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tm[m&'DyeD

rmwdum
1-tm[m&twGuf 'kup uf
2-uAVDum& wy&dnm
3-uAVDum& wD&Py&dnm
4-uyVDum& y[mey&dnm
5-emrftm[m& ok;H yg;
6-0dnmP[m& wy&dnm
7-0dnmP[m& wD&Py&dnm
8-0dnmP[m& y[mey&dnm
9-zm[m& y&dnm

10-raemoawem[m& y&dnm
11-emrfouf kyo
f uf ppfwrf;
12-lyuEm ur|mef; oroePftpDt&if
13-O',APftpDt&if
14-lyuEm ur|mef; tpDt&if
15-cEmig;yg;wd\
Yk Oyrmrsm;
16-orxESihf 0dyem
17-Mo0g'cef;
ed*;Hk
tm[m&'DyeD rmwdum NyD;NyD/
--------- ---------

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

tm[m&'DyeD
earm w b*0awm t&[awm
ormorK'
/
1/ tm[m&twG u f 'k u p uf
uAVD u ma& bd u a 0 tm[ma& y&d n maw y
umr*kPad um &ma*g y&dnmawm a[mwd? yumr*kPad u &ma*
y&d n maw t&d , om0u ew d wH oH a ,mZeH ? a,e
oHa,mZaee o,kawm t&d,om0aum yke rH avmuH
tm*ap,s/
(ed'ge0*oH,kwf ygVdawmf-ESm 323)
bd u a 0=&[ef ; wd k Y ? uAVD u ma& tm[ma&=pm;zG , f
aomufz,
G f cJz,
G f vsuzf ,
G [
f q
k t
kd yfaom av;rsK;d aom uAVDum&
tm[m&udk? y&dnmaw=xdk;xGif;odrI PftcGifhtqkH;wdkif
NyD;pD;ydkifEdkifonf&Sdaomf? yumr*kPdaum=tqif; toH teHY
t&om tawGU[l ig;yg;tjym;&Sad om umr*kPf wG,w
f maom?
&ma*g=umr&m*udk? y&dnmawm=y,fjzwfrI tNyD;wdkif ydkifEdkif
awmhonf? a[mwd=jzpf\? yumr*kPdau=umr*kPf ig;yg;
wG,fwmaom? &ma*=&m*udk? y&dnmaw=tNyD;wdkif ydkifEdkifonf
&Sdaomf? a,e oHa,mZaee=tMuif umr&m* oHa,mZOfjzifh?
o,kawm=umr*kPif g;yg; waxG;vk;H vk;H ,SOpf yfwzJG ufaeaom?
t&d,om0aum=igbk&m;wynfhom;onf? yke=wpfzef? rH

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

avmuH=umrwpfq,fw
h pfbo
Hk ?Ykd tm*ap,s= y#doaEaeaom
tmjzifh jyefvm&m\? t&d,om0u=umr*kPfig;yg; wG,f
wmaom &m*udk y,fjzwfrI tNyd;wdkifydkifNyD;aom igbk&m;
wynfo
h m;tm;? wH oHa,mZeH=xdu
k mrbkH wpfzef y#doaEae&ef
oHa,mZOfw&m;onf? ewd=r&SdNyD/
uAVDum& tm[m& PftcGihf tNy;D wdik f ydik o
f nf&adS omf
umr&m*vnf ; Pf t cG i f h tNyD ; wd k i f yd k i f a vawmh o nf /
umr&m* tNyD;wdkifydkifonf&Sdaomf umrwpfq,fhwpfbkH
y#doaE wpfzefaezG,fudp r&SdNyD? jA[mhjynfodkY oGm;zdkYom
&Sdawmhonf[kqdkvdkownf;? uAVDum& tm[m& tNyD;wdkif
ydkifEdkifrIqdkonfum; wy&dnm wd&Py&dnm y[mey&dnm
[kqdktyfaom y&dnmokH;yg; tpOftwdkif;toD;oD; tcGifh ukefNyD;
pD; oGm;ojzifh uAVDum& tm[m& om,mwG,fwmaom
wPSmcsKyfuG,f ukefqkH; uAVDum& tm[m&ESifhpyfaom
'kut
aygif;rS tcsi;f cyford ;f vGwNf ird ;f cef;odYk qdu
k af &mufonfukd
tNyD;wdkif ydkifEdkifrIqdkownf;/
y&d n m ok H ; yg;
y&dnmok;H yg;wGi-f
(1) wy&dnmqdo
k nfum;- odrt
I cGihf tNy;D wdik yf ikd Ef ikd rf u
I kd
qdo
k wnf;/
(2) wD&Py&dnmqdkonfum; tedp[kydkif;jcm;rI'ku[k
ydkif;jcm;rItew[k ydkif;jcm;rItNyD;wdkiftcGifhwkH;onfudkqdkownf;/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

(3) y[mey&dnmqdkonfum; uAVDum& tm[m&


om,maomwPSmudk tjrpft&if;ESifhwuG t<uif;tusefr&Sd
y,fjzwfrItNyD;wdkifydkifEdkifonfudkqdkownf;/
uAVDum& tm[m& xdky&dnm 3-yg;wdkYudk t>ruf
rQjyqdkaytHh/
tm[m&H Zmemwd ? tm[m&ork ' ,H Zmembd ?
tm[m& ed a &m"H Zmemwd ? tm[m&ed a &m"*grd e d y #d y 'H
Zmemwd /
(um; wy&dnm tcGifh 4-yg;wnf;/)
tm[m&H=tm[m&'kuudk? Zmemwd=ydkifydkifod\? tm[m&
ork',H=tm[m&'kub
0tpOf trmtpOf jrpfa&,Ofuo
hJ Ydk tpOf
jzpfymG ;&eftaMumif;&if; w&m;ud?k Zmemwd=od\? tm[m&eda&m"H=
tm[m&'ku\ tNyD;wdkif csKyfNidrf;rIw&m; xif&Sm;&dSonfudk?
Zmemwd=od\? tm[m& eda&m"*grded y#dy'H=tm[m&'ku csKyNf ird ;f
rIodkY qdkufa&mufapEdkifaom y#dywfenf;vrf;udk? Zmemwd=od\/
vuPma&; rwifrD a&S;tzdYk odjrifciG &hf aom wy&dnm
tcGifh 4-yg;wnf;/ xdk 4-yg;wGifyxr 'k u p uf
tm[m&'kuudk odjcif;qdkonfum; uAVDum&m[m&
&SmrDS;rI'kuBuD;us,fykHudk odtyf\? ow0gwdkYtouf arG;rI'ku
BuD;us,fykHudk od&rnfqdkvdkonf? ajray:&dS ow0g a&ow0g
us;D iSupf aom aumif;uif&Sd ow0gwkrYd mS tdyaf omtcgudk csev
f yS
f

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

tm[m&udpESifhtouf&SnforQ aeYaeYnn aMumifhMupdkufMu


tm;xkwfMuaom tcGifhawG udkodjrifmuojzifh toufarG;rI'ku
BuD;us,fykH Muyfwnf;ykHudk odEdkifMuukef&m\/
(um; - uAVDum&tm[m& a&S;OD;pGm
odtyfaom 'kupufwnf;/)
'k w d , 'k u p uf
vlwdkY toufarG;rItwGufESifh ypnf;Opm&Smcef;rSm
awGUMuHKMu&aom ab;Oy'f teE &dS\? ZrL'Dyg ajrtjyifrSm
wpfaeYwpfaeYvQif tpmtm[m&&SmrI ypnf;Opm&SmrI tcGifhrSm
ab;awG Y aoqk H ; Mu&aom uk e f ; ow 0 gonf toacF s ,s
teErsm;jym;&m\? jrpfBuD;ig;oG,f jrpfi,fig;&m r[mork'&m
paom a&ow0gwdkYrSm qdkzG,f&m r&dSNyD/
(onfum; uAVDum&tm[m&
ESpfBudrfajrmuf odtyfaom 'kwd, 'kupufwnf;/)
--
wwd , ud a vo'k u p uf
toufarG;&ef ypn;f Opm tpmtm[m&udv
k ckd siaf wmifw
h
rIESifh rjywfpJtNrJjzpfyGm;Muaom avmbrD; a'gorD; arm[rD;
ypnf;Opm tpmtm[m&udk&avatmif &SmazGtm;xkwfrIESifh
jzpfyGm;Muaom avmbrD; a'gorD; arm[rD; &SmBuHvkyfaqmif
ygvsuf tcGifhray;ta&;rvS jzpfyGm;Muaom if;rD; 3-yg;?

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

tcGiahf y;&ojzifh apmifah &Smufrx


I ed ;f odr;f rIponfwEdYk iS hf jzpfymG ;Mu
&aomif;rD; 3-yg;/
(um; uAVDum& t[m& okH;Budrfajrmuf
odtyfaom wwd,udavo 'kupufwnf;/)
--------pwk w 'k p d k u f 'k u p uf
toufarG;rIuo
hJ Ydk Bu;D us,af om 'kp u
kd ef ,fBu;D rnfonf
avmu wpfpkHwpfckrQ r&dS? ygPmwdygw 'kpdkufonfvnf;
toufarG;rIrSm tBuD;tus,fqkH;wnf;? a&ow0g ukef;ow0g
aumif;ow0gwdkY olYtoufudk rpm;aom ow0grsKd;onf
tvGefenf;yg;vS\? ow0grsKd;wpfuka#rSm wpfrsKd;usr&dSav&m?
t'dEm'ge 'kpdkufponfwdkYrSmvnf; enf;wl xdkufonftm;
avsmfpGmodav/
(um; uAVDum& tm[m& av;Budrfajrmufodtyfaom
pwkw 'kpdkufpufwnf;/)
--------y r 0d y gu 'k u p uf
xd k ' k p d k u f p uf B uD ; onf tm[m&rI E S i f h rd r d t wG i f ; ok d Y
yg0if o rQaom ajray:&d S o w 0 g a&aeow 0 g aumif ; uif
aeow0gwdkYudkaeYpOftwkdif;tyg,fi&JokdY twGifypfcsav\?
tyg,f 4-bkH&dSorQaom ow0gwkYdtzdkY todef; toef; tuka#

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

ykHpkaomfvnf; wpfyg;aom tcGifhESifhtyg,fodkYusa&mufaom


ow0grsK;d onf wpfyw
Hk pfppk mrQr&dS av&m? tm[m&rI toufarG;rI
ESifhusa&mufaom ow0gwdkYonfom trsm;BuD;rsm;avukef&m\?
xkdYaMumifh pMu0VmteE? urmteErSmyif tyg,f 4-bkH&dSae
&onfum; tm[m&rItoufarG;rI 'kpdkufpufBuD;\ twwfay
wnf;[k qdkoifh\/
(um; uAVDum& tm[m& ig;Budrfajrmuf
odtyfaom yr0dygu pufBuD;wnf;/)
(wGif a&GUum; cHwGif;odkY ra&mufrD a&S;tzdkYjzpfaom
uAVDum& tm[m&'kupufBuD; ig;&yfudk jyaomtcef;wnf;/)
yxr'k u p uf
(1) pm;NyD;rsKdNyD;aomtcg usifBuD;usifi,frI'ku
rsu&f nf rsuaf cs; ESyf wHawG; cRu
J ef; ovdypf aom pufqyk zf ,
G f
aom tpkwu
Ydk kd prf;yGuaf &,mOfuo
hJ Ydk tpOftNryJ mG ;pD;rI'u
k ? rsKNd y;D
0rf;wGi;f odYk a&mufNy;D aomtcg wpfu,
kd v
f ;Hk udyk sUH ESo
YH jzifh twGi;f
oEmefwpfu,
kd v
f ;Hk tnDt
ykyt
f eHtapmfcsn;f jzpf uke&f aom'ku/
(um; rsKdNyD;aom uAVDum& tm[m&
a&S;OD;pGm odtyfaom yxr'kupufBuD;wnf;/)
-------'k w d , ab;Oy'f ' k u p uf
(2) tm[m&\tpG r f ; aMumif h jzpf y G m ;aom temrsKd ;
a&m*grsKd;'ku? tema&m*gtwGuf rsufpdt*Fg ysufpD; &aom'ku?

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

em;t*FgysufpD;&aom'ku? ElemtrsKd;rsKd;jzpfyGm;aom'ku? yef;em


trsKd;rsKd;jzpfyGm;aom 'ku? ausmufqdk; a&m*gtrsKd;rsKd;jzpfyGm;aom
'ku? xdkxdka&m*gESifhaoqkH;Mu&aom'ku/
(um; rsKdNyD;aom uAVDum&tm[m& ESpfBudrfajrmuf
odtyfaom ab;Oy'f 'kupufBuD;wnf;/)

wwd , ud a vo'k u p uf
(3) 0rf;tpmtm[m&r&dSaomolwkdYtm; avmb
paom wpfaxmifhig;&mudavomrD;wdkYonf xufoefpGm x<u
awmufymG ;jcif;iSmrwwfEikd Mf uuke?f 0rf; tpmtm[m&awmifw
h if;
aomtcgrS xufoefpGm x<uawmufyGm;EdkifMuukef\/ ewfjynf
6-xyfewfrif; odMum;rif;wdyYk ifjzpfaomfvnf; 0rf;tpm t[m&
r&dSMuvQif ewfrdzk&m;wdkYESifh cHpm;rI pHpm;rI aysmfyg;rI &TifjrL;rIwkdYudk
jyKvkdaom avmbr&dSEdkifMuukef? 0rf;tpmtm[m&&dSonfESifh
wpfNydKifeuf wpfaxmifhig;&m udavomrD;wdkYonfxufoefpGm
awmufyGm;Edkifukef\? avmb udavomrI a'goudavomrI
arm[udavomrI ponfwdkYudk pdwfjzifhBuHpnfEdkifMuukef\?
EIwfjzifhajymqdkEdkifMuukef\? udk,fjzifhjyKusihfvdkufpm;EdkifMuukef\/
(um; rsKdNyD;aom uAVDum&tm[m& okH;Budrfajrmuf
odtyfaomudavomyGm;rsm;rI 'kupufBuD;wnf;/)

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

pwk w 'k p & d w 'k u p uf


(4) ppfwu
kd jf cif; wHig rkq;kd olc;dk "m;jytrIwu
Ydk kd jyKvyk jf cif;
wd&pmefow0grsK;d jzpf olwpfyg;udk udu
k cf J nO;f yef;jcif; tp&daS om
avmuxifMujrifMuorQaom 'kpdkufq,fyg; yGm;rsm;jcif;
'kp& w
d 'ku/
(um; rsKdNyD;aom tpmtm[m& av;Budrfajrmuf
odtyfaom 'kp&dw 'kupufBuD;wnf;/)
------y r 0d y gu 'k u p uf
(5) xdk'kp&dw pufBuD;rS tyg,fav;bkHokdY tukefvJ
Muusa&mufMuavaom 'kurSm a&S;enf;twdkif; odav/
(um; rsKdNyD;aom tpmt[m&
ig;Budrfajrmufodtyfaom 0dygu 'kupufBuD;wnf;/)
(wGifa&GUum; rsKdNyD;aom tpmtm[m&
twGufjzpfyGm;Muaom 'kupufBuD; ig;&yfudk jyqdkcef;NyD;\/)
----------2-uAVD u m& wy&d n m
a&S;tzdYk 'kup ufBu;D ig;yg;? aemuftzdYk 'kup ufBu;D ig;yg;
[l uAVDum& tm[m& 'kupufBuD;q,fyg; jzpf\/
onfum; uAVDum&tm[m& tMurf;tm;jzifh jyvdkufaom
wy&dnmtcsuw
f nf;/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

yxr wy&d n m
tEkpdwfzG,f tvGefrsm;ao;\? wy&dnmtcGifhwdkY
todPfydkifEdkifojzifh xdktcGifhwdkYudk zkH;vTrf;uG,fumaeaom
t0dZm arm[uif;uGmaomtcg ]]tm[m&HZmemwd}} [laom yxr
wy&dnm tcGifhjynhfpkH\/
'k w d , wy&d n m
]]tm[m& ork',H Zmemwd}} [laom'kw,
d wy&dnm
uAVDum& tm[m& om,maom wPSmonf tm[m&'kuy mG ;
rsm;aMumif;tm[m& ork',rnf\/ xdkwPSm&dSaeorQ b0
tqufquf urmtqufqufwdkYjyqdkcJhNyD;aom uAVDum&
tm[m&'kup ufBu;D q,fyg;onftNy;D pGyv
f suv
f u
kd \
f ? xrif;tpm
pm;aomufMuaomtcg tm'De0PfrygyJ om,mESpo
f ufaom
pdwfjzifh wpfvkwf wpfvkwfaom xrif;udkrsKdrdonf&dSaomf jyqdk
cJhNyD;aom 'kupufBuD;q,fyg;udk b0tqufquf rsKd;ADZ rjywf
apjcif;iSg 0rf;wGif;odkY rsKd rsKd xm;onfrnf\/
(um; ]tm[m&ork',H Zmemwd}}[laom
'kwd, wy&dnm tcsufwnf;/)
------wwd , wy&d n m
]]tm[m&eda&m"H Zmemwd}} [laom wwd,wy&dnm
xdkuAVDum& t[m&'kupufBuD; q,fyg;onf cyfodrf;aom
ow0gwdkYyifvQif terw*oHo&mrSm tpOfxm0&tNrJvdkuf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

10

ygom aeNrJ"rwmr[kwf? tNyD;wdkif uG,faysmufcsKyfNidrf;


atmifjyKvkyfEkdifygvQif tNyD;wdkif uG,faysmufcsKyfNidrf;cGifhvnf;
{uE&dS\[k odjcif;onf ]]tm[m& eda&m"H Zmemwd}} rnf\/
uAVDum& tm[m& om,maomwPSm tNyD;wdkif
csKyfNidrf;vQif xdk'kupufBuD; q,fyg;onf
tNyD;wdkifcsKyfNidrf;\[k odonf[lvdk/
(um; ]]tm[m&eda&m"H Zmemwd}}[laom
wwd, wy&dnmNyD;\/)
------pwk w wy&d n m
]]tm[m& eda&m"*grdedy#dy'H Zmemwd}}[laom pwkw
wy&dnm r*if&Spfyg;udk yGm;rsm;onf&dSaomf tm[m& 'ku
eda&m"tcGifhodkY {uefqdkuf\ a&muf\[k odonf[lvdk/
(um; ]]tm[m&eda&m"*grdedy#dy'H Zmemwd}}[laom
pwkw
wy&dnmNy;D \/)
wGif wy&dnmcef;NyD;\/
------3-uAVD u m& wD & Py&d n m
wD&Py&dnm tedpy &dnm? 'kuy &dnm? tewy&dnm [l
wD&Py&dnmtjym; okH;yg;&dS\/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

11

ted p y &d n m
tedpy&dnmqdkonfum;- ow0gwdkY\ cEmudk,fonf
kycf Em emrfcEm[lESpyf g;&d\
S ? kyu
f ,
kd f emrfu,
kd [
f
l ESpu
f ,
kd &f \
Sd
[lvdkonf? kyfaumif emrfaumif[l ESpfaumif&dS\[laomf
vnf;qdk? ajr"mwf a&"mwf rD;"mwf av"mwf-puK aomw
Cme Zd0Sg um, ly o' *E &otp&dSaom kyfpk kyfaygif;
kyw
f ;Hk kycf pJ o
k nf kycf Em kyu
f ,
dk f kyaf umifrnf\/ pdwaf pwem
tp&daS om emrfpk emrfaygif; emrfw;Hk emrfcpJ o
k nfemrfcEm emrfu,
kd f
emrfaumif rnf\? okdY wpfa,muf wpfa,mufaom yk*dKvf\
oEmef kyfaumif emrfaumif[lESpfaumif&dSaeonfwGif
kyfaumif\oEmefvnf; wpfem&DtwGif;rSmyif ckwifck cPrpJ
aoqkH;aeaomtedprIBuD;? emrfaumif\ vnf;ckwifck cPrpJ
aoqkH;aeaom tedprIBuD;? if;ESpfyg;udk rsufpdESifhjrifouJhokdY
'd|ypu IjrifrIydkifEdkifonfudk tedpy&dnmqdkonf/
------'k u y &d n m
tedpab;xd r&Pab;xd aoab;xd ckwifck
aoaoae&aom kyfaumif emrfaumif ESpfyg;\ okcrsKd;
r[kwf? 'kursKd;pifppfjzpfrIudk tvif;xifjrifqkH;jzwfydkifEdkifonfudk
'kuy &dnmqdo
k nf/
-------

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

12

tew y &d n m
avmu xifjrif,lrSwf twwfpGJNrJaeMuaom yk*dKvf
ow0g ig olwpfyg; a,mufsm; rdef;r[lonfrSm wpfb0vkH;rSmrS
wpfa,mufwpfa,mufomwnf;? wpfem&DtwGi;f rSmyif ig tcgcg
aoonf? tcgcg y#doaEaeonf[
l t,lr&dMS u/ xdyk *k Kd vf ow0g
ig olwpfyg; a,mufsm; rde;f r\ txnfcH trmcHum; twwnf;?
xdktw\ txnfcH trmcHrSmum; ZD0wnf;? yk*dKvfow0gonf
wpfckwpfckaom b0rSm toufwrf;&Snf orQwpfb0vkH;rSm
wpfa,mufwpfa,mufomjzpfcJh xdktxnfcH trmcHjzpfaom
twZD0onfvnf; wpfb0vkH;rSmrS wpfckom trSefjzpf\[k
rSwx
f ifp
JG aeMu\? ,ckvw
l Ykd toufwpf&mwrf;rSm tESpw
f pf&m
ae&aomolvnf; &d\
S ? tESpw
f pf&mae&aomolonf tESpw
f pf&m
twGi;f rSm tcgcgaorI? tcgcgy#doaEaerI[
l r&d?S tp trd0rf;
rSmwpfcg y#doaEaecJhNyD;vQif tESpfwpf&mjynhf pkwdurZkyf
csKyfqkH;rS wpfcgomaoonf[k xifjrifaeMu\? tESpfukd;q,f
ae aoaomol &Spfq,faeaoaomol ponf wkdYrSmvnf;
xdkenf;wlodav/
ZD0rSmvnf; tESpfwpf&mwrf; tESpfwpf&mae&aom
olonf tESpw
f pf&m touf&n
S \
f ? tESpw
f pf&mvk;H rSmrS wpfouf
omjzpf\? ZD0wpfckomjzpf\? tESpfwpf&mtwGif; xdkolrSm
tcgcgtouf ysufqkH;onf[l r&dS? aoqkH;onf[lr&dS[k
xifjrifpv
JG rf; aeMuuke\
f ? pwkr[m&mZfewfjynfrmS tESpif g;&m
oufwrf;&d\
S ? xdo
k &Ydk o
Sd nftvdu
k f xdek wfjynfrmS jzpfavaomol\

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

13

toufonf tESpfig;&mywfvkH;rcsKyfrpJ cdkifNrJwnfae\? tESpf


ig;&mvk;H rSmrS wpfoufomjzpf\? toufwpfco
k mjzpf\? ZD0wpfck
omjzpf\? wpfa,mufaomewfrSm ig;&mtwGif;wGif tcgcg
toufao;qkH;onf[lr&dS? tcgcgZD0ysufqkH;onf [lr&dS[k
xifjrifrw
S pf
JG aeMuuke\
f ? wm0wom paom txufewfjynf
jA[mhjynf toufwrf;wdkYvnf; xdkenf;twlodav/
-----Oap ' 'd | d ow'd | d
oum,'d|dt,l yk*dKvf ow0gwpf&yf? a,mufsm;
rdef;rwpf&yf? ig olwpfyg; wpf&yf? twwpf&yf? ZD0wpf&yf
ig;&yfwdkY\ txl;tjym; Oap''d|d ow 'd|dESpfyg;wkdY\ txl;
tjym;udk qdkOD;tHh/
toufZD0&dSoludk yk*dKvfow0g[k xifrSwfpGJvrf;onf?
xdyk *k Kd vo
f w0grS vltaxGaxG ewftaxGaxG jA[m taxGaxG
qif jrif; uRJ EGm;ponftaxGaxG trd tz ponftaxGaxG
rsm;jym;onf/
a,mufsm; rdef;r qdkonfum; xdkxdkyk*dKvfow0gtjym;rSm
vdio
f Pmeftm;jzifjh ym;jyefonf/
twqdkonfum; El;nHhvSpGmaom &GHUajrudk vlkyf ewfkyf
ponfwdkYjyKvkyf&m yx0DrsKd;jzpfaom &GHUajronf txnfcH
trmcH0wK&o
Sd nf[k xifrw
S
f xdyk "met*Fg trmcH0wKwpfrsK;d udk
tw[l pGJvrf;ownf;? taxGaxG MuHzefodjrifjcif;? taxGaxG

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

14

ajymqdik &kd ,fjrnfweG jf cif;? ud,


k t
f *FgvIy&f mS ;oGm;vmjcif; ponfwYkd
onfxdktw\trIwdkY wnf;[krSwf,lonf? xdktwonf yk*dKvf
ow0grSmyif twGif;\yk*dKvfow0grS toD;tjcm;r[kwf/
ZD0qdo
k nfum; xdt
k w\ trmcHwnf;? ZD0ESijhf ynfph o
Hk nfh
twGuaf Mumifh twonfumvjrif&h n
S f wnfaeEdik f onf[k xifjrif
pGv
J rf;onf/
rnfonfhyk*dKvf rnfonfhow0g? rnfonfha,mufsm;?
rnfhonhfrdef;r? um;igwnf;? um; rnfolrnf0g wnf;[k
xifjrifajymqdk&m yk*dKvfow0g twwkdYudk y"metmkHjyK
ajymqdkukefonf/
olonf toufq,fESpf&dSNyD? q,fhig;ESpf&dSNyD? olum;
t&Sifwnf;? olum; taownf;[k ajymqdkMu&m ZD0udk
y"mejyKajymqdkMuukefonf/
emrfw&m; kyfw&m;ESpfyg;vkH;udkyif twZD0[k,laom
'd|dwpfrsKd;? emrfw&m;udkom twZD0[k,laom 'd|dwpfrsKd;?
emrfkyfw&m;ESpfyg;rS tvGwftoD;tjcm;[k,laom 'd|dwpfrsKd;?
emrfkyfw&m;udk twZD0[k,l&m tw ZD0onf wpfoufvkH;
wpfb0vkH; tcdkiftNrJ wpfckwnf;tjzpfESifhwnfaeouJhokdY
kyef mrfonfvnf; wpfoufv;Hk wpfb0vk;H tckid t
f Nrw
J pfcw
k nf;
tjzpfESifhwnfaeonf? b0qkH; urZkyf csKyfysuf&mwGifrS
kyfemrftwZD0 ysufqkH;onf[k ,lonfum; Oap''d|dwnf;/
kyfum; twZD0r[kwf? emrfonfom twZD0jzpfonf?
pkwdurZkyfcsKyfysufaoqkH;&m kyfonfom csKyfqkH;onf?

