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PUBLIC RELATIONS SOCIETY OF KENYA DRAFT REPORT ON THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN KENYA: FUTURE GROWTH PROSPECTS

Submitted By: KENTICE LIBUTSULI TIKOLO (MSc. PR, MPRSK, MIPRA, MCIPR) PO Box 32866-00600 NAIROBI Mobile : 0733844598 E-mail: ktikolo@gmail.com

30th June, 2011

TABLES AND FIGURES...............................................................................................................................3 Tables......................................................................................................................................................3 Figures.....................................................................................................................................................3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...........................................................................................................................4 ACRONYMS...............................................................................................................................................5 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................6 The Public Relations Industry.............................................................................................................6 Definition of PR .....................................................................................................................................6 . Characteristics of the PR Industry....................................................................................................6 PR Consultancy in Kenya...................................................................................................................6 Industry Size ...........................................................................................................................................7 . CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY......................................................................................................9 Study Objectives..................................................................................................................................9 Research Populations.........................................................................................................................9 Research Methods..............................................................................................................................9 CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.......................................................................................10 Top management expectation and views of the PR/Communications practitioners 20 . PR budgets in relation to other organizational functions.......................................................21 Remuneration of the practitioners................................................................................................23 Status of PR Training in Kenya.........................................................................................................32 Training institutions.............................................................................................................................33 Cost, scope and quality of curriculum........................................................................................34 Trainers qualifications......................................................................................................................37 International PR training standards Vis--vis local standards................................................38 Training Attended Recently............................................................................................................39 Challenges in provision of PR training..........................................................................................39 Remedial measures to PR challenges.........................................................................................39 CHAPTER FIVE: REGULATORY STANDARDS FOR PR PRACTICE IN KENYA................................40 CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................45 IN-HOUSE PR PRATITIONER QUESTIONNAIRE....................................................................................47

TABLES AND FIGURES Tables Table 1: PR/communication courses offered by institutions including short courses.........33 Figures Figure 1: Age Distribution.....................................................................................................................10 Figure 2: Gender representation.......................................................................................................11 Figure 3: Highest Education Level.....................................................................................................12 Figure 4: Proportion of respondents with industry related qualifications...............................13 Figure 5: Employment Sector..............................................................................................................14 Figure 6: Ability to recruit and retain experienced PR professionals.......................................15 Figure 7: below show the organizations the respondent are currently working for ...........16 . Figure 8: Organizational establishment...........................................................................................17 Figure 9: In-house PR.............................................................................................................................18 Figure 10: PR Firms..................................................................................................................................18 Figure 11: Purpose of consultancy and performance rating for PR firms..............................19 Figure 12: Purpose of consultancy and performance rating for in-house PR.......................20 Figure 13: Extent to which top management support PR/Communications.......................21 Figure 14: Organizations PR budget................................................................................................22 Figure 15: Increase or Decrease in budget....................................................................................22 Figure 16: Organizational budget allocation to PR/ Communication department/section/unit per annum..............................................................................................23 Figure 17: Current basic salary for PR practitioners......................................................................24 Figure 18: Benefits enjoyed by PR practitioners............................................................................25 Figure 19: Basic salary of PR practitioners.......................................................................................25 Figure 20: Benefits enjoyed by PR practitioners............................................................................26 Figure 21: Extent to which the department/section unit in the areas indicated................28 Figure 22: PR communication roles ..................................................................................................29 . Figure 23: Whether they had to change their PR/Communication supplier in the last 2 years..........................................................................................................................................................30 Figure 24: PR/Communications outsourcing..................................................................................31 Figure 25: Institutions where PR practitioners obtained their qualifications..........................32 Figure 26: Respondents' highest level of education....................................................................33 Figure 27: Does your institution send students to organizations for practical exposition/internship as part of their course..................................................................................35 Figure 28: The extent to which one is satisfied with skills in PR and communications-Inhouse practitioners................................................................................................................................36 Figure 29: Minimum educational requirement for a PR/Communications Trainer/Lecturer per institution for the selected courses............................................................................................38

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost I would like to acknowledge the development partners who funded the survey that culminated into this piece of work. Thanks also to PRSK for providing an enabling environment and offering all the necessary administrative support towards the success of this study. Appreciated also are the survey respondents who took time to respond to the questions, without which this work wouldnt have been possible. I would like to acknowledge my very able research assistants Ms. Caroline Nyakundi, Mr. Fred Odhiambo, who were extremely helpful in the design, distribution and collation of the data, and Mr. Dunstone W. Ulwodi and Steven N. Kimetu, who were very key in data analysis and compilation of this report. It is not possible to appreciate all the people who participated in one way or another individually towards the accomplishment of this report but to all I say thank you.

