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The Pakistani Armed Forces (PAF) (Urdu: , Musalah Afwaj-e-Pakistan) are the military forces of Pakistan.

They are the seventh largest in the world in terms of active troops. The armed forces comprise three main branches: the Pakistan Army, the Pakistan Navy (including the Pakistan Marines) and the Pakistan Air Force, together with a number of paramilitary forces. The armed forces were formed in 1947 when Pakistan became independent from the British Empire. Since then, the armed forces have played a decisive role in the history of Pakistan. A sense of national unity and identity was forged out of the wars of 1947 and 1965 against India. Border clashes with Afghanistan led to the creation of the paramilitary forces to deal with civil unrest as well as secure the border areas. The Marines were commissioned in 1971, however due to a poor performance in the 1971 war they were disbanded. In 1990, they were commissioned again and serve as part of the Navy. Following 1962, the Pakistani Armed Forces has had close military relations with the People's Republic of China, including development and research cooperation to enhance military system, such as on the JF-17 Thunder, K-8 Karakorum, and others as well. Pakistan and China also cooperate on development in nuclear weapons and space technology programs.[4][5][6] The armies have a schedule for organizing joint military exercises.[7] PAF also maintains close military relation with United States and is a Major non-NATO ally of the USA. It primarily import military equipments from China and USA.[8] In 2010 the PAF have approximately 617,000 personnel on active duty, 513,000 in reserve and 304,000 in its paramilitary forces giving a total of almost 1,451,000 personnel.[2] The armed forces have a large pool of volunteers and as such, conscription is not, and has never been needed.[9] The Pakistani Armed Forces are led by an officer corps that is not restricted by social class or nobility and are appointed from a variety of sources such as service academies and direct appointment from both civilian status and the enlisted ranks. The Pakistan Army is the best organized group in the country and is highly respected in civil society and the social ranks as an institution.[10] Since the founding of Pakistan, the army has been key in holding the state together, promoting a feeling of nationhood and providing a bastion of selfless service.[11] The Pakistani Armed Forces are the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping efforts, with more than 10,000 personnel deployed in 2007.[12] Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani military personnel as advisers in African and Arab countries. The Pakistani military maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the Arab-Israeli Wars, and the first Gulf War to help the Coalition as well as the Somalian and Bosnian conflicts.

Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army (Urdu: ) is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan Army is a volunteer professional fighting force.[3] It has an active force of 612,000 personnel.[1] The Pakistani constitution contains a provision for conscription, but it has never been imposed. Since independence, the Army has been involved in four wars with neighbouring India and several border skirmishes with Afghanistan. It maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and aided the Coalition in the first Gulf War. Other major operations undertaken by the Army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the Army has been an active participant in UN missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent. It reportedly receives $4 to $5 Billion per annum as of 2011. The President of Pakistan is the Commander-in-Chief and supreme commander of the Army. The Chief of Army Staff (COAS), by statute a four star general subordinate to the Defence Minister and Secretary Defence, commands the Army.

Pakistan Navy
The Pakistan Navy (Urdu: , Pak Bahr'ya) (PN) is the naval warfare/service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Pakistan's Navy is responsible for Pakistan's 1,046 kilometres (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important civilian harbors and

military bases. Navy Day is celebrated on September 8 in commemoration of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.[1] The Pakistan Navy's current and primary role is to protect country's economical and military interests at home and abroad, executing the foreign and defence policies of Pakistan Government through the exercise of military effect, diplomatic activities and other activities in support of these objectives.[2][3] As for the 21st century, the Pakistan Navy also focuses on global expeditionary operations, and played a vital role in the establishment of Pakistan Antarctic Programme.[4][5] As of 2011, there are 11 combatant ships in Pakistan Navy, including 30 aircraft, 20 helicopters, dock landing ship, 4 minehunters, 12 missile boats, 12 hovercraft (used by Marines), 5 combatant frigates, 6 destroyers, 5 submarines, 8 auxiliary ships, a research vessel, and Missile guided vessel. The Pakistan Navy is also supported by Pakistan Coast Guard, Pakistan Marines, and the Maritime Security Agency, the paramilitary division of Pakistan Navy.[6] As of 2011, the Pakistan Navy has approximately numbered 25,000 active duty regulars, 5,000 in Navy reserves.[6] In addition, there are 2,000 regular reserves in Maritime Security Agency, 2,500 active duty regulars in Coast Guards, and 1,200 active duty members in Marines.[6] In its recent times, the Pakistan Navy is currently undergoing extensive modernisation and expansion as part of its in the War on Terror. Since 2001, the Pakistan Navy has increased and expanded its operational scope and has been given greater national and international responsibility in countering the threat of sea-based global terrorism, drug smuggling and trafficking issues.[7] Since 2004, Pakistan Navy became a member of the primarily NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150).[7] The Constitution of Pakistan has allowed President of Pakistan as the civilian Commander-inChief. The Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), by statute a four star admiral, appointed by the President with the consultation and confirmation needed from the Prime minister of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is subordinate to the civilian Defence Minister and Secretary Defence, commands the Navy.

