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QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

This chapter provides an extensive description of digital transmission network models used for the allocation and quality and availability objectives in accordance to ITU-R recommendations based on ITU-T Recommendations G.821, G.826, G.827, and G.828. This chapter deals with quality and availability events, parameters, and objectives as well as the calculation and relationships of the parameters to existing atmospheric fading mechanisms.

 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1

Quality and availability predictions

1

1.1

Predicting quality

1

1.2

Quality and availability objectives

1

1.2.1

Why and at what price?

1

1.2.2

Recommendations - background

1

2

Digital transmission network models

2

2.1

Introduction

2

2.2

Hypothetical Reference Connection (HRX)

2

2.2.1

Definition

2

2.2.2

Classification

3

2.2.3

Example

3

2.3

Other digital transmission network models

3

2.3.1

Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP)

4

2.3.2

Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS)

4

2.3.3

Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)

5

3

Objective allocation based on Rec. ITU-T G.821

5

3.1

Basic definitions

6

3.1.1

Applicability

6

3.1.2

Bit error

6

3.1.3

Bit rate

6

3.1.4

Bit-error ratio

6

3.1.5

Expressing the quality objectives

6

3.1.6

Bit-error ratio and time intervals

6

3.1.7

Available and unavailable time ñ single direction

7

3.1.8

Available and unavailable time ñ bi-direction path

7

3.1.9

Expressing available and unavailable time

7

3.1.10

Definitions of events occurring during available time

7

3.1.11

Available and unavailable time - example

7

3.1.12

BER at bit rate 64 kbit/s

8

3.1.13

Quality objectives

8

3.1.14

Definition of quality parameters

8

3.1.14.1

Errored second ratio

8

3.1.14.2

Severely errored second ratio

8

3.1.14.3

Quality and availability parameters

9

3.2

Quality allocation in the HRX

9

 

I

 

3.2.1

End-to-end objectives

9

3.2.2

Partial allocation

9

3.2.3

The derivation of the quality parameters values

10

3.2.4

Quality allocation in the HRX - summary

11

3.3

Detailed allocation at different portions of HRX

12

3.3.1

Local-grade

12

3.3.1.1

Quality objectives

12

3.3.1.2

Availability objectives

12

3.3.2

Medium-grade

12

3.3.2.1

Quality objectives

13

3.3.2.2

Availability objectives

13

3.3.2.3

Digital section

13

3.3.3

High-grade portion

16

3.3.3.1

Quality objectives

16

3.3.3.2

Availability objectives

16

3.3.4

Hypothetical Reference Digital Path - HRDP (high grade)

16

3.3.4.1

Quality objectives

16

3.3.4.2

Availability objectives

17

3.3.5

Real Digital Radio Link (high grade)

17

3.3.5.1

Quality objectives

17

3.3.5.2

Availability objectives

18

3.4

Quality and availability objectives - summary

18

3.4.1

Quality objectives

18

3.4.2

Availability objectives

19

3.4.3

Applications

19

4

Objective allocation based on Rec. ITU-T G.826

20

4.1

Basic definitions

21

4.1.1

Applicability

21

4.1.2

Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)

21

4.1.3

Available and unavailable time ñ single direction path

21

4.1.4

Available and unavailable time ñ bi-direction path

22

4.1.5

Definition of block

22

4.1.6

Events occurring during available time

22

4.1.6.1

Errored Block (EB)

22

4.1.6.2

Errored Second (ES)

22

4.1.6.3

Severely Errored Second (SES)

22

4.1.6.4

Background Block Error (BBE)

22

4.1.7

Quality parameters

23

4.1.7.1

Errored Second Ratio (ESR)

23

4.1.7.2

Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR)

23

4.1.7.3

Background Block Error Ratio (BBER)

23

4.2

End-to-end quality objectives in the HRP

23

4.2.1

National portion

23

4.2.2

International portion

24

4.3

End-to-end unavailability objectives in the HRP

26

4.4

Basic portions of the HRP

26

4.4.1

Allocation of quality objectives in the national portion

27

4.4.1.1

Access section

27

4.4.1.2

Short-haul section

27

4.4.1.3

Long-haul section

27

4.4.2

Summary of quality objectives - national portion

28

4.4.3

Allocation of quality in the international portion

29

4.4.3.1

Intermediate countries: L min L 1 000 km

30

4.4.3.2

Intermediate countries: L > 1 000 km

31

4.4.3.3

Terminating countries: L min L 500 km

31

4.4.3.4

Terminating countries: L > 500 km

31

II

4.4.4

Notes

31

4.4.5

Allocation of unavailability objectives

32

5

Objective allocation based on ITU-T Rec. G.827

32

5.1

Basic definitions

32

5.1.1

Applicability

32

5.1.2

Path type b and reference path for allocation

33

5.1.3

Objectives allocation

33

5.1.3.1

National portion

34

5.1.3.2

International Portion

34

5.1.4

Notes

34

6

Objective allocation based on ITU-T G.828

35

6.1

Basic definitions

35

6.1.1

Applicability

35

6.1.2

Reference network model

36

6.1.3

Available and unavailable time ñ single direction path

36

6.1.4

Available and unavailable time ñ bi-direction path

36

6.1.5

Definition of block

36

6.1.6

Events occurring during available time

36

6.1.6.1

Errored Block (EB)

36

6.1.6.2

Errored Second (ES)

36

6.1.6.3

Severely Errored Second (SES)

36

6.1.6.4

Background Block Error (BBE)

36

6.1.6.5

Severely Errored Period (SEP)

37

6.1.7

Quality parameters

37

6.1.7.1

Errored Second Ratio (ESR)

37

6.1.7.2

Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR)

37

6.1.7.3

Background Block Error Ratio (BBER)

37

6.1.7.4

Severely Errored Period Intensity (SEPI)

37

6.2

End-to-end quality objectives in the HRP

37

6.2.1

National portion

37

6.2.2

International Portion

37

6.3

End-to-end unavailability objectives in the HRP

37

6.4

Basic portions of the HRP

37

6.4.1

Allocation of quality objectives in the national portion

37

6.4.1.1

Access section

38

6.4.1.2

Short haul section

38

6.4.1.3

Long haul section

38

6.4.2

Allocation of quality objectives in the international portion

39

6.4.2.1

Intermediate countries (L min L link 1 000 km)

39

6.4.2.2

Intermediate countries (L link > 1 000 km)

39

6.4.2.3

Terminating countries (L min L link 500 km)

39

6.4.2.4

Terminating countries (L link > 500 km)

40

6.4.3

Allocation of unavailability objectives

40

6.4.4

Notes

40

7

Allocation strategy

41

7.1

Mapping

41

7.2

ìSpare factorî (Ericsson approach)

42

7.3

Allocation in parts of the network

42

7.4

Fading versus quality and availability parameters

43

7.5

Frequency versus quality and availability parameters

43

7.6

Allocation alternatives

43

7.7

Avoiding distance-based allocation

45

7.8

Final remarks

45

8

Appendices

45

8.1

Summary of network models

45

8.1.1

HRX (based on ITU-T G.821)