ACRONYMS AMWIK CIPR FAPRA ICT IPRA KIM MA MSc MsComm NGOs Ph.d PR PRSK SMEs UK USA

Association of Media Women in Kenya Chartered Institute of Public Relations Federation of African Public Relations Association Information and Communication Technology International Public Relations Association Kenya Institute of Management Mater of Arts Master of Science Master of Science in Comminication Non Governmental Organization Doctor of Philosophy Public Relations Public Relations Society of Kenya Small and Medium size Enterprises United Kingdom United States of America

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION The Public Relations Industry Definition of PR For the purposes of this study PR is defined as the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programmes of action, which serve both the organizations and the publics interest. The definition builds on that which defines PR as the management of reputation: the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. In 2010, The PR fraternity under the umbrella of the Global Alliance met and came up with what is now referred to as the Stockholm Accord, which calls PR professionals to action in enhancing and affirming the central role of Public relations and Communication Management in organisational success. Public Relations involves activities such as media relations, corporate communications, community relations, corporate social responsibility, issues and crisis management, Investor relations, public affairs and internal communications. Characteristics of the PR Industry The PR Industry comprises of two primary groups; PR practitioners providing in-house PR services for their employer and specialist PR practitioners working as consultants to clients. In-house PR practitioners may play a dual role as both provider and purchaser of PR services on behalf of their employer. PR Consultancy in Kenya Indications are that PR consultancy in Kenya is growing, although not well developed compared to developed countries. It consists of relatively fewer large consultancy firms, some medium sized firms and overwhelming majority of small firms. The distribution of large, medium and small consultancies has remained broadly similar over the years, with a degree of consolidation increasing the number of medium sized consultancies. PR consultancies may specialize in services for particular industry sectors, such as finance, ICT or economy. They may also specialize according to different PR functions such as investor relations, employee relations, corporate social responsibility or crisis management. There are also generalist PR consultancies offering services across a broad range of PR activities. sOver time, advertising agencies have created PR arms, thereby offering what is termed integrated communications solutions, at the expense of strategic PR and 6

communications practice. Consequently, the industry has continued to be defined based on the amount of media coverage provided to clients. This has had the effect of keeping PR and communications at the rudimentary press agentry level, with events taking up a lot of the activities carried out to create a buzz around brands. Media buying has therefore become a dominant PR activity, with Advertising Value Equivalent (AVE) being the key evaluation method for PR activities. This is in stark contrast to the world trends of measuring outcomes and impact of strategic PR. In Kenya, this sector is less well described and there exist scanty data available. It is therefore taken as being indicative rather than definitive. It appears that larger organizations are more likely to have their own in-house PR capability. This may be either as a dedicated PR or corporate communications function. Industry Size Efforts to quantify the size and scope of the PR industry in Kenya have not provided the needed clarity. This is partly due to uncertainty over characteristics of small consultancy organizations, and especially stand alone consultants. The breadth of the international agencies and independent consultants also add to this lack of clarity with regard to size of the industry. About the Study This being the very first benchmark study, the questionnaires were rather long. It was difficult to decide what to leave out. A number of the respondents pointed out this fact. The focus of the study inevitably was broad: attempts were made to capture as many aspects of the profession as possible, benchmarking with global trends. The following key themes emerged:

Understanding the Role of PR There is a lack of common understanding on the role of PR. This is reflected in the various titles of the practitioners as well as the reporting lines. Expectations of practitioners become a challenge as they end up carrying out functions that lack clarity, some of which may not be in line with the profession. By far, a huge majority of the In-House practitioners cited this as a major challenge to their work. It was also cited as the cause of lack of career progression paths for practitioners. There is therefore need to raise awareness among various stakeholders on the role of PR. Practitioners will have to become more strategic in their approach in order to earn the respect they desire.