Pakistani Marines
The Pakistan Marines (PM) (Urdu: ), are the marine corps and amphibious corps service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The Pakistan Marines is a special military operations service branch of the Pakistan Navy and part of Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for providing force projection from the sea, using the mobility of Pakistani Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. It is one of seven uniformed services of the Pakistan. It was founded in 1990 and is about 2,000 strong, with plans to grow to brigade strength by 2015.[1]

The Marines is an elite special operations force similar to the United States Marine Corps (USMC) and the United Kingdom's Royal Marines. During the training of Pakistan Marines at Marines training school, the Marines occasionally conduct its exercises with U.S. Marine Corps. As its close association with the Pakistan Navy, the Pakistan Marines shares the same military ranks as of the Pakistan Navy But the military codes are same as of the Pakistan Army. Currently, Marines, with a close coordination with Army, Navy, and Air Force, are working round the clock to rescue villagers trapped by the country's worst deluge in 80 years.[2]

Pakistan Air Force

Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (Urdu: Pak Fiza'ya) is the air arm of the Pakistani Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport and logistics capability to Pakistan. The PAF employs approximately 65,000 full-time personnel (including approximately 3,000 pilots) and, currently, operates approximately 300-400 combat aircraft as well as various transport and training aircraft.[1]

Paramilitary forces of Pakistan


The paramilitary forces of Pakistan consist of various organizations constitutionally charged with safeguarding Pakistan from external and internal threats. Their current strength is more than 357,000 personnel. The paramilitary forces can be divided into three categories, performing three distinct roles: Firstly the armed security forces (the Rangers and Frontier Corps), secondly a reserve force (the National Guard), and thirdly the Maritime Security Agency. The Northern Light Infantry which was a paramilitary force until 1999, is now part of the Pakistan Army.

Pakistan Coast Guard

) (PCG), officially called the Pakistan Coast Pakistan Coast Guards (Urdu: Guards , is a branch of the Pakistan Civil Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services. The Pakistan Coast Guards, headquartered in Karachi, is responsible for maritime law, and maintenance of seamarks, border control, anti-smuggling operations, anti narcotics, search and rescue operations and other services. It was made independent in 1971 and was recognized as one of the seven uniformed services of Pakistan Armed Forces. It has also upgraded its facilities and fleet to counter the threat of smugglers and terrorists. The PCG has a fleet of small craft, and the exact number of personnel and equipment held with PCG remains classified. The PCG Headquarters are at Mohammad Ali Jinnah Road, Saddar, Karachi. It is commanded by a director general with the rank of Brigadier General, seconded from the Pakistan Army. Pakistan Coast Guards is works under administrative control of Ministry of Interior, Government of Pakistan.

Pakistan
Defence expenditure can be termed as the need of this century by any country. Be it Pakistan or any other nation, they have to spend on defence in order to keep their national integrity alive. We all know the fate of countries that have suffered from the hands of strong military regime. The cold war, the present situation of Afghanistan and Iraq, all lead us to believe that enhanced and improved defence is the guarantee of a nations survival. Why Pakistan needs to make defence expenditure?