45

 

III

 

8.1.2

HRDS (based on ITU-T G.821 and ITU-R F.696-2)

45

8.1.3

HRDP (based on ITU-T G.821)

46

8.1.4

RDRL (based on ITU-T G.821)

47

8.1.5

HRP (based on ITU-T G.826)

47

8.1.6

HRP (based on ITU-T G.826 and ITU-R F.1491-1)

48

8.1.7

Path type b (based on ITU-T G.827)

48

8.1.8

Portion of the path type b (based on ITU-T G.827)

49

8.2

Comparison of SESR

49

8.3

Quality and availability parameters versus fading mechanisms

50

8.3.1

Fading occurrence

50

8.4

Calculation of the unavailability parameters - Rec. G.821

51

8.4.1

Unavailable time ratio (UATR)

51

8.4.2

Available time ratio (UATR)

51

8.4.3

Severely errored second ratio (SESR)

52

8.4.4

Errored second ratio (ESR)

52

8.5

Planning for unavailable time

52

8.6

Some statistical evaluations

52

8.6.1

Errored seconds ñ ITU-T G.821

53

8.6.2

Application to a 64 kbit/s channel

53

8.6.3

Errored seconds ñ ITU-T G.826

54

8.6.4

Application at different capacities

54

8.6.5

Critical bit errors

55

8.6.6

Critical BER for SES evaluations

55

IV

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES 1 Quality and availability predictions 1.1 Predicting quality Predicting quality
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES
1
Quality and availability predictions
1.1
Predicting quality
Predicting quality in a microwave network is about to answer the
following questions:
1. Is the connection available?
2. If yes, what are the values of the availability and quality parameters?
3. How good is the connection in comparison with the current
availability and quality objectives?
1.2
Quality and availability objectives
1.2.1
Why and at what price?
During the process of planning a radio connection, adequate quality and
availability objectives are established following careful consideration of
those parameters that affect these attributes. These objectives then
provide, to a certain degree, a îbuilt-inî confidence level that guard
against fading caused by interactions between the transmitted signals
and the atmosphere, topography and the signals transmitted by other
radio stations located in the vicinity.
Quality and availability objectives are often a result of a compromise
between, on the one hand, compliance with requirements of the service,
and on the other hand, current economic and technical limitations.
1.2.2
Recommendations - background
The recommendations discussed in this chapter take into account that
services are based on the concept of an Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN). The following ITU-T recommendations are basic for
the design of microwave networks:
• Recommendation G.821
• Recommendation G.826
• Recommendation G.827
• Recommendation G.828
Quality and availability allocation for parts of a microwave network is
NOT performed based on ITU-T recommendations, rather on ITU-R
recommendations.
 Ericsson AB
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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

2

Digital transmission network models

2.1

Introduction

In

order to facilitate the study of the error performance of digital

transmission systems (bit errors, jitter, transmission delays, availability,

etc), it is occasionally necessary to define digital transmission network models that comprise a combination of different types of transmission devices. These models are hypothetical in that they include entities of a defined length and composition corresponding to real digital radio-relay links present in international networks.

Transmission may be conducted via optical fiber, radio-relay systems, satellite systems or cable.

2.2

Hypothetical Reference Connection (HRX)

2.2.1

Definition

A digital HRX (Hypothetical Reference Connection) is a network

model in which studies relating to overall performance may be conducted, thereby facilitating the formulation of standards and objectives. The HRX is the starting-point for the apportionment strategy found in Recommendation ITU-T G.821.

The HRX is a 27 500 km connection operating at 64 kbit/s and is subdivided into circuit grades (classes, portions) that represent the sections in a real end-to-end connection.

The grades may be local, medium and high and are illustrated in Figure 1.

27 500 km 1250 km 25 000 km 1250 km LE ISC ISC LE T
27 500 km
1250 km
25 000 km
1250 km
LE
ISC
ISC
LE
T
T
Local
Medium
Medium
Local
High
grade
grade
grade
grade
grade

Figure 1: The Hypothetical Reference Connection and its portions. T=Terminal Point, LE=Local Exchange, ISC=International Switching Center.

A precise location of the boundary between the medium and the high

grade of the HRX is presently not available.

2

medium and the high grade of the HRX is presently not available. 2  Ericsson AB

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6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June 2003

and the high grade of the HRX is presently not available. 2  Ericsson AB 6/038
and the high grade of the HRX is presently not available. 2  Ericsson AB 6/038
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES 2.2.2 Classification • Local-grade networks are defined as those operating
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES
2.2.2
Classification
• Local-grade networks are defined as those operating between the
subscribers and the local exchange at rate below 2 Mbit/s.
Typically, these networks are metallic subscriber loop circuits.
• Medium-grade circuits are those operating between local
exchanges and the national network. The combined length of the
local and medium grade links must not exceed 1250 km.
• High-grade circuits are long-haul links, for example, satellite
connections and international connections operating at primarily
high bit-rates.
2.2.3
Example
An example of a possible geographical location of grades is illustrated
in Figure 2.
T
T
T
Local-grade
LE
T
T
T
Uunimannaq
T
Medium-grade
High-grade
T = Terminal
LE = Local Exchange
ISC = International Switching
Center
High-grade
ISC
Copacabana
High-grade
Fukuyama
Figure 2: Possible geographical location of grades.
2.3
Other digital transmission network models
The following digital transmission network models will be studied:
Hypothetical Reference Digital Link (HRDL) is employed by the
ITU-T in digital systems, the length of which is 2500 km.
Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP) is employed by the
ITU-R and which is equivalent to HRDL. Designed for the performance
specification of transmission systems as radio systems.
 Ericsson AB
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6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003
RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS) is employed by the
RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING
Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS) is employed by the
ITU-R and designed to accommodate the performance specification of
transmission systems as digital lines and radio systems.
2.3.1 Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP)
An HRDP is built up of nine consecutive and equally long (approx. 280
km) radio-link sections (HRDS), see Figure 3. HRDP also includes nine
sets of digital multiplexing equipment in accordance with CCITTís
(currently ITU-T) recommended hierarchical levels. Each of the units
may consist of a number of linked multiplexing units. HRDP comprises
a portion of the entire HRX.
2500 km
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
64 kbit/s
64 kbit/s
64 kbit/s
64 kbit/s
First-order digital multiplexer
Other multiplexer eqipment located at the ITU-
recommended hierarchical
Digital radio section
Figure 3: The Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP).
2.3.2 Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS)
The path lengths have been chosen to be representative of digital
sections likely to be encountered in real operational networks, and are
sufficiently long to permit a realistic performance specification for
digital radio systems, see Figure 4.
This model does not include digital equipment such as multiplexers and
exchanges. An HRDS can form a constituent element of an HRDL.
The appropriate value of the distance Y is dependent on the network
application. For now, the lengths of 50 km and 280 km have been
identified as being necessary.
4
 Ericsson AB
6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June 2003

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

X kbit/s

Y km

X kbit/s Y km X kbit/s Terminal Terminal equipment equipment
X kbit/s Y km X kbit/s Terminal Terminal equipment equipment
X kbit/s Y km X kbit/s Terminal Terminal equipment equipment

X kbit/s

Terminal

Terminal

equipment

equipment

X kbit/s Y km X kbit/s Terminal Terminal equipment equipment
X kbit/s Y km X kbit/s Terminal Terminal equipment equipment

Figure 4: The Hypothetical Reference Digital Section (HRDS).