In spite of the high number of multinational companies operating in Kenya and the growing number of global public relations firms opening offices in Nairobi, there has been no study in public relations in Kenya and the impact that the local culture has on the practice. PR Training Tied closely to the establishment of standards is the training, both quality and quantity. The Global Alliance is in the process of establishing a common, global curriculum. Unless Kenya becomes part of this global process, the country will be left behind in the global arena. As the global effort continues, therefore, it is imperative that Kenya moves towards regulating the curricular in the training institutions. These should be benchmarked against the world standards. The need for quality and affordable training has come out clearly in the study. Only with a critical mass of well qualified practitioners can the Practice in Kenya start to have the desired impact. Ethics, Regulation and Standards of PR Practice In Kenya Perhaps the lack of understanding of the role of the profession in some way can be attributed to the lack of professional isation; the absence of clarity in what is expected of a PR professional. Without standards of practice, anyone can call themselves a PR practitioner, thereby causing confusion as to the real expectations of the practitioners. This goes hand in hand with standards and regulation of these standard. The place of ethics in the profession is also under scrutiny. It cannot be a profession without these attributes.

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY Study Objectives The objectives of the study were to understand the current practice of PR in Kenya by: 1. Determining the status of public relations in Kenya. 2. Determining the status of PR training in Kenya. 3. Recommending regulatory standards for public relations practice in Kenya. Research Team The research was conducted by Kentice L. Tikolo, having been commissioned by the Public Relations Society of Kenya. Research Populations The study was intended to target four research populations: In-house PR Practitioners, PR consultants, Training institutions and Businesses or organizations (consumers of PR services).

Research Methods The study employed quantitative research methods. Questionnaires were produced for each of the populations, piloted and uploaded onto the Survey Monkey for online distribution and completion. These were sent to all those practitioners on the PRSK database, who in turn were requested to forward the survey to their non-PRSK member contacts. The data collected was then analysed using the various Survey Monkey tools, and also through the statistical package, SPSS.s

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS SAMPLE PROFILE AND CONTEXT This section summarises the profile of PR practitioners who participated in the survey. A total of 61 practitioners responded, of whom 43 were in-house practitioners, while 18 were from PR consultancies. Age The bulk of the in-house practitioners, 42.5%, were between ages of 26-35 years, closely followed by those between 36-45, who were 37.5%. This distribution was similar to that of the PR firms, with 37.5% each falling in 26-35 and 36-45 age groups. That in both groups a significant 37.5% were between ages 36 45 demonstrates the value of experience with the profession. Not surprisingly, those above age 56 were all from the PR Firms. This is expected since the official retirement age has been generally at age 55. Figure 1: Age Distribution

Gender There were more women respondents than men. Women constituted 72.5% compared to 27.5% in the In-house practitioners category. The study also found more women than 10

men in the PR consultancy category at 52.9% compared to 47.1 % men. However, the percentage of men in the PR Firms was higher than those in the in-house practitioners (Fig. 2). The implication of these two sets of findings is that men are more likely to work in consultancies than women.

Figure 2: Gender representation

Highest Education Level In the In-House category, 57.5% have a Masters Degree, while 35% have a Bachelors degree. Only 7.5% hold a diploma. In the consultants, 46.7% have a Masters Degree, with an equal percentage with a Bachelors Degree. Only 6.7% have a diploma. None of the respondents had a PhD degree. Of noteworthy is the wide range of areas of study represented, with a significant number having studied Communications at first degree level.

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Figure 3: Highest Education Level

Industry related qualifications The highest percentage of In-House practitioners have industry-related qualifications at 73%, compared to 57.1% of those in the PR consultancies. It is noteworthy that 42.9% of those in PR firms do not have industry-related qualifications. However, the respondents expressed their desire to access other courses to improve their skills. The courses suggested include: communication management, introduction to writing press releases & speeches, resource mobilization, graphics Design, strategic Communications and brand management, Masters in Corporate Communications and Public Affairs, measuring public relations, marketing communications, strategic brand management, public relations Courses, designing PR strategies, CAM Diploma in marketing communication, advocacy skills, MSCom, MA, Communication and PR. On the length of courses they would be willing to attend, respondents cited, 3 years by distance learning, 3 years, One year, 9 months, 3 week courses, 2 week and 15 months. Distance learning was also cited as a desirable option.

