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A copy of: Miss Kimberli Dadula Denaya

COMMUNITY ORGANIZING a process whereby the community members develop the capability to assess their health needs and problems, plan and implement actions to solve these problems, put up and sustain organizational structures which will support and monitor implementation of health initiatives by the people. a process by which the people organize themselves to 'take charge' of their situation and thus develop a sense of being a community together. is a continuous and sustained process of: 1. Guiding people to understand the existing condition of their own community. 2. Organizing people to work collectively and efficiently on their immediate and long term problems.

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZING 1. It provides the people with an opportunity to get involved and identify the common health problems of their community. 2. It guides the community to decision-making towards self-reliance.

CHN can elicit active community participation by: 1.Creating awareness and interest. 2. Organizing the community. 3. The nurse creates opportunities for community participation. 4. The nurse provides direction on the type of activities to be done.

APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY ORGANIZING (PROF. VALOCCHI) 1. SOCIAL WORK APPROACH - Regards the community as a social organism with certain needs that must be considered and met if the neighborhood is to survive and remain viable. - The focus in this approach is on building a sense of community by gathering together existing social services and by delivering and lobbying for needed social resources. - The organizer acts as enabler or advocate .

2. POLITICAL ACTIVISM APPROACH - Views the community as a political entity and a potential power base capable of getting power, keeping power or developing alternative institutions apart from those in power. - This approach also draws distinctions between organizers and leaders. (The organizer usually comes from outside the community and is tasked to identify and support a community leader.) - This approach is very sensitive to maintaining equality of power relations in the community organization. Therefore, leadership positions should come from within the neighborhood itself.

3. NEIGHBORHOOD MAINTENANCE APPROACH - Sees the neighborhood as space that has intrinsic or commercial value. It is neither a site of service provision nor a site of power accumulation. - The function of organizing is simply to maintain and improve the physical and commercial value of the property. - Sees the community as a form of civic organization that can be used as a pressure group to achieve mostly economic objectives. - The organizer usually comes from the community who rises to lead and form an association or club.

PHASES OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION (MAGLAYA)

1. PREPARATORY PHASE

 Area selection needs assistance  Community profiling provides an overview of demographic char, H related services and practices. Initial database.  Entry in the community and integration with the people. -rapport; values, beliefs, cultural practices 2. ORGANIZATIONAL PHASE  Social preparation- after integration, nurse is introduced to community (beginning.); know the community better deepens and strengthens relationship.  Spotting and developing potential leaders always with the people, identify who among the people have deep concern and understanding of the community s conditions; committed. ; trusted and respected  Does not need to be highly educated; should be able to understand and identify with problems of comm. Influence not only the poor.  Core group formation- leader and people identified by the leader. From various sectors.  Setting up the community organization generating wide participation. Nurse makes sure that there is maximum participation in all activities. - Organizational structure should be kept simple and committees should be formed to address specific problems such as in health care. 3. EDUCATION AND TRAINING PHASE to strengthen the organization  Conducting community diagnosis to know the local Health condition that would serve as basis for Health programs  Training of community health workers roles that the CHWs are expected to perform; people decide who would be trained as CHW (community health workers) - nurse facilitates Training Needs Actions  Health services and mobilization - Organization performs activities that could help solve the existing problems in the community. Helps them to strengthen the group. -Problems with resources; we should help them prioritize probs.  Leadership-formation activities -It takes a continuous process to create leaders. There are several activities that could help develop leaders such as meetings, trainings, seminars.

4. INTERSECTORAL COLLABORATION PHASE  As the organization develops, needs will also grow.  M s money, manpower, machinery to support the org.  We should coordinate with other orgs to get the needed resources.

5. PHASE-OUT  As org becomes more independent and already assumes great responsibility in their needs, we gradually turn-over the work to the community.  We develop plan for monitoring and continuously evaluating the activities of org until the community becomes fully ready for phase-out.

FIVE STAGES OF ORGANIZING: A COMMUNITY HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL 1. COMMUNITY ANALYSIS   the process of assessing and defining needs, opportunities, and resources involved in initiating community health action program. COMPONENTS: - A demographic, social and economic profile of the community derived from secondary data. - Health risk profile. - Health/ Wellness outcomes profile - Survey of current health promotion programs. - Studies conducted in certain target groups. STEPS: 1.Define the community geographic boundaries; consult with diff sectors 2.Collect data. 3. Assess community capacity evaluate driving forces that may facilitate or impede change, what motivates the community 4.Assess community barriers. resilient to change 5.Assess readiness for change. perception on the importance of the prob. 6.Synthesize data and set priorities.