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

15

twZD0[kqdktyfaom emrfonfum; csKyfonf[lr&dS? kyfcEm


wpfckcsKyfqkH;vQif b0wpfyg;okdYajymif; ul; kyfcEmtopfwpfck
wnfaxmif aejyefonf[k ,lonfum; ow'd|dwnf;/
twZD0onf kyfcEm? emrfcEmrS tvGwf toD;tjcm;
wnf;[k,l&mvnf; wpfb0rSm wpfcgwpfcg kyfcEm emrfcEm
ysuq
f ;Hk &mrSmtwZ0D vnf; wpfb0vQif wpfcgwpfcgysuq
f ;Hk onf
[k,lonfum; Oap''d|dwnf;/
kycf Em emrfcEmonfom wpfb0wGif wpfcgwpfcgysuq
f ;Hk
onf? kycf Em emrfcEmrS tvGwf wpfjcm;wpfyg; jzpfaom twZ0D
rlum; ysufqkH;onf[lr&dS[k ,lonfum; ow'd|dwnf;/
Oap''d|dum; wpfb0vQif wpfcgwpfcg twZD0csKyfjywf
onf? aemufaemufb0rSm twopf ZD0opf wnfaxmif
oHo&mrSm usifvnfonf[k,l\/
--------ew d u ta[wk u tBud , 'd | d
ewu
d ta[wku tBu,
d 'd|Bd u;D rsm;rlum; yk*Kd vo
f w0g
twZ0D rnfonf wpfb0om&do
S nf? a&SUb0rS ajymif;vmonf
[lvnf; r&d?S aemufb0okYd ajymif;onf[
l vnf;r&d?S ypKye b
f 0
om&dSMuonf? ypKyefb0csKyfqkH;vQif tNyD;wdkif csKyfqkH;av
awmhonf? raumif;rIudkjyKaomfvnf; aemifb0 'kutusKd;udk
cH&onf[lr&dS? ukodkvfaumif;rIudk jyKaomfvnf; aemifb0
okctusKd;udkpH&onf[lr&dS[k,lonf/
(um; Oap''d|domrnESifh rdpm'd|dBuD; okH;yg;\txl;wnf;/)

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

16

rdro
d Emef wpfem&DrQumvtwGi;f rSmyif kyaf umif kycf Em
tcgcgcsKyfysufaoqkH;aerI? emrfaumif emrfcEmckwifck topf
topfjzpfay:aerI? topftopfjzpfay:NyD;aemufvnf; ckwif
ckcsKyyf suf aoqk;H aerIukd tedpy &dnmjzifh xifvif;pGmjrifEikd af om
0dyem a,m*Dyk*dKvfrSmrlum; wpfouftwGif; wpfb0twGif;
rSm tcgcg csKyfysufaoqkH;jcif;[lr&dS? wpfb0qkH;rS wpfcgom
aoonf[k xifjrifaeMuaom yk*dKvf ow0g tw ZD0[l
{uEr&dS[laom Pftjrifonf xif&Sm;ay:vmonf/
yk*Kd vo
f w0g twZ0D rSmwpfb0qk;H rS wpfcgom aoonf
[kxifjrifpv
JG rf;Muonf? ig\ kycf Em emrfcEmrSmwpfem&DtwGi;f
ckwifckaoqkH;aeonf? yk*dKvf ow0g tw ZD0rSm trd0rf;
y#doaE wnfaerIjzifw
h pfb0wGif wpfcgom topfjzpfay: wnf
axmifrI&dSonf[k xifjrifpGJvrf;Muonf? kyfcEm emrfcEmrSm
wpfem&DtwGif;rSmyif tcgcgtopftopfjzpfay:wnfaxmif
onfudk ypu'd|Ijrif&onf? xdkYaMumifh kyfcEm emrfcEmonf
yk*dKvfr[kwf? tewomjzpfonf? yk*dKvf[lr&dS? ow0g[lr&dS?
tw[lr&dS? ZD0[lr&dS? rdpmonm rdpm'd|dwdkY\tpGrf;jzifh
xifrdxif&m jrifrdjrif&m ajymqdkxifrSwf aeMuaom a0g[m&
ynwfrQomjzpfonf[k 0dyema,m*Dyk*dKvftm; pifMu,fpGm
xifjrifrIonf tewy&dnmrnf\/
(um; wD&Py&dnmokH;yg;\txl;udk jyqdkcsufwnf;/)
----------

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

17

ted p y &d n m
xdkokH;yg;wGif uAVDum& tm[m& ur|mef;t&m tedp
y&dnmtcsufudk t>rufrQjyqdkOD;tHh/
t&mwGif wy&dnmtcsuEf iS hf pyf,u
S &f ef tcGi&hf jSd yef
aomaMumifah &S; jyqdck NhJ y;D aom wy&dnm tpDt&ifrS <uif;usef
aom tEkpdyfwy&dnmtcsufudk qdkvdkufOD;tHh/
tm[m&qdkonfum; rdrd\qdkif&m kyfemrf emrfcEmwdkYudk
vGefpGm&GufaqmifEdkifaom pGrf;tm;Av BuD;us,fvSaomw&m;udk
t[m&qdkownf;? xdktm[m&onf kyftm[m&wpfyg;? emrf
tm[m&okH;yg;[l av;yg;&dS\? emrftm[m& okH;yg;rSm aemuf
vmvwUH /
---------k y f t m[m&
kyt
f m[m&qdo
k nfum; - MoZmkyu
f q
kd o
kd wnf;? kyt
f ESpf
kyt
f qD[
l vnf;aumif;? "mwftESpf "mwftqD[
l vnf;aumif;
qdktyf\? xdkMoZm"mwftqDonf tZwMoZm A[d'MoZm [l
ESpyf g;&d\
S ? y#doaEpw
d Of yg'fonfrpS tZw yk o
f EmefrS tpOfyg
vmcJhaom MoZmpkonf tZwMoZmrnf\? uvv a&Munf
wnfaom owm[rS aemufowm[tvGefwGif trdrsKdaom
tpmrS pdrv
hf m oli,fyk rf mS ysUH ESUH onft
h cgrSp touf xufq;Hk
tyrSrsKdtyfaom xrif; abmZOf ponfyg&dSaom MoZmpkonf
A[d'M oZmrnf\/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

18

wpfowm[ ESpo
f wm[ tvGerf pS tb,fah Mumifh A[d'
MoZm rjywfrpJ tNrJaxmufyHh&avoenf;[lrl A[d'MoZm ulnD
axmufyhHrIr&dScJhvQif tm;enf;pGmaom tZw"mwfqDpkudk tm;
BuD;pGmaom tZw"mwfrD;avmifojzifh tvsiftjref cEmum,
ajcmufcef;ysufqkH;&maomaMumifhwnf;/
csJUOD;tHh? aumif;pGm uspftyfaom rD;pm*Grf;awmifhi,fudk
ESrf;qDrSmpdrf rD;cGufi,fESifhrD;xGef;&m rD;cGufi,frSm ESrf;qDtydk
rxnfhrl rD;pmwGif;rSm&dSaom qDtwdkif;ESif hrD;xGef;cJhonf&dSaomf
ESrf;qDtm; xufrD;tm;uBuD;ojzifh cPcsif; qDa&m rD;pma&m
tukefavmifuRrf; cPcsif; qDvnf;ukef rD;pmvnf;ukef
rD;vnf;aovwUH ? rD;pm\ twGi;f &daS om ESr;f qDjzifrh ;D cGuw
f iG ;f rSm
qDtjynhfxnfhxm;rS qDtm;ESifhrD;tm; rQwMuojzifh rD;pm
rukefwnfhrl rD;vnf; t&SnfwnfEdkifavouJhodkY xdkYtwlA[d'
"mwfqDrsKdrI oGif;rI axmufyhHrIr&dScJhonf&dSaomf wpfudk,fvkH;
udk,fcEmESifh tjynhf&dSaeaom tZw"mwfrD;pkonf udk,fcEm
jzpfaom twGif;tZw"mwfpkESifhwuG wpfudk,fvkH;&dSaeaom
tZw"mwfqDMoZmwdkYudk cPcsif;avmif uRrf;aMuukefqkH;ap
vwHU? jyqkdcJhNyD;aom rD;cGufi,fOyrmESifh tvGefwlvS\/
avmu rD;wdkYoabmrnfonf rdrd\wnf&mpGJ&m 0wKrSm
&dSaom tqDudktNrJpm;\? avmif\? tqDudk EdIuf EIduf
vdkufpm;ojzifh tqD\wnf&m xif; opfom;ponfudkvnf;
avmifavawmhonf? ud,
k cf EmESihf tjynh&f aSd eaom awaZm"mwf
y&rwf r D ; onf v nf ; xd k Y t wl y if o[Zmwf " mwf q D E S i f h w uG

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

19

yx0DrD;pmudk twGifavmifuRrf; ukefqkH;apNrJ "rwmyifwnf;?


xdaYk Mumifh cyford ;f aom kyu
f vmyfwo
Ydk nf pdwu
P
wpfq,fch ek pf
csufxuf toufr&SnfEdkifMuukefrl rsufawmifwpfcyf vQyf
wpfjyufcefY umvtwGi;f rSmyif tBurd w
f pfaxmifru ysuq
f ;Hk ae
MuukefNrJ "rwmjzpfavukefownf;? xdkYaMumifh nOfhtarSmifrdkuf
aomtcg qDrD;xGef;&m rD;awmufESifhrD;pm em&Dt&Snfwnfaeyg
apjcif;iSm a&S;OD;pGm rD;cGufrSmqDtjynhfxnfh rD;xGef;NyD;vQif
qDukefvkjyef&if; jyefxnfh&if;trIudkjyK&avouJhokdY wpfaeY
wpfaeYvQif xrif;tpm ESpfcg ESpfcgrsKd A[d'MoZmudk rjywfrpJ
xnfhavmif;&avownf;/
wpfudk,fvkH;rSm tjynhf&dSaeaom tZw"mwfrD;\ tcsuf
udk jrifygvQif vl ewf cEmESifhwuG kyfcEm[lorQrSmyif tNrJvQif
wpf&dSef;&dSef;w<u<u wpf&G&Gaeonfudk jrifEdkifvwHU? wpf&dSef;&dSef;
wpf<u<u wpf&&G [
G al ompum; cyford ;f aomrD;wd\
Yk oabmonf
jzpfay:NyD;aomtcg rDS&m rD;pm0wKudk twif;zrf; pm;NrJwnf;?
tpmudkvSvSpm;rdaomtcg x<uvIyf&Sm;NrJwnf;? vSvSpm;rd
onfESifh wpfNydKifeuf tpmvnf; uRrf;ukefoGm;\? rD;vnf;ao
qk;H av\? x<uvIy&f mS ;qdo
k nfum; kyo
f pf uvmyfopfaygufzmG ;
rIaywnf;? rD;yGm;onf[ak c:Mu\? xdo
k o
Ydk m; ajr; jrpf tp&daS om
kyo
f pf uvmyfopf tqifq
h ifyh mG ;rIEiS hf uvmyf a[mif; csKyu
f ,
G rf I
twd;k tqkwq
f ufpyfjrif&onfukd wpf&eSd ;f &deS ;f wpf<u<u wpf&&G G
xifjrifMuukeo
f wnf;? wpfcak om y&rw"r rnfonf qHcsnu
f kd

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

20

tpdww
f pf&mpdw
f wpfpw
d pf mrQvyI o
f nf <uonf &Gonf[
l r&d/S
(um; A[d' "mwfqDMoZm tm[m&udk wpfaeYwpfaeY
vQif ESpfcgESpfcg tNrJrsKd&rIrSm odjrif&maom ,kwdtcsufwnf;/)
-------wpfaeY wpfaeYvQif A[d'tm[m& ESpfcgESpfcg oGyfoGif;&
onfudkjrifMuojzifh udk,fcEm lyum,BuD;vnf; wpfaeY
wpfaeYvQif ESpfcgESpfcgtopfta[mif; ajymif;vJ&onf? wpfaeY
wpfaeYvQif ESpfcgESpfcg topfta[mif; ajymif;vJ&onf? wpfaeY
wpfaeYvQif ESpfcgESpfcg tukefaoqkH; ESpfcgESpfcg topfjzpfay:
&onf[k odtyf\/
tb,fov
Ydk Qif ud,
k cf Emwpfaumifv;Hk wpfaeY wpfaeY
vQif ESpfcgESpfcgtopfta[mif; tukefajymif;vJoenf;[lrl
eHeuftcgtpm;rpm;rD a&S;tzd0Yk ,f wpfu,
kd v
f ;Hk onf ndK ;EGr;f aom
kyfuvmyf tpktcJBuD;jzpf\? xrif;tpmudk rsKdvdkufaomtcg
0rf;wGif;odkY xrif;wpfvkwfpm a&mufonfrSp &Tifvef;aom
kyo
f pf uvmyfopfwo
Ykd nf wpfzmG ;zGm;jzpfay:vmuke\
f ? 0rf;
tpmjynfah omtcg wpfu,
kd v
f ;Hk rSm&daS om ndK ;EGr;f aom kyaf [mif;
uvmyfa[mif;wdkYonf tPkjrLrQrusef tukefcsKyfuG,fukef\?
wpfu,
kd v
f ;Hk vnf; &Tiv
f ef;aom kyo
f pf uvmyfopf tpktcJouf
oufomjzpf\? a&ESifhuif;uGmojzifh ndK;EGrf;aeaom y'krm
Mumyef;udak t;jrpGmaom a&csxm;onf&aSd omf rMumrD &Tiv
f ef;
vmouJhokdYwnf;? Mumyef; kyfopf kyfa[mif;ajymif;vJykHum;
a&okdYa&mufonfrSp at;jr&Tifvef;aom kyfopf uvmyfopf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

21

wdkYonf wpf&G&Gjzpfay:vmukef\? topftopfjzpfay:aom


ae&mrSm kyaf [mif; uvmyfa[mif; wkYd tpOftwdik ;f wpfjzKwjf zKwf
csKyfuG,fukef\? PfrsufpdESifhMunhfwwfygrS jrifEdkifonf? yuwd
rsufpdESifh rjrifEdkif? yuwd rsufjruftvdkrSm ndK;EGrf;aom
Mumyef;onf wpwp&Tifvef;vmNyD? rQudkomodEdkifonf?
y&rwfjzpfaom kyfuvmyfwdkYonf oDw OPS vJvS,frIaMumifh
kyfopf kyfa[mif; &G&G&G&G ajymif;vJrIrnfonf PfESifhom
odjrifEdkifaomt&maywnf;/
xdkpum;rSef\? uJhokdYkyfpOf uvmyfpOf tukefjywf
roGm;yJ topfta[mif;ajymif;vJrIrsKd; kyfuvmyf wdkY\wjzKwf
jzKwfcsKyfqkH;uG,faysmufrI? w&G&G topftopfjzpfay:rIonf
tvGefodrfarGU\? yuwdrsufpdt&mr[kwf? Pfrsufpdt&mom
wnf;? tb,fodkYvQif PfrsufpdESifhjrifEdkifoenf;[lrl oDwkyf
wpfrsK;d ? OPSyk w
f pfrsK;d ? oDw kyo
f nf OPSyk rf [kw?f OPSyk o
f nf
oDwkyfr[kwf? tcsif;csif; qefYusifbuf&efoljzpfMu\? Mumyef;
wpfcv
k ;Hk onf a&at;odrYk a&mufru
D mv OPSyk pf k OPSyk cf o
J m
wnf;? a&oku
Yd sonfEiS w
hf pfNyKd ief uf tukev
f ;Hk kyaf jymif;\? OPSyk pf k
wpfNydKifeufcsKyfuG,f\? oDwkyfpk wpfNydKifeufjzpfay:ukef\?
nOfhtarSmifwGif;rSm rD;xGef;vdkufaomtcg rD;awmufonf
ESiw
hf pfNyKd ief uf wdu
k cf ef;wpfcv
k ;Hk rSm&daS om arSmifyk af rSmifuvmyf
wdkYaysmufuG,fukef\? tvif;kyf tvif;uvmyfwdkY wpfNydKifeuf
jzpfay:ukef\? OyrmuJhokdYwnf;/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

22

arSmifkyf arSmifuvmyfpkrSmvnf; yx0D tmayg awaZm


0ga,m 0P *E &o MoZmtukefyg&dS\? tvif;uvmyfpkrSm
vnf; yx0D tmayg awaZm 0ga,m 0P *E &o MoZm
tukefyg&dS\? yx0Dac:aom y&rwfajronf tb,frQavmuf
odrfarGYonf[k EIdif;csdefcsufwnf;? tmaygac:aom y&rwfa&?
awaZm ac:aom y&rwfrD;? 0ga,mac:aomy&rwfav ponf
wkrYd mS qdzk ,
G rf &dNS y?D okt
Yd vGeo
f rd af rGv
Y o
S nht
f wGuaf Mumifh tcsKyf
tysufvnf;tvGefjrefvSavownf;/
xdkMumyef; a&xJokdYa&mufvQifyif tylaysmufNidrf;NyD[k
vlwdkif;odMu\? tylaysmufNidrf;rIqdkonfum; tylkyf uvmyfpk
tukefcsKyfuG,frIyifwnf;[k rodMu? xdkMumyef; a&okdYa&muf
onfEiS hf wpfNyKd ief uf Mumyef;ylr[kw?f Mumyef; at;jzpfNy[
D o
k Md u\?
tat;kyf uvmyfpk wpfNydKifeufjzpfay:rI[k rodMu? oDwkyf
wpfrsKd;? OPSkyfwpfrsKd;? tcsif;csif; qufpyfjcif;iSm rwwfaumif;
aom kyfcsif; jzpfMuonfudk odjrifMuojzifh Mumyef;at;jzpfaom
tcg Mum;yef;ylr&dSNyD? Mumyef;ylcsKyfuG,fNyD[k odEdkifavownf;?
oDwkyf OPSyk Ef pS rf sK;d onf tcsi;f csi;f qefu
Y sib
f ufjzpfMuouJo
h Ydk
ndK;EGrf;aomkyftrI? wpfaeYvQif ESpfcgESpfcg ta[mif;aoqkH;rI
topftopfjzpfay:ajymif;vJrIudk odtyfjriftyfownf;/
a&yGufBuD;awGrSm xifaom vl&dyfonf a&yGufBuD;csKyf
aysmufvQif csKyaf ysmufavouJo
h Ydk kyaf [mif;pkrmS rD
S jzpfay:aom
pdwfw&m;? a0'em onm apwem reodum&w&m;? 0dwuf
0dpm& 0D&d,w&m;? avmb a'go arm[ ponfwkdYonf xdkkyf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

23

a[mif;wdkYcsKyfuG,faoqkH;&mrSm twlwuG csKyfuG,faoqkH;Mu


avukefonf/
(um; wpfaeY wpfaeYrSm emrfaumifBuD;
ESpfcg ESpfcg aoqkH;&ykHwnf;/)
okdY uAVDum& tm[m&udktrDSjyK wpfa,muf wpf
a,mufaomow0g\ kyfcEm emrfcEm kyfaumif emrfaumif
wpfaeY wpfaeYvQifESpfcgESpfcg aeYpOfaeYwdkif; aoqkH;aeykHudk
odtyf\? pum;onfvnf; tMurf;rQomwnf;? wpfem&DrSmyif
xdkcEmESpfaumifvkH; tcgcgaoqkH;rI? rsufawmifwpfcwfrSmyif
]]vuP'DyeD}} ]]0dZm
tcgcgaoqkH;rIrsm;udkum; igwkdYpD&ifaom]]vu
r* ' D y eD } } rsm;rSmMunfhI,lMuav/
um; tedpy&dnm tpDt&ifwnf;/
'k u y &d n m
'kuy&dnm r&P'kuudka&S; tusOf;rQjyqdkcJhNyD?
'kupufBuD; q,f&yfESifhpyf jyqdkOD;tHh/
umrbko
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awmjzpf awmifjzpf opfyif csKHjruf olUtouf olUcEmponfrSm
rSDwG,f&onf? tMuifrQavmufaom b0oHo&m umvywfvkH;
umrrsK;d jzpfaom toufcEm emrf kyw
f rYkd S ruRwrf vGwEf ikd af o;?
xdkrQavmufaom b0oHo&m umvywfvkH; tZwMoZm A[d'

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

24

MoZm ESpfyg;rS ruRwfrvGwfEdkif? tm[m&ESpfyg;rS ruRwfrvGwf


Edkifao;orQumvywfvkH; jyqdkcJhNyD;aom 'kupufBuD;q,fyg;rS
ruRwrf vGwEf ikd ?f 'kup ufBu;D q,fyg;onf tm[m&ESpyf g;rSxu
G f
aom pufBuD;pkaywnf;? umrrsKd;jzpfaom touf0dnmPf cEm
emrfkyfESifhwuGaom tm[m&ESpfyg;onf umrbkHom;jzpfaom
ow0gudk pufBu;D q,fyg;ESihf tNrzJ Ed ydS f Buw
d ef ,feif;0g;\? oif;"ke;f
pufi&Jom;ESifh wl\? xdkYaMumifh xdkcEm xdktm[m&ESpfyg;onf
tvGefaMumufrufbG,f aumif;vSaomaMumifh ]]b,a|e 'kuH}}
[lonfESifhtnD 'kupuf pifppfjzpf\/
(um; puf B uD ; q,f & yf E S i f h p yf xif j rif t yf a om
uAVDum& tm[m&'kuwnf;/)
'kuy&dnm t>rufNyD;\/
-----------tew y &d n m
tewy&dnmonf tedpr EI iS hf pyfItyfaom tewy&dnm?
'kur EI iS phf yf Ityfaom tew y&dnm? tvdo
k rYdk vdu
k jf cif;ESiphf yf
Ityfaom tewy&dnm[lokH;yg;&dS\? xdkokH;yg;wGif tedprI
ESiphf yfItyfaom y&dnmudak &S; yk*Kd vo
f w0g twZ0D r&dyS EHk iS hf
wuGjyqdck NhJ y/D
'kur EI iS phf yf Ityfaom tewy&dnmqdo
k nfum; cyford ;f
aom ow0gwk\
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k mtvd&k \
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akd MumufvefpY ufqyk \
f ? tZw A[d' tm[m&ESpyf g;