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Figure 4: Proportion of respondents with industry related qualifications

Employment Sector The highest percentage of the in-house practitioners are employed in the public sector: either in government ministries or parastatals. The consultants largely work for private limited companies, represented by 58% of the respondents. None of the consultants worked for public limited companies.

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Figure 5: Employment Sector

None of the consultants worked for public limited companies.

Satisfaction with Skills In the in-house category, 15.4% of the respondents stated that they were satisfied with the knowledge and skills acquired in PR, 82.1% were comfortable with their knowledge but could learn more while 2.6% were frank to say their knowledge was limited. Similarly, 7.1% of the respondents in the PR consultancy were satisfied with their knowledge and skills in PR, an equal percentage reported that their knowledge was limited, while the majority (85.7%) was comfortable with their knowledge but could learn more. The need for continuous capacity building is therefore necessary for PR practitioners to keep them at par with the dynamics in the industry. Like any other industry, efforts have to be consolidated to push PR/Communications in Kenya to the global arena. As already stated in the text, the evolution of PR in Africa is still remote but on a steady growth path.

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Majority of the respondents in PR consultancy and in-house PR (67.2% and 64.1% respectively) reported that they had a professional role model while the rest did not have. The presence of professional role models shows that the profession has pacesetters that ensure the industry is growing. Most of the respondents (54.5%) with role models reported that their role models were Kenyans while 45.5% reported that theirs were non Kenyans. This is a clear indication that the practice of public relations in Kenya has been globalized. Kenya can no longer downplay the influence of outside world on the practice of PR. The infiltration of western PR ideologies through the role models has created healthy competition among the PR practitioners. It has at the same time improved the level of research in Kenya and prompted review of PR programmes in the learning institutions. Aspirations When asked about their aspirations, most In-House practitioners aspired to be top PR practitioners, either at director level. A number expressed the aspiration to go into the academic world. Virtually all the consultants wish to remain in consultancy, either owning their agencies, or at CEO level. A few wanted to offer mentorship to young professionals. Asked to comment on the ability of their organizations to recruit and retain experienced PR professionals, most of the practitioners rated their organizations ability to recruit as average while the ability to retain them as poor as shown in the chart below. Figure 6: Ability to recruit and retain experienced PR professionals

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This revelation provides insights in to the value firms attach to their employees in terms of work environment, monetary value, motivation hence the quality of services offered in the PR industry where professional turnover is high. The experience of PR practitioners ranged between 1 year and 32 years being the highest in PR firms while 23 years experience being the highest for in-house PR. This shows that the PR profession in Kenya has been in existence for over 30 years, even though its impact is yet to be felt. The general public is beginning to appreciate the presence and impact on their businesses. Majority of the in house practitioners work for government parastatals or state corporations (36.1%), 5.6% work for non -governmental organization, 2.8% work for SMEs and 11.1% for public limited companies. Figure 7: below show the organizations the respondent are currently working for

Looking at the organizations PR practitioners in consultancy work for, 72.7% of the respondents were in consultancy agencies while 27.3% were freelance practitioners. Consultancies seem to have dominated the PR service market. This therefore demands that practitioners in consultancy should go through consultancy training to be able to give more professional service and better clientele handling. 58.3% of the respondents work for private limited companies, 16.7% work for government parastatals and state 16

corporations, 8.3% work for non governmental organizations with an equal percentage working for international NGOs and SMEs. The PR profession is currently in the hands of the private sector (See chart 5). Figure 8: Organizational establishment

In terms of specific skills PR practitioners have acquired, both in-house and PR consultants can be said to have diverse specialization. However, the leading industries in consuming PR are in healthcare services, ICT/IT and professional services while in inhouse they are in Agriculture, media and ICT/IT (Chart 6 & 7).

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Figure 9: In-house PR

Figure 10: PR Firms

A majority of PR firms were found to have a geographical distribution across East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Southern Sudan and even South Africa) with most having heavy presence in Kenya a country regarded to be the economic hub of the East African Region. 18

When asked to list the purpose of their consultancy/communications and rate their performance, the respondents verdict is summarized in the chart below for both PR firms and in-house PR. Supporting community and social activities was rated highly signifying the activity firms invest in and which are highly demanded. Building and maintaining a positive image in the media obtained an average score on the performance rating, supporting products/services was also rated average, building and maintaining corporate brand received a performance rating that was exemplary and exceeded expectations of clients, managing issues had good performance rating with some exceeding expectations, staff feel valued and involved obtained below average performance rating ranging from poor to average, promoting mission and values externally received a rating ranging from average to exceeding expectations, positive investors view was rated as average, building and maintaining product/services brands had a performance rating exceeding expectations and managing government relations got a rating exceeded expectations.

