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Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

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ISSN: PRINT: 1948-0229 CD ROM:1948-0245 ONLINE: 1948-0237


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Copyright2004 African Scientificork

Volume 2

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON THEORETICAL PHYSICS & NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Abuja, Nigeria
Editors

July 5-8, 2009

Godfrey E. Akpojotor Abebe Kebede Alex O.E. Animalu

All papers have been peer reviewed 1

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

Copyright 2009 by African Physical Society All rights reserved This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher

National Library of Nigeria Cataloguing in Publication Data I. II. African Physical Society Title: Proceedings of the 2nd International Seminar on Theoretical Physics and National Development, 5-8 August, 2009 .

ISSN: PRINT: 1948-0229 CD ROM:1948-0245 ONLINE: 1948-0237

Published by: African Physical Society, (Registered in U.S.A.) in Partnership with the National Mathematical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria and the International. Centre for Basic Research 20 Limpopo St. FHA, Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria Phone +234(0)803 787 9351 Emails : Afps202@gmail.com; ibr32@aol.com.

Printed in Nigeria by: University of Nigeria Press Ltd

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

SPONSORING ORGANISATIONS
National Mathematical Centre, Abuja National Universities Commission Raw Materials Research and Development Council Energy Commission of Nigeria National Office for Technology Adaptation and Promotion Board of Nigerian National Merit Award University of Nigeria, Nsukka Delta State University, Abraka International Centre for Basic Research, Abuja

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE OF ISOTPAND Prof A.O. E. Animalu (Nigeria) Prof Diola Bagayoko (USA) Prof M. L. Kulic (Germany) Prof Amagh Nduka (Nigeria) Prof. B.N. Onwuagba (Nigeria) Prof T. L. Gill (USA) Prof. A. P. Maclin (USA) Dr Abebe Kebede (USA) Prof J.O. Idiodi (Nigeria) Prof Charles Ofoegbu (Nigeria) Prof F.N. Okeke (Nigeria) Prof. C.M.I. Okoye (Nigeria) Prof Otete Okobiah (Nigeria) Dr Nithaya Chetty (South Africa) Dr Anatole Kenfack (Germany) Dr Ezekiel Izuogu (Nigeria) Dr B.O. Oyelami (Nigeria) Dr. J. O. Urama (Nigeria) Dr G. E. Akpojotor (Germany)

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

Group Photograph of the Participants at ISOTPAND09

Preface
This volume contains papers presented at the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics and National Development (ISOTPAND09) held at the National Mathematical Centre, Sheda (Abuja, Nigeria) from July 5 8, 2009. This years event kicked off on Monday, July 6 at 9.00 a.m. with a welcome address by the Secretary of the National Mathematical Centre, Mr. C. E. Adeyomo and then by the Secretary of ISOTPAND09, Dr Godfrey Akpojotor. Thereafter, the first technical session commenced. As in ISOTPAND08 last year, the technical sessions were richly informative and motivational as they were a combination of both advanced and pedagogical contents to cut across all the participants made up of senior and junior researchers, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students. This is in keeping with the goal of ISOTPAND as a forum for bringing senior and eager beginners together and for a systematic development of the African world view. The papers in this volume have also been peer-reviewed. The major theme of this years event was on mobilizing physical science-based enterprises with special focus on solar and renewable energy. The premise for this focus is that the Energy Commission of Nigeria was establish by government about 30 years