Since getting independence in 1947, Pakistan has steadily increased its defence expenditure. Defence expenditure has been one of the biggest expenses of any Pakistan government. The main reason of considerably increase in the defence expenditure has been Pakistans unhealthy relations with its nuclear neighbour, India. The major reason for escalation in the defence budget has been the perceived security threat against each other. The two countries of the subcontinent are like two people drowning in a pool, both weighed down by the heavy boots of defence expenditure. For each of the three fiscal years from 1996 to 1999, Pakistans defence expenditure as percentage of total expenditure stood at a huge 26%

Armay

Pakistan Army is the largest military branch in the country. Pakistan Army has the reputation of being powerful, experienced, and professional. Pakistan Army with an active force of 619,000 personnel and 528,000 personnel in reserve makes Pakistan a seventh largest military force in the world. The main responsibilities of the army is to protect the borders, security of administrative areas, and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. Pakistan Army has a rich combat experience. This comes with fighting multiple wars throughout the short history of Pakistan. Pakistan Army now also specializes in counter-terrorism efforts due to its collaboration in the War on Terror. In addition to its role on the War on Terror, Pakistan Army is also responsible of contributing towards the United Nations peacekeeping efforts. Pakistan Army recently grabbed the title of being the largest active force in the peacekeeping efforts by the United Nations. Cheif of Army Staff, General Ashfaq Pervez Kiyani currently has the honours to lead this prestigious military organization. Currently Pakistan Armys active duty personnel as well as the reserves continue to protect our nation day and night from the terrorists and other anti-Pakistani national interests.

Paf

Formed on August 15, 1947, with only a handful of aircrafts and men, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) now compromises around 330 combat aircrafts and 45,000 uniformed personnel. Under the Chief and Vice Chief of Air Staff., PAF Air HQ has five Deputy Chiefs responsible for operations, engineering, personnel, administration and training respectively. Geographically, the PAF is divided into three regional commands Northern (HQ at Peshawar), Central (HQ at Sargodha) and Southern (HQ at Masroor, Karachi). These serve as the equivalent of the RAF Fighter Command groups during the Battle of Britain. Within the Commands are four sector operations centres (SOCs) North (Peshawar), West (Quetta), Centre (Sargodha) and South (Karachi) with seven subordinate control and reporting centres. As in so many other ways, if you want to see how the British military once did business, you need to look no further than the Indian subcontinent. The PAF has nine main operating bases that are fully functional in both peace and wartime. These are supplemented by eleven forward bases which become fully operational in time of war, nine forward attack bare bases while the 211-mile (340km) long M-2 motorway has dispersal strips in the Swedish Air Force fashion. The PAF has some 22 combat squadrons, six squadrons flying Aerospatiale Alouette IIIs on search and rescue/liaison duties and a composite air transport wing. Pakistan Naval Aviation looks after maritime air operations with Lockheed martin P-3C Orions, Breguet Atlantics,

Fokker F-27s, Westland Sea King Mk45s, Westland Lynx HAS3 and Alouette IIIs. Pakistan Army Aviation Corps flies a mixture of fixed and rotary wing aircraft in close support of ground operations. Its main firepower is provided by Bell AH-1s Cobras. Perceived Threat & Global Challenge From its creation, Pakistan has believed itself stuck between a rock and a hard place. Although it shares a border with China, the most populous nation on earth, what really matters in the relationship with India. In 1947 the departing British craved India into Muslim and Hindu majority states. It was a bloody business and as Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs turned on each other, around a million people died and 17 million fled to which ever state offered them the security of majority status. This legacy explains why Pakistan devotes a s crushing share of its resources to defense. The country has been on a war footing for the whole of its existence, and has been ruled by military governments for around half that time. Indias obsession with Pakistan is less intense, but the sense of siege each instills in the other palpable. It is arguable that abiding disputes with India over Jammu and Kashmir, the Siachen glacier and control of Kashmir are what keep Pakistan together, but the idea of standing ready to deter any malign Indian intent is what underpins PAF doctrine and strategy. During three weeks last September the PAF carried out Exercise High Mark 2005. This involved all major PAF main and forward operating bases and the scenario centered on air operations against increasing Indian Air Force (IAF) activity over the hilly terrain of Kashmir. The PAF commands divided their aircraft to form Blue (PAF) and Fox (IAF) Forces, and the PAF simulated the use of AIM-9P/L, R-550 Magic, R-Darter, Exocet, Maverick and cluster bomb weaponry. Two operation headquarters were set up from where Blue and Fox air forces engaged in simulated fully-fledged actions in concert with ground troops and army aviation. During High Mark 2005, Pakistani aircrews flew over 8,000 sorties. The Pakistani strategy was defensive in nature, and aimed to culminate on a favorable note to give political leaders an edge on the negotiation table. The PAF is in no position to do other than make any opponent think long and hard before attacking. The IAF outnumbers it in uniformed personnel by some 4:1, and the ratio is high when it comes to modern, latest technology aircrafts of which the Indian Sukhoi Su-30MKI Flanker and Dassault Mirage 2000H have deeper penetration capabilities. The IAF is also bless with larger reserves, a greater beyond visual range (BVR) capacity, a larger inventory of specialist weapons, and unchallenged strategic reconnaissance capability, more surface-to-surface missiles, more potent terminal defenses, up to three times as many attack helicopters, a much superior air lift capability, satellite facilities and stealth technology. That said, the Pakistan media took it for granted that of course Blue forces will have the quality and training edge over the Fox forces, plus the vision and the planning capacities of the PAF leadership will serve as a booster. During the Cold War, non-aligned India was regarded as pro-USSR while Pakistan enjoyed a close relationship with the US and France. French Mirages entered service with the PAF in 1967, and subsequent orders followed in the 1970s. In general terms, Dessault Mirage IIIs are highspeed, all weather, long-range interceptors and flight-bombers while Mirage 5s are ground attack derivations. In 1990, the PAF received 43 second-hand Mirage IIIs and Vs from France. The US

