based on Based on Geographical Based on Topology Distance functional Relationship Bus WAN Hybrid
Network
Based on
Based on
Geographical
Based on
Topology
Distance
functional
Relationship
Bus
WAN
Hybrid
Star Ring Mesh
LAN MAN
Peer to Peer Client­Server
CS Study Material Computer networks can be classified on various ways based on Geographical Distance:

CS Study Material

Computer networks can be classified on various ways based on

Geographical Distance: Computer networks may be classified according to the scale or extent of reach of the network as Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN).

Local Area Network (LAN): A network that is limited to a relatively small spatial area such as a room, a single building, a ship, or an aircraft is reffered as LAN. They are sometimes called a single location network.eg. A small office network or two computers is a house connected using a cable.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A network that connects two or more Local Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area is called as MAN. eg. A branch office connected to the main office in the same city.

Wide Area Network (WAN): A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies etc. Eg. Internet or a branch office in India connected to its Corporate office in United States.

Functional Relationship: Based on the relationship that computers share in a network they can be classifed as Peer­Peer and Client­Server architechtures or networks.

Peer­to­Peer: A peer­to­peer network (also called as Workgroup by Microsoft) is built without the use of a central server and each peer computer can share its resources with the other computers on the network independently. Special software protocols such as Microsoft NetBEUI and Apple’s LocalTalk are used for establishing communication across Peer­to­Peer network.

Advantages CS Study Material ÿ Low cost as expensive software and hardware are not required.

Advantages

CS Study Material

Advantages CS Study Material ÿ Low cost as expensive software and hardware are not required. ÿ

ÿ Low cost as expensive software and hardware are not required.

ÿ Easy to implement.

ÿ Resource sharing controlled by users.

ÿ No need of a dedicated network administator.

Disadvantages

ÿ Low level of security

ÿ Heavy load on computers because of resource sharing.

ÿ Size of network limited to approximately 10 computers.

Client­Server: In Client­Server architechure a centralized computer is used to facilitate the sharing of data and hardware with other computers on the network. These central computers are called Servers and the computers using the server are called clients.

Advantages CS Study Material ÿ Strong central security. ÿ Central file storage. ÿ Resource sharing

Advantages

CS Study Material

Advantages CS Study Material ÿ Strong central security. ÿ Central file storage. ÿ Resource sharing controlled

ÿ Strong central security.

ÿ Central file storage.

ÿ Resource sharing controlled by administrators.

ÿ Easy management of large number of users.

Disadvantages

ÿ Cost of server hardware and software.

ÿ Dedicated and well trained network administrator is needed to main this type of architecture.

Bus Topology: A bus network topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected in a linear fashion via a shared communications line (backbone), called a bus.

CS Study Material Bus Topology With a bus topology, when a computer sends out a

CS Study Material

CS Study Material Bus Topology With a bus topology, when a computer sends out a signal,

Bus Topology

With a bus topology, when a computer sends out a signal, the signal travels the cable length in both directions from the sending computer. When the signal reaches the end of the cable length, it bounces back and returns in the direction it came from(signal bounce). Signal bounce is a problem, because if another signal is sent on the cable length as the same time, the two signals will collide and be destroyed and then must be retransmitted. For this reason, at each end of the cable there is a terminator. The terminator is designed to absorb the signal when the signal reaches the end, preventing signal bounce.

Advantages

ÿ Easy to implement and extend.

ÿ Requires less cable length when compared to star topology.

ÿ Well suited for temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds (quick setup).

ÿ Cost effective that other topologies.

Disadvantages

ÿ Difficult to administer/troubleshoot.

ÿ Scalability is very low.

ÿ Problem with the backbone cable leads to entire network failure.

ÿ Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic.( If many computers are attached, the amount of data flowing causes the network to slow down.)

CS Study Material Star Topology: In star topology, all computers are connected through one central

CS Study Material

Star Topology: In star topology, all computers are connected through one central device known as a hub or a switch. All the pheripheral nodes (computers) can thus communicate with all others by transmitting to and receiving from, the central node (hub/switch) only.