2. DESIGN AND INITIATION  Establish a core planning group and select a local organizer. -5-8 members; role of organizer is vital to program success. Good listener, critical thinker and decisive Choose an organizational structure - leadership board or council existing local leaders working for a common cause - coalition - lead or official agency single agency responsible for activities - grass- roots informal structures in the community - citizen panels group of citizens (5-10) to form partnership with govt. - networks and consortia- networks develop because of certain concerns. Identify select and recruit organizational members. should represent diff. sectors Define the organization mission and goals. WH questions Clarify roles and responsibilities of people involved in the organization. proper delegation to avoid overlapping of job descriptions and for smooth working rel. Provide training and recognition. recognize accomplishments and individual contribution to the success; boost the morale of members

  

3. IMPLEMENTATION Generate broad citizen participation.- organizing a task force who can provide necessary support. o Develop a sequential work plan. activities should be planned sequentially. Often, it has to be modified as events unfold. o Use comprehensive, integrated strategies. more than one strategies that complement each other. o Integrate community values into the programs, materials and messages. incorporate comm. Values and norms. 4. PROGRAM MAINTENANCE-CONSOLIDATION- achieved some degree of success; already gaining acceptance o 1 Integrate intervention activities into community networks. the organization and its programs could gain acceptance in the community. 1 Establish a positive organizational culture. creating a positive environment which is vital in any organization could happen when there is trust, respect and openness among members. 1 Establish an ongoing recruitment plan. Some may leave. Continuous recruitment and training is needed. 1 Disseminate results. Continuous feedback to show enhances visibility and acceptance. 5. DISSEMINATION- REASSESSMENT part of the monitoring aspect. Evaluation. h Update the community analysis. Check for whatever changes that may necessitate reorganization such as change in leadership or unavailability of resources. h Assess effectiveness of interventions/programs. evaluation tools h Chart future directories and modifications. h Summarize and disseminate results. Some org die down because of lack of visibility. Dissemination plans should be made to spread info.

COMMUNITY ORGANIZING PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH (COPAR) a social development approach that aims to transform the apathetic, individualistic and voiceless poor into dynamic, participatory and politically responsive community a collective, participatory, transformative, liberalize, sustained and systematic process of building people s organization by mobilizing and enhancing the capabilities and resources of the people for the resolution of their issues and concerns towards effecting change in their existing oppressive and exploitative conditions (1994 National Rural Conference) a process by which a community identifies its needs and objectives, develops confidence to take action in respect to them and in doing so, extends and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community. (Ross 1967) is a continuous and a sustained process of: Educating the people - to understand and develop their critical consciousness Working with people - to work collectively and effectively on their immediate and long term problems Mobilizing with people - develop their capability and readiness to respond, take action on their immediate needs towards solving the long term problems

IMPORTANCE OF COPAR 1. COPAR is an important tool for community development and people empowerment as this helps the community workers to generate community participation in development activities. 2. COPAR prepares people/clients to eventually take over the management of development programs in the future. 3. COPAR maximizes community participation and involvement; community resources are mobilized for community services.

PRINCIPLES OF COPAR People, especially the most oppressed, exploited and deprived sectors are open to change, have the capacity to change and are able to bring about change. COPAR should be based on the interest of the poorest sectors of society. COPAR should lead to a self-reliant community and society.

COPAR PROCESS - A progressive cycle of action-reflection action which begins with small, local and concrete issues identified by the people and the evaluation and the reflection of and on the action taken by them. - COPAR is a participatory and mass-based because it is primarily directed towards and biased in favor of the poor, the powerless and oppressed.