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

ago. Since then, there have been series of conferences, seminars and workshops and their focuses have been on how government could kick-start investment in the solar and renewable energy sector. However, the Nigerian Academy of Sciences after some retrospect of the journey so far, realized that government may have laid the needed foundation for the scientists to take the challenge of investing in the alternative energy sector. Therefore, the new focus shifted to mobilizing the scientific community to kickstart the investment in solar and renewable energy driven either as public-private sector and/or private-private sectors. As part of this drive, a book edited by Professor A. O. E. Animalu (former President of the Nigerian Academy of Science and Founding President of the Solar Energy Society of Nigeria), Dr. E.N.C. Osakwe and Mr. U.B. Akuru titled Solar and Renewable Energy Company (Nigeria) Limited was presented at a Roundtable meeting during the ISOTPAND09. In addition, a brief biography of the late solar energy physicist and former Hon. Minister of Science and Technology, Chief (Dr.) Laz Abaecheta Unaogu (1949-2004) was presented. The Roundtable was chaired by the Director-General/CEO of the National Mathematical Centre (Abuja), Professor S. O. Ale, and was attended by both scientists and the representatives of government agencies and the private sector. The discussion was diverse and very enriching. To motivate young female physicists and physics students, the organizers specially invited Dr Arlene P. Maclin, a Professor of Engineering & Director of the Center for Academic Excellence at Norfolk State University (USA). She was impressed with the number of this group of participants invited by the organizers just as members of the group were motivated by her scholarship. Also as part of motivating the female physics students, a renowned psychologist and the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Administration) of the Delta State University, Abraka, Professor Otete Okobia, was also invited to ISOTPAND09 to talk on the The attitude of the female students towards physics. We wish to acknowledge the main sponsors of ISOTPAND09 the International Centre for Basic Research and the National Mathematical Centre. We also acknowledge the financial support from the following bodies: National Universities Commission, Nigerian Energy Commission, Raw Material and Research Development Council, National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP), Board of National Merit award, University of Nigeria (Nsukka), Delta State University as well as individual donors. We also acknowledge the commitment of all the participants to the success of the event. Finally, we express our appreciation to members of the local organising committee coordinated by Dr B. O. Oyelami at the National Mathematical Centre and the International Scientific Committee of ISOTPAND for their various contributions. Editors Godfrey E. Akpojotor Kebede Abebe Alex O. E. Animalu

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

WELCOME ADDRESS: THEORETICAL PHYSICS - A RECIPE FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Prof. Sam O. Ale mni, OFR The Director-General National Mathematical Centre, Abuja All that is valuable in human society depends upon the opportunity for development accorded to the individual (Albert Einstein) Protocol On behalf of the management, staff and students of the National Mathematical Centre (NMC) Abuja, I welcome all participants, from outside and inside this country to this historic occasion of a Roundtable on mobilizing Science-based Enterprises as part of the activities to mark the 2nd International Seminar on Theoretical Physics and National Development (ISOTPAND09). This roundtable, which is being organized by the NMC and the International Centre for Basic Rersearch(ICBR) under Public Private Partnership (PPP), will be delivered by distinguished scientists from Nigeria and abroad, while the Theoretical Physicists will have opportunities to present their recent or ongoing research activities. In our midst today are the following distinguished scholars:
Professor A.O.E.Animalu, FAS, NNOM, Chairman/CEO Ineternational Centre for Basic Research, Abuja. Professor Ephraim E. Okon FAS former Permanent Secretary of the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology and representative of the Nigerian Academy of Science. Dr.G.E. Akpojotor, Secretary of the International Scientific Committee on the ISOTPAND series.

Associate Professor B.O. Oyelami, Acting Coordinator of the Theoretical Physics Programme of the NMC.. Your presence here is an eloquent demonstration of our desire to put Nigeria on the world map of centres of excellence in science and technology. Please accept my profound thanks. It is a great pleasure meeting our budding physicists from across the country at this capacity building Roundtable being declared open here in NMC Abuja today. We congratulate you all for being part of this seminar and hope you will find the workshop intellectually stimulating and useful towards your primary assignment in your universities. We look forward to welcoming you 7

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

again to any of our future programmes in Abuja or in your state. I wish to also welcome our other invited Guests, especially Professors and Researchers from across the nations universities here present at this ceremony. We hope you will also find your visit to NMC serene environment conducive to your research work and that you will take full opportunity of the Mathematical Sciences Library and make adequate use of them in your research work. A cardinal objective of the National Mathematical Centre is to promote research and capacity building in the diverse areas of the mathematical sciences including Computer Science, Theoretical Physics, Statistics, and Mathematics. These disciplines are known to be plagued by perennial staff shortages in the nations higher education institutions. To assist in dealing with this problem, the centre in collaboration with the ICBR has embarked on organizing and publishing the proceedings of annual workshops and Conferences in recent times. The activities enable large numbers in Nigerian higher education institutions to interact right here in Nigeria with world class scholars in a cost-effective way. They also facilitate linkages, cooperation, and partnership between Nigerian scholars at home and Nigerian scholars in the diaspora. The NMC is glad to have been able to collaborate with the International Centre for Basic Research in organizing the ISOTPAND series of activities aimed at developing capacity for Nigeria and Africa in area of Physical Science-based enterprises, as well as catalyzing the development of Theoretical Physicists in the inter-disciplinary area of Energy, Environment and Health practice for community development especially in Africa. In this regard, the NMC is greatful to the Chairman/CEO, International Centre for Basic Research Professor Alex Animalu,FAS, for making this cooperation possible. Experts in the mathematical sciences would readily testify that the pace of development of these experts in the last fifty years or so, has been breathtaking, as whole new branches of the mathematical sciences are continually being created. The trend is generating diverse applications which have high impact on every aspect of our lives. We have today a science landscape that is very dynamic. The Mathematical Reviews, published by the American Mathematical society, classifies the mathematical sciences into several distinct branches, each of which possesses several sub branches. It is therefore apparent that no single academic institution, Centre or other specialized outfit in the whole world, whether publicly or privately owned, will ever be in a position to provide training in all these branches including theoretical physics. This situation calls for cooperation and synergy among outfits providing capacity building services in the mathematical sciences, especially in a developing country such as Nigeria in order to minimize duplication and waste. 8