Star Topology
Star Topology

Advantages

ÿ Scalable, easy to set up and to expand.

ÿ Failure of a single cable or a single computer doesnot affect the entire network.

ÿ Easy to a administer/troubleshoot.

ÿ Data packets are sent quickly as they do not have to travel through any unnecessary nodes.

Disadvantages

ÿ Extra hardware (Hub/Switch) required.

ÿ Failure of Hub/Switch leads to entire network failure.

Ring Topology: A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a circular pathway for signals: a ring. Data travels in one direction from node to node, with each node handling every message.

Advantages A CS Study Material B RingTopology C D ÿ Signal degeration is low because

Advantages

A

CS Study Material

B

RingTopology
RingTopology

C

D

ÿ Signal degeration is low because each workstation is responsible for regenerating or boosting the signal.

Disadvantages

ÿ The biggest problem with ring topology is that if one computer fails or the cable link is broken the entire network could go down.

ÿ When there is a cable change or when a workstation is moved in the network, brief disconnection can interrupt or bring down the entire network.

Mesh Topology: A mesh topology consists of a network where every device on the network is physically connected to every other device on the network.

is physically connected to every other device on the network. Mesh Topology Skill + Learning Academy

Mesh Topology

Advantages CS Study Material ÿ Fault Tolerance ÿ Provides great deal of performance and reliability.

Advantages

CS Study Material

ÿ Fault Tolerance

ÿ Provides great deal of performance and reliability.

Disadvantages

ÿ Very hard to administer and manage because of numerous connections.

ÿ Costly because of the additional cabling and network interfaces to create multiple pathways between each system.

Hybrid Topology: A hybrid topology is a combination of any two or more network topologies.For Example, a popular hybrid topology is the star­bus topology, in which a number of star topologies are connected by a central bus topology.

Transmission Media

The foundation of any network is the transmission media or the circuitry used to interconnect and carry network signals between systems. Transmission media provide the path for one computer to transfer information to another. The purpose of transmission media is to transport a raw bit stream from one machine to another.

Transmission Media

Wired
Wired

Fibre Optic Cable

to another. Transmission Media Wired Fibre Optic Cable Infrared Copper Cable Radio Waves Microwave Coaxial Twisted
to another. Transmission Media Wired Fibre Optic Cable Infrared Copper Cable Radio Waves Microwave Coaxial Twisted

Infrared

Copper Cable

Media Wired Fibre Optic Cable Infrared Copper Cable Radio Waves Microwave Coaxial Twisted Pair UTP Thicknet

Radio Waves

Microwave

Coaxial
Coaxial

Twisted Pair

Copper Cable Radio Waves Microwave Coaxial Twisted Pair UTP Thicknet Thinnet STP Skill + Learning Academy

UTP

Thicknet Thinnet STP

CS Study Material We can classify transmission media into two broad categories, ÿ Wired Media.

CS Study Material

We can classify transmission media into two broad categories,

ÿ Wired Media.

ÿ Wireless Media.

Wired Media

The most commoly used wired media are

ÿ Copper cable, which carries electrical signals.

ÿ Fibre optic cable, which carries optic signals.

Copper Cable: Copper cables uses differences in voltage inorder to transmitt and receive data. The different types of copper cables used in networking are

ÿ Co­axial cables

ÿ Twisted pair cables.

Co­axial cable: A co­axial cable consists of a stiff copper wire as the core, surrounded by an insulating material. The insulator is encased by a mesh of conducting material, woven as a braided mesh.The outer conductor is covered in a protective plastic sheath.

outer conductor is covered in a protective plastic sheath. There are two types of co­axial cables

There are two types of co­axial cables thicknet and thinnet co­axial cables.

ÿ Thinnet Co­axial Cables (10 Base 2): Thinnet refers to co­axial cables that are lesser in diameter and in which the the braided mesh is loosely oven.

CS Study Material ÿ Thicknet Co­axial Cables (10 Base 5): Thickent refers to cables that

CS Study Material

ÿ Thicknet Co­axial Cables (10 Base 5): Thickent refers to cables that are thicker and in which the braided mesh is tightly woven.