2.3.3 Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP) Likely the HRX, the digital HRP (Hypothetical Reference Path) is
2.3.3
Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)
Likely the HRX, the digital HRP (Hypothetical Reference Path) is a
network model in which studies relating to overall performance for high
capacity links may be conducted, see Figure 5. The HRP is the starting-
point for the apportionment strategy found in ITU-T Recommendation
G.826.
Terminating
Inter-
Terminating
country
Intermediate countries
country
country
IG
IG
IG
IG
IG
PEP
PEP
National
National
International portion
portion
portion
PEP = Path End Point
27 500 km
IG = International Gateway
Figure 5: The Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP).
3
Objective allocation based on Rec. ITU-T G.821

Recommendation ITU.T G.821 was developed during the late 70s and adopted in 1980. It defines quality and availability parameters and objectives applicable to international digital connections operating below the primary rate of the digital hierarchy that use equipment designed prior to the adoption of the revised Rec. ITU-T G.826 on a data to be supplied by the ITU.

Detailed design of microwave networks is performed in accordance to the ITU-R recommendations illustrated in Figure 6.

Ericsson AB

6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

5

to the ITU-R recommendations illustrated in Figure 6.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev
to the ITU-R recommendations illustrated in Figure 6.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev
to the ITU-R recommendations illustrated in Figure 6.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

ITU -T G.821
ITU -T G.821
ITU -T G.821 End-to-end quality objectives (HRX) ITU-R F.557-4 ITU-R F.557-4 ! HRDP (used for high

End-to-end quality objectives (HRX)

ITU-R F.557-4 ITU-R F.557-4 ! HRDP (used for high grade allocation)
ITU-R F.557-4
ITU-R F.557-4 ! HRDP (used for high grade allocation)

ITU-R F.594-4 ! HRDP (used for high grade allocation)

ITU-R F.634-4 ! RDRL (used for high grade allocation)

ITU-R F.695 RDRL ! (used for high grade allocation)

ITU-R F.696-2 HRDS ! (used for medium grade allocation)

ITU-R F.697-2 HRX ! (used for local grade allocation)

ITU-R F.696-2 HRDS ! (used for medium grade allocation) ITU-R F.697-2 HRX ! (used for local
ITU-R F.696-2 HRDS ! (used for medium grade allocation) ITU-R F.697-2 HRX ! (used for local

Figure 6: ITU-R recommendations derived from Rec. ITU-T G.821 and applicable in the design of microwave networks.

3.1

Basic definitions

3.1.1

Applicability

The quality objectives are applicable to a single direction.

3.1.2

Bit error

Recommendation ITU-T G.821 quantifies the occurrence of transmission impairments (bit error) restricted to the bit rates below the primary rate, operating as a part of an ISDN-network, which is based on the control of bit impairment (bit error) of each bit position.

3.1.3

Bit rate

Bit rate is the amount of transmitted bits per time unity, usually measured in seconds. For example: 64 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s.

3.1.4

Bit-error ratio

Bit-error ratio is the amount of bit errors with respect to the total amount of transmitted bits during a specified time interval.

3.1.5

Expressing the quality objectives

The quality objectives are expressed as the ratio of average periods, each period having a time interval T 0 , during which the bit-error ratio (BER) exceeds a threshold value. The ratio is assessed over a much longer time interval T L , that is, T L >> T 0 .

3.1.6

Bit-error ratio and time intervals

6

T 0 . 3.1.6 Bit-error ratio and time intervals 6  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102

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0 . 3.1.6 Bit-error ratio and time intervals 6  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152
0 . 3.1.6 Bit-error ratio and time intervals 6  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES The following bit-error ratios and time intervals are used in quality
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES
The following bit-error ratios and time intervals are used in quality
objective statements, in accordance with Rec. ITU-T G.821:
• BER > 1 ⋅ 10 -3 during T 0 = 1 second
• Zero bit errors under T 0 = 1 second, which is equivalent to the
concept of EFS (Error Free Seconds).
Thus, the reference values for time intervals are 1 minute and 1 second
while the reference values for the bit-error ratios are 1⋅10 -3 (one bit error
per one thousand bits) and 1⋅10 -6 (one bit error per one million bits).
3.1.7 Available and unavailable time ñ single direction
A
period of Unavailable Time (UAT) begins with the onset of 10
consecutive SES events. These 10 seconds are considered to be part of
unavailable time.
A
new period of Available Time (AT) begins with the onset of 10
consecutive non-SES events. These 10 seconds are considered to be
part of available time.
3.1.8 Available and unavailable time ñ bi-direction path
A
bi-directional path is in the unavailable state if either one or both
directions of the path are in the unavailable state.
3.1.9 Expressing available and unavailable time
Available time + Unavailable time = Measured time
(1)
AT + UAT =100%
(2)
if
expressed in ratio as follows
AT + UAT =1
(3)
3.1.10 Definitions of events occurring during available time
Errored second (ES) is defined as one-second period in which one or
more bits are in error or during which Loss of Signal (LOS) or Alarm
Indication Signal (AIS) is detected.
Severely errored second (SES) is defined as a one-second period
having a bit-error ratio (BER) equal or worse than 1⋅10 -3 (BER≥1⋅10 -3 )
or
during which Loss of Signal (LOS) or Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)
is
detected.
3.1.11 Available and unavailable time - example
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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

Consider a measured period of 1 month divided into one-second intervals, see Figure 7.

T 0 =1 s Available Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Available Available No bit No bit error
T 0 =1 s
Available
Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable
Available
Available
No bit
No bit error
No bit error
No bit error
TIME
error
T L =1 month
BER=1 10 -3
BER>3 10 -3
BER<6 10 -5
BER=6 10 -3
BER=2 10 -4
BER=3 10 -3
BER=4 10 -3
BER=2 10 -4
BER=2 10 -4
Available time
Unavailable time
BER
1 10 -8
1 10 -7
1 10 -6
1 10 -5
1 10 -4
1 10 -3
1 10 -2
1 10 -1
1 10 0
time Unavailable time BER 1 10 -8 1 10 -7 1 10 -6 1 10 -5
time Unavailable time BER 1 10 -8 1 10 -7 1 10 -6 1 10 -5

Figure 7: Available and unavailable time.

3.1.12

BER at bit rate 64 kbit/s

BER =

64

64 000

=

1

10

3

SES and UAT

(4)
(4)

3.1.13

Quality objectives

The quality (error performance) objectives are stated in terms of the events discussed earlier. These events constitute the quality parameters and should only be evaluated whilst the path is in the available state.