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

Several years ago the renowned theoretical physicist and Nobel Laureate, Albert Einstein said, He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand right in awe, is as good as dead, his eyes are closed. This statement is very relevant to the situation in Africa today. We need to pause and make a stock taking of research findings in the continent of Africa. How many findings in the theses in shelves in the libraries have found their way into the industry for commercialization? How many adjudged excellent theses or papers are presented for patents? To what extent are we responding to the global changing problems like global warming and associated entropy rise due to human activities? These are among so many questions that are relevant to our existence as human beings and the economy of the nation to which theoretical physics can proffer solutions. ISOTPAND 09 is an avenue for addressing some of the questions raised above. For Nigeria to fully realize her Vision 20:2020 and the seven-point agenda of President Umaru Musa YarAdua, we need to develop a critical mass of researchers who will develop new basic knowledge, translate into applications, and influence policy. We need, as a nation, to invest in Research and Development (RD) and build capacity to translate theoretical knowledge into applications that can be commercialized. This position is inevitable as Government is making frantic effort to place Nigeria in her rightful position in the world of advanced technology as a vehicle for the achievement of its Vision 20:2020. Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen, no meaningful technological development of any nation is possible without mathematics and its allied discipline of computer science and the physical sciences. Currently, in Nigeria any student that does not make at least a credit pass in mathematics finds it difficult to get a university admission. Therefore investment in the capacity building of mathematics and physics teachers or postgraduate students is in the right direction. Knowledge has no boundaries: it changes with time and there is the need to adapt to these changes by participating in workshops, seminars, and conferences so as to update ones knowledge. Let us continue to work harder towards the improvement of the teaching and learning of the mathematical sciences at all levels inasmuch as the extent we fail in developing mathematics and physics in minds of students, to that extent we fail in national development and progress. We hope this 4-day meeting will be very exciting and rewarding. We also hope that the friendship you would nurture at this forum will continue to bear fruits for the greater glory of the promotion of science and technology education in this country. 9

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

I pray that when you conclude this seminar, God will grant you all traveling mercies as you return to your various destinations. In the coming years, the NMC will, singly or jointly with others, organize many of this kind of capacity building workshops, seminars, conferences, as a way of fostering and deepening a culture of cutting-adge research in the mathematical sciences in this country. Once again, we thank the Chairman/CEO of International Centre for Basic Research for the collaboration and support to the centre for the hosting of the 4Day Seminar. We also thank the press for gracing the occasion and for popularization of these capacity building workshops. The National Mathematical Centre wishes all participants a rewarding scientific experience at the Seminar and Roundtable. Thank you and God bless you. Professor Sam Ale, OFR, NPOM, mni Director General

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Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENTS SPONSORING ORGANISATIONS.................................................................... III INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE OF ISOTPAND ................. IV PREFACE .............................................................................................................. V WELCOME ADDRESS S.O. Ale .................................................................... VII REVIEW OF 50 YEARS OF PSEUDOPOTENTIAL THEORY .........................1 A.O.E. Animalu, B. Ezekoye, K.E. Essien ...............................................1 GENERALIZATION OF CONVENTIONAL BCS MODEL TO ISOSUPERCONDUCTIVITY MODEL OF HIGH-TC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN THE CUPRATES AND PNICTIDES ....46 A. O. E. Animalu, G. E. Akpojotor, and P. I. Ironkwe ....................... 46 A SIMPLIFIED FORMULATION OF THE LANCZOS TECHNIQUE FOR STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS ................................................63 S. Ehika, E.O Igbinovia, J.O.A. Idiodi .................................................. 63 SUPERCONDUCTOR ZnNNi3 IN COMPARISON WITH ZnCNi3..................76 C. M. I. Okoye ......................................................................................... 76 CdS THIN SOLID FILMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATION ..............89 S.C. Ezugwu, P.U. Asogwa, R.U. Osuji, F.I. Ezema, B.A. Ezekoye, A.B.C. Ekwealor.......................................................................................89 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE SINGLE CRYSTAL IN SILICA GEL ....................................................100 Uchechukwu .V. Okpala ....................................................................... 100 DETERMINATION OF RADIONUCLIDES, CONCENTRATIONS, AND DIFFERENTIATING FACTORS FOR SOME BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES BY NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS (NAA) ...........115 S.O. Yunus, S.A. Jonah, K.J. Oyewumi ..................................... 115