Thicknet versus Thinnet Coax Type Cable Thickness Maximum Transfer Connector Grade Distance Rate Thinknet
Thicknet versus Thinnet
Coax Type
Cable
Thickness
Maximum
Transfer
Connector
Grade
Distance
Rate
Thinknet
RG­58
.25 inch
185
m
10
Mbps
BNC
Thicknet
RG­8
.5inch
500
m
10
Mbps
AUI

Twisted Pair Cables (10 Base T): A twisted pair cable consists of four pairs (eight individual wires), which are twisted one on the top of the other. Each wire is covered by a unique colour coded plastic sheath, which allows wires to be distinguished from one another. All of the wires are then encapsulated in a plastic sheath.The maximum distance that twisted pair cables can carry signal effectively is upto 100 meters.

that twisted pair cables can carry signal effectively is upto 100 meters. Skill + Learning Academy
There are two types of twisted pair cables CS Study Material ÿ Shielded Twisted Pair

There are two types of twisted pair cables

CS Study Material

ÿ Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable: STP cabling includes metal

shielding over each individual pair of copper wires. This type of shielding protects cable from external EMI (electromagnetic interference). These cables are often used for Token ring networks.

These cables are often used for Token ring networks. ÿ Unsheilded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable: UTP

ÿ Unsheilded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable: UTP cables as the name

indicates are unshielded and lack an additional metal shielding. Based on the number of twists per inch UTP cables are catetogorised into different categories.

Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair

Type

Transfer Rate

Use

Category 1

1 Mbps (Voice)

Telephone Wire

Category 2

4 Mbps (Data)

Local Talk

Category 3

10

Mbps (Data)

Ethernet

Category 4

16

Mbps (Data)

Token Ring

Category 5

100 Mbps (Data)

Fast Ethernet

Category 5e

1000 Mbps (Data)

Gigabit Ethernet

CS Study Material Connectors used for Twisted pair cables : RJ 11 and RJ 45

CS Study Material

Connectors used for Twisted pair cables: RJ 11 and RJ 45 are the

connectors used for twisted pair cables.RJ, stands for Registerd Jack implying that the connector follows a standard borrowed from the telephone industry. RJ 11 for four­wire telephone cable and RJ 45 for eight­wire network cables.

telephone cable and RJ 45 for eight­wire network cables. Wiring Scheme RJ 11 and RJ 45

Wiring Scheme

RJ 11 and RJ 45

CAT 5 UTP cabling usually uses only four wires when sending and receiving information on the network. The four wires of the eigth that are used are wires 1, 2, 3 and 6. When you configure the wire for the same pin at either end of the cable, this is known as a straight­through cable. This type of cable is used for connecting dissimilar devices. For example, computer and a standard port in a switch.

When you switch wires 1 and 2 with wires 3 and 6 at one end then that type of cable is called as crossover cable. This type of cable is used for connecting similar devices. For example, connecting two computers directly.

Fibre Optic Cables: Fibre Optic cables use optical fibres that carry digital data signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. An optical fibre consists of an extremely thin cylinder of glass, called the core, surrounded by a concentric layer of glass known as the cladding. There are two fibres per cable­ one to transmit and one to receive. The core also can be an optical­quality clear plastic, and the cladding can be made up of a gel that

CS Study Material Straight Through & Cross Over Cable Pinouts reflects signals back into the

CS Study Material

CS Study Material Straight Through & Cross Over Cable Pinouts reflects signals back into the fibre

Straight Through & Cross Over Cable Pinouts

reflects signals back into the fibre to reduce signal loss. This type of cable can carry signal upto and beyond 2 Kilometers at a high speed of 1+ Gbps.

upto and beyond 2 Kilometers at a high speed of 1+ Gbps. Fiber Optic There are

Fiber Optic

There are two types of fibre­optic cables: single­mode fibre and multimode fibre.

Single­mode fibre uses a single ray of light to carry the transmission over long distances.

Multimode fibre uses multiple rays of light simultaneously with each ray of light running at a different reflection angle to carry the transmission over short distances.