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tm[m&'DyeD

25

onf yk*Kd vo
f w0g twZ0D jzpfct
hJ ?hH yk*Kd v\
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wpfpnf;wpfxyfwnf; wpfvrf;wnf;vdu
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yk*Kd vt
f vdk &dt
S yfaom csr;f omokcvrf;om&d&S m\? tm[m&twGuf
'kuv
rf;rxGu&f m? yk*Kd vo
f nf tzsm;tema&m*g'kuu
kd tvdrk &d&S
um; tm[m&onfvnf; tzsm;tema&m*g 'kuudk rjyK&m [lvdk
onf? xdkokdYum; r[kwf? pifppfrlum; tzsm;tema&m*g 'kujzpf
atmifjyKESyd pf uf\? yk*Kd vu
f tzsm;tem a&m*g aysmufNird ;f jcif;udk
tvdk&dS\? tm[m&utzsm; tema&m*gudk wpfaeYwpfjcm;wdk;
atmifjyK\? tzsm;tem a&m*g'kuu
kd yGm;rsm;ap taoowf\?
rsupf u
d u
kd ef;ap\? em;udu
k ef;ap\? ElemBu;D udjk zpfap\? yef;emBu;D
udjk zpfap\? ausmufq;kd emBu;D udjk zpfap\? umva&m*g atmhtef
0rf;usujkd zpfaptao owf\? xdaYk Mumifh tZwM oZmtm[m&
kyfonf yk*dKvfr[kwf? ow0gr[kwf? twr[kwf? tewom
[kw\
f [k odtyf\? tZw MoZmtm[m&w&m;onf yk*Kd vt
f vdk
wpfvrf; tm[m&jyKvkyfrI wpfvrf; aeMu twr[kwf[k
odtyfonf&dSaomf xdktZw MoZmrSm rDSwG,f tZwMoZm
jyKjyifjzpf&aom umrow0g\ cEmig;yg; kyfemrfw&m;pkonf
tb,frSm 'kurIudkrjyKyJ&dSEdkifawmh tHhenf;[k odtyf\/
um; 'kujzpfatmif jyKrIESifhpyf Ityfaom tew
tpDt&if t>rufwnf;/
tvdkokdY rvdkufrIESifhpyf Ityfaom tew tjcif;t&m
qdkonfum; xdk'kujzpfaprIESifhvnf; xif&Sm;\? yk*dKvf\ tvdkokdY
vdu
k yf grlum; yk*Kd vt
f ouf&n
S w
f idk ;f tZwt
m[m&onf touf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

26

&Sn&f m\? yk*Kd vo


f nf touf&n
S jf cif;udo
k m tvd&k \
dS ? aoqk;H jcif;
ysufpD;ukefcrf;jcif;udktvdkr&dS? yk*dKvf\tvdkokdYvdkufyg tcgcg
rysufrqkH; rukefrcrf;yJ yk*dKvftouf&Snfwdkif;&SnfcJhaomf A[d'g
[m&oGif;zG,fjznhfavmif;zG,f udp r&dSav&um; toufarG;rI
'kupufBuD;pkonf tcsif;cyfodrf;&dSzG,fr&dSNyD? xdkokdYum; r[kwf?
yk*dKvf\ tvdkokdYrvdkufrl wpfaeYwpfaeYrSmyiftcgcg ukefcrf;
ysuq
f ;Hk \? xdyk suq
f ;Hk rIaMumifh wpfaeYvQif ESpcf gESpcf g A[d'& [m&
"mwfqrD sKo
d iG ;f \? topftopfaom tZwm [m&udk xlaxmifr?I
topftopfaom toufcEmudk xlaxmifrI? tm[m&tvsOf
qufrI? touftvsOf qufrI? kyfcEm? emrfcEm tvsOfqufrI
toufopfarG;jrLrIudk aeYpOfrpJtNrJjyKMu&onfjzpf oif"kef;
pufBuD;ESifhwlaom q,fyg;aom 'kupufBuD; tNyD;yg&dS aeav
onf? okdYtp&dSonfjzifhtvdkokdY rvdkufrIESifhpyfaom tewo
abmudk Ijrif&monf/
um; tvdkokdY rvdkufrIESifh pyf Ityfaom tew
oabmwnf;/
tewy&dnm t>rufNyD;\/
------------wD & Pmy&d n mES i f h Pf o k H ; yg;
udk,foEmef kyfcEm emrfcEmESifhwuG tZwm[m&
A[d'&[m& ESpfyg;wdkY\ wpfaeYwpf&uftzdkYrSmyif tcgcgao
qk;H ajymif;vJaeaomtedpr u
I zkd ;Hk vTr;f aeaom tedp oarm[

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

27

w&m;? jyqkdcJhNyD;aom 'kurI tewrIwdkYudk zkH;vTrf;aeaom


'kuoarm[w&m;? tewoarm[ w&m;uGm&Sif; udk,f
cEmESifhwuG uAVDum&mtm[m&ESpfyg;\ tedp 'ku tew
oabmudk xifvif;pGm jrifEdkifaomtcg wD&Py&dnm 3-yg;
tcGifhukefav\? oN*K[f ur|mef;ydkif;rSmvmaom 0dyemPf
q,fyg;wGif oroePf? O',A,Pf? b*FPf? Pf
ok;H yg;onf wD&Py&dnmrnf\? xd
k Pfo;Hk yg; wGif oroePf
qdkonfum; kyfw&m; emrfw&m;wdkYrnfonf rsufawmifwpfcwf
vQyw
f pfjyufrQ touf&n
S
f wnfaeEdik af om w&m;rsK;d r[kwu
f ek ?f
rsuaf wmifwpfcwf vQyw
f pfjyuftwGi;f rSmyif tcgrsm;pGm aoqk;H
csKyfysuf&aom tedprsKd; 'kursKd; tewrsKd;wdkYonf {uefpifppf
jzpfMuukefonf[k Pftjrifay:atmif tm;xkwftyfaom
0dyemPfonf oroePf rnf\/
rsupf jd zifh jrifouJo
h
Ydk PftjrifaygufrS 0dyemPfjzpf
onf? tbd"rmusrf;*efwwf "robm0wdkYudk ae&musodEdkif
aom oabm,kwdPfrsKd;onf 0dyemPfr[kwf? okwr,
Pfomwnf;? 0dyemPfum; pdEm r,Pfwnf;? ,ckumv
um; okwr,PftaeESifh xifrIjrifrI ESvkH;oGif;rIudkyif
0dyemPf[kxifrSwf aeMuolrsm;\? aq;aomufvdk
rD;jcpf&mjcpfrad omae&mrS rken
f i ;f aphrQ rD;awmufjzpfay:onfrS
p wdk;yGm; vmonfudkvnf;aumif;? twdk;tyGm;&yfNyD;aemuf
qkwf,kwf oGm;onfudkvnf;aumif;? tqkH;owf aoaysmuf
oGm;onfuv
kd nf;aumif; rsupf jd zifh ypu' |d jrifMuouJo
h Ydk ud,
k cf Em

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

28

wGif; kyfw&m; emrfw&m;wdkY\ xdkxdktcdkuf twefYtm;avsmfpGm


oEwd tpOftm;jzifh ckwifck wpfzGm;zGm;jzpfay:wdk;yGm;rIudkvnf;
aumif;? twdk;tyGm;&yfNyD;aemuf qkwf,kwf oGm;onfudkvnf;
aumif;? tqkH;rSm tukefuG,faysmuf oGm;onfudkvnf;aumif;?
'd|yputm;jzifh todPfwGif tjrifaygufatmif tm;xkwfrI
onf O',A,rnf\/
uG,af ysmufru
I o
kd m txl;uGujf cm; ypu' |d tjrif ayguf
atmifIrIonf b*FPfrnf\/
wD&Py&dnmNy;D \/
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y[mey&dnmukdjyqkdthH/ aS;aS;aom bk&m;omoemwkdY
BuHKBudKuf y&rwcEm 0dyemtcsufrsm;ukd xdxdrdrd xifjrif
atmif tm;xkwcf BhJ uzl;ukeaf om yk*Kd vw
f o
Ykd EmefrmS &daS eukeaf om
udavomwdkYonf tjrpfawGudk ydk;udkuf aovkaocsifyifjzpf
aeaomfvnf; ajrOwk a&Owkaumif;onhftwGuf wpfyg;aom
opfyifwdkYuJhokdYyif pdrf;&SnfBuD;yGm;pnfum; aeMuukefouJhokdY
tmkH"rtm;aumif;onhftwGuf wpfyg;aom yk*dKvfwkYdoEmefrSm
udavomwkYduJhokdYyif BuD;yGm;pnfum;aeukef\? xdkuJhokdYaom
opfyifwkdYonf av[kef a&[kefxdcdkufvmaomtcg tenf;i,f
xdcu
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tp&daS om udavomwdo
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tjrpfESifhwuG csKyfqkH;oGm;Muukef\? y[meudpvnf; tNyD;wdkif

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

29

av\? y[mey&dnm twGufwriftm;xkwfzG,f r&dSNyD? wpfokwf


wpfyk'f wpf*gxmudk a[mawmfrl&m a'oemtqkH; r*fzdkvfudk
&EdkifMuaom olwdkYaywnf;/
a&S;a&S;aom bk&m;omoem 'gerI oDvrI y&d,wd
A[kokwrIrsm;udkom tm;xkwf 0dyemtcsufudk xdxdrdrdjzpf
ajrmufatmif tm;rxkwfcJhyJ twktya,mif,rf;jrnfwrf;
&Gwfzwfo&Zm,fkHrQjzpfaom tedp'ku tewESifhNyD;vmcJhMu
aom yk*dKvfwdkYrSm udavomwdkYonf tjrpftajc cdkifjrJukef\/
wy&dnmwD&Py&dnm tvGefrSm EHkUeJYHkrQom &SdMuao;onf/
y[mey&dnmudpudk &ufvrsm;pGm tm;xkwf EdkifrS tjrpftajcESifh
wuG uRwv
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h aYkd om yk*Kd vw
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Ykd nfum;
wudp wD&Pudp NyD;pD;onfhaemuf y[mey&dnmudp NyD;pD;
onfah emuf y[mey&dnmudpu
kd wcrf;wem; &ufrsm;pGm vrsm;pGm
ESpfrsm;pGm tm;xkwfMuukef\/
y[mey&dnmudp qdo
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tm'De0Pf? edAd'gPf? rkpdwkurswmPf? y#docFgPf?
ocFgkayumPf? tEkavmrPf? PfckESpfyg; qdkownf;?
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0dyemPf ckepfyg;wdkYwGif b,Pfqdkonfum;
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taetm;jzifh Ijrifaom Pfaywnf;? cEm tm[m&wdkYudk

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

30

rdru
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kd f rdrOd pmjyKvyk
f oHo&mrSm usiv
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Pfqo
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k m;rsKd ;jzpf aom
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tm[m&ESpfyg;vnf;aumif;? om,mwG,fNidaom eduEdwPSm
onftvGecf ikd Nf r\
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k o
nfvnf; ajzmifah jzmifh qefu
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bufwnf;? xkaYd Mumifh xdek u
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q,fyg;ESifhwuG jrifxkduforQaomtm[m& 'kuab;b,wdkYudk
Ijrifaom 'kuy&dnmudkyifvQif b,Pfqdkownf;/
Bu;D pGmaom ab;b,udk jrifNy;D aemuf umrcEmESihf tm[m&
ESpfyg;wdkYrS rvGwforQ umvywfvHk; 'kupufBuD; q,fyg;wdkYrS
vGwfEdkif&eftcGifh[l tPkjrLrQ udk;uG,f&m tayguftvrf;
r&So
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ewfrif; odMum;rif;jzpf aecdu
k yf if usaomfvnf;tm[m& ESprf sKd ;
xGuaf om udavo'ku pufBu;D onf pGyrf v
d suyf ifae\/ udavo
'kupufrdvsuf aejyefvQif aemufaemufb0wdkY <uif;aom
'kupufBuD;udk;yg;vnf; pGyfrdvsufyif &Sdaeavownf;/
tm'D0ePf xufoefaomtcg umrcEmESifh tm[m&
ESpfyg;wdkYNidwG,faom eduEdwPSmonf cef;ajcmuf\? ,ckb0
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kd wnf;? edA'd gPfoYkd a&mufaomtcgrS xdyk *k Kd vf

tpodYk

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31

udk Av00dyema,m*Dyk*dKvfqdk&onf? a&SUPfpk tckdufum;


wkP 0dyem a,m*Dy*k Kd vf omqd&k onf? 0dyemEk 0dyem
&ifh qdkvkdonf/
edAd'gPfjzpfvmaomtcgrlum; rdrdudk,fcEmudk
om,mojzifhjyKjyifrI uAVDum& tm[m& om,mrI enf;yg;
oGm;uke\
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[l &SmMurH &&d\
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tvsiftjrefuRwfNyD;vGwf NyD;jzpfvdkaompdwfonftNrJwnf\?
okdYuRwvdk vGwfvdkaom qEESifhwuGjzpfaom Pfudk rkpdwk
urswmPf qdkownf;? uRwfrI vGwfrIqdkonfum; xkdcEm xdk
tm[m&wkYd wG,Nf iad om eduEw
d PSm uRwv
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aemufb0 xdkcEmxdktm[m&wdkYrS uRwfvGwfrI udkqdkownf;?
xdaYk Mumifh ckid Nf rpJ mG aomBuKd ;ESiv
hf nfyif; tMuyftwnf;csnaf ESmif
xm;aom acG;ao ykyBf u;D &daS eonfukd xdyk *k Kd vo
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xm;aomBudK;ESifh ,ck&dSaeaom cEeduEd tm[m&eduEd wPSm
wlap/
tm'De0Pf? edAd'gPf? rkpdwkurswmPf okH;yg;
onfvnf; 'kuy&dnmrsKd;yifwnf;? Pfudk a&mufaomyk*dKvf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

32

onf rdrd\lyum,cEmBuD;ESifhwuG tqif;toHtp&dSaom


Am[d&kyw
f Ykd vnf; pufqyk v
f o
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f ef;ojzifh
udk,ft*Fgwdk\ <u&GvIyf&Sm;jcif;r&dS? &Tif<uaom pum;rsKd;udk
ajymqdjk cif;r&dNS y?D rdred mrfcEm wdYk pufqyk o
f nft
h wGuf puK
a`EN ird f
ouf\? puK0dnmOfpdwfudkjzpfap b,f[mudkMunfhvdkjrifvdk
onf[k r&dS? aomw0dnmPfpdwf? Cme0dnmPfpdwf? Zd0Sg0dnmPf
pdwf? um,0dnmPfpdwfwdkYvnf; xkdYtwl raema`Evnf; Nidrf
ouf\? bk&m;tmkH w&m;tmkHrSwpfyg; avmutwGif;
b,f[mwpfckudk tmkHjyKvdkaompdwfr&dS? pdwfwdkYrS uRwfvGwf
vdkaomqE Asyg&ESifhom aeawmhonf? xdkokdY umrb0rsKd;
umrcEmrsKd;wdkYrS uRwfvGwfvdkvSaomtcg jrefjrefBuD; uRwfNyD;
vGwfNyD;jzpfwnhf&ef]]lyuaE tedpawm? 'kuawm? &m*awm?
ovawm? tCawm? tmAm"awm}} tp&dSonfjzifh y#dord'g
r*fwGif vmaombm0emav;q,fwdkYESifhPfukefvTwf qifjcif
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twGif;rSm&dSMuaom umr0wKwkdYom,maom wPSm0dnmPf
ajcmufyg;ESifhwuGaom pdwfapwem emrf cEmwkdYom,maom
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tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

33

&av\? xdktm[m&'kuwdkYtwGufESifh pdwfylrINidrf;av\? xdk


tcgxdt
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f efjY cif;r&dS yuwd vspv
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34

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35

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enf;udrk
DS vlcY sr;f om ewfcsr;f om jA[mch sr;f om [laom
okctzdkYrSmvnf; tm[m&okH;yg;tcsufudk ae&musodav/
ztcG i f h B uD ; us,f y k H
rQaompum;&yfjzifh avmurSmcsrf;om okc[lorQonf
vnf; zrSjzpf\? qif;&J'ku[lorQonfvnf; zrSjzpf\?
avmu zr&dcS v
hJ Qif csr;f omokc[lvnf;r&d?S qif;&J'u
k [

l
vnf;r&d[
S k odtyf\? csr;f omokc[lr&dcS v
hJ Qif avmbwPSm[l
r&dS&mNyD? qif;&J'ku[l r&dScJhvQif a'gotrsuf[l r&dS&mNyD?
avmb a'gor&dScJhvQifvnf; arm[tp&dSaom wpffaxmifhig;&m
udavom[l r&dS&mNyD/
um; ztcGifh BuD;us,fykHudk jyqdkaom tcsufwnf;/
apwemtcG i f h B uD ; us,f y k H
pdwEf iS w
hf uG or,w
k w
f &m;wdu
Yk kd &yfwnfr&? xdx
k t
kd mko
H Ydk
wpfajy;wnf;ajy;ae&atmif wpfaqmfwnf;aqmf wpfqw
G nf;
qGaeaom w&m;um;apwemwnf;? pdwf &yfwnfr& wpf&G&G
wpf<u<u aeMuonfujkd rifatmifMunhyf g? avmbtmkEH iS Mhf uKH vQif

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

44

avmbudk twGiaf qmf xkw\


f ? avmb tmk&H &Sd mokYd twGiEf iS
f
oGm;onf? tmku
H kd cHpm;rI twGiw
f u
kd w
f eG ;f \? a'gotmkH arm[
tmkH ponfwkdYrSmvnf; enf;csnf;/
yuwdykxkZOfwdkYrSm o'grI ynmrI 'gerI oDvrI bm0emrI
wdkYrlum; apwem tvGefajymh\? EkHYEkHYaES;aES;om aqmf\? twGif
raqmf? EkEYH aYHk ES;aES;omESi\
f ? twGirf ESi?f EkEYH aYHk ES;aES;om wdu
k w
f eG ;f \?
twGifrwdkufwGef;? tyg,fab;? oHo&mab;udkqifjcifjcif;?
ukov
kd t
f usK;d udak jrmfjrifjcif; paomya,m*ab; tultyHt
h vGef
rsm;&\? tb,fhaMumifhenf;[lrl pdwfrnfonfraumif;rIom
aysmfarGY\? avmu oltvGefa&mufcsif&mokdYaqmf& ESif&onf&dS
aomf jrefatmif raqmfEdkif rESifEdkif? twlrSwf/
ocFg&uEmw&m; ig;q,f&dSonfwGif apwemESifht<uif;
av;q,fhudk;ckwdkY\ tjcif;t&mudk OyrmjyqdktHh? qdyfurf;BuD;
wpfck 0efwifaom ormefBuD;tpif;av;q,fhudk;ck &dS&m\? puf
oabmFBuD;um; wpfckom&dS\? 0efESifhwuG xdkormefBuD;awGudk
xdx
k Nkd rKd U&Gmqdyu
f rf;okaYd &mufavatmif pufoabFmjzifh wG
J yd&Yk \?
qdyu
f rf;&dv
S w
l u
Ykd okq
Yd Mkd uuke&f m\? oabFmBu;D onf rnfonfh
ormefBuD;udkwGJ jrpfjyifokdYxGufNyD? rnfonfhNrdKU&Gm rnfonfh
qdyfurf;okdYa&mufatmifckwfvdrfhrnf[k qdkMuukef&m\? Oyrm
twl apwemonf&zH ef&cH g avmbudw
k
JG ESv;Hk tjyifrmS xGu\
f ?
avmbtmkH&dS&mokdY avmbudk wGJ twGifESif\? &Hzef a'goudk
wG J ES v k H ; tjyif x G u f \ ? a'gotmk H &d S & mod k Y a 'goud k w G J
twGiEf iS \
f ? enf;wl<uif;aomocFg&uEm av;q,fch ek pfcw
k Ykd

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

45

vnf;odav? okdYaom aphaqmfrIonf wpfb0 wpfb0wGif


ow0g"rwmaoqk;H &mrSmyif &yfwefo
Y nf[
l r&dNS y?D pkwd urZkyf
csKyfonfh aemufb0opf jzpfay:atmif wpfoGefwnf; wpfquf
wnf; twGifESifavawmhonf? udavomukef y&dedAmefpHrS
&yfwefYuG,fqkH;avawmhonf/
(um; apwemtcGifh BuD;us,fykHwnf;/)
tm[m&ok H ; yg;ES i f h Oyrm
rD;jcpfut
kd wGi&f atmif&mS aom olwpfa,muf? &orQaom
rD;jcpfudk rD;awmufatmif twGifjcpf ay;aomolwpfa,muf?
awmufNyD;aom rD;udk,l tdrfwumudk twGifrD;wdkufaomol
wpfa,muf? tm[m&ok;H yg;ESit
hf pOftwdik ;f pyfav? rD;jcpfxw
k Ef iS hf
tmkHajcmufyg; wl\? rD;awmufESifh tmkH\ tedd| &owl\/
MuaH csmif;udk twGi&f atmif &Smaomolwpfa,muf? &orQMuH
acsmif;udk MuH&nftwGifnpfaom olwpfa,muf? xGuforQMuH
&nfudk vltaygif;wdkYtm; twGifwdkufa<u;aom olwpfa,muf?
MuHacsmif;ESifh tmkHajcmufyg;? MuH&nfESifh tmkH\ |&o wlap/
wpfa,mufaom ow0g\oEmefrSm lyum, emrum,
[l ESpfum,&dS\? ESpfudk,f&dS\? ESpfaumif&dS\ aomfvnf;qdk?
0dnmPfajcmufyg;onf emrum,\ wHcg;aygufajcmufyg;wnf;?
tmkHajcmufyg;wdkYonf 0dnmPfajcmufyg; wHcg;ayguf[if;vif;rS
emrum,twGi;f odYk 0ifMu aygufa&mufMuuke\
f ? zajcmufyg;
wdkYonfum; 0dnmPfajcmufyg; wHcg;ayguftwGif;odkY a&mufvm

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

46

orQaom tmkHajcmufyg;wdkYudk twif;tMuyfqkyfudkif |mkH


rsKd;jzpfcJhvQif&dSorQ |&oay:xGufatmif Budwfe,fxkwf\?
ted|mkrH sK;d jzpfcv
hJ Qi&f o
Sd rQ ted|&oay:xGuaf tmif Buw
d ef ,f
xkwf\? apwemajcmufyg;onf ay:xGuforQaom |&o
ted|&owdkYudk ,lMu &Mu okH;aqmifMu cHMu pHMu&ef emrum,
wpf&GmvkH; wpfNrdKUvkH;udk twGifaqmfxkwf\? tmkHtm;avsmfpGm
qdik &f mqdik &f m wpfpw
Hk pfcak om emrfw&m;rS rxGuyf J rae&? tajy;
tjref xMu xGufMu&\? 0dnmPfzwkdYvnf; ygMu&ukefao;
onfomwnf;? w&m;\ oabmtcsuu
f kd ae&mus jrifEikd yf g vQif
Oyrm tvGefaygrsm;awmhonf/
um; wy&dnmt&m emrftm[m&okH;yg;wkdY\ tjcif;
t&m txl;udk t&dyft>rufrQ jyqdkvdkufaom tcef;wnf;/
6-0d n mP[m& wy&d n m
,cktcg 0dnmP[m&udk jyqdkthH/
0dnmaP bdua 0 tm[ma& y&dnmaw emrlyH y&dnmwH
a[mwd? emr lay y&dnmaw t&d,om0u ewd udd Ow&d
u&PD,E0d 'grd/
(ed'ge0* oH,kwfygVdawmf)
bdua 0=&[ef;wd?Yk 0dnmaPtm[ma&=0dnmPm[m&uk?d
y&dnmaw=tNy;D wdik f ydik Ef ikd f onf&aSd omf? emrly=H emrfyk Ef pS yf g;onf?
y&dnmwH=tvdv
k t
kd Ny;D wdik f ydik Ef ikd rf NI y;D pD;awmhonf? a[mwd=jzpf\?
emrlay=emrfkyfonf? y&dnmaw=tvdkvdkydkifEdkifonf&dSaomf?