provided 40 Lockheed Martin F-16A/B Fighting Falcons in the 1980s and the PAF ordered another batch in 1990, but delivery was blocked by the US Congress to punish the Pakistanis for their nuclear weapon development programme. India and Pakistan currently have around 40 nuclear warheads apiece. The two nations are going head-to-head in developing ballistic missile delivery system capable of covering each others territory. Until Pakistans Shaheen II missile with its 1.080nm (2,000km) range enters service. PAF F-16s and Mirage 5s are the long-range nuclear platforms. As the smaller nation, Pakistan cannot afford to engage in an attack with India. Unlike India, Pakistan does not have a tri-service Strategic Forces Command. Pakistani warheads and armys or air force delivery systems are based separately. Its minimum nuclear deterrence relies on conventional forces holding the line for as long as it takes for nuclear warheads to be deployed forward and loaded as the PAF lacks a quick reaction alert capability. A PAF F-16s and Mirage 5s are not as potent as their IAF Mikoyan MIG-27M Flogger, Mirage 2000H and Su-30MKI equivalents. Pakistani deterrence relies on qualitative upgrades and survivability. High Mark 05 culminated in testing Pakistans nuclear operational preparedness. These past 15 years have been particularly difficult as we had no access to contemporary technology and lacked the resources to launch major acquisition programmes, admitted Ex Air Chief Marshal Kaleem Saadat, Ex-Commander in Chief PAF, in a recent interview. So this was a period of improvisation and struggle as the PAF sought to maintain a combat capability with adequate deterrent value. Faced with the Western embargo, Pakistan turned to China as its principal arms supplier, from whom it had already obtained Chengdu F-7P and F-7G multirole fighters and Nanchang A-5III close air support ground attack aircraft. The F-7 is the Mig-21 Fishbed built under Chinese licensed manufacture, and the PAF acquired 55 of the latest F-7PG medium technology variants from 2002 to keep its aircrew current pending the introduction of more capable platforms and weapon systems. During the period of sanctions, Pakistan felt sidelined as its Indian neighbor received more advanced combat aircrafts, plus new capabilities such as airborne early warning and control aircraft, air-to-air refueling, balloon-borne surveillance radars, real-time reconnaissance through unmanned air vehicles, beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air weapons, and frequency-hopping and secure radio communications. Consequently, the PAF relied on self-help and collaboration. Pakistani technicians modified the South African T-Darter medium-range, active radar-guided air-to-air missiles (AAM) into the H-4 BVR missile capable operating out to a reported distance of 65nm (120km). A lighter infra-red version, the H-2 was designed to hit targets out to 32nm (60km). H-2 and H-4 can be carried by Mirages, with the former comparable to the Python 4 and the H-4 to the AA-12 Adder in the IAF arsenal. Pakistan has also developed a cruise missile system unsubtly named Babur after Mogul emperor who invaded India five times with rumored design help from Chinese or Ukrainian engineers as well as some help from Turkey. This high-speed, lo level terrain hugging missile is said to have a 270nm (500km) range and either a conventional or nuclear warhead. Babur initially is capable of being launched by land and submarine launch, but the longer term goal is