Connectors used for fibre­optic cables are Straight Tip (ST) and Subscriber Connector (SC).

Fibre­optic cables are by far the expensive of these cabling methods, and are not desirable for small networks.

CS Study Material Wireless Media Wirless media makes use of the atmosphere, hence referred to

CS Study Material

Wireless Media

Wirless media makes use of the atmosphere, hence referred to as unbound medium­ a circuit with no formal boundaries. This types of medium doesnot use any physical connectors between the two devices that are communicating. Transmissions of waves take place in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. The carrier frequency of the data is expressed in cycles per second called hertz (Hz). The three broad categories of wireless media are:

ÿ Radio Waves ­ 10 KHz to 1 GHz. The Federal communications Commission (FCC) regulates the assignment of these frequencies. Frequencies for unregulated use are:

902­928 MHz

2.4 GHz

5.72­5.85 GHz

ÿ Microwave ­ Used to link networks over long distances but the two microwave towers must have a line of sight between them. The frequency is usually 4­6 GHz or 21 ­ 23 GHz. Speed is often 1­10 Mbps. The signal is normally encrypted for privacy.

ÿ Infrared ­ Infrared is just below the visible range of light between 100 GHz and 1000 THz. A light emitting diode (LED) or laser is used to transmit the signal. The signal cannot travel through objects and line of sightisamust.

Media Access Methods

An access method determines how nodes on a network, place the data/packet on the media. There are three different types of LAN access methods­CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Token Passing.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is the protocol used in Ethernet networks (IEEE 802.3) to ensure that only one network node is transmitting on the network media at a time. With CSMA/CD, every host has equal access to the media­if a host wishes to transmit the data, it will sense the media (Carrier Sense) and determine

CS Study Material whether there is a signal already on the wire­if there is, the

CS Study Material

whether there is a signal already on the wire­if there is, the host will wait to transmit the data­if not it transmits the data immediately. The problem with this process is that, if there are two systems on the media that sense the media at the same time to see if the media is free, they will both send the data out at the same time (Multiple Access) leading to collision­which generates a high voltage jam signal making all the hosts in the media stop sending the data for a random time interval before resending the data frame thereby preventing a collision the second time (Collision Detection).

a collision the second time (Collision Detection). Collision Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance

Collision

Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a network contention protocol used popularly in Wireless networks (IEEE 802.11) which attempts to prevent collisions before they happen. With CSMA/CA, before a host sends data on the media it will “sense” the media to see if the wire is free of signals­ once the channel is clear, a station sends a signal telling all other stations not to transmit, and then sends the packet.

Token Passing is a LAN access method where a "token" is passed around the nodes in a round­robin fashion that authorizes the node to communicate. Here only the system which has the "token" can communicate. The token is a control mechanism which gives authority to the system to communicate or use the resources of that network. Once the communication is over, the token is passed to the next candidate in a sequential manner. For example, if Workstation 1 wants to send data on the wire, it would wait for the token, which is circling in the network millions of times per second. Once the token has reached the Workstation 1, it would take the token off the network, pakage it with data and label it with the source address and destination address and passess it on to the next

CS Study Material CSMA/CA workstation in the network. All systems will look at the token,

CS Study Material

CS Study Material CSMA/CA workstation in the network. All systems will look at the token, but

CSMA/CA

workstation in the network. All systems will look at the token, but will not process it since it is not destined for them. However, the system that is the intended destination will take the data and pass the empty token to the next computer in the sequence. This access method is deployed in Token ring networks (IEEE 802.5).

method is deployed in Token ring networks (IEEE 802.5). LAN Technologies Each computer in a LAN
method is deployed in Token ring networks (IEEE 802.5). LAN Technologies Each computer in a LAN

LAN Technologies

in Token ring networks (IEEE 802.5). LAN Technologies Each computer in a LAN can effectively send

Each computer in a LAN can effectively send and receive any information addressed to it. This information is in the form of data 'packets'. The standards followed

CS Study Material to regularize the transmission of packets, are called LAN standards. There are

CS Study Material

to regularize the transmission of packets, are called LAN standards. There are many LAN standards such as Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI. Usually LAN standards differ due to their media access technology and the physical transmission medium.