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

47

t&d,om0u=igbk&m; wynho
f m;tm;? Ow&=d xdx
k uftvGe?f
ud=d wpfpw
Hk pfcrk Q? u&PD,=H jA[p&d,rI jyKz,
G u
f pd o
nf? ew=d
r&dSNyD? wd=okdY? 0'grd=igbk&m;a[mawmfrl\/
(ygVdawmfteuf)
0dnmP[m& PfudptNyD;wdkifydkifEdkifonf&dSaomf z
a0'em onm apwem tp&dSaom apwodufw&m; wnf;
[laom emrfwYkd vnf;aumif;? r[mbkwf Oyg'gkyw
f nf; [laom
kyfvnf;aumif;? txl;tm;xkwf zG,fudpr&dS? tvdkvkd uRJul;
a&ygtm;jzifh ydkifEdkifawmhonf? emrfkyfydkifEdkifonf&dSaomf jA[
p&d,0goudp tNy;D wdik af v\? ,ckb0vnf; b,fov
D vdak o;
onf? b,form"dvdkao;onf? b,fynmvdkao;onf[k aMumifh
MujyKzG,f r&dSNyD? oHo&m oDvrI orm"drI ynmrI &aoh vkyfrI
&[ef;vkyfrIonf BuD;us,fpGmaom 'kurIBuD;jzpf\? terw*
oHo&m tcgaygif;teE xdk'kurIudk jyKcJhvSavNyD? tNyD;rwdkif
wpfydkif;aMumifcsnf;jzpfcJh tyg,fi&JokdY wvJvJ jyefusonf
omjzpf\? 0dnmPm[m&udk ydkifEdkifaomtcgum; xdkjA[p&d,
0gorIBuD; tNyD;wdkifav\? aemuf jA[p&d,0go 'kupufBuD;rS
tNyD;wdkifvGwfNidrf;av\? aemifoDvjznfhusifhrIESifhpyfaom'ku
orm"djznfu
h sirfh EI iS phf yfaom'ku ynmjznfu
h sirhf EI iS hf pyfaom'ku
&aohjyKvkyfrI &[ef;jyKvkyfrIESifhpyfaom'ku[l r&dSNyDqdkvdkonf/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

48

obm0wud k jyqd k c ef ;
wy&dnmtm[m&H = 0d n mP[m&'k u u d k ? Zewd = od \ ? tm[m&H
ork',H=0dnmPm[m&'ku\ b0tqufqufyGm;pD; ae&ef
taMumif;&if; w&m;ud?k Zmemwd=od? tm[m&eda&m"H=0dnmPm
[m& 'ku\csKyfNidrf;rI {uEaMumif;udk? Zmemwd=od\? tm[m&
eda&m"*grdeyd #dy'H=0dnmPm[m&'kuc sKyNf ird ;f rIoq
Ydk u
kd f a&muf&ef
enf;vrf;udk? Zmemwd=od\/
wy&dnmtcdu
k f odxu
kd af omtcGiEhf iS hf avsmpf mG qkd vdu
k f
aom teufwnf;/ / xdkpum;rSef\/
tm[m&eda&m"[lonfum; tocFwr[medAm efBu;D wnf;?
xdek Ad m efBu;D {uE&aSd Mumif;udk wy&dnmtcef;u tEkrmeAk'jd zifh
,kMH unfpmG odro
S mvQif y#dy'gudk BuKd ;yrf;pGm tm;xkwrf jI zpfEikd af v
onf/ r*fudpESifhavsmfpGm qdkvdkrIum; t"dyg,fwpfrsKd;oGm;\/
0dnmPm[m&wGif puK0dnmPf aomw0dnmPf Cme
0dnmPf Zd0Sg0dnmPf um,0dnmPf raem0dnmPf[lajcmuf
yg;&dS\? xdkokdY lygkHESifh qkHrdaomtcg rsufpdrSmjzpfay: vmaom
0dnmPfonf puK0dnmPfrnf\? xkdxkdo'gkHESifhqkH rdaomtcg
em;wGif;rSm jzpfay:vmaom0dnmPfonf aomw0dnmPfrnf\?
xdkxkd*EmkHESifhqkHrdaomtcg ESmacgif;wGif;rSm jzpfay:vmaom
0dnmPfonf Cme0dnmPfrnf\? xdkxkd &omkHESifh awGYMuHKaom
tcg vQmay:rSmjzpfay:vmaom 0dnmPfonf Zd0gS 0dnmPfrnf\?
xdkxdkazm|AmkHESifhqkHrdaomtcg wpfudk,fvkH;rSm xdkxdkae&m

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

49

jzpfay:vmaom0dnmPfonf um,0dnmPfrnf\? o'g oDv


okw pm* tp&daS om avmb a'go arm[ tp&daS om aumif;
raumif;aom xdx
k "kd rmkEH iS hf qkrH ad omtcg [',0wKrmS jzpfay:
vmaom wpfrsKd;rsKd;aom 0dnmPfonf raem0dnmPfrnf\?
rsufpdjzifh xdkxkdtqif;o@mefudk jrifaomtcg igjrifonf[k
rSwfxifpGJvrf;Muonfum; puK0dnmPfudk pGJvrf;aom 'd|dwnf;?
PfjzifhxkdjrifrIudk "mwfwpfcktoD; tjcm;jzpfonf[k ydkifEdkifpGm
od&m\? em;jzifh xdx
k t
kd oHuMkd um;aomtcg ESmacgif;jzifh xdx
k t
kd eHu
Y kd
eHaomtcg vQmjzifh xdkxdkt&omudk cHpHrdaomtcg udk,ft*Fg
tpdwfjzifh xdkxkdylrI at;rI tEk tMurf;udk xdrSef;odaomtcg
wdkYvnf; xdkenf;wlodav? raemoufoufjzifh xdkxdktmkH0wK
trItcGiu
hf kd axGaxGvmvmBuzH efaomtcg? odaomtcg igBuzH ef
onf igodonf[k rSwx
f ifpv
JG rf;rIum; oum,'d|w
d nf;? Pfjzifh
xkdBuHzefrI odrIwkdYudk "mwfrIjzpfonf[k ydkifEdkifpGm od&m\/
odykHum; lyum,BuD;onf temykyfBuD;ESifhwl\? 0dnmPf
ajcmufyg;onf temykyfBuD;rSm xdkxdkae&m wpf&G&GaeMuaom
oHao'Zydk;i,fawGESifhwl\? 0dnmPfrnfonf emrfw&m;jzpf
txnf0wK r&aumif;aomfvnf; rsufpdtp&dSaom kyftjyifrS
toD;tjcm;wpfyg;aom tjcif;t&mjzifhPfrsufpdwGif xifom
jrifom&dSatmif rSef;ajc xm;ydkif;jcm;&rnf/
puK aomwtp&dSaom kyfpkudk tvGefMunfvSpGmaom
a&yGuu
f av;awGtaexm; 0dnmPfajcmufyg; udx
k adk &yGuMf unf
uav;awGrSm ay:&dSaeaom t&dyfuav;awGuJhokdY rSef;ajc

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

50

xm;ydkif;jcm;&rnf? aemifqifjcif Ijrifzefrsm; PfodrfarGY


vmaomtcg emrftjcif;t&mtwdik ;f yif xifjrifEikd v
f wUH ? xdo
k yYdk if
rxifEikd rf
l t&dyt
f jcif;t&m? a&yGuif ,ftjcif;t&m? ESi;f ayguf
i,ftjcif;t&mrsK;d taeyifxifjrifaomfvnf; udpr &d?S jrifrI Mum;rI
eHrI vsufrI awGYxdrI odrI MuHzefrIwdkYudk todPfrSm iHkrd NcHKrd
odrf;ydkufrdvQif NyD;awmhonf? rSef;ajcxm; MunhfIaom 0wKu
wpfjcm;ae jrifrrI mS igjrifonf[al om oum,'d|\
d vufxu
J
rvGwfyJ aecJhvQifrlum; "r00wmePfae&mrusao;? igjrif
onf[laom xifjrifNrJwdkif;aom oum,'d|d\ vufrSvGwf
Pf\vufwGif;rSm qkwfrd udkifrd iHkrd NcHKrd odrf;ydkufrdvQif NyD;
awmhonf/
xdaYk Mumifjh rwfpmG bk&m;onf lyuEm udak &jrK yu
f o
hJ Ydk &I rnf?
a0'euEmudk a&yGufuJhokdY? onmuEmudk wHvQyfuJhokdYI&rnf[k
kefY&if;pGmaom 0wKwdkYjzifh Oyrmudkjyawmfrlavonf/
xdkOyrmwkYdrSmvnf; tESpfr&dSrIwlykHudk jyawmfrlvdk&if; jzpf
ygonf? o@meftjcif;t&m wlykHudk jyawmfrlvdk&if; r[kwf?
tu,f o@meftjcif;t&mwlykHudk jyawmfrlvdk&if;ygqdkcJhaomf
ocFg&uEm onf iSuaf ysmwk;H ESiw
hf o
l nf[k jyawmfr&l m zonf
iSuaf ysmwk;H o@mefEiS w
fh o
l nf? apwemonf iSuaf ysmwk;H o@mef
ESifhwlonf[kI&rnf? a[mawmfrl&m a&mufygvdrfhrnf qkdjim;thH?
xdkOyrmrSm zponfonf iSufaysmfwkH;o@mefuJhodkY BuD;aom
o@mef&dSonf[laomteufonf a&mufEdkifaom teufyif
r[kwf? xdkuJhodkYBuD;aom o@mef&dSaom w&m;rsKd; r[kwfrI

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

51

onfum; vltrsm; xif&mS ;Ny;D jzpfownf;/ vd&k if;rSm rsuaf wmif


wpfcwftwGif;ponf tvsiftjrefjzpfEdkif csKyfEdkifaom tjcif;
t&mudk xifjrifEdkifonfom yrmPwnf;/
xdkYaMumifh ]]0dZKyg'g0 tmumao OyZEdp}}[k r[meda'o
ygVd 0dok'dr*f t|uxmwkdY vQyf\jzpfjcif; ysufjcif; jrefouJhodkY
kyef mrfw\
Ykd jzpfjcif; ysujf cif; jrefonfukd xifjrifap&rnf[k Oyrm
jyKawmfrlonf/
tedp 'ku tew IrrI nfonf edpo
nm okconm tw
onm owyk*vZD0 onmwdkYudk zsufqD;rIaywnf;? vQyfuJhodkY
jzpfrI ysufrI jrefonfudk xifjrifEdkifvQifyif ckdudk;&mr[kwfaom
tedptjzifh 'kutjzpf tewtjzpf owyk*v ZD0r[kwfaom
tjzpfxif&mS ;vSavNy?D xdt
k jzpfukd xif&mS ;vQif 0dyemy&dnmudp
Ny;D pD;Edik af wmhonfjzpf vQyaf &mif OyrmjyawmfrMl uayonf? emrf
kyw
f &m;wd\
Yk jzpfrI ysurf rI mS rlum; vQyw
f pfjyuftwGi;f rSm tBurd f
wpf&m wpfaxmifrujzpfEdkif ysufEdkifonf? xdkokdYaom cPdu
tcsujf zpfysurf w
I o
Ykd nfru
l m; ow0gwd\
Yk PftjrifrmS ydik ;f jcm;
xifjrifEdkifaomt&mpk r[kwfukefNyD? rxifjrifEdkifaom t&mudk
0dyem\tcsuftuGuf jyKIonf&dSaomf tESpfwpf&m tESpf
wpfaxmifyifaI omfvnf; 0dyemP'e tPkjrLrQ jzpfciG fh
r&dS? oarm['kuom jzpfcGifh&dSavonf? tb,fhaMumifhenf;[lrl
um; emrfw&m;wdkYrSm rsufawmifwpfcwf vQyfwpfjyuf vufzspf
wpfwGwfcefY umvtwGif;rSm uka#todef;ru jzpfrI ysufrI
jrefonf[k usr;f *efwrYkd mS vmonf? yuwdvw
l rYdk mS rsuf awmifwpf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

52

cwfrSm tcsufaygif; uka#wpfodef;xifjrifEdkifatmif Irnf[k


MuHpnfjcif;iSgyif rxdkufavaomaMumifhwnf;/
xdaYk Mumifh qdck NhJ y;D aomtwdik ;f cdu
k ;kd &mr&daS tmif jzpfrI ysurf I
jrefonfudk xifjrifEdkifonfom yrmP[k rkcsudk,kHMunf&rnf/
xdkoAnKwPfawmft&mESifh tbd"rmusrf;*efwdkY jyqdk
xm;aomt&m tcsufrsm;udk em;a,mif em;a,mif puK'Gg&
wpf0DxdtwGif;rSm jzpfrI csKyfrIrsm;udk vuPma&; wifonf[k
ajymqdMk uaom t&mrsm;onf a,mif,rf;umrQaom trIomjzpf\?
0dyem P'etppfjzpfEdkif&eftcGifh tvGefa0;vS\[k
rSwfav/
wGifa&GUum; obm0nmwudk jyqdkaom pum;&yfwnf;/
yxr'k u p uf
0dnmPm[m& 'kuqdkonfum; uAVDum&tm[m& 'ku
pufBuD;q,fyg;onfvnf; 0dnmPm[m& 'ku twGif;0ifonf
omwnf;/
uA#Dum&tm[m& trIrnfonf toufarG;rI oufouf
omwnf;? wpfcak omb0twGi;f raorDtMum;wGif &d,mykxf
av;yg; tm;jynht
f ifjynhrf Q w&Guaf qmifoGm;Edik f aHk om trIpk
omwnf;? avmbEdkifiHokdYvdkuf tydktrdkypnf;Opm jzpfxGef;&ef
aoaX;ol<u,fjzpf&ef? rif;pd;k &mZmjzpf&ef? puKtmku
H kd vdu
k pf m;
jrL;xl;aysmfyg;cHpm; pHpm;&ef? aomwtmkH CmetmkH Zd0SgtmkH
um,tmkH raemtmku
H kd vku
d pf m; jrL;xl;aysmyf g;cHpm; pHpm;&ef

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

53

aemufb0wkdY 'geukodkvfjyKvkyf&ef tcGifhrsm;ESifh avmuDpD;yGm;udk


tm;xkwv
f yk af qmif &SmMuq
H nf;yl;jcif; tp&daS om Asmyg& 'kur pI k
onf 0dnmPm[m& aygufrSxGufaom Amvkku 'kupkom
wnf;/
0dnmPm[m&t&mrSm zm[m& raemoa wem[m&
wdkYudkvnf; twGif;0ifjyK od&rnf/
(um; Amvkku Asmyg&'ku yxrpufBuD;wnf;/)
'k w d , 'k u p uf
Amvkku[laompum;AmvmeH Okaum Amvkkaum [k0dN*dK[fjyK/
AmvmeH=opmav;yg;w&m;udk rodMuukeaf o;aom olw\
kYd ?
Ok a u m =aMumih f M uAsmyg& pd k u f r I w nf ; / wd = od k Y a om
taMumif;aMumihf? Amvkkaum=Amvkkurnf\/
okdYpnf;pdrfOpm csrf;ompD;yGm;wdkYvdkufpm;rI? avmbtmkH
umr*kPfpD;yGm;udk vdkufpm;rIwkdY\twGif;rSm rsm;pGmaomtZw
tE&m,f Am[d&tE&m,fwdkYonf &dSaeukef\/
(um; 0dnmPm[m&aygufrS xGufaom
'kwd, 'kupufBuD;wnf;/)
xdkyxrpuf 'kwd,pufwdkYtwGif;rSmyg0ifaom wpfaxmifh
ig;&mudavomrD;yGm;rsm;rI taysmftyg; vkdufpm;jcif;ESifhpyfaom
wpfaxmifhig;&m udavomrD;yGm;rsm;rIwkdYonf 0dnmPm[m&
aygufrSxGufaom 'kupufBuD;wnf;/

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xdpk ufw\
Ydk twGi;f wGiyf g0ifaom ygPmwdygwtp&daS om
'kp u
kd w
f &m;yGm;rsm;rIonfum; 0dnmPm[m& aygufrx
S u
G af om
pwkw'kupufBuD;wnf;/
xdkpufwkdYrS r[mt0DpdokdYusatmifoGm;aom yr'ku
pufBuD;ESifhqufrdavawmhonf/
ewfjynfajcmufxyfwdkYrlum; wpfem&DrpJ tNrJjzpfyGm;
aeMuaom udavompufBuD;onf tvGefBuD;us,fvS\? xdk
udavo'kupufBuD;onf tyg,du'kupufBuD;ESifhqufav\/
jA[mhjynfvnf; lyum, rD;awmufrI? tly&m* rD;
awmufrI? rmerD;awmufrI? tvGefxufoefaom oum,'d|drD;?
ow'd|drD;? Oap''d|drD;yGm;rsm;rIpkonf 0dnmPm[m&aygufrS
xGufaom udavo'kupufBuD;yifwnf;? xdkudavo'kupuf
BuD;onf tyg,du'kupufBuD;ESifh qufrdav\/
(um; tm[m&H Zmemwdt& 0dnmPm[m& a&S;OD;pGm
odtyfaom wy&dnm 'kuopmtpDt&if t>rufwnf;/)
---------7-0d n mP[m& wD & Py&d n m
ted p y &d n m tpazmf e nf ;
wD&Py&dnmonf tedpy&dnm 'kuy&dnm tew
y&dnm[l 3-yg;? tedpy &dnm tpD&ifum; 0dnmPfajcmufyg;wGif
um,0dnmPfonf wpfu,
dk v
f ;Hk rSm tESUH jzpfay:onf jzpfvnf;
aumif;? okca0'em 'kua0'em [kqkdtyfaom xifSm;aom

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

55

a0'emwkdYESifh ,SOfonfjzpfvnf;aumif;? aS;OD;pGm y&dfnm


tuGufazmf&ef tvGefoifhjrwf\? um,0dnmPfa'G;wGifrSvnf;
'kuo[*kwf um,0dnmPfonfom xifSm;\? xkdYaMumifh 'ku
o[*kwf um,0dnmPf y&dnmtcsufukd aS;OD;pGmjyqkdtHh/
ausmukef;tjyif tpSdaom wpfwpfckckaom ukd,ft*Fg
tpdwfrSm wpfpkHwpfckaom tkwfausmuf vSHwef tjyif;txef
xdcu
dk &f m tvGeef musiaf om 'kua 0'em jzpfav\? xdcu
dk af om
'Pf jy,faysmufaomtcg xkd'kua0'em aysmufNidrf;av\/
a0'emukd y"mejyKqkdonf? emruEmav;yg;vkH; jzpftwl
ysuftwl Sdygonfyif? tm[m& okH;yg;wnf; ygSd\/
emruEm av;yg;rnfonf wpfckckaom ae&mrSm jzpfay:
aevQif <uif;aomwpfudk,fvkH;rSm emruEmr&dS? lyuEm
oufoufom&dNS r"J rwmwnf;? xdaYk Mumifh xdx
k cd u
kd &f m jzpf ay:cdu
k f
xdkae&mrSwpfyg; wpfudk,fvkH;rSm lyuEmom&dS\? emruEm r&Sd?
tjzpftysuftvGefjrefvSonfhtwGufaMumifh puK aomw
[',0wKwdkYESifh wuGNydKifyif &dSaeouJhokdY xif&\? xdcdkuf
temtusijf zpf aeqJrmS rsupf u
d vnf; jrifvsuyf ifjzpf\? pum;
ajymqdkoH tp&dSaom toHwpfyg;udkem;uvnf; Mum;vQufyif
jzpf\? ESvkH;uvnf; odvsufyifjzpf\? rsufawmifwpfcwfrQ
umvtwGi;f uka#wpfoed ;f ru jzpfEikd yf suEf ikd o
f nf[al om pum;
udk axmuftajymif;tvJ tjzpftysufjrefrIrSm rMuHtyf
rMuHpnf&maywnf;/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

56

xd k c d k u f & mXme emru E m av;yg;cG J y k H u m;-xd c k d u f r S e f ;


rodrIum; 0dnmPfwnf;? emusifrIum; a0'emwnf;? xdcdkufcsuf
udk trSwfonmjyKrIum; onmuEmwnf;? okdYyg&dSonhf
twGuaf Mumifh temaysmufNy;D onfah emuf jyefatmufarhjyefvQif
atmufarhwikd ;f atmufarhwidk ;f pdwx
f rJ mS xdcu
kd rf I ay:Edik af vonf/
a0'emay:&dSojzifh zyg&dSaMumif; xif&Sm;tHh? emrIwpf&G&G
waxmif;axmif;xaeonfum; apwemtrIaywnf;? zESifh
apwemum; ocFg&uEmwnf;? {u*wm ZD0dwda`Ereodum&
wdkYvnf; ocFg&uEm w&m;pkyifwnf;? emruEmav;yg;jzpf\?
xdkae&m&dSaom kyfpkum; lyuEmwnf;? cEmig;yg;jzpf\? rxd
cdkufrDa&S;tzdkYxdkae&mrSm lyuEmwpfckom&dS\? taemaysmuf
oGm;aomtcgvnf; xdkae&mrSm lyuEmwpfckomusef&Sd\/
uJhokdY temtusif jzpf&m a0'emuEmonf txift&Sm;qkH;
jzpf\/
xdkYaMumifh emonf[laom a0'emtrnfwpfckudkom
ajymqdk\? xdrSef;odumrw tcsufpkrSmrlum; 0dnmPuEmom
xif&mS ;\/
ae&m a0'emuEmudk y"mejyK a0'emykyVLyrm
[laom a'oemawmfjrwfEiS t
hf nD xdek mrIukd rD;[ke;f jzifq
h q
l w
l uf
aeaom a&yGufi,fawGESifhwlpGm PfrSjrifatmifI? obm0
twdkif; okyfay:atmif xifjrifEdkifvQif omaumif;\? okyf
ay:atmif rdr&d &rxifvQiaf e&m rus? igemonf[al om oum,
'd|dvufrS tvGwfyJaevdrfhrnf/

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57

0dyemIrIrnfonf P'erI oEd|durIjzpfonf?


xdaYk Mumifph uK0n
d mPfukd IvQif rsupf Ed iS hf jrifouJo
h Ydk ynmrsupf rd mS
txiftjrif&atmifI&onf? txiftjrifae&mus rus puK
0dnmPfudk rd rrdudkvnf; xdkIqJjrifqJtcg igjrifonf[laom
txifysu\
f avm? rysu\
f avm[kqifjcif? Iqt
J cgrSmrS xdt
k xif
rysuv
f Qif puK0n
d mPfukd vSvrS rdao;[k odtyf\? puKnmPfukd
vSvrS rdcv
hJ Qif vuPma&;odYk usvQiv
f nf; vSvrS ad tmif rxifEikd ?f
obm0"rukd rdrx
S o
kd bm0\jzpfrI ysurf u
I kd IaomtcgPfxrJ mS
tm;&pGmxifEikd o
f nf/
0dnmPfuJhokdY igjrifonf igMum;onf tp&dSojzifhobm0
xif&Sm;wPSm rme 'd|d tpGJtvrf;BuD;vSaom w&m;wdkY
obm0"rudkyif PfrsufpdwGif aumif;aumif; jrifrSawmfonf?
rxif&Sm;aomw&m;wdkY udpr&dSvS/ xdcdkuf emrIrSm a0'em
xif&Sm; igemonf[k pGJvrf;onf? 0dnmPf rxif&Sm; igod
onf[k rpGJvrf;? 0dnmPm [m&ur|mef; tvkyfudk vkyfaom
oljzpfcrhJ al 0'emudk trSwjf yK 0dnmPfurkd ad tmifzrf;? a0'emudyk if
0dnmPf[k Iaomfvnf; udpr&dS? jzpftwl ysuftwl w&m;pkrSm
xif&Sm;&mwpfckckudkrdvQif NyD;awmhonf/
(um; "robm0udk rdatmifzrf;rI od&maomtcsufwnf;/)
O',A , zrf ; enf ;
O',A,zrf;enf;um; xdcdkuf&mXme wpfjyifvkH; wpfzGm;
zGm; jzpfay:aeaom emrI[laom emruEmav;yg;onf rxd
cdkufrD a&S;tzdkY b,frSmrS&dSaeESifhaom cEmav;yg; r[kwf?