The quality parameters (also known as performance parameters) are usually defined with respect to the total available time during a measured period, that is, generally as a ratio of the averaged measured periods.

The measured periods over which the ratios are to be assessed have still not been specified since the period may depend upon the application.

3.1.14

Definition of quality parameters

3.1.14.1

Errored second ratio

Errored Second Ratio (ESR) is the ratio of ES to total seconds in available time during a fixed measurement interval. Convincible

3.1.14.2

Severely errored second ratio

Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR) is the ratio of SES to total seconds in available time during a fixed measurement interval.

8

seconds in available time during a fixed measurement interval. 8  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102

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in available time during a fixed measurement interval. 8  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152
in available time during a fixed measurement interval. 8  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

3.1.14.3

Quality and availability parameters

 

In Figure 8, the parameters are divided in two parts: parameters under available time and parameters under unavailable time.

BER

BER

BER

Figure 8: Parameters under available and unavailable time.

3.2

Quality allocation in the HRX

 

3.2.1

End-to-end objectives

 

The quality parameters and the end-to-end objectives in the entire HRX are illustrated in Table 1. The performance objectives illustrated in the table should be met concurrently. In other words, the connection fails to satisfy the objective if any of the requirements in the table are not met.

Performance

 

Performance

   

classification

objectives

Severely errored

 

< 0.002

 

seconds

Errored seconds

 

< 0.08

 

Table 1: Quality parameters and end-to-end objective allocation.

3.2.2

Partial allocation

The quality parameters errored seconds (ES) and severely errored seconds (SES) are related to the three classes a, b and c in an ISDN- connection. The allocation is illustrated in Table 2.

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9

an ISDN- connection. The allocation is illustrated in Table 2.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102
connection. The allocation is illustrated in Table 2.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev
connection. The allocation is illustrated in Table 2.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

Circuit

Allocation of errored seconds and severely errored seconds given in the previous table

Classification

Local grade

15% block allowance to each end

(2 ends)

Medium grade

15% block allowance to each end

(2 ends)

High grade

40% (equivalent to conceptual quality of 0.0016% per km for 25 000 km)

Table 2: Objective allocation for the three circuit classes.

Block allowance implies that the stated ratio of the overall end-to-end allowance is allocated to a local or medium grade portion regardless of its length.

The length of the circuit is considered when allocating the high-grade portion. The high-grade allotment is then divided on the basis of the length resulting from a hypothetical per-kilometer allocation, that is, 40%÷25 000 km yields 0.000016 %/km.

The actual length covered by the medium grade part of the connection will vary considerably from one country to another. For unusual small and large countries the reference length of the medium grade will not fit properly.

The end-to-end allocation of quality in the HRX network model is illustrated in Figure 9.

27500km 1250 km 25 000 km 1250 km LE ISC ISC LE T T 15%
27500km
1250 km
25 000 km
1250 km
LE
ISC
ISC
LE
T
T
15%
15%
40%
15%
15%
Local
Medium
Medium
Local
High
grade
grade
grade
grade
grade

Figure 9: The end-to-end allocation of quality in the HRX network model.

3.2.3 The derivation of the quality parameters values

The quality parameters values are derived in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2, see Figure 10.

10

derived in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2, see Figure 10. 10  Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB

6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June 2003

in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2, see Figure 10. 10  Ericsson AB 6/038
in accordance with Table 1 and Table 2, see Figure 10. 10  Ericsson AB 6/038

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

ESR=0.08 ESR 15% 15% 40% At one end At one end Local grade Medium grade
ESR=0.08
ESR
15%
15%
40%
At one end
At one end
Local grade
Medium grade
High grade
ESR=0.012
ESR=0.012
ESR=0.032
SESR=0.002
SESR
50%
50%
SESR=0.001
SESR=0.001
(Additional allowance)
15%
15%
40%
?
?
At one end
At one end
Local grade
Medium grade
High grade
ESR=0.00015
ESR=0.00015
ESR=0.0004

Figure 10: The derivation of the values of the quality parameters.

3.2.4 Quality allocation in the HRX - summary

The allocation of the quality parameters errored seconds and severely errored seconds for the three different classes local, medium and high grade is illustrated in Table 3.

Circuit classification

 

Performance objective

 

ESR

 

SESR

 

Normal

Adverse condition

Local grade

0.012

0.00015

---------------------

Medium grade

0.012

0.00015

0.001

High grade

0.032

0.0004

 

Table 3: A summary of quality allocation for classes in the medium grade.

The remaining 0.001 SESR is a block allowance to the medium and high-grade classifications to accommodate the occurrence of adverse network conditions occasionally experienced (intended to mean the worst-month of the year) on transmission systems. The following allowances are consistent with the total 0.001 SESR figure:

0.0005 SESR to a 2 500 km HRDP for radio-relay systems which can be used in the high grade and the medium grade portion of the connection

0.0001 SESR to a satellite HRDP

Whenever necessary, administrations may allocate the block allowances for the local and medium grade portions of the connection but within the total allowance of 30% for any one end of the connection.

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the total allowance of 30% for any one end of the connection.  Ericsson AB 6/038
total allowance of 30% for any one end of the connection.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU
total allowance of 30% for any one end of the connection.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

 

The objectives presented above correspond to a very long connection. However, large portions of real international connections will be shorter, thus it is expected that a significant portion of real connections will offer a better performance than the limiting values discussed above. On the other hand, a small percentage of the connections will be longer and in this case may exceed the allowances outlined in the recommendation.

3.3

Detailed allocation at different portions of HRX

3.3.1

Local-grade

3.3.1.1

Quality objectives

The allocation of quality objectives in the local grade of the HRX is given in Recommendation ITU-R F.697-1.

The local grade is a portion in the HRX network model, which together with the medium-grade has a length of 1 250 km. Local grade circuits operate between the subscribers (T) and the local exchange (LE).

The following quality objectives apply to each direction and to each 64 kbit/s channel of a digital radio system when constituting the entire local-grade portion of an ISDN connection. These quality objectives are to take into consideration fading, short-term and long-term interference and all other sources of performance degradation during periods under which the system is considered to be available.

SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 110 -3 for more than 0.00015 of any month with an integration time of 1 second.

ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed 0.012 of any month.

The quality objectives correspond to the values in the first row of the Table 3.

3.3.1.2

Availability objectives

So far, the ITU-T and ITU-R do not include availability objectives in the local-grade portion of the HRX. For example, recommendation ITU-R F.697-1 does not include availability objectives of any kind. There are, however, a number of values in ITU-T rep. 1053-1 suggesting that unavailability objectives should range between 0.01% and 1%, averaged over one or more years for a bi-directional system.

For local-grade systems, unavailability is determined as a result of two principal effects - equipment and adverse propagation.

3.3.2

Medium-grade

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QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

3.3.2.1 Quality objectives

The medium grade is a portion in the HRX network model, which together with the local-grade portion has a length of 1250 km. Medium grade circuits operate between the local exchange (LE) and the International Switching Center (ISC).