to make it an air-to-surface weapon. Pakistan Air Force The state-owned Pakistan Aeronautical Complex is rightly proud of its Karakoram-8 (K-8) coproduced with China, and Super Mushak developed from the Swedish Saab MF1-17. The K-8 tandem-seat basic jet trainer has been sold to eight Middle East countries while the 260hp (194kW) single piston-engined Super Mushak light primary trainer has been sold to Saudi Arabia and Oman. The PAF has recently signed a contract for 27 K-8s to add to the 12 it already possesses. In future, the PAF flying training system will compromise the MF1-17 Mushshak in primary, the K-8 in basic and the dual-seat version of the JF-17 in the lead-in-fighter-training role. In 1999, China and Pakistan agreed on a 50-50 joint development of the FC-1/Super 7, later to be known as the JF-17 Thunder. Designed to match the Indian Light Combat Aircraft, the JF-17 is expected to be in full production by the end of the decade. The PAF is understood to be interested in purchasing 150+ of these fourth generation, multi-role agile light fighters to replace all its F-7s, Mirages and A-5IIIs by 2020. Five JF-17s prototypes now exist and this fully fly-bywire aircraft has a maximum speed of Mach 1.8. Although of shorter range than the F-16, the JF17 will have an all-weather navigation and attack capability, will carry a full range of ordnance and be able to engage at all speeds and altitudes. The fairing on its fin tip may be an electronic countermeasures housing. Although the JF-17 may be initially armed with less capable Chinese weaponry, such as the semi-active radar guided PL-11 AAM. As part of the JF-17 programme we will be able to train engineers and pilots in the field of aircraft design, development, manufacturing and flight testing. This will contribute towards indigenization, self-reliance in meeting the countrys defense requirement and enhancement of economic prosperity of Pakistan, which is totally in line with the governments policy and our national aspiration, said Air Chief Marshal Saadat. The Way Forward It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good, and 9/11 certainly marked a turn for the better for Pakistan. When Karachi decided to support Washington in the global war on terror, the Bush administration, together with other Western governments, erased sanctions on sophisticated weaponry. American officials were also haunted by the possibility that a nuclear-armed Pakistan could, if isolated from western support, become a breeding ground for international terrorism and a fomenter of regional instability. In the words of Air Chief Marshal Saadat: The country obtained economic assistance, debt rescheduling and favorable trade conditions. This saw the Pakistan Government embark on a planned development of its armed forces and the PAF was granted a major allocation of resources. This is not before time. On August 25, 2005, a PAF Mirage crashed near the town of Badin, 105 miles (169km) east of Karachi. The pilot was able to eject safely and an air force spokesman gave technical reasons as being responsible for the accident. Asked about frequent PAF crashes, the Commander-in-Chief PAF admitted that the attrition rate was a bit high and they had lost some aircraft at low level. He said the ageing Mirages were over 30 years old and the PAF was facing problems in acquiring spares because Dessault had stopped production of some