tpodYk

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58

xdkxdcdkufrI'PfcsufaMumifh rdk;ay:usouJhokdY ,ckjzpfvmaom


w&m;pkwnf;? temaysmufNyD[k odaomtcg temaysmufrI
qdkonfum; xdkcEmav;yg;wdkY\ csKyfuG,frIwnf; ukefcrf;rIwnf;?
b,fudkrQajymif;a&TUoGm;onfr[kwf? jzpfrIysufrIt&m
tvGefawGa0ol rsm;vS\? pdwfqdkonfum; udk,fwGif;rSm xm0&
tNrJwnf&dS ae\? xdkwnf&dS ae&mrS xdkcdkuf&mXmerSm ay:
vm\? xdcdkufrIaysmufNidrf;jyefvQif ae&mwpfyg;odkYajymif;
ay:jyef\[k xifaeolrsm;vS\? edptwpGJvrf;csuf tvGef
tm;Bu;D vS\/
uJhokdYtemtusifESifhxif&Sm;&m wpfuGufuGufrSm ,ckrS
jzpfay:vmaom tm*EKw&m;pk tjzpfuv
kd nf;aumif;? temaysmuf
onf[k qd&k aomtcg b,furkd o
S mG ;onf r[kw?f xdak e&mwGiyf if
tNyD;aysmufuG,f aoqkH; oGm;onf\tjzpfudkvnf;aumif;?
Z0d;k Z0g; ,krH mS ;oHo,r&d/S todPfwiG f vif;vif;csi;f csi;f xifEikd f
jrifEdkif xdk;xGif;Edkifatmif ajyma[mjyo&rnf/
t&mwpfuGufu PfrsufpdaygufoGm;vQif aemuf
aemufXmewdYk vG,
f oGm;vwUH / t&mvG,yf g\[k rxifvif?h
PfpGrf;&dSvQif vG,f\? PfpGrf;EkHYolrSm rvG,f/
uJo
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okca0'emrSm tjrifcufaewwfonf? okca0'emrSmyif vG,f
jyefaomfvnf; puK0dnmPf aomw0dnmPf Cme0dnmPf Zd0Sg
0dnmPftp&dSaom Oayuma0'emESifh,SOfaom 0dnmPfwdkYrSm
cufaewwfonf? xdkYaMumifh -

tpodYk

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59

]]t'ku rokcga0'em Pokcg? tnmP'kum}}


[l r[ma0'vokwfrSm a[mawmfrlonf/
t'k u r ok c ga0'em=Oayu m a0'emonf ? Pok c g=
odvQicf sr;f om\? tnmP'kum =rodwnfEh ikd f rxifwnfEh ikd f rjrif
wnfhEdkifvQif qif;&J\/
t|uxmwdkYvnf; Oayuma0'emonf Ijrifjcif;iSm
cJ,Of;\? rd*y'0Veenf;tm;jzifh a&S;tzdkY aemuftzdkY jzpfay:
aom okc'kua0'emwdkYudk axmufajrmf tv,fcPwkdYrSm
Oayuma0'emjzpfonfukd od&rnf[q
k \
kd / ig;yg;aom y0n
d mPf
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ESifh,SOfonfjzpf rdEdkifcJvS\? tjzpfvnf;rpJ udpvnf; wGif
us,fvSonfjzpf igjrifonf[laom oum,'d|d tpGJtvrf;
tvGefckdifNrJvS\? usm; jcaoFhwdkY\yg;pyfrSm&dSaom om;aumif
wdu
Yk o
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cJ,Of;vS\? a&yGufi,fay:&dSaomt&dyf\ ysufrI jzpfrIudk
a&yGufi,fysufrIjzpfrIESifhbufwGJ jyouJhokdY cJ,Of;vSaom
0dnmPf\jzpfrIysufrIudk aumif;aumif; jrifEdkifrSvnf; zufwGJ
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raem'Gg&0Dxrd sm;pGm usNy;D rS igjrifonf[o
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puK0dnmPfESifhwuG xdktmkHjzpfMuaom pdwf0Dxdtrsm;udk
wpfckwnf;jyK igjrifonf[k xifrSwfpGJvrf;onf/
0dyemrIrnfonf xdktpGJtvrf;udk y,fazsmufrIwnf;?
xdkYaMumifh pdwf0Dxd wpfaxmif wpfaomif;udkyif puK0dnmPf

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60

wpfckwnf;jyK igjrifwpfckwnf;jyK Irdvsufjim;aomfvnf;


igjrifonf[laom pGJvrf;csufwpfu,f jy,faysmufvQifNyD;awmh
onf? t&mwdkif;rSm enf;udkodav? tbd"rmt&m oabm
,kwdESifhwuG 0Dxdvufdk;rsm;udk tvGefa&vnfvSonfjzpf
twDwb0if b0*Fpve b0*kFyap' y'Gg&m0Zef; ponfwdkY\
Oyg'f? XD-bif cPdutpOfjzpfyHk csKyyf u
Hk rkd sm;pGmaom oabm,kww
d Ykd
ESifhwuG toufxufqkH;csydkY a[majym aejim;aomfvnf;
xdkyk*dKvf\jrifrIonf jrifrIonf jzpfxdkufaom obm0,kwdudk
jrifrIomjzpfonf? 0dyem tjrifrsKd;yifr[kwf? 0dyemtjrif
rsKd;ESifhtvGefyifa0;uGm\? odkYygvsuf xdkuJhodkYaom cPdu"r
tpDtpOftjzpftysufwdkYudk ae&mus odwwfrS 0dyemrI ae&m
usEikd rf nf[k xifrw
S af jymqdMk uaom t&mrsm;onf ae&mus tcsuf
rodBuD;rodvS xifrSwfajymqdkMuaom t&momjzpfonf/
Oyrmum; tbd " r m usrf ; wwf q &monf rE a v;Nrd K U
&efukefNrdKUrsm;rSm tvGefBuD;us,fvSpGmaom b,aq;onfBuD;
ESifhwl\? xdkb,aq;onfBuD;onf b,faq;rsKd;rSr&dS[k rqdk&
atmif wpfaomif;zd;k ESpaf omif;zd;k wpfoed ;f zd;k ESpo
f ed ;f zd;k 0,f,
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ud,
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uif;apEdkifaom aq;rsKd;onf rdrdqdkifrSm wpf&mru &dS\? orm;

tpodYk

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61

ynmudk tenf;i,frQ ruRrf;usifonfhtwGuf wpfoufvkH;


xdka&m*graysmuf? zwpfckudkjzpfap? a0'emwpfckudkjzpfap?
apwemwpfckudkjzpfap? 0dnmPfwpfckudjzpfap? 0dyem y&dnm
tcsufESifhodjrif aygufa&mufaomolonf tpGrf;aumif;aq;jrpf
wpfckESifh t&mruaom olemwdkYudk a&m*gaysmufNidrf;atmif
ukpm;Edkifaom aq;orm;q&mESifhwl\/
0dyDtp&daS om ajcmufqal ombk&m;wkv
Yd ufxufvnf;
yd#uwfokH;ykHaqmif igwdkYbk&m; vufxufvnf; yd#uwfokH;ykH
aqmifBuD; oHk;ykHwwfBuD;jzpf aZw0efausmif;awmfrSm tausmf
tarmfBuD; vkyfaeaom ayg|dvrax&fBuD;onf 0dyemrIudk
tm;xkwfvdkaomtcg 0dyemrIaygufa&mufNyD;aom awm
ausmif;ae &Sifoli,fuav;txHrSm vuftkyfcsD ur|mef;oif
,l&onf[k "ry't|uxmrSmvmaom wkpa yg|dv rax&f0wK
udk axmufajrmfav/
0dymrsKd;udk rodaom tbd"rmusrf;wwfq&monf
aq;'ef;tp&daS om "mwfrsK;d wdu
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ponfwdkYwGif wpfckck 0dyemy&dnmtcsuf rdNyD;aomolonf
aq;'ef;paom"mwfrsK;d ESiahf &Tjzpf aiGjzpfaygufa&mufNy;D aom [dEL
aZmf*D ukvm;bkef;BuD;ESifhwl\? okdYaomfvnf; tbd"rmusrf;wwf
q&mrsm; wwfodvdrm aqmif&Gufay;aomaMumifh tbd"rm
yd#uwfawmfBuD;rsm; ,aeYxufwdkifwnf&dSaeayonf? tbd"rm

tpodYk

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62

usr;f wwf q&mwk\


Yd aus;Zl;onf omoemtpOf tvGeBf u;D us,f
vSay\/
(um; ynm&dSwdkY owdynmjzpf&ef
rSmxm;vdkufaom pum;&yfwnf;/)
jyqdck NhJ y;D aom xdcu
kd ef musirf I emruEm av;yg;wd\
Yk ,ckrS
topfjzpfay:rI[laom Oyg'fpGef;udk xifvif;pGm jrifjcif;\
tusKd;um; y#doaErSp emrfw&m;wdkYrnfonf tpOfwnfum
yg&dSaeonf[k xifrSwfaom edponm aysmufuif;\? ,ck
wGifrSjzpfay:aom Oyg'fZmwdpGef;udk xifvif;'d|awGYjrifojzifh
a&S;tzdkYu&dSaeESifhaom w&m;r[kwf[k jrifEdkifaomaMumifh xdk
onmaysmufavownf;/
,ckyifaysmufuG,fukefqkH;oGm;onfudk xifvif;pGm
jrifjcif;\tusKd;um; ,ck&dSaeaom pdwfESifhyif a&SUodkYvnf;
oGm;&vdrrhf nf[x
k ifrw
S af eaom edpo
nmaysmufuif;\? ,ckyif
emruEmav;yg; tedpr&PodkY a&mufvsufuG,fqkH; oGm;
aombifpGef;udk xifvif;'d|awGYjrif&ojzifh rsufawmifwpfcwfrQ
tNrJwnfumvdkufyg aeEdkifaom w&m;rsKd;r[kwf [kjrifEdkif
qkH;jzwfEdkifaomaMumifh xdkonm aysmufavownf;/
rsuaf wmifwpfcwfrQ tNrw
J nfumvdu
k yf graeEkid [
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l uf emusirf u
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odjrif&ojzifh wpfatmifw
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em&mXme wpfjyifvkH;rSm todef;toef;rujzpfrI csKyfrIawG&dSae

tpodYk

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63

onfudkvnf; jrifwwforQvnf;jrif &dyfrdwwforQvnf; &dyfrd\?


xdaYk Mumifh rsuaf wmifwpfcwfrQ edpj zpf wnfaeEdik af om w&m;pk
r[kwfonfudk twwfyifqkH;jzwf odEdkifavownf;/
'kua0'emtcsuf Oyg'fpGef; bifpGef; ESpfcsufudk udk,f
awGYPfjriftxiftvif; xdk;xGif;od&ojzifh udk,fcEm
wpfckvkH;rSm a&S;a&S;ujzpfzl;cJhorQaom pdwfapwem emruEmwdkY
onfvnf; tmkHxdcdkufvm xcdkufvmrS xdkxdcdkuf&mtuGufwGif
bGm;ceJ bGm;ceJjzpfay:vmaom tm*EKw&m;pkwo
Ykd mpifppfwnf;?
xdcdkuf'PfajyaysmufoGm; jyefvQifvnf; xdkae&mrSmyiftukefvkH;
aoqk;H uG,af ysmufoGm;aom tedpw
&m;wko
Yd m pifppfwnf;[k
tpktpk tydkif;tydkif; PfxJwGifxifjrif aevwHU? ,cktcgrS
aemufcP aemuf&uf aemufv aemufESpfwdkYrSmvnf; tmkHxd
cdkufvm xdcdkufvmrS xdkxdcdkufaomae&mwGif topftopfjzpf
ay: jzpfay: vmMuukev
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tm[m&'DyeD

64

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65

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66

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67

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68

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70

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71

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tpodYk

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72

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73

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&if;&SdrSomvQif tewy&dnmrI vG,fEdkifonf/
]]puK y#dp layp OyZwd puK0dnmPH}}
[laomygVdawmf puKESifhpyf y#dporkyg' jzpfyHkudk
lyuEm tcef;odkY a&mufrSqdkaytHh/
layp=xdkxdklygkHwdkYudkvnf;? y#dp=tpJGjyK? puK0dnmPH=
puK0dnmPfonf? OyZwd=topftopfjzpfay:\/
xdkxdk lygkHqdkonfum; tbd"rma0g[m&rsdK;wnf;? lygkH
\rDS&m t|uvmyf j'Af0wKESifhwuG udkif jyrSom xif&Sm;
onf? vl\tqif; EGm;\tqif; wHk;\tqif; wdkif\tqif;[k
ajymqdkonfum; tbd"rma0g[m&rsdK;wnf;/ vludkjrifonf?
EGm;udkjrifonf? wHk;udkjrifonf? wdkifudkjrifonf[kajymqdkMuaom
a0g[m&rsdK;rlum;? rsdKMupm;Muaom xrif;cJzG,f abmZOfpkuudk
uAVDum&tm[m& ajymqdkMuouJhodkY o0wKu uxmrsdK;wnf;/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

74

tbd"rm ygVdawmfrsm;rSmvnf; o0wKu uxmrsKd ; y&rw


uxmrsKd ;ESprf sKd ;yifvm\? rsKd Mu pm;Muaom abmZOfczJ ,
G f 0wKEiS hf
j'yfwdkYudk uAVDum&tm[m&[k ac:a0:rIum;j'Af 0wKESifhwuG
udik
f jyaom a0g[m&uxmrsK;d wnf; ]]Mo'aem ukrm aom owK
rapm rHo}H } tp&So
d nfjzifh "ro*FPyD gVdawmf rsm;rSmyif xdak 0g[m&
vm&Sd yg\? rsKdtyfaomxrif;rSm t|uvmyfkyf&Spfck&Sd\? xdk&Spfck
twGif;rSm MoZm[laom tm[m& kyfyg&Sd\? xdkkyfudktoD;tjcm;
xkwf uAVDum& a0g[m& ac:onfum; edAwdw y&rw
a0g[m&wnf;/
xdEk pS yf g;wGif xif&mS ;apjcif;iSg t&mo0wKu a0g[m&
udkjyqdkaytHh/ lay=xdkxdklygkHwdkYudktpGJjyK puK0dnmPfpdwf
topfjzpfay:rIqdkonfum;? eHeuftcg tdyf&mxonfrSp
nOft
h cg tdy&f mod0Yk ifonfw
h ikd af tmif wpfaeYv;Hk yXrb,f[mudk
jrifonf? 'kwd, b,f[mudkjrifonftp&dSonfjzifh tpOf&dSonf
omjzpf\? xdo
k pYdk pD Ofrlum; ajymjcif;iSgrwwfEikd af tmif tcsurf sm;
vsuf&dS\? yXrvludkjrifonf? 'kwd,EGm;udk tp&dSonfjzifhvnf;
aumif;? vludkjrif&mvnf; ausmufukef;udk yXrjrifonf? if;
aemuf OD;acgif;udk 'kwd,jrifonf tp&dSonfjzifhvnf;aumif;?
tpOftwdkif;jrifoGm;&aom rsm;jym;vSpGmaom tqif;o@mef
txnf0wKrsKd;awGudk &nf lay=xdkxdklygkHwdkYudk [kqdkownf;?
xkdxdk0wKj'Afudkjrif&m olY0wKj'AfESifh olYpuK0dnmPftopf
topfjzpf jrifonf[l vdkownf;/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

75

xif&Sm;kH csJUOD;tHh/ / wkH;ESifhrsufESm w,frdMuonfESifh


wpfNydKifeuf wHk;&dyfonf puKyom'kyfrSm xif\? xdkwkH;&dyf xifrI
onf y&rwobm0t&m puKyom'kyfrSm rkd;BudK;Mu ouJhokdY
t[keEf iS w
hf uGwu
kd cf u
kd
f yom'kyMf unfwiG f wk;H &dyjf zpf ay:rIjzpf
ownf;? xdkokdYyom'kyfrSm wHk;&dyfcdkufwdkufrI'PfcsufaMumifh
xdt
k &dyx
f cd u
dk af y:&d
S ae&mrSm wk;H udjk rifaom puK0n
d mPf jzpfay:
avownf;? rD;cwfrSm ausmufxdcdkuf&m xdcdkufrI 'PfaMumifh
rD;yGifhawGwpfzGm;zGm;ay:bdouJhodkYwnf;? rsufawmifcwfvQif
cwfwikd ;f cwfwikd ;f xdw
k ;Hk &dyu
f ,
G af ysmuf\? wk;H &dyu
f ,
G f aysmufwikd ;f
uG,af ysmufwikd ;f olw
Y ;Hk &dyEf iS o
hf Yl puK0n
d mPf tNy;D csKyf aysmuf&m
ygav\? wpfjcm;wpfyg;udk rsuEf mS vT&J m qdzk ,
G f r&d?S rsuaf wmifukd
<ucsDjyefvQif <ucsDwdkif; <ucsDwdkif; wkH;&dyftopftopfcdkufay:rI?
puK0dnmPftopftopf jzpfay:rIudkvnf; odav/
wk;H udv
k w
T
f wdik u
f jkd rifaomtcgvnf; enf;twdik ;f yif?
wdkifudkvTwf wpfpkHwpfck jrifjyef&mvnf; enf;twdkif;yif/
xdkYaMumifh xdkxdk0wKj'Afudk jrif&m olY0wKj'AfESifh olYpuK0dnmPf
topftopf jzpfay:rIudk odtyfownf;/
wkH;&dyf wdkif&dyfponf cdkufrI wdkufrI 'Pf&m&dSrSom xdk
0dnmPfjzpfay:Edik af v&um;? lay=xdx
k kd yl gkw
H u
Ykd ?kd y#dp= tpGjJ yK?
OyZwd=topftopfjzpfay:\[l&m tpGJjyK[laom tcsuf
ay:avownf;/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

76

xdkokdY xdkxdkwkH;wdkifpaom lygkH0wKj'AfwdkY\ xdcdkufrIESifh


omjzpfay:&avaomaMumifh wkH;udk Munhfjrifaomtcg rsufpdrSm
jzpfay:aom puK0dnmPfonf wkH;uvkyfay;aom puK0dnmPf
aywnf;? wkH;uvkyf zefqif;ay;aom puK0dnmPfESifh wkH;udk
jrif&onf? wdkifu vkyfay;aom puK0dnmPfESifh wdkifudk jrif&
onf? tp&dSonfjzifh tukefodav/
Oyrmum; toufwpfodef;wrf;rSm wpfESpfwpfESpfvQif
vifwpfa,mufa,mufao ESpfpOfESpfwdkif; viftopftopf
wpfa,mufwpfa,muf ,l& tESpfig;aomif;umvywfvkH;
om;aygif; ig;aomif; zGm;jrif&m\? xdo
k m;pkum; tztoD;oD;wnf;?
om;wdkYudk uGJjym;atmif ajymvdkvQif trdESifhajym ruGJjym;Edkif?
tzESifhajymrS olum; rnfol\om;wnf;? olum; rnfol\
om;wnf;[kujJG ym;&m\? puKyom'kyo
f nf xdt
k rdred ;f rESiw
hf \
l ?
wk;H wdik pf aom lygk0H wKj'Afwo
Ykd nf tzig;aomif;ESiw
hf \
l ? topf
topfjzpfoGm;aom puK0dnmPfponfonf om;ig;aomif;
ESiw
hf \
l /
wkH;wdkif ponfudk tpOftwdkif; tdyf&m0ifonfhwdkifatmif
wpfaeYvkH;jrifoGm;aom xdkyk*dKvfonf wkH;\ om;jzpfaom
puK0n
d mPfEiS w
hf ;Hk udjk rifonf? wdik \
f om;jzpfaom puK0n
d mPfEiS hf
wdkifudkjrifonf tp&dSonfjzifh qdkxdkufavownf;/
Oyrm wpfenf;um; 0J,mESpzf uf vlw
Y pf&yfceft
Y jrifh &daS om
opfyifaygif;wpfaxmif pDwef;vsuf&dSaom zefwHk;BuD; wpfckudk
yifhajrmuf,laqmif tajy;oGm;&m xdkxdkopfyif OypmokdY

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

77

a&mufav&m zefw;Hk Bu;D rSm t&dyt


f oD;oD;ay:av&m\? zefw;Hk Bu;D
ESifh puKyom'? xdkxdkopfyifESifh xdkxdklygkH 0wj'Af? xdkxdkopfyif
&dyEf iS hf xdx
k pkd uK0n
d mPfw\
l ? jzpfay:rI uG,af ysmufrv
I nf; toD;
toD;wlMu\/
xdkxdktoHrsKd;ESifh aomw0dnmPf? xdkxdkteHYrsKd;wdkYESifh
Cme0dnmPf? cHwGif;rSma&mufvmaom xdkxdk&omkH 0wKj'AfrsKd;
wdEYk iS hf Zd0gS 0dnmPf? ud,
k t
f *Fg twGi;f tyrSm xdcu
kd v
f maom xdx
k kd
azm|AmkH 0wKrsKd;wdkYESifh um,0dnmPf? 0dnmPfwdkYvnf;
puK0dnmPftwdkif;odavonf/
raem0dnmPfrSmrlum; tmkHrsKd; tvGeftaxGtjym; rsm;
vS\? ukokdvfpdwfrsKd;? tukokdvfpdwfrsKd;? puK0dnmPftp&dSaom
tAsmuwpdwfrsKd;? xdkpdwfrsKd;wdkYrSm,SOfaom avmbw&m; a'go
w&m; arm[w&m;tp&dSaom tukodkvfw&m;pk? o'g ynm
owdtp&dSaom ukodkvftAsmuw"rpk? z a0'em onm
apwem {u*wm ZD0w
d ad `E reodum& 0dwuf 0dpm& t"darmu
0D&d, yDwd qE[laom "rpk? 'kpdkufq,fyg; okpdkufq,fyg;
tp&dSaom "rpk? tmayg"mwfpuK aomw Cme Zd0Sg um,?
[',0wK? ZD0dw tm[m& Zmwd Z&m r&P tp&dSaom "rpk?
tvk;H pko
H nf "rmkrH nf\? lygk?H o'gkH tp&daS om ymkw
H o
Ykd nf
vnf; raem0dnmPfESifh qdkifMuukef\? raem0dnmPf\tmkHrSm
tmkHajcmufyg;vkH;yif &\? xdktmkHajcmufyg;onf trd0rf;rS
zGm;jrifonfup ,ckaeY ,ckem&Dwdkifatmif twdwf ESpf v
aeY &ufwkdY wpfoufvkH; cPrpJ awGYMuHKcJhzl;orQaom tmkH