PHASES OF COPAR 1. PRE-ENTRY PHASE - initial phase of organizing process where the community organizer looks for communities to serve or help. ACTIVITIES: - statement of objectives and realization of COPAR guidelines. - laying out the site criteria - site selection - meeting and courtesy call to LGU - courtesy call to the barangay - setting the target date of immersion, exposure and departure. 2. ENTRY PHASE - Sometimes called as the immersion phase. - Sensitization of the people on the critical events in their life, motivating them to share their dreams and ideas on how to manage their concerns and eventually mobilizing them. Signals the actual entry of the community worker/ organizer. ACTIVITIES: - courtesy call to mayor or LGU - courtesy call to the barangay level - meeting foster parents - appreciating the environment - meeting with the community officials and residents - general assembly preparation of survey forms - actual survey - analysis of the data 3. ORGANIZATION-BUILDING PHASE - Formation of more formal structures and the inclusion of more formal procedures of planning, implementing and evaluating community wide activities. Organized leaders or groups are being given trainings to develop their own concerns/ programs. ACTIVITIES - meeting with officials - identifying the problems - spreading awareness and soliciting solutions or suggestions - analysis of the presented solution - planning of the activities - organizing the people to build their own organization - implementation of the activities - evaluation

4. SUSTAINANCE AND STRENGTHENING PHASE - Occurs when the community organization has already been established and the community wide undertakings. Different committees set up in the organization building phase are already expected functioning. ACTIVITIES - meeting with organizational leaders - evaluation of programs - reimplementation of the unmet programs - education and training - networking and linking - conduct mobilization on the health and development concerns - implementation of livelihood projects - developing secondary leaders. 5. PHASE OUT When the healthcare workers leave the community to stand alone. The organizations should be ready to sustain the test of the community itself. - This phase could mean that a program is already community-managed.

ACTIVITIES -leaving the immersion site -documentation

WHEN TO PHASE OUT 1. When objectives have been attained. 2. When the impact of the project has been visible or change has been made. 3. When the members of the community can take over the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the project. 4. When the community resources can already be maximized by the people. 5. When viable community-based organization has been established.

Determining factors to ensure sustainability: 1. Structure 2. Skills development and technology transfer. 3. Systems 4.Commitment

IDEAL VS PRACTICED COPAR 1. Time Frame Ideal: 3-6weeks immersion 8 hours/day, 5-6days/week Practiced: 8-16hours/week for 2-4 weeks 2. Methodology and Survey Form Ideal: The survey form will vary to the needs of the community and the methodology is surveying the participants. Practiced: Use ready made survey form from the school, books, or from the institution they are working for. 3. Number of Recipients Ideal: 30%, 60 %, or 100% depending on the number of population and situation of the family

Practiced: 25-50 families or depending on the required number of families by the school or institution. 4. Organizational Building Stage Ideal: A primary or secondary organization should be built and it should be strengthened by set of officers, by laws, by registrations to proper institutions. Practiced: No organizations built or sometimes the organizations are not properly strengthened or registered by laws or nu bylaws are present. 5. Problem Statement Ideal: The problem will only be stated after the survey has been done, tallied and analyzed. - The problem will all be coming from the survey form and not from the judgment of the healthcare worker, because of the simple reason that any problem not perceived is not a problem. -Any problem too big or too complicated to the health worker to manage should not be prioritized. Practiced: Misjudging complex problems as simple ones. -not considering the result of the survey form but the say of the few. 6. Implementation Ideal: The "fishing rod effect" should be done. - the programs should not be a one day affair but should be a program that will last even after the phase out. Practiced: The fish effect programs that are not meant to last. - One day programs are often done. This program also diminishes after the health workers leave. 7. Evaluation Ideal: The health worker should learn to accept reality that not all programs will prosper and not all their goals will be met. -after evaluation there should be re-implementation. Practiced: Some results are manipulated just to say that the goals are met. -No re-implementation.

PARTNERSHIP AND COLLABORATION get people to work together in order to address problems or concerns that affect them. gives people the opportunity to learn skills in group relationship, interpersonal relations, critical analysis and most important of all, decision making process in the context of democratic leadership.

NETWORKING a relationship among organizations that consists of exchanging information about each other s goals and objectives, services or facilities.

COORDINATION a relationship where organizations modify their activities in order to provide better service to the target beneficiary.

COOPERATION a relationship where organizations share information and resources to make adjustments in one s own agenda to accommodate the other organizations agenda.

COLLABORATION an organizational relationship where organizations help each other enhance their capacities in performing their tasks as well as in the provision of services.

COALITION OR MULTI-SECTOR COLLABORATION level of relationship where organizations and citizens form a partnership.

ADVOCACY 1. Informing people about the rightness of the cause. 2. Thoroughly discussing with the people the nature of the alternatives, their content and possible consequences. 3. Supporting people s right to make a choice and act on their choice. Influencing public opinion.