The following quality objectives apply to each direction and to each 64 kbit/s channel of a digital radio system when constituting the entire medium-grade portion at each end of an HRX, realized entirely with digital radio-relay systems. These quality objectives are to take into consideration fading, short-term and long-term interference and all other sources of performance degradation during periods under which the system is considered to be available.

SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 110 -3 for more than 0.0004 of any month with an integration time of 1 second.

ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed 0.012 of any month.

The quality values correspond to the values in the second row of the Table 3. Note that there is an additional allowance of 0.00025 over and above the SESR value for adverse propagation conditions.

3.3.2.2 Availability objectives

The ITU-T and ITU-R have not specified the availability objectives for the medium-grade portion of the HRX.

3.3.2.3 Digital section

3.3.2.3.1 Quality classification and allocation

The length of the local and medium-grade portion (1 250 km) of an international connection is often far from the actual sizes employed by the countries. This means that it is difficult to define just one general quality allocation for the medium-grade portion of the HRDS, which is applicable to all countries.

Depending on the different applications, four section types with different quality classifications are introduced in the medium-grade portion; see Table 4. These classes were introduced by Recommendation ITU-T G.921 probably with the intention of allowing for more scope in future quality specifications.

Ericsson AB

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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

Section quality

HRDS length

Allocation

Class

classification

(km)

(%)

(grade)

1

280

0.45

High

2

280

2

Medium

3

50

2

Medium

4

50

5

Medium

Table 4: Digital section classifications the allocation of quality objectives.

The allocations in column 3 are the percentages of the performance objectives for ESR (0.08) and SESR (0.001), see Table 1 and Figure 10.

Example: The SESR corresponding to the class medium-grade class, section quality class 3, should be 2% (from column 3 of the above table) of 0.001, which gives 0.00002.

3.3.2.3.2 Quality objectives

The allocation of quality objectives in the local grade of the HRX is given in Recommendation ITU-R F.696-1.

The path lengths in the HRDS have been chosen to be representative of digital sections likely to be encountered in real operational networks, and that are sufficiently long to permit a realistic performance specification for digital radio systems. This model does not include digital equipment such as multiplexers and exchanges.

The values for the quality parameters ESR and SESR are assigned according to column 3, Table 5, for the four quality classes. The same proportion is allocated as earlier, that is, 0.001 is allotted to SESR. The true value is 0.002, however 0.001 is apportioned for errored seconds and the remaining 0.001 is a block allowance for the medium and high- grade classifications to accommodate for the occurrence of adverse network conditions. In addition it is allocated 0.08 for ESR of the available time.

The following quality objectives apply to each direction and to each 64 kbit/s channel when constituting the HRDS portion, realized entirely with digital radio-relay systems. These quality objectives are to take into consideration fading, short-term and long-term interference and all other sources of performance degradation during periods under which the system is considered to be available.

Classes 1 and 2 are allotted an additional allowance of 0.0005 for the total 2500 km length of the HRDS to accommodate for the occurrence of adverse propagation conditions. This corresponds to 0.000055 of the 280 km length representing the classes 1 and 2.

14

0.000055 of the 280 km length representing the classes 1 and 2. 14  Ericsson AB

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of the 280 km length representing the classes 1 and 2. 14  Ericsson AB 6/038
of the 280 km length representing the classes 1 and 2. 14  Ericsson AB 6/038

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

Performance parameters

 

Ratio of any month

 
 

Class1

Class2

Class3

Class4

280 km

280 km

50 km

50 km

BER>110 -3 (SESR)

0.00006

0.000075

0.00002

0.00005

One or more errors (ESR)

0.00036

0.0016

0.0016

0.004

Table 5: Quality objectives for a digital section in the HRDS.

The quality objectives are used for dimensioning radio-relay links. It has to be taken into consideration that the allocation in the table is a block allowance and not a per kilometer allocation.

3.3.2.3.3 The derivation of the quality parameters values

The derivation of the quality parameters values for a digital section in the HRDS follows Table 4 and Table 5, and is illustrated in Figure 11.

ESR=0.00036 0.08 Class 1: 280 km 0.0045 0.001 SESR=0.0000045 SESR=0.000060 Additional allowance 0.000055
ESR=0.00036
0.08
Class 1: 280 km
0.0045
0.001
SESR=0.0000045
SESR=0.000060
Additional allowance
0.000055
ESR=0.0016
0.08
Class 2: 280 km
0.02
0.001
SESR=0.00002
SESR=0.000075
Additional allowance
0.000055
ESR=0.0016
0.08
Class 3: 50 km
0.02
0.001
SESR=0.000020
ESR=0.004
0.08
Class 4: 50 km
0.05
0.001
SESR=0.000050

Figure 11: The derivation of the values of the quality parameters.

3.3.2.3.4 Unavailability objectives

The allocation of unavailability objectives in the HRDS (a part of the HRX) is given in Recommendation ITU-R F.696-1.

The following values are assigned to the four different classes of the medium-grade of an HRDS:

Class Objectives Planning application

Class

Objectives

Planning application

Class Objectives Planning application

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of an HRDS: Class Objectives Planning application  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B,
HRDS: Class Objectives Planning application  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003
HRDS: Class Objectives Planning application  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

1

(high grade)

0.00033

Distance-based allocation

2

(medium grade)

0.0005

Block allocation

3

(medium grade)

0.0005

Block allocation

4

(medium grade)

0.001

Block allocation

Table 6: Allocation of unavailability objectives in the HRDS.

The unavailability objectives are the same regardless of the length of a real HRDS section. Then, there is no îcompensationî for the case when the length of a real section is shorter than that of the corresponding class length.

3.3.3

High-grade portion

3.3.3.1

Quality objectives

The allocation of quality objectives in the high grade of the HRX is given in Recommendation ITU-R F.696-1.

The high-grade is a portion of the HRX network model situated between the International Switching Centers (ISC) and having a length of 25 000 km.

The following quality objectives are employed:

SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 110 -3 for more than 0.0004 of any month with an integration time of 1 second.

ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed 0.032 of any month.

The quality values correspond to the values in the third row of the Table 3.

3.3.3.2

Availability objectives

The ITU-T and ITU-R have not specified availability/unavailability objectives for the high-grade portion of the HRX.

3.3.4

Hypothetical Reference Digital Path - HRDP (high grade)

3.3.4.1

Quality objectives

The allocation of quality objectives in the HRDP is given in Recommendation ITU-R F.594-3.

The HRDP network model is composed of digital radio-relay systems and its length is 2 500 km. The quality objectives for an HRDP are related to the quality objectives of the high-grade portion of an HRDP since, according to the ITU-T the length of the HRDP (2 500 km) is one tenth of the length of the HRXís high grade (25 000 km).