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

78

ajcmufyg;? ,ckem&DrS aemufcP aemufumvwdkYrSm ,ckem&Du


ajrmfjrifodESifh&aom tmkHajcmufyg;? aemufaemuf b0wdkYudk
vSrf; ,ckuarQmf&aom tmkHajcmufyg;? usrf;*eftqdk xdkxdk
vlajym&Siaf jymESio
hf &d aom cyford ;f aom tmkaH jcmufyg;pk? tvk;H
pkHonf raem0dnmPf\tmkHpkcsnf;wnf;/
rpJjzpfaeaom pdwftMuHtpnfpkwGif tdyfaysmfpOf b0if
udpESifh cPrpJjzpfaeaom raem0dnmPfpkrSm uH-uredrdwf
*wdedrdwf[laom tmkHpkudk tmkHjyKonf? tdyf&muEdk;vmonf
rSp tdy&f m0if tdyaf ysmo
f nfw
h ikd af tmif jyqdck NhJ y;D aom tmkpH k
wGif taMumif;tcGifh qdkufwdkuf&m wpfckckaom tmkHpxifjrif
onfrS cPpOftwdkif; jyqdkcJhNyD;aom tmkHwdkYonf qdkufwdkufvm
aom tcGit
hf m;avsmpf mG ESv;Hk wGi;f &dS raem0dnmPfrmS tpOftwdik ;f
olwpfvJ igwpfvJ rpJatmif xifavawmhonf/ 0Dxd raem
"mwfpkrSmvnf; jyqdkcJhNyD;aom tmkHpkwGif taMumif;tcGifh qdkuf
wdkuf&m wpfckwpfckaom tmkHonf b0if cdkufwkdufvIHYaqmf
ay;Ny;D rS xdv
k UHI aqmfaom wpfcck ak omtmku
H kd tmkjH yK odrI MuzH ef
rI[laom raem0dnmPfwpfckck ESvkH;xJrSm jzpfay:avonf/
awGYBuHKqdkufwdkufaomtaMumif;rsKd; tcGifhrsKd;vnf; b,f
cPrSmrSrvyf? 0dik ;f vsuf tkv
H suw
f pfek ;f ke;f awGMY uKH qu
kd f wdu
k rf I
rpJNyD? qdkufwdkufaomtcGifhESifh pyfvsOf;aom wpfrsKd;wpfrsKd; aom
tmkv
H nf; b0ifrmS xifrI ckurf I vIaYH qmfrrI pJNy?D xdx
k t
kd mkH vIUH aqmf
wdkif; vIYHaqmfwdkif; [',0wKtwGif;rSm jzpfay:um jzpfay:um
ae&aomtrI wpfokwfwpfokwf csKyfaysmufum csKyfaysmufum

tpodYk

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79

ae&aomtrIvnf; rpJNyD/
rpJNyD qdo
k nfum; oloil gig ow0gwd\
Yk txiftjriftwdik ;f
qdkonf? rkcstm;jzifhrlum; pdwfapwoduf emruEm av;yg;
wdkYrnfonf puKrSmjzpfay:cdkuf puKrSmom &dSMuukefonf? <uif;
aom wpfudk,fvkH;rSm r&dSMuukef? aomwrSm jzpfay:cdkuf aomw
rSmom &SdMuukefonf? CmerSm jzpfay:ckduf CmerSmom &dSMu
ukefonf? Zd0SgrSmjzpfay: cdkufZd0SgrSmom &dSMuukefonf? udk,ft*Fg
wpfckckrSm jzpfay:cdkuf xdkaerSmom &dSMuukefonf? ESvkH;wGif;rSm
jzpfay:cdkuf ESvkH;wGif;rSmom &dSMuukefonf? xdkrS<uif;aom
wpfukd,fvkH;rSm r&dSMuukef? rsufawmifwpfcwf twGif;rSmyiftcg
aygif; uka#wpfoed ;f rQwikd af tmif tjzpftysuf jrefvo
S nft
h wGuf
aMumifh wpfudk,fvkH;rSmyif NydKifvsufjzpfaeouJhokdY xif&onf?
rsupf Ed iS hf b,f[mudk igjrifonf[k xifaeqJrmS yif puK 0dnmPf
tpOf\ tMum;tMum;rSm [',0w raem0dnmPfaygif;
rpJatmifyif Mum;csyfEdkifonf? aomw0dnmPfponfwdkYvnf;
owdkYtmkHcdkufrI r&dSvQif rpJatmifyifMum;csyfEdkifonf? xdkYaMumifh
rsufpdESifh MunhfIqJ jrifqJrSmyif ESvkH;uvnf; MuH\? od\? em;u
vnf; toHwpfckckudkMum;\? ponfjzifh ow0gwdkY\pdwfrSm xif
Mu&onf? <uif;aom 0dnmPfwdkYjzpfrIrSmvnf; enf;wlodav/
raem0dnmPftpkrSmvnf; udk,ftrlt&mudk jyKjyifaom
0dnmPfpkjzpfaepOf EIwftrlt&mudk jyKjyifaom 0dnmPfrsKd;
rjzpfEdkif? EIwftrlt&mudk jyKjyifaom pdwfpkjzpfaepOf udk,ftrl
t&mudkjyKjyifaom pdwfr&dSEdkif? okdYaomfvnf; tvJ tvS,fjrefvS

tpodYk

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80

onhftwGufaMumifh oGm;qJrSmyif pum;ajymEdkif\? pum;ajym


qJrSmyif udk,ft*Fg vIyf&Sm;Edkif\? xkdxdk tqif;udk jrifEdkif\?
xdx
k t
kd oHuMkd um;Edik \
f ? okjYd zpfru
I m; jrefvo
S nht
f wGuaf Mumifh
wpfrsKd;wpfrsKd; tpOf\ tMum;tMum;rSm trsKd;rsKd; Mum;csyfrI
aywnf;/ / 0dyem a,m*Dy*k Kd vrf mS rlum; okjYd zpf aeMu&mrS
tvk;H pkNH cKH rd ikrH ad vmufaomtcsuu
f kd &Sm0dnmPf 0Dx0d g&aygif;
wpfoed ;f wpfoef; wpfuak #ruudyk if wpf0n
d mPfwnf; wpfcsuf
wnf;jyK O',rI 0,rIudk I&onf? jzpfjcif;? ysufjcif;udk Iaom
PfrmS tukeyf gapEdik o
f nfom yrmPwnf;? igjrifonf igMum;
onf igeHonf igt&omudkodonf? udk,ft*FgrSm xdonf udkig
odonf? igMum;onf igeHonf igt&omudk odonf? ud,
k f t*FgrSm
xdonfudk igodonf igaxGaxGvmvm MuHzefonf[k jzpfaom
i&Jr;D ajcmufrsK;d ? igajymonf igqdo
k nf ud,
k t
f *Fgudk vIy&f mS ;onf
igoGm;onf igvmonf ponfjzifh jzpfaom i&JrD;rsKd; tukefuG,f
aysmufapEdik o
f nfom yrmPwnf;/ ud,
k w
f iG ;f rSm puK aomw
Cme Zd0Sg um, [', [laom ajcmufXmeu xdxdrdrdqkyf
udkif jzpfrI ysufrIudkaumif;pGm xifjrifEdkifvQif xdktvkH;pkHaom
taxGtvmwdkYonf twGif;0if ygavukefawmhonf/
(wGifa&GUum; 0dnmPfajcmufyg; tedpy&dnm
tpDt&if t>rufNyD;\/)
---------

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

81

'k u y &d n m
'kuy&dnmudk jyqdkaytHh/ a&S;wy&dnmtcef; jyqdkcJh
Ny;D aom 'kup ufBu;D wpfq,hif g;yg;onfvnf; 0dnmPfajcmufyg;\
'kuv
uPmyifwnf;? 0dnmPfajcmufyg;rSxu
G af om 'kup ufBu;D
wpfq,hfig;yg;udkjrifojzifh 0dnmPfajcmufyg;\ aMumufruf
zG,fBuD;\ tjzpfudk jrifjcif;onf ]]'kuH b,a|e}} [lonfESifh
tnD pufBuD;wpfq,fhig;yg;onf 0dnmPfajcmufyg;\ 'ku
vuPma&; tppftrSefjzpfavownf;/
,cktcg ]],tedpH wH 'kuH}} [lvnf;aumif;? tedap
'kuonm}} [lvnf;aumif; a[mawmfrlonfESifhtnD tedp
w&m;rsKd;jzpfonfhtwGuf odtyfaom 'kursKd;udk OyrmESifhwuG
jyqdOk ;D th/H
xef; tkef; paom opfoD;wdkYonf tnmjyKwfvQif ajrokdY
y&rf;ywm a<uusrI tNrJ&dSaeMuouJhokdY oHo&m usifvnf
aeMuukefaom ykxkZOfow0gwdkYonf vlYjynfrSm jzpf&ukefaomf
vnf; tNrJraeMu&ukef? ZD0dwda`Etnm a<u aoNrJ"rwm
jzpfMuuke\
f ? aojyefvQiv
f nf; b,fbHk b,fb0okiYd goGm;rnf[k
oGm;EdkifMuukefonf r[kwf? aygufvTwf"rwm uscsif&m&m y&rf;
ywmusMuukef\? okdYaoonhfaemuf aygufvTwf"rwm
uscsif&m&m y&rf;ywm us&jcif;ab;BuD;onf tvGefaMumuf
rufzG,faumif;vSaom oHom&b,BuD;rnf\? 0dedygwe
oHo&mab;Bu;D twGuf vljY ynfrS pkawvQif tyg,fav;yg;oku
Yd s&
aom b0omrsm;\? vlYjynfrSpkaw vlYjynf ewfjynfokdY a&muf

tpodYk

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82

&aom b0rlum; b0wpfaxmif b0wpfaomif; wGif wpfb0rQ


BuHK&cJvS\/ ab;BuD;onf tedprsKd;jzpfaom 0dnmPfrS xGuf
aom ab;BuD;pifppfwnf;? tMuifrQavmufaom umv ywfvkH;
0dnmPfudk ig\ukd,f[k om,m odrf;ydkufjcif; &dSae\? xdkrQ
avmufaom umvywfv;Hk xdak b;Bu;D onf xdo
k rl mS tNy;D pGyf vsuf
&dSae\? xdkYaMumifh tedprsKd;jzpfonhftwGuf tvGefaMumuf ruf
zG,fBuD;jzpf&avum; 0dnmPfonf b,a|e'kuBuD; pifppf
jzpfownf;? ewfjynfrSm jzpf&aomfvnf; jA[mjynfrSm jzpf&
aomfvnf; xdkenf;wlqdkav/
wpfck wpfckaom b0 tedpaMumifh 'kuBuD;us,fyHkudk
OyrmESiw
hf uGjytH/h
0dnmPfonf olowfa,mufsm;BuD;ESifh wl\? tedpwm
onf jrjrxufaom "m;oefvsufESifhwl\? ow0gonf &mZ0wf
aumifESifhwl\/ 0dnmPfwnf;[laom olowfa,mufsm;BuD;onf
tedpwm wnf;[laom "m;oefvsufESifh &mZ0wfaumifwnf;
[laomow0gudk y#doaEwnfaeonfrSp cPrpJ "m;&mcsif;
pyfatmif t&may;\? udk,fwGif;rSm aq;0g"m;pm tcHr&SdvQif
xdkow0gaozdkY "m;csufcsnf;onf udk,fwGif;rSm aq;0g"m;pm
tcHtNyD; &SdaevQif ckwfwdkif;ckwfwdkif;jywfaom "m;&m"m;csufpk
onf cPcsif; tom;Ekwuf tpOftquf toufrao
zdkoal e&\? aq;0g"m;pm &SmrI azGrI rd0S rJ I 'kuB u;D rIum; xdo
k w0g
udk tMuyftwnf; tNrJESdyfpufae\? umrbHkrSm toufarG;rI
uAVDum&tm[m&rSD0JrIonf xdkolrSm aq;0g"mwfpmrIESifh wl\/

tpodYk

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83

pum;&yfjzifh a&ow0g ajray:&Sdow0g aumif;uif&Sd


ow0gwdYk Bu;D us,u
f syw
f nf; tNrEJ ydS pf ufaeaom toufarG;rI
tpmtm[m&rIBu;D onf 0dnmPf\ tedpr rI S jzpfymG ;aom 'kur BI u;D
trSefjzpfonfudkjyaom pum;&yfwnf;/
a&S;u jyqdck NhJ y;D aom tedpu
x
kd x
d rd rd Bd u;D jrifrS ,ckjyqdak om
0dnmPf\'kuv
uPmudk aumif;pGm odjrifEikd rf nf? tedpu
kd xdxd
rdrdBuD;rjrifu tedponf tm;ay;tmajrmuf&SdaeonfhtwGuf
aMumufrufzG,faom 'kuvuPmudkjyqdkaomfvnf; rdrdudk,f
wGif;&Sd 0dnmPfudk aMumufrufzG,faom 'ku"r[k rxifEdkif/
wpfenf;aomfum;xdkolowf a,musfm;BuD;rSm xdkow0g
"m;&mwpfcsufwpfcsufwGif toufaoqHk;atmif 0kdif;nDMu
ukefaom &Gmya,m* awmya,m* wynfhvufom;wdkYrSmvnf;
rsmpGm&Sdukefowwf/ aq;0g;"mwfpm tcHaumif;vSao; xdkxdk
"m;csufwGif toufrao &Sdjyefacsvnf;xdkow0gudk axGaxG
vmvm Asmyg&'ku rsm;jym;&ef tidkwdkuf&ef t&,fwdkuf&ef
tl;wdu
k &f ef tESr;f wdu
k &f ef t&Sucf &JG ef tusKd ;enf;&ef 0dik ;f tHMk u
ukefaom ewf&J pkef;&J o&Jobuf wynfhvufom;wdkYvnf;
rsm;pGm&Su
d ek \
f ? pum; 0dnmPfonf olowfa,musmf ;Bu;D onf?
ud,
k w
f iG ;f a&m*grsKd ; 96yg;onf &Gmya,m*wnf;? rd;ab; a&ab;
ck;d ol"m;jyab; a>rab; uif;ab; qifab; usm;ab; tp&Sad om
awmya,m*wnf;? xdk&GmwGif; &Gmya,m*wdkYonfyifvQif axG
axGvmvm Asmyg'kur sm;atmif jyKorm;wdw
Yk nf;? aomu y&da'0
'ku a'gre Oyg,mowdkYESifhwuG avmb a'go arm[

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

84

rme 'd|d tp&Sdukefaom wpfaxmifhig;&m udavom wdkYonfum;


tidkwdkufMuukefaom olwdkYwnf;/
pum;&yfjzifh rdrdudk,f&Sdaom 0dnmPftedpaMumifh
0dnmPf'ku BuD;us,fvSyHk udkjyqdktyfownf;/
'ku 'ku ocFg&'ku 0dy&dPmr 'kuwdkYjzifh0dnmPf\
'kuv
uPmudjk yqd&k m\? aemufaemufb0wdYk ok*wd0n
d mPfukd
&Edkif&ef a&S;a&S;b0wdkYuwiful; 'kupdkufysKd;jyKESifh&aom 'gerI
oDvrI bm0emrIwdkYonfum; xdkok*wd0dnmPf\ ocFg&'kurI
wdkYwnf;? xdkYtwl jzpf&mok*wdb0wdkY toufarG;rI tp&dSonf
vnf; 0dnmPf\ ocFg&'kur w
I nf;? 0dnmPfonf tedpr sK;d jzpfc
hJ
jyKpkysKd;axmifjyef&if; ysufqkH;jyef&if;jzpfav&um; oHo&mvnf;
terw* 0dnmPfvnf; terw* ocFg&'kuvnf; terw*
jzpfae\/
'ge oDvtp&daS om ocFg&'kuE pS rf sK;d udk tyef;cH tm;xkwf
Muukeaf om yk*Kd vw
f u
Ykd m; ESprf sK;d &dMS u\? xdo
k cFg&'kux
ajrmufvQif
xajrmufvQif xdkocFg&'kursKd;ESifhwuG 'kucyfodrf;wdkYrSm tNyD;
Nidrf; oGm;atmif tm;xkwfMuolwpfrsKd;? Nidrf;rIpcef;[lr&dSyJ
jzpfuwwfqef; tm;xkwfMuolwpfrsKd;? 0dnmPf\ csKyfNidrf;jcif;
okdYa&mufatmif tm;xkwfMuaom olwdkYum; yxryk*dKvfwdkY
aywnf;/
xdkyk*dKvfwdkYum; 'gejyKrI 'kuBuD;rSvnf; vGwfNidrf;Muav
ukef\? oDv'kuBuD; bm0em'kuBuD;wkdYrSmvnf; vGwfNidrf;Mu
avukef\? tyg,'ku ponfwdkYrSmvnf; vGwfNidrf;Muavukef\?

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

85

tb,fah Mumifeh nf;[lrl tedpr sK;d jzpfaom 0dnmPf\vufrS uRwf


vGwEf ikd Mf uayukeaf omaMumihw
f nf;/ (0g)0dnmPfukd pGev
Yf w
T Ef ikd Mf u
ayukeaf omaMumifw
h nf;/ 0dnmPf\vufrmS rvGwEf ikd Mf uukejf im;
th?H wpfjcm;wpfyg;aom 'kur sK;d udk rqdx
k m;bdO;D ? terw* oHo&m
'gejyKrI 'ku oDvapmifx
h ed ;f rI 'ku bm0emyGm;rsm;rI'u
k &aohjyK
rI'ku bm0emyGm;rsm;rI'ku &aohjyKrI'ku &[ef;jyKrI'ku
'kuBuD;awG ESdyfpufnif;yef;rIESifhyif Nidrf;csrf;&ef tcGifhr&dSNyD?
'kw,
d yk*Kd vw
f u
Ydk m; topftopfaom 0dnmPfukd tpOfxal xmif
oGm;&ef tm;xkwfMuaom Amvyk*dKvfwdkYwnf;? tusKd;tjypf xif
&Sm;\/
qdkvdk&if;t"dyg,fum; ukodkvfrIrnfonf vSLzG,f0wKudk
pkaqmif;&jcif;ponfjzifh qif;&JcHEdkifrSjzpfaom trIomwnf;?
odkYaomfvnf; tvkd&dS&m trsKd;rsKd;udkaqmifEdkifaom trIrsKd;jzpf
ayonf wpfaMumif; ukokdvfrIudk tm;rxkwfvQif tyg,f'ku
jryfoGm;rnfudkaMumuf&onf wpfaMumif; okdYtaMumif;aMumifh
qif;&JcHyif tm;xkwfMu&\/
]]rma&mwdacg bdua0 yaEwH Oyg'geuEmeH
t"d0peH}} [lvnf;aumif;? ]]0"aum ypwdaumwd acg
bdua0 yaEwH Oyg'geuEmeH t"d0peH}}
[l vnf ; aumif ; ? a[mawmf r l o nf E S i f h t nD vl o wf
a,mufsm; Oyrm jyqdkcJhNyD;aomtwdkif; 0dnmPfonf tedpwm
"m;udk rdrdtNrJpGJudkifvsuf twGifowfaom a,mufsm;BuD;pifppf
jzpf\? vlY0dnmPfonf vludkwGifwGifowf tyg,fodkY wGifwGif

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

86

ypfcs\? ewf0n
d mPfonf ewfuw
kd iG w
f iG o
f wf tyg,foyYkd pfcs\?
jA[mh0dnmPfonf jA[mudk wGifwGifowf tyg,fokdYypfcs\?
AmvykxZk O w
f o
Ykd nf tyg,fuakd Mumufv
S 'ge oDv bm0emudk
tm;xkwfMuonf&dSaomf vlY0dnmPfvlYb0 ewf0dnmPf ewfb0?
jA[m0h n
d mPf jA[mb
h 0udk rdru
d ,
kd jf yKvyk &f ef tm;xm; BuKd ;BuKd ;
pm;pm;tm;xkwfMuukef\? tm;xm;&m 0dnmPfudk &onfhtwGuf
tyg,fi&JodkY wpfvJvJ jyef jyef usumusum aeMuukef\?
0dnmPfukd rvTwo
f rQonf b0*fuyifaomfvnf; tyg,foYdk vm;
Mu&mukef\? tyg,fusrIvnf; qkH;urf;r&dS? ukokdvfrI ocFg&'ku
vnf; qkH;urf;r&dSav/ aomwmyeftjzpfokdYa&muf oum,
'd|dcsKyfNidrf;ojzifh 0dnmPfudkvGwfEdkifaomtcgrS tyg,fus'ku
Nidrf;\? ukokdvfrI ocFg&'kuvnf; tyef;BuD;avmuf atmifr&SdNyD/
(um; 0dnmPf\ ocFg&'kuBuD;us,fykHudk
t>rufrSqdkvdkufaom tcsufwnf;/)
-------0d y &d P mr 'k u
0dy&dPmr 'kuudkum; olowfa,mufsm; OyrmESpfcsuf
0deyd gw oHom&b,tcsurf sm;ESiyhf if xif&mS ;odomvSNy?D tedpr S
xGufaom 'ku[lorQonf 0dy&dPmr'kucsnf;wnf;/ terw*
oHo&mESit
hf rQ ocFg&'kuB u;D us,
f ae&onfrmS vnf; 0dy&dPmr
twGufyifwnf;? avmu NrdKUzGJY &GmzGYJ toif;zGYJ tdrf&m
0if;NcH t&HtumzGUJ aeMu&aom trIonfvnf; 0dy&dPmroabm

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

87

&daS eonft
h wGuyf ifwnf;? a&ab;udak Mumuf&rI rD;ab;udak Mumuf
&rI udk,fwGif; udk,fyab;udk aMumuf&rI tvkH;pkHonfvnf;
0dy&dPmroabm&dSaeonhftwGufyifwnf;? 0dnmPfonf 0dy&dPmroabm r&dScJhonfjzpftHh? avmu aMumufzG,f vefYzG,f
xdwfzG,f &GHUzG,f pdk;&drfzG,f aMumifhMuzG,f ylyefzG,f[l wpfpkH
wpfckrQ r&dS&mNyD/
0dy&dPmr 'ku NyD;\/
------rSwpfyg; op0b
d if;rSma[mawmfral om Zmwd'u
k ponf
wdkYESifhwuG plV'kuuEokwf r[m'kuuEokwf r[meda'owGif
Z&mokwf\ eda'owdkYrSmvm&Sdaom 'kursKd;[lorQonfvnf;
0dnmPf\ 'kucsnf;yifwnf;/ awblru 'ku[lorQonf
0dnmPf\ 'kuvuPmcsnf;wnf;/ xdkYaMumifh 'kuy&dnmrIonf
tvGefMuD;us,f\? &[EmtjzpfokdYa&mufrS tydkifBuD;ydkifEdkif\?
aomwmyef? ou'g*grf? tem*grf yk*Kd vw
f u
Ykd m; wpfpw
d w
f pfa'o
rQom ydkifEdkifMuukefonf/
(wGifa&GUum; 0dnmPf\ 'kuy&dnm tpDt&ifNyD;\/)
tew y &d n m
tewy&dnm tewonf tedpESifhpyf odtyfaom
tew 'kuESifhpyfodtyfaom tew yk*dKvf\ tvdkokdYrvdkuf?
taMumif;w&m; qdu
k w
f u
kd &f mjzpfjcif;ESiphf yf odtyfaomtew
[l ok;H yg;&d\
S ? xdo
k ;Hk yg;wGif tedpE iS phf yf odtyfaom tewrmS

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

88

tedpudkaumif;pGm xifjrifrS xifjrifEdkifonf? 'kuESifhpyf od


tyfaom tewrSmvnf; 'kuudkaumif;pGmjrifrS xifjrifEdkifonf?
xdkESpfyg;udk aumif;pGmxifjrifEdkifygvQif tvdkokdYrvdkufrIESifhpyf
odtyfaom tewvnf; NyD;pD;yg\/
tew=ud,
k rf [kw?f tew=tpd;k r&? tew=tvdo
k Ydk rvdu
k /f
udk,fr[kwfqdkonfum; yk*dKvf\ txnfcH trmcH tESpfom&
r[kw?f ow0g\txnfcH trmcH tESpo
f m&r[kw?f ig\txnfcH
trmcH tESpfom&r[kwf qdkvdkonf/ tedpudkaumif;pGm jrifonf
&dSaomf tESpfom&r[kwfonfudk jrif\/
tb,fodkYjrifoenf;[lrl tEykxkZOfwdkYtm; igjrifonf[k
xifjrifpGJNrJ&m igum; wpfoufvkH;rSmrS wpfigom xif&if;jzpf
edpw
nf;? xdik gudjk rif[al om puK0n
d mPfEiS w
hf pfcw
k nf;jyK igjrif
onf[k ,lav&um; puK0dnmPfudk xdkiguJhokdY edpxifrIwnf;?
puK0dnmPfudk xdkjrifaom ig\tESpfom&xifrIwnf;? puK
0dnmPf\ ckwifckjzpfay:rI ysufuGufrIudk jrifonf&dSaomf igwpf
vrf; puK0dnmPf wpfvrf;jrif\? puK0dnmPf edpom& r[kwf
aMumif;udk jrif\? <uif;aom 0dnmPfwYkd vnf; enf;wload v/
edpo
m&Ny;D \/
----------"k 0 om&
jrifrIonf wpfoufvkH;ckdifNrJ\? ysufEdkifaomtrI r[kwf[k
xifonfum; "k0om&wnf;? ckwifck jzpfrIysufrIudk aumif;pGm
jrifonf&dSaomf "k0om&r[kwfaMumif;udk jrif\? <uif;aom

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

89

0dnmPfwkdYvnf; enf;wlodav/
"k0om&Ny;D \/
--------ok c om&
jrifro
I nf aumif;aomtrIwnf;? wifw
h ,faom trIwnf;?
avsmufywfzG,f&maom txGwftjrwf r*FvmrIBuD;wpfckwnf;?
tm;udk;tm;xm;jyKxdkufaom trIwnf;? aus;Zl;Oyum&rsm;jym;
trIwnf;? rsufpdjrifay vlcsif;wlEdkifonf? aeudk jrifEdkifonf?
vudjk rifEikd o
f nf? ta&SU[lodEikd o
f nf? taemuf [lodEikd o
f nf?
tjzL[k odEdkifonf? teD[l odEdkifonf? oGm;vrf; vmvrf;
vkyfvrf; udkifvrf;tvkH;pkH jyKEdkifonftp&dSojzifh avmu rsufpd
rjrifaom oluef;wdEYk iS hf EIid ;f pmomvGeaf om tcGiphf ak umif;jrwf
onf[k xifjrifpGJ vrf;rIum; okcom& xifjrifrIwnf;/
csurI jyKwrf I tvif;ta&mifrI ponfjzifh rD;ESirhf uif;Edik af om
'kur-wnfBuD;&dS aeaomolrSm rD;onf tokH;usvS\? aus;Zl;
Oyum& rsm;vS\? aumif;jrwfv\
S ? xku
d o
hJ aYdk om 'ku- r-wnfBu;D
r&dSaom olrSm rD;onf tokH;rustusKd;rJhBuD;jzpf\/
rD;ESifhruif;Edkifaom olrSmvnf; rD;\tcGifhBuD;awG &dSae
onfhtwGuf rD;onf tokH;wGifus,fvSay\? aus;Zl;Oyum&
rsm;vSay\[k om,mjcif;jzpf&onf? rD;onf avmifwwfaom
oabm&d\
S ? ighuv
kd nf; ra&Smif? 'kuB u;D pGmjzpfatmif avmifwwf\?
ighom;r,m;udkvnf; ra&Smif avmifwwf\? ightdrf igh,m ighOpm
ighypnf;udkvnf; jznf;jznf;ajymifavmifwwf\[k odvsufESifhyif