OXYGEN AND HAEMOGLOBIN PAIR MODEL FOR SICKLE CELL ANEAMIA PATIENTS...........................................................................132 B.O. Oyelami ..........................................................................................132

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Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

NONLINEAR MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECTS IN DIELECTRICS EMBEDDED WITH FERROMAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES .........149 Arlene .P. Maclin and M. M. Noel, ...................................................... 149 ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BEAM PROPAGATION IN A DIELECTRIC THIN FILM MATERIAL USING CLASSICAL PERTURBATION TECHNIQUE ..........................................................157 A.N. Nwachukwu and J.U. Ugwuanyi. .................................................157 THE THIRD REVOLUTION IN SCIENCE AND THE GLOBAL ENERGY CHALLENGE .........................................................................................169 Amagh Nduka.........................................................................................169 ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF ENERGY SECTOR INVESTMENTS IN NIGERIA.................................................................................................173 Udochukwu. B. Akuru and A. O. E. Animalu .................................... 173 SUSTAINABLE APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY AS SMES IN A DEVELOPING NATION .......................................................................184 Udochukwu. B. Akuru and Ogbonnaya I. Okoro .............................. 184 SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEM R&D INNOVATIONS ..........210

J.O. Inwelegbu and P.N. Okeke ...................................................210


EVALUATION OF SUPPLY RELIABILITY OF MICROGRIDS INCLUDING PV AND WIND POWER ........................................................................233 G. Ofualagba, and E.U Ubeku, ............................................................233 SUNSHINE HOURS VARIABILITY AND ITS RESPONSE TO AEROSOLS IN LAGOS STATE NIGERIA................................................................246 T. N. Obiekezie . .................................................................................... 246 A STUDY OF THE MEASURED AERODYNAMIC DIAMETER OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS IN NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA....................................................................................................... E. C. Okoro and F. N. Okeke, .............................................................. 256 DATABASE OF CO2 EMISSION IN NIGERIA: A PRELIMINARY REPORT .. M. O. Ofomola and G. E. Akpojotor ................................................... 267 12

Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Theoretical Physics & National Development, July 5 - 8, 2009, Abuja, Nigeria

TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A BIOGAS PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF CONCORDIA FARMS LTD, PORTHARCOURT ................................280 L.M. S. Tobira ........................................................................................280 F-LAYER PEAK ELECTRON DENSITY VARIATIONS IN THE IONOSPHERE........................................................................................300 S.E. Onwuneme ......................................................................................300 EFFECT OF SOLAR CYCLE ON GEOMAGNETIC STORMS .....................308 F.N. Okeke and E.A. Hanson ................................................................308 SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIA: AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMSE ...............................................315 B. I. Okere and P. N. Okeke. ................................................................ 315 THE OYIBOS GRAND UNIFICATION THEOREM WITH REALIZATION OF SOME BASIC PHYSICAL PHENOMENA IN GEOMETRIC OPTICS ...................................................................................................331 M. W. Echenim and G. E. Akpojotor .................................................. 331 THE ATTITUDE OF FEMALE NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TOWARDS THE STUDY OF PHYSICS AND THEIR PERFORMANCE ...................................................................................346 Anita Edi and Otete Okobiah .............................................................. 346 ENDOGENOUS ASTRONOMY OF PARTS OF NIGERIA............................357 J.O. Urama, E.N. Urama and A.O.E. Animalu .................................. 357 ICHI LINGUISTIC GEOMETRY AND EVOLUTION....................................373 A. O.E. Animalu and C. Acholonu ...................................................... 373 A MODEL OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY ...............................................................................................394 Tertsegha Tivde and A.O.E. Animalu ................................................. 394 TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATIONS IN THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL EXTENDED HUBBARD MODEL: A GROUND-STATE PERTURBATIVE SOLUTION .. O.R.Okanigbuan, S. Ehika, S.U. Azenobie, P.N. Okanigbaun ........... 40 13