16

one tenth of the length of the HRXís high grade (25 000 km). 16  Ericsson

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tenth of the length of the HRXís high grade (25 000 km). 16  Ericsson AB
tenth of the length of the HRXís high grade (25 000 km). 16  Ericsson AB
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES The quality parameters SESR and ESR describing the quality objectives of
QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES
The quality parameters SESR and ESR describing the quality objectives
of an HRDP are stated as for each direction of the 64 kbit/s channel of
the HRDP. The effects of fading, interference and all other sources of
performance degradation are taken into account. The following quality
objectives are one tenth of the corresponding values for the high-grade
portion of the HRX:
SESR = 0.00004 + 0.0005 = 0.00054
ESR = 0.0032
Note that the SESR value is allotted an additional 0.0005 for adverse
propagation conditions.
3.3.4.2
Availability objectives
The allocation of unavailability objectives in the HRDP is given in
Recommendation ITU-R F.557-3.
The availability objective for digital radio-relay systems that constitute
part of an HRDP is 99.7% of the time, the percentage being considered
over a period of time sufficiently long to be statistically valid. It
includes all causes that are statistically predictable, unintentional and
resulting from radio equipment, power supplies, propagation,
interference, and from auxiliary equipment and human activity.
The value of 99.7% is a provisional one and it is recognized that, in
reality, the selected objectives may fall into the range 99.5 to 99.9%.
3.3.5
Real Digital Radio Link (high grade)
3.3.5.1
Quality objectives
The allocation of quality objectives in the RDRL is given in
Recommendation ITU-R F.634-3.
Real digital radio-relay links with lengths shorter than 2 500 km may
form part of the high-grade portion of an ISDN, and may occasionally
differ in composition from the HRDP.
The following quality objectives are applied to real digital radio links
intended to form a part of a high-grade circuit within an ISDN for
which the length of the link L is between 280 and 2 500 km.
• SESR: the bit error ratio should not exceed 1⋅10 -3 for more than
(L/2500) ⋅ 0.00054 of any month with an integration time of 1
second.
• ESR: the total errored seconds should not exceed (L/2500) ⋅ 0.0032
of any month.
The availability objectives are valid for link lengths in the range 280
and 2 500 km and include allowances for all performance degradations
over and above fading.
 Ericsson AB
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RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

3.3.5.2

Availability objectives

The allocation of unavailability objectives in the RDRL is given in Recommendation ITU-R F.695.

The following availability objective is appropriate for a real digital radio link forming a part of a high-grade circuit within an ISDN

UAT

=

0.3

L

2 500

(5)
(5)

where L is the length of a link in the range 280 to 2500 km.

The availability objective is valid in the range between 280 and 2 500 km. It includes all causes that are statistically predictable, unintentional and resulting from radio equipment, power supplies, propagation, interference, and from auxiliary equipment and human activity. The estimate of unavailability should also include consideration of the mean time to restore.

The value of 0.3 is a provisional one and it is recognized that, in reality, the value selected may fall into the range 0.1 to 0.5. The choice of the specific value is dependent on various aspects, such as propagation, geographical size, population distribution and the organization of maintenance.

3.4

Quality and availability objectives - summary

3.4.1

Quality objectives

Table 7 presents a summary of the quality objectives for the network models.

Network

     

model

Portion/Class

SESR

ESR

 

Local

0.00015

0.012

HRX

Medium

0.00040

0.012

 

High

0.00040

0.032

 

Class 1 (280 km)

0.00006

0.00036

HRDS

Class 2 (280 km)

0.000075

0.0016

 

Class 3 (50 km)

0.00002

0.0016

 

Class 4 (50 km)

0.00005

0.004

HRDP

High grade

0.0032

0.0032

RDRL

High grade

0.00054 (L/2500)

0.0032 (L/2500)

Table 7: Summary of the quality and availability objectives for the studied network models.

18

and availability objectives for the studied network models. 18  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152

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availability objectives for the studied network models. 18  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev
availability objectives for the studied network models. 18  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

3.4.2 Availability objectives

Table 8 presents a summary of the unavailability objectives for the network models.

Network model

Portion/Class

UATR

 

Local

0.0001-0.010

HRX

Medium

not defined

High

not defined

 

Class 1 (280 km)

0.00033

HRDS

Class 2 (280 km)

0.0005

Class 3 (50 km)

0.0005

 

Class 4 (50 km)

0.001

HRDP

High grade

0.003

RDRL

High grade

0.003 (L/2500)

Table 8: Summary of the availability objectives for the studied network models.

3.4.3 Applications

The HRX is never used for planning purposes, although useful for setting limits when planning with other ìsub-network modelî. For instance, the HRDS is a part of the Medium Grade.

The terminal point (T) is in most applications close to the local exchange so the length of the Medium Grade can be considered as 1250 km.

The total apportionment of quality objectives in the medium grade portion of the HRX shall not be exceeded in any circumstance.

The quality objectives for the classes in the HRDS are to be accomplished concurrently and the allocation is block allowance not per-kilometer allocation. Class 3 is frequently employed (objectives are harder than class 4).

The objectives shall account for effects caused by fading, interference and other sources of performance degradation.

Class 1 is employed for high-grade allocation and is properly used as per-kilometer allocation.

Since relatively high frequency bands are now currently employed, class 3 and 4 will provide better fit to the path lengths.

The section lengths of class 3 and 4 are 1/25 of the length of the medium grade, while the section lengths of class 1 and 2 are approximately 1/5.

HRDS sections shall not include multiplexes and switches. Passive repeaters are allowed, though.

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and switches. Passive repeaters are allowed, though.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B,
and switches. Passive repeaters are allowed, though.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B,
and switches. Passive repeaters are allowed, though.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B,

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

Considering Table 3 and Table 5, the ESR objective for class 3 in the HRDS is 1/7.5 of the ESR objective for the entire medium grade. For class 4 it is 1/3. Who cares for ìforgottenî objectives?

Considering Table 3 and Table 5, the SESR objective for class 3 in the HRDS is 1/7.5 of the SESR objective for the entire medium grade. For class 4 it is 1/3. However, there is an additional of 0.001 left for using in connection with adverse propagation conditions. This additional shall be applied in the medium and high grade of the HRX. Who cares for ìforgottenî objectives?

The objectives are to be met over an evaluation period of 30 consecutive days.

The objectives are applicable to each direction of transmission independently.

4 Objective allocation based on Rec. ITU-T G.826

Recommendation ITU.T G.826 was developed during the late 80s and adopted in 1993. It defines quality and availability parameters and objectives applicable for international constant bit-rate digital paths operating at bit rates at and above the primary rate of the digital hierarchy. It is also applicable for international constant bit-rate digital paths operating at bit rates below the primary rate. However, for equipment designed prior to its adoption in December 2002, the Recommendation ITU-T G.826 is not required to be applicable for paths with equipment operating with bit rates below the primary rate. In this case it is recommended to apply Recommendation ITU-T G.821.

The ITU-T G.826 is applicable for PDH paths as well as for SDH paths employing equipment designed before the adoption of Recommendation ITU-T G.828 in March 2002, see section 6.

Detailed design of microwave networks is performed in accordance to the ITU-R recommendations illustrated in Figure 12.