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

90

rD;r&dv
S Qirf jzpfEikd af om 'ku- r-wnfBu;D &daS eonhf twGuaf Mumifh
jzpfae&aom om,mjcif;wnf;/ twl udk,fcEm 'ku-rwnfBuD;&dS aeonfhtwGuf puK0dnmPftcGihfawG tvGef
Bu;D us,rf sm;jym; ae\? xdt
k cGiphf k puK0n
d mPfonf wGiu
f s,f
vS\? aus;Zl;Oyum&BuD;us,frsm;jym;vS\[k om,mjcif; BuD;pGm
jzpf ae&\? puK0dnmPf&dSaeonfhtwGufaMumifh puKaygufrS
awmufaeaom udavomrD; teEpuK0n
d mPf jrifr&I aSd vonfh
twGufaMumifh jzpfyGm;Edkifaom ygPmwdygwtp&dSaom 'kpdkufrI
teE puK0n
d mPfjrifru
I kd igjrifonf[k pGv
J rf;rIaMumifh tp&daS om
'kp u
kd rf I teE puK0n
d mPfjrifru
I kd igjrifonf[k pGv
J rf;rIaMumifh
terw*0#f'kurS ruRwfEdkif rvGwfEdkifyJ ,aeYxufwdkif 0#f'ku
ab;BuD;wef;vef; tyg,'ku ab;BuD;wef;vef; &dSaeaomtrI?
puK0dnmPf a&S;jyqdkcJhNyD;aom olowfa,musfm;BuD; wpfyg;
pifppfjzpfaeaomtrI ponfwdkYudkrlum; tEykxkZOfwdkY rjrif
Edik Mf uonft
h wGuaf Mumifh puK0n
d mPf tjrifru
I kd r*FvmBu;D wpfck
tBuD;tus,fxifjrifpGJvrf;aeMuavownf;/ enf; twl
cEmig;yg; 'ku-r-wnfBuD;&dSaeaomolwdkYrSm em;Mum;rIudk
r*FvmBuD; xifjrif&onf /v/ pdwfBuHrI odrIudk r*FvmBuD; xif&
onf? 'gerIudk r*FvmBuD;xif&onf? oDvrIudk r*FvmBuD;xif
&onf? bm0emrIudk r*FvmBuD;xif&onf? um; okcom&
&Si;f vif;csuw
f nf;/ / okcom& xifjrifpv
JG rf;rIonf tvGeBf u;D
us,v
f \
S /
0dnmPfajcmufyg; jyqdkvdkufaomenf;udk tpOfrDS;ojzifh

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

91

tvkH;pkHaom owd ynm o'g apwempaom emrfw&m;pkudk


taumif;xifrI yx0D tmaygtp&dSaom kyfw&m;pkudk taumif
xifrI OD;acgif;ajc vuf rsupf d em; ESm ud,
k t
f *Fgpkukd taumif;xifrI
avmbwPSm oHo&mrD;pBu;D &daS eYonft
h wGuaf Mumifh om;r,m;
tdr,
f m &wema&TaiG a>c&Hoif;yif; vlrif;pnf;pdrf ewfrif;pnf;pdrf
jA[mrif;pnf;pdrfwdkY taumif;tjrwfxifrIwdkYvnf; ae&mus
odjrifMuavukef/
twom&rSm a&S;jyqdkcJhNyD/ tew=udk,fr[kwf[l&m
0dnmPfajcmufyg;onf edpo
m&vnf;r[kw?f "k0om&vnf;r[kw?f
twom&vnf;r[kw?f edpt
&mvnf; trmcH txnfu,
kd rf [kw?f
"k0t&mvnf; trmcH txnfudk,fr[kwf? okct&mvnf;
trmcH txnfu,
kd f r[kw?f twt&m ZD0t&mwdYk vnf; trmcH
txnfudk,f r[kwf[laom teufudk jyqdkcsufwnf;/
tew tpdk;r&[l&m tb,fhaMumifh tpdk;r&oenf;?
MunhfvdkvQif MunhfEdkifonf? jrifvdkvQif jrifEdkifonf? oGm;av&m
aeav&m ygEdkifonf r[kwfavm[ljim;tHh/
olowf a,mufsm;Bu;D Oyrm ud,
k w
f iG ;f rSm aq;0g;"mwfpm
tcH&dSaecJhvQif cPpOftwdkif; tom;Ekwuf toufrao
ae&\[laom pum;ESifhoGm;av&m aeav&m ygEdkifonf[laom
tcsuf od&rnf? Oyrm tom;Ek wufro
I nf xdo
k l tpd;k &csu&f
Sd
wufonfr[kwf? xdkolYtmPm t&dSeft0gudk aMumuf&GHUjim;
wufonfr[kwf? aq;0g;"mwfpmrIonf tom;Ek\ tpD;tyGm;
wnf;? tom;Ek\ tpD;tyGm;udjk yKp&k u
G af qmifrI xdo
k u
l a&S;OD;pGm

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

92

ol uRecf EH iS &hf \? ,refaeYu olu


Y Recf
H xm;ESirhf S ,ckaeY tom;Ek
ay:vmonf/
oifonf wpfoufv;Hk uRecf EH ikd o
f nfjzpft?hH oifo
h EmefrmS
igtpOfrjywf jzpfaernf[k qdkbdouJhokdY tpmtm[m& wnf
axmifrI ocFg&'kuESifhwuG olYuRefcHaeEdkifrS wufvmaom
tom;Ekaywnf;? xdo
k u
l tpk;d &rIr[kw?f olu
Y kd om,monht
f wGuf
olYuRefcHrIoufoufomwnf;/
rD;a&mifpkonf rD;awmufESifhjzpftwl ysuftwl jzpfavo
uJhokdY 0dnmPfrSm jzpf&aom xdkemrfpkonf 0dnmPfESifh jzpftwl
ysut
f wl jzpfMu&uke&f um; 0dnmPf tedpx
ifEikd v
f Qif xdek mrfprk mS
tedpxifEkdifNyD; jzpfavawmhonf? 0dnmPfESifh 'ku tewxif
Edik v
f Qif xdek mrfprk mS vnf; 'ku tew xifEikd Nf y;D jzpfav awmhonf?
y[mey&dnmrSmvnf; xdktwlyif/
(um; emrf y&dnmudp tvdkvdk NyD;pD; oGm;ykHwnf;/)
tbd"rm rwwf&Smukefaom olwdkYonfum; 0dnmPfESifh
emrfrjym;ruGJ wpfcw
k nf;od aeMuuke\
f ? avmb qdak omfvnf;
pdwfyifwnf;? a'goqdkaomfvnf; pdwfyifwnf;[k xifrSwf
aeMuukef\? xdktxifonf 0dyemtcef;rSm ae&musonfom
jzpf\? xdo
k w
l u
Ykd kd 0dyem ur|mef;oGeo
f ifjyoaom q&monf
pdwfwpfvkH;ESifhNyD;pD;atmif jyo&rnf? emrfw&m;udk wpfjcm;
toHray;ESifh/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

93

avmb a'go arm[ ponfjzifh olMum;zl;aom emrfrsm;udk


uGujf cm; ar;jref;cJv
h Qif obm0udk ae&m usajymjy pdw0f n
d mESihf
aygif;ay;av/
emrfy&dnm NyD;\/
-------k y f y &d n m
kyfy&dnm 0dnmPfudk kyfw&m;ESifh jcm;em;pGm jrifEdkif
atmifjycef;rSm jcm;em;pGm xifEdkifjrifEdkifonf&dSaomf xdktjrif
ESiyhf ifyk f tewy&dnm qdu
k
f oGm;&m\? iSuaf ysmwk;H vufyw
H ;Hk
uJo
h Ydk tok;H ruse
d w edZ0D tew [kxifjrifvm&m\? lyuEm
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vSNyD? iSufaysmwkH; vufyHwkH; pufkyf kyfao;tae xifjrifNyD;
jzpfavaomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? wpfb0vQif wpfcg wpfcg ao
qkH;rIudk xifjrifNyD; jzpfavaomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? tdkrI emrI
aorI[laom cyfMurf;Murf; tedpESifhyif NyD;Edkif&mawmhonf/
(um;kyf y&dnmudp tvdkvdkNyD;pD;Edkif&maom
tcGifhudk jyqdkcsufwnf;/)
xdkokdY NyD;pD;avaom yk*dKvftm;NyD;pD;aom cPrSmp jA[
p&d,udp tNyD;wdkifav\/ a&S;a&S;aom terw*b0wdkY
jA[p&d,trIukd b0toacFsru tBurd Bf urd f tzefzef tm;xkwcf hJ

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

94

aomfvnf; 0dnmPf twpGJvrf;rI wef;vef;&dSaeonfhtwGuf


0dnmPfwyfpGef;aom wPSmudktNyD;wdkif y,fowfrI y,fjzwfrI
[laom y&dnmvrf;udk rvdkuf? vlY0dnmPf ewf 0dnmPfjA[mh
0dnmPfudk tpOf&ae&atmif tm;xkwfrI awGcsnf; jzpfcJh
wpfyikd ;f aMumif jA[p&d,? w'*FjA[p&d, tyef;Bu;D yef;cJh o
Hk m&d
S
,ckwdkif t0Dpdi&J ESvkH;xJrSm vQrf;vQrf;awmufvsuf &dSaeojzifh
jA[p&d, 'kur BI u;D rNy;D wef;vef; ecrf;rowf tem*wfrmS vnf;
owfciG rhf &d?S yuwdtwdik ;f yif &daS eMuukeo
f nf? xdw
k '*FjA[p&d,
awG vrf;vdrf vrf;aumufq&kd m Oyrmum; teuftus,f wpf,l
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aomvrf;ajzmifBh u;D wpfc&k \
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tcsKUd tcsKUd urf;okYd wufa&mufMu\? urf;ay:okYd a&mufMuaom
tcg xdrk ;D us;D wGi;f ESiahf 0;avatmif ajy;ygaomfvnf; oGm;olrsm;\
xif&Sm;&m rD;usD;wGif;odkY vSnhfqif;aom vrf;vdrf vrf;aumuf
vrf;arSmuf vrf;rSm;awGuo
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tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

95

rdro
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wPSmESifhwuG aemufwpfzef ray:vm&atmif P'e
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jrLjcrf;rQr&dSNyD? okdYaom tcsufudkjyawmfrljcif;iSm0dnmaP bdua0 tm[ma& y&dnmaw emrlyH
y&dnmwHa[mwd? emrlay y&dnmaw t&d,om 0u
ewd udd Ow&du&PD,Ed 0'grd/
[laom a'oemawmfjrwfudk a[mawmfrlayonf/
y&dnm udpN y;D pD;ykH Oyrm ykeu
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oif h a omol u d k wpf a eY w pf & uf w G i f eH e uf vS H c suf w pf & m
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tmkHajcmufyg;onf 0dnmPfajcmufyg; wHcg;aygufrSm
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tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

96

[l a[mawmfrlayonf? tmkHajcmufyg;onf NrdKU&Gmudk


wdkufcdkuf zsufqD;aom olykef "m;jyawGrnf\ qdkvdkonf/
wpfudk,fvkH;rSm b,fae&mrqdk tmkHqdkuf&m qdkuf&m
0dnmPfpdwfuGif;ueJ uGif;ueJ ay:aeonfudk wHcg;0awGqdk
onf? rSefwHcg;rsKd;uJhokdY tMunftvif wHcg;rsKd;wnf;? [if;vif;
ayguf wHcg;rsKd;r[kwf? tmkHudk odrIyifwnf;? qdkufvmorQaom
tmHkpkonf 0dnmPfodrIESifhaygif;rdvQif za0'em tp&dSaom
emrum,okdYaygufa&mufavawmhonf? aygufa&mufvQif olykef
"m;jy0if wdkufaom&GmuJhokdYvnf;aumif;? usm;awG0ifaom
&GmuJhodkYvnf;aumif;? csif;wGif;jrpfnmrSm csif;dkif;"m;jy0ifaom
&GmuJo
h v
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axmif;axmif; ql<ujzpfay:Muavukefawmhonf? ow0gwdkY\
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[pfa<u;jcif; oDcsif; uAsm tJ tef usL;&ifhjcif; cdkuf&efjzpfyGm;
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twGif; om;pkESifh emrum, wlonf? (0g) tvGefemvS jyif;xef

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

97

vSatmif x<ujzpfymG ;aom 'ku a0'empkEiS w


hf o
l nf? Oyrmjzifh
0dnmPf\ tvGefjyif;xefaom 'kuvuPmy&dnm tcGifhBuD;
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aom 'kutjcif;t&m tvkH;pkHonf udk,fqdkufa&muf nOf;yef;
aomtcg 0dnmPfayguf ucsnf;0if nOf;yef;Muukefonf/
wpfenf;rlum; Oyrmonfvnf; t&[wr*fokdY a&muf
0dnmPf 'kuy&dnmudptvkH;pkH acsmarmNyD;aom tcGifhESifh
wdkufqdkifa[maomOyrmyifwnf;? xdkvSHcsufwdkYudk cH&aom
&mZ0wfaumifonf vSHxdk;aom tmPmom;wdkYvnf;aumif;?
vSHwdkYvnf;aumif;? vSHcsufrdrd udk,fokdYa&mufaygufrI pl;rIwdkY
vnf;aumif;? om,mjcif;[l tPkjrLrQr&dS? aMumufjcif;onf;
xefpGm tNrJwnfaeouJhokdY tmkHajcmufyg;\ rDS&m0wKpkvnf;
aumif; tmkHajcmufyg;wdkYvnf;aumif;? rdrdoEmefrSm tmkH
ajcmufyg;vQif tmk&H aSd om 0dnmPfajcmufyg;jzpfay:rIwYdk vnf;
aumif;? wPSmjzifh om,mjcif; [ltPkjrLrQr&d?S Pf\ aMumuf
jcif;jzifh aMumufjcif;onf;xefpmG tNrt
J pGJ wnfaeaom tjzpfoYdk
qdkufatmif tm;xkwfrS y&dnmudp tNyD;wdkifavonf[k y&dnm
udp tNyD;wdkifrIudk pHjyK&efjyawmfrlaom Oyrmaywnf;? xdkOyrm
twdkif; NyD;pD;vQif &[Emjzpfavawmhonf? &[EmjzpfvQifvnf;
Pf\aMumufjcif;jzifh 0dnmPfajcmufyg;aMumufjcif; onf;
xefaomb,Pf tm'De0Pf edA'd gPf tpGt
J NrJ wnfav
awmhonf? xdkYaMumifh r[kwfavm rdrdoEmef&dSaeaom 0dnmPf
ajcmufyg;\ ckepf&ufponfjzifh csKyfNidrf;aeaom eda&m"

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

98

ormywfukd 'd|"reAd m efqakd yownf;? rdro


d Emef tmkaH jcmufyg;
vIHUaqmfwdkif; vIYHaqmfwdkif; 0dnmPfajcmufyg;ESifhwuG emruEm
av;yg;wdaYk jcmuf'gG & wpf<u<uwpf&&G G jzpfay:aeonfukd onf;
rcHvv
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k rmywfukd edAm ef
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yk*dKvfwdkYrSm BuD;pGmaom'kuab;BuD;jzpf aeaMumif;udk odom
vSavownf;? 0dnmPfajcmufyg; ESiw
hf uG&&Sd o
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rIESifh wiful; xrif;uRefcHEdkifrS xrif;ay:vmonf? enf;
csnf;rSwfav/
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jyefvQif auR;rI arG;rI 0wfqifrEI iS hf olu
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tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

99

EkwufrI OyrmuJhokdY rdrdudk,fcEmudk tpm[m& auR;arG;rIpaom


ocFg&'ku trsK;d rsK;d wdEYk iS w
hf ifu;l olu
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odav? a&S;a&S;aeYu auR;rI arG;rI jyKpkysKd;axmifrIwkdYESifh olYuRefcH
cJ
h aemufaemufaeYrS MurH I odraI y:vmonf? ajymrI qdrk I ay:vm
onf? MuHrI odrI ajymqdkrI udk,ft*FgvIyf&Sm;rI oGm;rI vmrI qdk
onfrSmvnf; jrpfa&tvsOfuJhokdY 0dnmPfpaom y&rw"rwdkY\
wpf&G&G wpf&Sdef;&dSef; "mwftom; EkwufyGm;rIwdkYomwnf;/
(wGifa&GUum; yk*dKvfow0g\ tvdkodkYrvdkufrI
taMumif;w&m;ESifh pyfomjzpfrIudk jrifojzifh
odtyfaom tew t>rufwnf;/)
--------tedpy&dnm jyqdkcJhNyD;aom y#dporkyg'f tjcif;t&mpk
onfvnf; taMumif;w&m;ESifh pyfomjzpfEdkifrI xif&Sm;vSaom
tjcif;t&mpkyifwnf;? xdkrSwpfyg; y|mef;a'oemawmft&ESifh
tewtcsuu
f kd jyqd&k ef tvGeBf u;D us,v
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y#dporkyg'tcsufudk tm&rPypnf;wpfckESifh jyqdkcJhonf?
xdktwdkif; ydkif;ydkif;jcm;jcm; xifjrifEkdifvQif NyD;awmhonf/
tew y&dnm t>rufNyD;\/
-------tedp 'ku tew y&dnmokH;yg;wGif tedpy&dnm ydkifydkif
Edik Ef ikd v
f v
kd \
S ? tedpy &dnm ydik Ef ikd rf S aemufaemuf y&dnmydik Ef ikd rf nf/
wD&Py&dnm okH;yg; tpDt&if NyD;\/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

100

8-0d n mP[m& y[mey&d n m


b,Pf tm'De0Pf tp&daS om avmuD avmukw& m
y[mey&dnm tpDt&ifrSm tem*grdr*fwdkifatmif uAVDum&
tm[m&ur|mef;rSm jyqdkcJhNyD;aomenf;twdkif;odav/
0dnmPm[m& ur|mef;tvkyfonfum; t&[wr*f
wdkifatmifayguf\? t&[wr*fodkYus &[EmtjzpfokdYa&mufrS
0dnmPf om,mwG,fwmjcif; jywfuif;aom y[mey&dnm
tcGifhwkH;onf? aomwmyef ou'g*grf tem*grfyk*dKvfwdkYrSm
0dnmPfajcmufyg;wdYk tcGirhf wk;H tqk;H rwdik af o;? pdw0f n
d mPfukd
okctaeESifh om,maomwPSm wef;vef;ESifhyif&dS Muao;onf?
b,Pf tm'De0Pfrsm;udk tm;xkwcf iG rhf wk;H ao;? b,Pf
tm'De0PfwEYkd iS hf IaeqJtcgvQif 'kuB u;D pGm xifjrifEikd o
f nf?
rIaomtcg okconm uyfNrJ uyfjyefonf? vlcY sr;f om ewfcsr;f
om jA[mhcsrf;om xifNrJxifjyefonf? tem*grfyk*dKvfum; jA[mh
csr;f om txifom &daS wmhonf? vlcY sr;f om ewfcsr;f om txifr&dS
Ny?D 0dyemw&m;udk tm;xkwaf om ykxZk O yf *k Kd vw
f rYkd mS qdzk ,
G &f m
r&dSNyD? xdkyk*dKvfwkYdrSmvnf; 0dyemxifjrifEdkifonfqdk jim;aomf
vnf; tedpy &dnmESit
hf ewy&dnm ESpyf g;om pGNJ rpJ mG xifEikd o
f nf?
'kuy&dnmonfrlum; tm;xkwf IqJtcgom aumif;pGm xif
Edkifonf? rIjyefvQif okconm uyfNrJuyfjyefonf? vlYcsrf;om
ewfcsr;f om jA[mch sr;f om xifNrx
J ifjyefonf? 'kuy &dnmjzpfaom
b,Pf tm'De0Pf edA'd gPfwu
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f Iae

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

101

pOfwGif tqifhqifh PfyGifhvif; yGifhvif;oGm;ojzifh tw'd|d


jywfavmufatmif vif;oGm;aom tcsuw
f iG f aomwmywrd *foYdk
qdkufav zdkvfypa0uPmay:atmif PftcsufoGm;av\?
ypa0uPmrS x yuwdaejyefvQif okconmuyfNrJuyfjyef\?
vljzpfcJhvQif Opm pD;yGm; om;r,m; tmkHESifharGYavsmfNrJarGYavsmf
aeEdkifjyef\? tcsKdUaomolwdkYum; xdkokdYrod&SmMuonfh twGuf
aMumif0h yd emxiforl eS v
f Qif vlxJ &Six
f rJ mS &TiMf unfpmG raeEdik f
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k t
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f /
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tukejf ywfNy;D wnf;? wpfyifrmS yuwdtaetwdik ;f yif? a&SUtyifrmS
a&aomufjrpfBu;D jywfBu;D jzpfaomfvnf; ajrxJrmS jrpfao; jrpf>rm;
usef&dSao;onf wpfaMumif;? ajray:&dS wpfyifvkH;rSm&dSaeaom
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okt
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f ef;rI ,kwo
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wmyefy*k Kd vw
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jzpf OyrmESifhwuG jyqdkvdkufonf/
0dnmPm[m& y[mey&dnmt>rufNyD;\/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

102

0dnmPm[m& y&dnmokH;yg; tqkH;wdkifNyD;ydkifvQif emrfkyf


wdYk vnf; tqk;H wdik f Ny;D ydik af vawmhonf? 0dnmPf emrf kyo
f ;Hk yg;
y&dnmokH;yg;vnf; tqkH;wdkifNyD;vQif r*jA[p&d,udp omoe
jA[p&d,udp tvk;H pkH tcGiw
hf ;Hk av\? okaYd omtcsuu
f kd jyawmf
rljcif;iSm0dnmaPbdua0 tm[ma& y&dnmaw emrlyH
y&dnmwH a[mwd? emrlay y&dnmaw t&d,om0u
ewd udd Ow&d [l a[mawmfrlonf/
(wGifa&GUum; 0dnmPm[m& ur|mef;tpDt&ifNyD;\/)
-----------9-zm[m& y&d n m
,cktcg zur|mef; tpDt&ifudk jyqdkaytHh/
zm[m& wy&dnmtrIrSma&S; wy&dnmtrIrSm a&S;
emrftm[m&ok;H yg;cGcJ ef;rSm yg&daS vNy/D ]]tm[m&H Zmemwd}} \t&
'kuopm ydkif;jcm;rIrSmvnf; 0dnmPm[m&'ku jycJhNyD;aom
'kupufBuD; wpfq,fhig;yg; twdkif;jyav? 0dnmPfESifh zonf
jzpftwl ysuftwl tNrJruGm ,SOfzufjzpfMu\? udptvdktm;
jzifo
h m a&SUaemufuo
hJ jYkd yK ajym&onf? 0dnmPfonf [if;vif;zGihf
xm;aom wHcg;ayguftwGi;f odYk a&mufvmorQaomolwu
Ydk kd tqd;k
taumif; xif&Sm;ay:vGifatmif twif;tMuyfppfaMumaom
wHcg;apmifhESifhwl\? okdYponfjzifh OyrmaqmifzG,f aygrsm;\?
xif&Sm;&mXmetm;jzifhrlum; aumif;onf raumif;onf[k

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

103

rxif&mS ;rl jrifumrw? Mum;umrw? eHumrw? vQmrSm odumrw?