Ethernet

This is the most popular network architecture for local are networks (LAN). Ethernet uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol to control access to network. Ethernet specifications define the function that occur at the physical and data­link layer of the OSI reference model and package data into frames for transmission on the wire. It is available in three speeds:

10 Mbps which is called Ethernet – IEEE 802.3 100 Mbps which is Fast Ethernet ­ IEEE802.3u 1000 Mbps or 1 Gbps which is called Gigabit Ethernet ­ IEEE802.3ab

Token Ring (IEEE 802.5)

Token ring is a LAN technology that was developed by IBM. This is a 4­Mbps or 16­ Mbps token­passing method, operating in a ring topology. Devices on a Token Ring network get access to the media through token passing.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)

It’s a high­speed networking technology used mainly for campus backbones. FDDI provides data speed at 100Mbps which is faster than Token Ring and Ethernet LANs. FDDI comprise two independent, counter­rotating rings: a primary ring and a secondary ring. Data flows in opposite directions on the rings. The counter­rotating ring architecture prevents data loss in the event of a link failure, a node failure, or the failure of both the primary and secondary links between any two nodes. This technology is usually implemented for a backbone network.

CS Study Material References Network+ ­ Gene E. Clarke Networking Essentials – John Nash Encyclopedia

CS Study Material

References

Network+ ­ Gene E. Clarke Networking Essentials – John Nash Encyclopedia of Networking – Mitch Tulloch and Ingrid Tulloch CCNA Study Guide – Todd Lammle www.microsoft.com/technet www.firewall.cx

Review

ÿ Network refers to the interconnection of computers or networking devices for the purpose of file sharing and resource sharing.

ÿ Networks can be classified based on geographical distance as LAN, MAN and WAN ­ based on functional relationship as peer­peer and client­server ­ based on topology as bus, star, ring, mesh and hybrid networks.

ÿ Transmission media provides the path for one computer to transfer information to another. This can either be a wired or a wireless medium. Wired mdium uses cables­ copper cables or fibre optic, whereas the wireless uses Radio waves or infrared or microwave radiation in order to send and receive data.

ÿ Media access methods: ­ CSMA/CD (IEEE 802.3), CSMA/CA (IEEE 802.11) and Token Passing (IEEE 802.5).

ÿ LAN access methods: ­ Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI.

Review Questions

1. A company has offices in Chennai and Bangalore. Both networks are connected

to allow the two locations to communicate. This is considered as what type of network?

a. LAN

b. CAN

c. MAN

d. WAN

2. Which network topology requires the use of terminators?

3. The distance limitation of 10 Base 2 is

meters.

CS Study Material 4. cable sends the signal as pulses of light through a glass

CS Study Material

4.

cable sends the signal as pulses of light through a glass core?

5.

Which network architecture is defined as the IEEE 802.3 standard?

6.

Name the connectors used for connecting twisted pair cables?

7.

What type of cable is used for connecting a computer with another computer?

8.

Explain how nodes in an Ethernet network detect collision?

9.

What are the radio frequencies that are preferred for wireless transmission?

10.

Hub and Switch are devices that work in

topology.

LAB CS Study Material 1. From the given cables identify the following and also note

LAB

CS Study Material

1. From the given cables identify the following and also note down your observation in the form of a diagram.

a. Straight Through Cable

b. Cross Over Cable

c. Telephone cable

d. Coaxial Cable

CS Study Material 2. From the given connectors identify the following and note down your

CS Study Material

2. From the given connectors identify the following and note down your observation in form of a diagram. Also mention the type of cable for which it ca be used.

a. RJ 11

b. RJ 45

c. BNC

d. AUI

ELO (Expected Learning Outcome)

ÿ Network and its importance.

ÿ Different ways of classifying networks.

ÿ Basic understanding of the different network topologies.

ÿ Know and appreciate the different types of media, along with their advantages, disadvantages and their connectors.

ÿ In depth understanding of the different media access methods, like, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA and Token Passing.

ÿ Awareness about the different LAN technologies.