ITU-TG.826 ITU-RF.1491-1 End-to-end quality objectives (HRP) ITU-RF.1491-1 !for national portion of the HRP
ITU-TG.826
ITU-RF.1491-1
End-to-end quality objectives (HRP)
ITU-RF.1491-1 !for national portion of the HRP
ITU-RF.1398 !for national portion of the HRP
(interference fromother services inthe same frequencyband)
ITU-RF.1397-1 !for international portion of the HRP
ITU-RF.1241 !for international portion of the HRP
(interference fromother services inthe same frequencyband)

20

HRP (interference fromother services inthe same frequencyband) 20  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev

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fromother services inthe same frequencyband) 20  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June
fromother services inthe same frequencyband) 20  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

Figure 12: ITU-R recommendations derived from Rec. ITU-T G.826 and applicable in the design of microwave networks.

The parameters and objectives in Rec. ITU-T G.826 are independent of the physical transport network (digital radio links, metallic cables, optical fibers and satellite transmission) and are intended to comply with former ITU-T recommendations. In other words, compliance with ITU-T G.826 ensures that connections planned with objectives given by ITU-T G.821 are also fulfilled.

The parameter definitions for digital paths operating at or above the primary rate are block-based, thus making possible in-service measurements.

4.1

Basic definitions

4.1.1

Applicability

The quality objectives are applicable to each direction of the path independently.

4.1.2

Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP)

A

digital HRP (Hypothetical Reference Path) is, as is the case for the

HRX, a network model in which studies relating to overall performance may be conducted, thereby facilitating the formulation of standards and objectives. The HRP, see Figure 13, is the starting-point for the

apportionment strategy in ITU-T Recommendation G.826.

IG IG National portion
IG
IG
National
portion
IG IG National portion 27 500 km IG = International Gateway International portion PEP = Path
IG IG National portion 27 500 km IG = International Gateway International portion PEP = Path
IG IG National portion 27 500 km IG = International Gateway International portion PEP = Path
IG IG National portion 27 500 km IG = International Gateway International portion PEP = Path

27 500 km IG = International Gateway

IG IG National portion 27 500 km IG = International Gateway International portion PEP = Path

International portion

PEP = Path End Point

Figure 13: The Hypothetical Reference Path (HRP).

4.1.3

Available and unavailable time ñ single direction path

A period of Unavailable Time (UAT) begins with the onset of 10

consecutive SES events. These 10 seconds are considered to be part of unavailable time.

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10 seconds are considered to be part of unavailable time.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102
seconds are considered to be part of unavailable time.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152,
seconds are considered to be part of unavailable time.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152,

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

A new period of Available Time (AT) begins with the onset of 10

consecutive non-SES events. These 10 seconds are considered to be

part of available time.

4.1.4

Available and unavailable time ñ bi-direction path

 

A

bi-directional path is in the unavailable state if either one or both

directions of the path are in the unavailable state.

 

4.1.5

Definition of block

 

A

block is a set of consecutive bits associated with the path and each

bit belongs to only one block. Consecutive bits may not be contiguous

in

time. Table 9 specifies the recommended range of the number of bits

within each block for different bit-rate ranges.

 

Bit rate (Mbit/s)

1.5-5

>5-15

>15-55

>55-160

160>3500

 
 

800-

2000-

4000-

6000-

15000-

Bits/block

5000

8000

20000

20000

30000

Table 9: Recommended range of the number of bits within each block for different bit-rate ranges.

Because bit-error ratios are not expected to decrease dramatically as the bit rates of transmission systems increase, the block sizes used in evaluating very high bit rate paths should remain within the range of 15 000 to 30 000 bits/block. Preserving a constant block size for very high bit-rate paths result in relatively constant BBER and SESR objectives for these paths.

4.1.6

Events occurring during available time

 

4.1.6.1

Errored Block (EB)

 

Errored Block is a block in which one or more bits are in error.

 

4.1.6.2

Errored Second (ES)

 

Errored Second is a one-second period containing one or more errored blocks.

4.1.6.3

Severely Errored Second (SES)

 

Severely Errored Second is a one-second period containing 30% errored blocks.

 

4.1.6.4

Background Block Error (BBE)

 

Background Block Error is an errored block not occurring as part of a SES.

22

Block Error is an errored block not occurring as part of a SES. 22  Ericsson

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6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June 2003

Error is an errored block not occurring as part of a SES. 22  Ericsson AB
Error is an errored block not occurring as part of a SES. 22  Ericsson AB

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

4.1.7

Quality parameters

 

The definition of quality objectives are based on the events defined earlier. These events constitute the quality parameters and should only be evaluated when the path is in the available state.

4.1.7.1

Errored Second Ratio (ESR)

 

Errored Second Ratio is the ratio of ES to the total seconds of available time during a fixed measurement interval. ESR is not expressed in percentage.

4.1.7.2

Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR)

 

Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR) is the ratio of SES to the total seconds of available time during a fixed measurement interval. SESR is not expressed as a percentage.

4.1.7.3

Background Block Error Ratio (BBER)

 

Background Block Error Ratio (BBER) is the ratio of errored blocks to total blocks during a fixed measurement interval, excluding all blocks during SES and UAT.

4.2

End-to-end quality objectives in the HRP

 

The quality parameters are allocated as ratios, which are related to the total available time. The allocation of the quality parameters for different bit rates is illustrated in Table 10. ESR objectives are not specified for bit rates above 160 Mbit/s because ESR objectives tend to lose significance for applications at high bit rates.

 

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)

     
 

1.5-5

>5-15

>15-55

>55-160

>160-3500

 

ESR

0.04

0.05

0.075

0.16

Not specified

 

SESR

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

0.002

 

BBER

210 -4

210 -4

210 -4

210 -4

110 -4

 

Table 10: The apportionment of quality parameters for different bit rates.

 

The values in the table are not expressed as percentages.

4.2.1

National portion

 

The total allocation to the national portion, see Figure 14, is composed of two components:

1) A fixed block allowance of 17.5% of the end-to-end objective.

2) A distance-based allocation of 1% per 500 km is assigned to the portion between PEP and IG and is added to the current block allowance.

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6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

23

PEP and IG and is added to the current block allowance.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU
PEP and IG and is added to the current block allowance.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU
PEP and IG and is added to the current block allowance.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

The actual route length (if it is known) and the air route between the PEP and the IG should first be calculated. The calculated air route should be multiplied by an appropriate routing factor specified as follows:

If the air route distance is shorter than 1000 km, the routing factor is

1.5

If the air route distance is greater or equal 1000 km but shorter than 1200 km, the calculated route length is taken to be 1500 km

If the air route distance is greater or equal 1200 km, the routing factor is 1.25

When both actual and calculated route lengths are known, the smaller value is retained. This distance should be rounded up to the nearest 500 km, that is, the two national portions comprise at least 500 km each.