udk,frSm odumrw? pdwfESvkH;rSm xifjrifum rwom&dSaom tmkH
om tvGerf sm;onf? Munf
h aumif;onf[
l vnf;aumif;? Munhf
raumif;bl;[lvnf;aumif;? okYd ponfjzifh aumif; raumif;
xif&mS ;&m zxif&mS ;\? jrefrma0g[m& zudk rsupf t
d awGY
em;tawGY ponfac:\/
wy&dnm t>rufNyD;\/
--------wD&Py&dnm ok;H yg;vnf; 0dnmPfEiS w
hf Nl y?D 0dnmPf ajcmuf
yg;qdk&m zajcmufyg; qkdkHrQom xl;awmhonf/ y[me
y&dnmvnf; 0dnmPfESifh wlNyD? z[m&ur|mef;vnf;
t&[wzdkvf wdkifatmifayguf\? z\ 'kuy&dnmrIonf
t&[wr*fodkYusrS tNyD;wdkif\? 0dnmPftwdkif;yif zm[m&
y&dnmudp tNy;D wdik v
f Qif a0'emok;H yg;vnf; tNy;D wkid af wmhonf
[l&m z tedpydkifvQif a0'emoHk;yg;vnf;ydkifawmhonf?
z 'kutewydkifvQif a0'emokH;yg;vnf; ykdifawmhonf?
y[mey&dnmrSmvnf;xdkYtwlwnf;/ taMumif;rlum; zESifh
a0'emonf udptjcif;t&mcsif; tvGefeD; Mu\? okcorESifh
okca0'emonf oabmwpfv;Hk wnf;uJo
h x
Ydk if&\/ csr;f omaom
tawG[
Y q
k t
kd yfaom okcor 'kuy &dnmydik Ef ikd cf v
hJ Qif csr;f om
rI[k qdt
k yfaom okca0'emvnf; ydik Ef ikd af wmhrnf {uef jzpf\?
xdkYaMumifh aemufy&dnm udpwpfvkH;wnf; jzpfMuavownf;?
a0'emrnfonf ow0gwdkYrSm tcsKyftcsmjzpf\? vlYcsrf;om ewf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

104

csrf;om jA[mcsrf;om qdkonfum; okca0'emudk qdkownf;?


tyg,'ku vlwdkYtrsm;odMuaom 'kuqdkonfum; 'kua0'em
udkqdkownf;? vlYb0 ewfb0 jA[mhb0udk awmifhwwG,fwm
om,mrIjzpfaeMuonfvnf; xdb
k 0wdYk &daS om okca0'emESihf
awmifhwwG,fwm om,m&if;aywnf;? xdkb0wdkYjzpfaom
okcudyk if 'ku[
k ydik yf ikd x
f ifjrifEikd o
f nf&aSd omf xdb
k 0wdYk jzpfaom
kycf Em emrfcEmwdo
Yk nf tok;H rus ed&wu jzpf ukeaf wmhonf?
wG,fwm&ef tcGifhr&dSNyD? 'kuy&dnm tvdkvdk NyD;pD;avawmhonf?
xdkYaMumifh zam bdua0 tm[ma& y&dnmawwdam
a0'emy&dnmwma[mEd? wDok a0'emok y&dnm wmok
t&d,om0u ewdudd Ow&du&PD,Ed 0'grd/
[l a[mawmfrlayownf;/
ynm&dSokH;yg; tqkH;wdkifNyD;pD;ykHudk pHjyK&ef Oyrmum; ta&
r&dSaom EGm;rOyrmwnf;? xdkEGm;ronf wpfudk,fvkH; ta&r&dS?
eDecD si;f csi;f tom;aumifBu;D jzpfaeonft
h wGuf [if;vif;tjyif
rSm aejyefvQifvnf; acG; usD;vif;w ,ifr ,ifi,f wpfkef;kef;
udkufMu qGJMu xdk;Mu qdwfMu 'kuyifv,fa0BuD;jzpf&av\?
awmcsKH&dS&mokdY 0ifjyefygvQifvnf; opfudkif; opfcuf opf&Guf
ql;ajimifx
h yd g;rIEiS hf 'kuy ifv,fa0Bu;D jzpf&av\? um; Oyrm
wnf;? EGm;rESihf ow0gcEmBu;D wl\? ta&r&d?S [if;vif;Bu;D aeonf
ESifh 0dnmPm[m&wl\? 0dnmPfrnfonf tvGefMunfvSpGmaom
'Gg&w&m; jzpfaomaMumifh[if;vif;BuD;ESifh wlavonf? tom

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

105

t,mxdum rwyifjzpfaomfvnf; qwfqwfwkef emusif&ef


jyif;xefaom 'PfrIBuD; jzpfoGm;&aom tom;pkESifhzm[m&
wlonf? jyify xdcu
dk af om ouf&Sd oufrhJ 0wKEiS hf tmkaH jcmufyg;
wlonf/
ololigig ow0gwkdY\ udk,fcEmrSmvnf; aeyl avyl rD;yl
rSuf jcif; oef; Murf;ydk; tp&dSaom 'kujzpfavmufaom tmkH
xdkcdkufvmvQif b,fae&mrSmrS zESifhwuG 'kua0'em ray:
onfr&dS? jcifwkef;kef; ,ifwkef;kef; rSufwkef;kef; jzKwf
wkef;kef; oef; Murf;ydk; ydk; yk&Guf wkef;kef; aeyl avylponf
wke;f ke;f 'kur pJonfomjzpf\? okaYd omfvnf; y&dnmxajrmufrI
pHjyKaom Oyrmjzpf vlY&Gm ewf&Gm jA[mh&GmwdkY&dSaom okcor
okca0'emwdkYESifhwuG z[lorQ a0'em[lorQwdkY
'kuy&dnm tNyD;wdkifydkifEdkifaom &[EmwdkYom qdkufwdkufvdk&if;
Oyrmaywnf;/
zm[m& ur|mef;NyD;\/
------10-raemoa w em[m& y&d n m
raemoa w em[m&vnf ; wy&d n mtpD t &if r S m
emrftm[m& okH;yg;cGJcef; qdkcJhNyD;aom obm0y&dnmESifhwuG
0dnmPm[m& jycJhNyD;aom 'kupufBuD; wpfq,fhig;yg;wnf;/
wD&Py&dnm y[mey&dnmwdrYk mS vnf; 0dnmPm[m&twdik ;f yif/
0dnmPfajcmufyg;qdk&mrSm lyoawemtp&dSaom apwem

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

106

ajcmufyg;udkjyqdkav/
apwem[m& y&dnmok;H yg; ydik Ef ikd v
f Qif wPSmok;H yg;vnf;
ydkifawmhonf[l&m wPSmokH;yg;qdkonfum; umrwPSm ly
wPSm tlywPSm okH;yg;wnf;/
bkHokH;yg;udk ypfcsrIapwemESifhwPSm wGJzuf aeykHudk
jyqdOk ;D th/H
emrftm[m& ok;H yg;cGcJ ef; oHcRew
f yfaom ESiw
f jH zifh &xm;
utyfaomjrif;wdkYudk twGifxkd; tajy;ESif&aom &xm;OD;pD;
OyrmuJo
h Ydk apwemonf wpfb0 wpfb0rSm wpfcgwpfcg ow0g
ao r&yfrem; cPrjcm; b0wpfyg; qufvufrdatmif emrf
cEmav;yg;wdkYudk twGifpdkif;ESifonf[l&m ork',opmwPSm
tazmfo[J&dSrS b0wpfyg;qufEdkifonf? wPSmtazmfo[Jr&dSu
rqufEdkif? Oyrmum; jrpfwpfzufurf;odkY a&mufapjcif;iSg yuwd
aom ajrrIefYawGudk tajrmufxJokdYxnfh ,rf;tm; rD;tm;ESifh
ypfaomfvnf; wpfzufurf; okdYra&mufEdkif? tajrmufu xGufum
rQrmS zdzk &JBu
J aysmufysu&f m\? tb,fah Mumifeh nf;[lrl tap;
twGJr&dSaom yuwdajrrIefYudkyif t*FawuJhokdYjzpfavatmif
tap;tzGJYESifh axmif;xkBudwfe,f cdkifNrJpGmaom tajrmufqef
jyKvkyfNyD;rS tajrmufrSxnfh xdkYtwlypfonf&dSaomf jrpfwpf
zufurf;okdY a&mufkHrQru qdkufwdkuf&m0wKudk NydKuGJatmif rSef
av&m\/
tb,fhaMumifhenf;? tap;tzGJY aumif;vSavaomaMumifh
wnf;? Oyrmtwdkif;rSwfav? &[EmwdkY\apwemonf tap;

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

107

tzGYJ r&dSaom yuwdajrrIefYESifhwl\? um,uH 0pDuH raemuH


vIyf&Sm;wdkif; vIyf&Sm;wdkif; aphaqmfjcif; apwemrI&dSygaomfvnf;
wPSm tap;tzJrGY &So
d nft
h wGuf wpfcw
k pfcak om aZm0Dxt
d qk;H
tqkH;wGif taiGYtoufrQrusef? uror*wm tjzpfokdYra&mufyJ
aysmufysuu
f ,
G q
f ;Hk av\? ykxZk O af ouw\
Ykd apwemonfru
l m;
tap;tzGJYESifhwuG jyKjyiftyfaom tajrmufqefajrvkH;ESifhwl\?
uH 3-yg; vIyf&Sm;wdkif; vIyf&Sm;wdkif;jzpfaom apwemonf wPSm
tap;tzG&JY aSd eonft
h wGuf wpfpw
Hk pfcak om aZm0Dxcd sKyq
f ;Hk aomf
vnf; aemufqufvufoGm;aom pdwo
f Emefukd txl;jyKrrI sK;d aph
ADZjrKyfESHrI[kqdktyfaom uror*wmtjzpfokdY a&mufatmif
cs;D ajrm ufru
I kd jyKcsKyaf y\/ ighu,
kd f ighpw
d f ighapwem[l om,m
odrf;ydkufrI onf"mwfobm0tm;jzifh apzGJYaom wPSmyifwnf;?
um; ow0gudk b0wpfyg;okyYd pfcsrrI mS apwemESiw
hf Pm zufwJG
MuykHwnf;/ xdkYaMumifh b0wpfyg;odkY ypfcswwfonfhtwGuf ESifh
apwem BuD;pGmaom 'kutkd;BuD; 'kursKd;BuD;xifjrifEdkifcJhonf&dS
aomf wPSm 3-yg;udv
k nf; xifjrifEikd af wmhonf? olwEYkd pS yf g;aMumifh
jzpfay:&aom b0emrfkyfwdkYrSm qdkzG,fr&SdNyD/
xdkYaMumifhraemoawem, bdua0 tm[ma&yd&dnmaw
wdamwPSm y&dnmwm a[mEd? wDok wPSmok y&dnmwmok t&d,om0uewdudd Ow&du&PD,Ed 0'grd/
[la[mawmfrlayonf/

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

108

y&dnmykpH H Oyrmum; vltrsm;kwo


kYd mG ;vm&m vrf;c&D;qkBH u;D
wpfck\ eHyg; eufvSus,fvSpGmaom &Sm;rD;usD;wGif;BuD; 2-ck
&do
S wwf? tm;cGeAf vBu;D vSaom a,mufsm; 2-a,mufonfvnf;
xdw
k iG ;f Bu;D teD;ae vmvmorQaom vltaygif;wdu
Yk kd trdzrf;
qD;qGJiif xdkrD;usD;wGif; 2-ckxJokdY ypfcsowwf/
(um; Oyrmwnf;/)
'kua0'emtdk;BuD;jzpfaom 'k*wdbkH? udavomrD; wpf[kef;
[kef;awmufavmif aeMu&mjzpfaom ok*wdbkH 2-yg;onf
a,mufsm;tm;aumif; 2-a,mufEiS w
hf o
l nf? jyqdck NhJ y;D aomtwdik ;f
b0wpfyg; qufvufrdatmif emrfw&m;wdkyudk twGifpkdif;ESifrI
onf rD;usD;wGif;BuD; 2-ckodkYypfcsrIESifhwlonf? vmvmorQ vl
taygif;wku
Yd kd zrf;rI rdrI qGiJ ifrI qd&k m rdro
d Emef &G&G &G&G cPrpJ
jzpfaeaom pdwfapwemudk wPSm rme 'd|djzifh ig[lvnf;
aumif;? ig\pdwf ig\tMuH ig\apwem ig\'ge ig\oDv
ig\aumif;rI ig\ukokdvf[lvnf;aumif; om,mwG,fwm
rIwdkYudkqdkownf;/ xdkodkYom,mwG,fwmaomolonf rD;usD;wGif;
okyYd pfcsaom a,mufsm;udo
k mG ; udik zf ufaom c&D;onf AmvuJo
h Ydk
xd'k ge xdo
k v
D xdak umif;rI xdu
k o
k v
kd f apwemwdu
Yk kd zufw,
G af om
olwnf;? xdkokdY zufwG,faom oludkzufwG,fNrJwdkif; r&PmoE
wdkifatmif twif;qGJiifav aoonf\tjcm;rJhb0wpfyg;okdY
ypfcsav\? twif;qGJiifrIqdkonfum; xdkpdwfapwemudk ig[l
ig\aumif;rIuo
k v
dk [
f
l ig\ud,
k [
f
l pGv
J rf;rI &daS eonft
h wGuf
xdak umif;rI ukov
dk w
f Ykd wG,w
f maomwPSmrme'd|w
d u
Ykd kd y,fowf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

109

jzwfawmuf&ef r*if&Spfyg;udk tm;rxkwfrl avmuta&;


avmut&mwdYk pdwaf emufu,
kd yf g vku
d pf m;aerI 0dyem bm0em
reodum&rSwpfyg; avmu"r yom'aumif;&m Am[d&mukokdvf
rsKd;wdkYudk BudK;BudK;pm;pm; tm;xkwfrIwdkYudkjyK aeMuukefaom
olwo
Ykd nf twif;qGiJ if&mygMuavukeaf om olww
kYd nf;? xko
d aYdk om
trIwkdY vdkufpm;aecsifaom rdrdpdwfapwem AvzGmawGudk
ememESyd u
f yG t
f wif;owf 0dyemr*fynmrsm;udk aumif;pGmpGNJ rJ
t&cJ aeaomolonfrlum; xdkapwem qGJiif&mokdY rygrvdkuf
aomolaywnf;/
(wGif;a&GUum; raemoawem[m&
ur|mef;tpDt&if NyD;\/)
odkYvQif aq;wpfjrpfwnf;ESifhyif cyfodrf;aomtem
a&m*gudk tNyD;wdkifaysmufNidrf;apEdkifaom jrpfcsif;NyD; aq;xl;
aq;jrwfuJhokdY w&m;udk,fwpfyg;wnf;ESifhyif 'kucyfodrf;wdkYudk
tNyD;wdkif aysmufNidrf;apEdkifaom tm[m& 4-yg; ur|mef;tpD
t&ifonf wGifNyD;\/
--------11-emrf o uf k y f o uf ppf w rf ;
,cktcg cEmig;yg; ur|mef;udk t>rufrQqdkOD;tHh/ kyf
a0'em onm ocFg& 0dnmPf um; cEmig;yg;wnf;? xdik g;yg;
wGif 0dnmPfqdkonfum; 0dnmPm[m&yifwnf;? ocFg&qdkonf
um; y"metm;jzifh raemoawem[m&yifwnf;? xdkYaMumifh

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

110

0dnmPuEm ocFg&uEm 2-yg;wdkY txl;qdkzG,fudp r&dS/


kyo
f nf uAVDum&mtm[m&ESiv
hf eG pf mG pyf\? uAVDum&
tm[m&tpDt&if twGi;f 0ifEikd \
f / a0'em onmonf zESihf
vGepf mG pyf\? zm[m& tpDt&if twGi;f 0ifEikd \
f ? ]]ovow
k f
ygVdawmf}} ]]wPSmocF,okwf ygVdawmf}} ponfwYkd a0'emwpfcEk iS hf
ur|mef;udptNyD;wdkifvm\? a0'emyk&d*[okwf 'DCecy&dAdkZf
onf a0'emwpfckESifh r*fzdkvf&av\? a0'emonf PfESifh
odr;f qnf;jcif;iSm vG,v
f \
S ? 0dnmPf zwdu
Yk kd odr;f qnf;cef;yif
a0'emzufwGJ jycJh&onf? xdkYaMumifh ,ckumvrsm; 0dyem
reodum&udk avhusufpGJNrJvdkaom olwdkYtm; a0'emwpfckudk
ur|mef;jyK pGJNrJjcif;iSm oifhjrwfvS\? ur|mef;tpDt&ifrSm
0dnmPf jycJhNyD;aom enf;vrf;ESifhyif NyD;yg\/
onmqdkonfum; tmkHudkrSwfjcif; trIwnf;? trd0rf;u
zGm;jrifonfrpS um; trd um;tz tp&do
S nfjzifh awGUMuKH
orQ txnf0wKponfwu
Ykd kd awGMY uKH wikd ;f awGMY uKH wikd ;f rSwrf w
I nf;?
xdo
k Ydk rSwcf rhJ aI Mumifh ,ckjyef atmifah rhvu
kd v
f Qif pdwx
f w
J iG af y:
vmukef\/ pdwfqdkonfum; rSwfrIr[kwf? a&S;Irdaom tmkHudk
odrI xifjrifatmif jyKrIomwnf;? pdwftvdktm;jzifh awGYzl;aom
tmku
H kd jyefatmifah rhaomfvnf; ay:vmcGihf r&d?S ,ckoNd y;D odNy;D
awGjzpfaeorQonf a&S;onm aus;Zl;wnf;/
onmr&dSvQif rdrdemrnfudkyif rSwfrdEdkifzG,fr&dS/ pdwfonf
a&S;Irdwdkif;aom tmkHudkjyay\? pdwfjywdkif; jywdkif;udk onmu
rSw\
f / pdwrf rDES ikd af om oabmtcsupf u
k kd jyEdik o
f nfum; ynmay

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

111

wnf;? ynmjywdkif; jywdkif;udkvnf; onmrSwf\? ynmvnf;


rSwform;r[kwf? odorm;omwnf;? pdwfonf rsufvSnfhonfESifh
wl\? r[kwfonfudk t[kwfBuD;vkyf jywwf\? r&dSonfudk
t&dSBuD;vkyfjywwf\? onmonf pdwfjywdkif;udkvnf; rSwf\?
ynmum; trSeft[kwfudkom jy\? onmonf ynmjywdkif;udk
vnf; rSwf\? okdYaomfvnf; pdwfonfom tpOfxm0& twltNrJ
ae\? ynmum; wpfcgwpf&aH wGo
Y mjzpf\? xdaYk Mumifh pdwEf iS hf ynm
wpfzufwpfvrf; tjiif;tckefjzpfMuonf&dSaomf pdwfzufuom
tckid t
f vkH oufaoBu;D vky\
f ? vkyyf u
Hk m; ynmu ud,
k cf Emudk
tedpq
\
kd ? pdwu
f edpq
\
kd ? tjiif;tckef jzpfMu\? onmu edpo
m
trSejf zpfaMumif;tpOfxm0& vuf&v
dS ufruGm rSwo
f m;csuaf wGukd
wifjy edpb
ufu oufaocH\? xdaYk Mumifh PfEiS hf tedp tedp[
k
Iqifjcif&m pdwfonmwdkYu tedpudkckcHjiif;y,f edpudk twnf
jyKNrJjyKMuukef\? aomwmywdr*fodkYqdkufrS edpbufvkH;vkH;IH;
tedpt
wnf jzpf&\? okc 'ku jiif;ckerf rI mS t&[wr*foq
Ydk u
kd rf S
ynmu vk;H vk;H Edik \
f ? 'kut
wnfjzpfav\? tw tew jiif;ckerf I
rSm aomwmywrd *fwiG f tewtwnfjzpfav\? Oyrmum; bDv;l r
onf pm;jcif;iSm ewforD;a,mif aqmifjy\? pdwfonfaqmifjy
wdkif;jrif\? onmonf jrifwdkif;rSwf\? zonf rSwfwdkif;rsufpd
rSmawGY\? a0'emonf awGYwdkif;vSavjcif;[k 0rf;ajrmuf\?
apwemonf avmbudkaqmfx\? avmbonf tvGefcspf
BudKuf\? xdkow0g bDvl;pmjzpfav\? ynm&dSol wpfa,mufudk
xdktwljyKjyef\? pdwfonf ewforD;toGifjrif\? ynmonf

tpodYk

tm[m&'DyeD

112

t&dyrf xGurf pI onfukd qifjcifbDv;l rwnf;[k od\? zonf


bDvl;r taeESifhawGY\? a0'emonf awGYwdkif;raumif;pG[k ESvkH;
roufomBuD;jzpf\? apwemonf tvGwfxGuf&ef Pf0D&d,udk
aqmfx\? Pf0D&d,tpGrf;jzifh xdkolcsrf;ompGmvGwfav\?
okYd onm 0dnmPf ynmok;H yg;wd\
Yk tpGr;f udo
k &d m\? pdwo
f nm
wdo
Yk nf ynmEkaYH om olwo
Ykd EmefrmS ynma,mifaqmif aewwf
ukef\? xdkolwdkYonf onmod pdwfodudkyif ynmodxif& ukef\?
pdwo
f nm tvdrrf Md uuke\
f ? rdpm 'd|v
d rf;wnf;/ onm0dyvmo
pdw0 yd vmo 'd|0d yd vmo um;rdpm tEk tvwf t&ifh ok;H yg;
wnf;? onmum; rdpm tEkwnf;? pdwfum; rdpm tvwfwnf;?
'd|u
d m; rdpm t&ifw
h nf;? tEkrS tvwfjzpf\? tvwfrS t&ifjh zpf\?
pdwfonm tvdrfrrdMu&atmif owdBuD;BuD; xm;Muav/
onmoabmudk jyqdkcsufNyD;\/
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ab;udkjrifMuukefaom olawmfaumif;wdkYonf cEmig;yg;wGif


rdrdpdwfoabmawGY&m wpfyg;yg;aom cEmudk vufpGJur|mef; jyK
vkyf tm;xkwfMuukef&monf/
xdkig;yg;wGif emruEm av;yg;wdkYrSm jyqkdcJhNyD;aom emrf
tm[m&wkdY yg0ifMuukefNyD;jzpf ur|mef;tpDt&if jyqdkcGifh
r&dMS uukeNf y/D
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rxif&mS ;vSao;onfjzpf t&modom xif&mS ;kH jyqdOk ;D tH/h
kyfur|mef;udk tm;xkwfaomolonf Pfxufaomol PfEkYH
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wnf;ESifhNyD;Edkif\? PfEkYHaomolrSm okwefa'oem a0zefaom
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qdkonfum; rD;yGm;rIwnf;? rD;yGm;rIqkdonfum; trdrSonf om;


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tqifhqifh aygufyGm;rIudk rD;yGm;onfqdkownf;/ odkYyGm;
aeonfudk wpf&dSef&dSef wpf&G&G x<urI qdkownf;/
ta[mif; ta[mif; wpfokwf wpfokwf csKyfuG,frIESifh
topftopfpk wpfow
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t,SuftwGuf &G&G&G&G xrI <urI jzpfaeonf? teD;tem;okdY
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onfomjzpfonf? csKyyf su&f m csKyyf su&f mXmevnf; tpOfwpku


d f
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d jf rifukd

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Pfjzifh azsmufzsuf wpfu,f&dS wpfu,f[kwfudk&Smjyefaomf


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atmif oAnKbk&m; odMum; jA[mwdkYrSaomfvnf; rwwfEdkif


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jrifownf;/ xkdpdwfjrifaom toufonf tu,f {uef&dS


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tpOfNrJ aejim;aomfvnf; topftopfjzpfay:rIvnf; cPrpJ


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f &uf

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awmifwpfcwf vQyfwpfjyuftp&dSaom oEwd tedpudkom xif


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orQvnf; NyD;avawmhonf/

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O',A,Pf ykHpHjyK&ef Oyrmudk a&S;OD;pGm qdkaytHh/


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tajcysufrI[l&mrSmvnf; taetajcqdkonfum; rxkrD rESufrD


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av&m\/ pdwftjrifrSm ysufonf[lum; jrif\? ysufrI


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awmifBuD; wpfckvkH;onfyifvQif EkH;cJtwl uG,faysmufEdkif

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onfomjzpf&mownf;? Bu;D onf i,fonf yrmPr[kw?f ya,m*


rIonfom yrmPwnf;/
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a&GUvsm;onf[k xifjrif&aom kyfuvmyfwdkYudk Oyg'fZmwdESifh
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f jrifrmS uJo
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Yk

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138

qif;&J 'kutrsKd;rsKd;ukd jzpfap\/ "k0[k pJGvrf;qJrSmyif azmufvTJ


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tpodYk

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bk&m;yGifhrIrnfonf ewf jA[mwdkY\ uRwfyGJBuD;aywnf;? vlonf


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