components. However, Pakistan could not ground these aircraft because they formed part of the nuclear deterrent. This explains why the PAF bough 50 Mirages, 150 sealed pack engines and a huge quantity of Mirage spares from Libya for cash in 2004. Like Pakistan, Libya owned Mirage IIIs and Vs but, although these were in excellent condition, the Libyan Air Force had been dormant for sometime following sanctions imposed after the Boeing 747 was blown up over Lockerbie. With the exLibyan airframes, Pakistan now operates more Mirages than the French Air Force. Most of the Libyan aircraft, however, are being cannibalized for spare parts to sustain the PAF fleet of Mirages for the next seven to ten years. Given that the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) likened its Mirages with their rudimentary avionics to Sopwith Camels with reheat. Pakistan also plans a phased upgrade and refurbishment of its oldest Mirages with new radars and avionics. Indeed work is underway for the avionics upgrade by French company SAGEM on what is believed to be a total of 14 Mirage 5EFs. In September 2004, the US agreed to the sale of seven RAAF Lockheed Martin C-130E Hercules, including one for spares: the first of these aircraft arrived with relief goods for Kashmir earthquake survivors in November 2005. The PAF has also signed a contract with Indonesia for four CASA CN-235 transport aircraft. In the new era of international co-operation. Pakistani F-16s deployed to Konya Air Base in Turkey for air combat training in October 2004. The USAF has given Lockheed Martin an $89 million contract to supply six long-range AN/TPS-77 transportable radar systems for Pakistan under the Foreign Military Sales programme. This L-band, tactical radar provides continuous 3D surveillance of air targets out to 243nm (450km) and at altitudes up to 100,000ft (20,480m). Pakistani naval aviation is being strengthened by the gift of eight Lockheed Martin P-3C Orion long-range maritime patrol aircraft to replace existing Atlantics, by the acquisition of Harpoon Block-11 missiles for carriage on the P-3C, and by making its two grounded P-3Cs maritime patrol aircraft operational by the end of this year. All will greatly enhance Pakistani maritime battle management. Pakistan is purchasing six HAI Z-9C helicopters from China and the PAF plans a mix of Chinese and Western equipment in case sanctions are ever imposed again. However, what really matters to Islamabad is access to latest network-enabled warfare technology, and that means support from the West. Air borne early warning (AEW) is vital to Pakistans defensive posture and the Swedish Erieye system its active phased array AEW radar (which would be mounted on SAAB 2000s) is close to winning a $1 billion ($560 million) contract to counter Indian interest in the Isreali Phalcon system for use on Ilyushin Il-76s. The Ericcson Erieye is tried and test over the cold mountainous regions that the PAF patrols, but release of some of the avionics to Pakistan depend on US export licenses. The jewel in the crown was the Bush administrations announcement in March 2005 that it would sell F-16 to Pakistan again. This was seen as a reward for President Musharrafs efforts in the war on terror, and came in response to Islamabads pleading for over two years. The PAF would like to equip three to five squadrons and initial indications were that Pakistan had plans to buy 79 F-16s from Lockheed Martin. Fifty-five of them would be new C/Ds and the rest secondhand, the deal including the upgrade of the 32 1980s vintage F-16s in PAF service. Two F-16s were flown to Pakistan at the end of November 2005, but the deal is now on hold as it would

seem insensitive to expend US aid on fast jets while thousands are still suffering in the wake of the devastating Kashmir earthquake. President Musharraf stated that the order for the latest F16C/Ds will enhance Pakistan strategic capability and make a major difference to its strategy of defensive deterrence. For all the talk of the aircraft being equipped with the latest AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles to defend Pakistani airspace, the new F-16s are Justas much about enhancing the effectiveness of Pakistans nuclear deterrent. Overall Assessment The PAF has never had things easy. For nearly 60 years it has had to safeguard national airspace and deter as much more powerful India, a task made all the more arduous by the recent embargo on acquiring the latest technology. The PAF coped by co-operating with China, and by exploiting the undoubted expertise and professionalism of its technicians to upgrade its facilities and weaponry indigenously. Close assistance in the global war on terror has allowed the PAF to become adept to antiinsurgent operations around the Afghan border and it has learned to deliver air-weapons with decisive effect. More modern airframes are entering service but the PAF required surveillance UAVs and precision-guided munitions to attack militant hide-outs while avoiding collateral damage. Efforts to upgrade the Pakistan ground-based air-defenses need further foreign investment to bring the PAF into the network-centric age and enable it to respond to umesensitive targets. Simultaneous acquisition of complex system requires significant financial and human resources. In addition, the assimilation and efficient utilization of high technology will pose a huge challenge. That said, the PAF has a lot going for it. Foreign military observers attending High mark 2005 were impressed with the professionalism of both PAF air crews and ground personnel. Ability is rewarded and at least two females are going through flying training. However, the PAF hierarchy knows that a huge efforts will be required to upgrade training systems and syllable to prepare their personnel for the future. The Indian Air Force has its weakness. It lacks the infrastructure to support all its air efforts, especially in the southern sector. There are gaps in its low level radar coverage, its spread of Russian and Western aircraft makes for a logistic nightmare and the unreliability of many of its MiGs has led to an appalling rate of flying accidents. That said, the arrival of BAE Systems Hawk trainers will revolutionize the IAF flying training system and Washington has balance its military sales to Pakistan by allowing Lockheed Martin and Boeing to offer the F-16 Fighting Falcon and F/A-18 Hornet as candidates for the IAFs multi-role programme. The Bush administration has also stated that it will support Indian requests for other transformative system in areas such as command and control, early warning and missile defense. This means that even when new F-16s arrive in PAF service there may still be the same relative capability gap with India. Pakistan Air Force In summary, the PAF may not have enough state-of-the-art equipment but for its budget and the size of its organization, it is an operationally ready and professional air force. It is on the verge of

a major acquisition programme, but funding will be an abiding concern, compounded by high oil prices and the costs of the Kashmir earthquake. However, whatever the obstacles, the PAF will retain is deterrent value by virtue of the professionalism and motivation of its personnel. Whatever the challenge, the PAF will remain Pakistans scimitar and shield.