1%/500 km Distance-based Distance-based 1%/500 km allocation allocation 17.5% Block allowance Block allowance 17.5%
1%/500 km
Distance-based
Distance-based
1%/500 km
allocation
allocation
17.5% Block allowance
Block allowance 17.5%
Terminating
Terminating
Intermediate countries
country
country
Inter-
country
PEP
PEP
IG
IG
IG
IG
IG
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
National
National
International portion
portion
portion
Hypothetical Reference Path
27 500 km

Figure 14: The allocation in the national portion of the HRP.

When a national portion includes a satellite hop, a total allowance of 42% of the end-to-end objectives in Table 10 is allocated to this national portion. This allowance completely replaces both the block and the distance-based allowances otherwise allotted to the national portions.

4.2.2 International portion

The total allocation to the international portion, see Figure 15, is composed of two components:

1) A block allowance of 2% per intermediate country, plus 1% for each terminating country.

24

per intermediate country, plus 1% for each terminating country. 24  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102

Ericsson AB

6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June 2003

country, plus 1% for each terminating country. 24  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev
country, plus 1% for each terminating country. 24  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

2) A distance-based allocation of 1% per 500 km is assigned to the total international portion that may pass through îintermediate countriesî.

The actual route length between consecutive IGs (one or two for each intermediate country) should be added in order to calculate the overall length of the international portion. The air-route distance between consecutive IGs should also be used and multiplied by an appropriate routing factor specified as follows for each element between IGs:

If the air route distance between two IGs is shorter than 1000 km, the routing factor is 1.5

If the air route distance is greater or equal 1000 km but shorter than 1200 km, the calculated route length is taken to be 1500 km

If the air route distance between two IGs is greater or equal 1200 km, the routing factor is 1.25

When both actual and calculated route lengths are known, the smaller value is retained for each element between IGs. This distance should be rounded up to the nearest 500 km, but shall not exceed 26 500 km.

In cases where the allocation to the international portion is less than 6%, then 6% shall be used as the allocation.

Independent of the distance spanned, any satellite hop in the international portion receives a 35% allocation of the objectives Table 10. When allocating 35% to a satellite hop, employed in the international portion, the distance spanned by the satellite is not included in the distance-based allocation.

Distance based 1%/500 km allocation 1% 1% Block allowance Terminating Terminating Intermediate countries country
Distance based
1%/500 km
allocation
1%
1%
Block allowance
Terminating
Terminating
Intermediate countries
country
country
Inter-
country
PEP
PEP
IG
IG
IG
IG
IG
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
National
National
International portion
portion
portion
Hypothetical Reference Path
27 500 km

Figure 15: The allocation in the international portion of the HRP.

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25

15: The allocation in the international portion of the HRP.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102
The allocation in the international portion of the HRP.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152,
The allocation in the international portion of the HRP.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152,

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

4.3 End-to-end unavailability objectives in the HRP

The allocation of end-to-end unavailability in the HRP is not defined in Recommendation ITU-T G.826.

4.4 Basic portions of the HRP

As mentioned before, the quality objectives for the national portion of the HRP are assigned separately to the three portions.

Since there is one LE and one PC (alternatively one SC or one TC, depending on the size of the country) between the PEP and the IG, the national portion of the HRP (the portion between the PEP and the IG) is further divided in three portions. These portions, digital sections, are called îAccessî, îShort Haulî and îLong Haulî and are illustrated in Figure 16. The quality objectives for the national portion are therefore assigned separately to the three portions.

27 500 km

National National IG portion International portion portion PEP
National
National
IG
portion
International portion
portion
PEP
LE = Local Exchange PC = Primary Center SC = Secondary Center TC = Tertiary
LE = Local Exchange
PC = Primary Center
SC = Secondary Center
TC = Tertiary Center
PC
SC
LE
TC
Access
Short Haul
Long Haul
Exchange PC = Primary Center SC = Secondary Center TC = Tertiary Center PC SC LE
Exchange PC = Primary Center SC = Secondary Center TC = Tertiary Center PC SC LE

Figure 16: The national portion of the HRP (the portion between the PEP and the IG) is divided in three portions. PEP=Path End Point, IG=International Gateway, LE=Local Exchange, PC=Primary Center, SC=Secondary Center, TC=Tertiary Center.

The three portions are defined as follows:

Access is the section including the connections between the Path End Point (PEP) and the Local Exchange (LE).

Short Haul is the section including the connections between the Local Exchange (LE) and Primary Center (PC) - alternatively the Secondary Center (SC) or Tertiary Center (TC), depending of the network architecture.

Long haul is the section including the connections between the Primary Center (PC) - alternatively Secondary Center (SC) or Tertiary Center (TC) - and the International Gate (IG).

26

(SC) or Tertiary Center (TC) - and the International Gate (IG). 26  Ericsson AB 6/038

Ericsson AB

6/038 02-LZU 102 152 Rev B, June 2003

Tertiary Center (TC) - and the International Gate (IG). 26  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102
Tertiary Center (TC) - and the International Gate (IG). 26  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102

QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OBJECTIVES

4.4.1

Allocation of quality objectives in the national portion

 

4.4.1.1

Access section

 

For each transmission direction and for each of the different bit-rates, the quality objectives related to the access section are to consist of a block allocation as illustrated in Table 11.

 
 

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)

 
 

1.5-5

>5-15

>15-55

>55-160

>160-3500

 

ESR

0.04C

0.05C

0.075C

0.16C

for further study

 

SESR

0.002C

0.002C

0.002C

0.002C

0.002C

 

BBER

2C10 -4

2C10 -4

2C10 -4

2C10 -4

1C10 -4

 

Table 11: The allocation of the quality objectives in the access section.

 

The value of C has provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 7.5 to 8.5%.

4.4.1.2

Short-haul section

 

For each transmission direction and for each of the different bit-rates, the quality objectives related to the short-haul section are to consist of a block allocation as illustrated in Table 12.

 

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)

   
 

1.5-5

>5-15

>15-55

>55-160

>160-3500

 

ESR

0.04B

0.05B

0.075B

0.16B

for further study

 

SESR

0.002B

0.002B

0.002B

0.002B

0.002B

 

BBER

2B10 -4

2B10 -4

2B10 -4

2B10 -4

1B10 -4

 

Table 12: The allocation of the quality objectives in the short-haul section.

 

The value of B has provisionally been agreed to be in the range of 7.5 to

8.5%.

4.4.1.3

Long-haul section

 

For each transmission direction and for each of the different bit-rates, the quality objectives related to the long-haul section are to consist of a distance-based allocation and a block allocation as illustrated in Table 13.

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6/038 02-LZU 102 152, Rev B, June 2003

27

and a block allocation as illustrated in Table 13.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152,
and a block allocation as illustrated in Table 13.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152,
and a block allocation as illustrated in Table 13.  Ericsson AB 6/038 02-LZU 102 152,

RADIO TRANSMISSION NETWORK AND FREQUENCY PLANNING

 

Bit rate ( Mbit/s)

 
 

1.5-5

>5-15

>15-55

>55-160

>160-3500

ESR

0.04A

0.05A

0.075A

0.16A

for further study

SESR

0.002A

0.002A

0.002A

0.002A

0.002