Navay

Pakistan Navy is the naval force of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Its tasks are to defend coastal waters and offshore economic resources; and secure sea lines of communication and protect the merchant fleet. The Pakistan Navy is small but is highly motivated professional naval force, operationally capable of defending Pakistan coastline. HISTORY The Royal Pakistan Navy was born on 14th August 1947 on the independence day of Pakistan. As the partitioned occurred between India and Pakistan, Armed Forces Reconstruction Committee (AFRC) divided the Royal Indian Navy between India and Pakistan. The Royal Pakistan Navy was handed two sloops, two frigates, four minesweepers, two trawlers, four harbour launches with some 3580 personnel consisted of 180 officers and 3400 ratings. In 1956, The Islamic Republic of Pakistan was proclaimed under the 1956 constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service re-designated as Pakistan Navy. Pakistan Navy Jack and Pakistani Flag replaced the Queens color and the white ensign respectively. PRESENT Today Pakistan Navy is one of the most professional naval forces in the world. It has more than 22,000 personnel and other 5,000 in reserve. The Pakistan Navy surface fleet is compromised of various squadrons according to the types of ships in service. Pakistan Navy currently operates 6 Amazon Type 21 Class destroyers, one Leander class frigate (training), 3 French Eridan Class mine hunter vessels, 4 Jalalat Class missile boats, including variety of other latest auxiliaries, tankers, missiles and patrol boats. While the current surface fleet may not look good enough as the other modern navies continue to enjoy new ships and technology. The navy was able to succeed in upgrading these ships to modern standards technology. However, Pakistan Navy does operate one of the most advanced diesel-powered submarines in the world, French Agosta-90B currently two in service while the last one is under sea trials and close to be operational. Other than that Pakistan operates two Agosta-70 class submarines and three midget class submarines. The Pakistan Navy Aviation wing may look small compare to the Army Aviation, however it does play significant role in the navy and will surely do so in the time of conflict. Pakistan Naval

Aviation currently operates 3 Westland Lynx, 6 Westland Sea King Mk45, 8 Aerospatiale SA319B Alouette III, 4 Lockheed P-3C Orion, 8 Fokker F27-200, 2-3 Breguet Atlantique I, and special wing of Mirage V anti-ship fighter aircrafts operated by Pakistan Air Force. FUTURE As per by the approval of Armed Forces Development Programme 2019 (AFFDP-2019), launched by the government of Pakistan. Pakistan Navy will be able to modernize itself into one of the modern navies in the world replacing, inducting and manufacturing different naval equipment to insure that it is able to take the new challenges facing our nation. In the surface fleet, Pakistan Navy is going to induct newly built 4 F-22p Zulfiqar Class (Modernized Type 053H3 Jiangwei II) frigates. Pakistan Navy also has officially put up a formal request for six Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates to augment its surface fleet while consideration of 4 modern corvettes to be built alongside with F-22p in Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works (KS&EW) is in the process. The competitors for modern corvettes may be French DCN Gowind 120, German TKMS MEKO A-100/D, and Turkish Milgem corvettes. The navy also plans to manufacture and procure additional mine hunters, tankers, missile and patrol boats. In the submarine fleet, as all the Daphne class submarines of the Pakistan Navy have retired. Pakistan needs more submarines to meet its requirements as per by that. Pakistan Navy is currently in negotiation for French Marlin and German U-214 submarines, while U-214 being most likely the choice. In the naval aviation, Pakistan Navy will receive 6 Z-9C anti-ship/sub helicopters with F-22p frigates, while it plans to induct 6 more P-3C Orion aircraft out of eight ordered. Pakistan Navy also plans to induct three Hawkeye 2000 airborne early warning systems based on P-3C Orion aircrafts, and might also induct dedicated JF-17 fighter for naval role.