Figure 11: Purpose of consultancy and performance rating for PR firms

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Figure 12: Purpose of consultancy and performance rating for in-house PR

Top management expectation and views of the PR/Communications practitioners The extent the top management supports the PR initiatives is a pointer to their expectations and exposes their views. On a scale of 1-6, the respondents were asked to rate the extent to which top management supports the PR communications functions. An overwhelming majority highly rated the management support. This reflects the top managements interest in PR communications and takes a critical position in marketing the organization and its products. The respondents comments provided an avenue to galvanize this support by sealing gaps that may exist and that can potentially harm the reputation of an organization. However, this support needs to be reflected also in other measurable parameters. Chart 8 shows the rating of top management support PR/Communications functions.

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Figure 13: Extent to which top management support PR/Communications

PR budgets in relation to other organizational functions Asked what the organizations budget for the current financial year was, 33.3% stated a budget less than Kshs 5,000,000 followed by 15.2% who stated either the budget was between Kshs 5,000,000 and Kshs 10,000,000 or they didnt know. 9.1% of respondents stated that the budget was between Kshs 15,000,000 and Kshs 20,000,000, another 9.1% said the budget was between Kshs 20,000,000 and Kshs 30,000,000. This budget provision reflects the view held by the management on the importance of PR/Communications in an organization. Indeed, PR has been evolving and budgets will continue to grow, a phenomenon reflected in the chart.

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Figure 14: Organizations PR budget

50% of the respondents believe there was an increase in the PR budget over the two years prior to the survey, while an equal number reported a decrease. Figure 15: Increase or Decrease in budget

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Asked what proportion of the organizational budget is allocated to the PR/communications, 32.3% of the respondents said 2-5% of the annual organization budget, 29% of the respondents said less than 1% of the organization budget, 25.8% said they did not know and 12.9% said between 6-10% of the organization budget. These allocations are very little compared to the amount of work allocated to the PR.

Figure 16: Organizational budget department/section/unit per annum

allocation

to

PR/

Communication

Remuneration of the practitioners When asked what basic salary their organizations pay, 33.3% of the respondents said they earn a basic salary of between Kshs 20,000-50,000, 16.7% earn a basic salary of between Kshs 50,000-100,000, 25% earn a basic salary of between 101,000-200,000, 8.3% earn a basic salary of between Kshs 301,000-400,000 and the remaining 16.7% earn a basic salary of above Kshs 500,000.

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Figure 17: Current basic salary for PR practitioners

Other than the basic salary, respondents (50%) said they enjoy a travel/commuter and medical allowance, 37.5% enjoy professional membership, 25% enjoy house allowance, entertainment allowance, training/capacity building opportunities and gym/club membership, and 12.5% enjoy car loan facility and bonus. On the basis of remuneration, the respondents indicated that the PR practitioners are appreciated in their places of work.

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Figure 18: Benefits enjoyed by PR practitioners

Compared to PR firms, In-house PR practitioners have a lower basic salary. For instance, 23.5% of the respondents earn a basic salary of between Kshs 20,000-50,000, 38.2% earn a basic salary of between Kshs 50,000-100,000, 17.6% earn a basic salary of between Kshs 101,000-200,000, 8.8% earn a basic salary of between Kshs 201,000-300,000, 5.9% earn a basic salary of between Kshs 301,000-400,000 while another 5.9% earn a basic salary of above Kshs 500,000. Figure 19: Basic salary of PR practitioners

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In-house PR practitioners also enjoy other benefits on top of their salaries. 75% of the respondents said they enjoy medical allowance, 59.4% of the respondents enjoy house allowance and training/capacity building opportunities, 50% of the respondents enjoy travel/commuter allowance, 43.8% enjoy professional membership, 21.9% enjoy entertainment allowance, mortgage and car loan facilities, 18.8% enjoy gym/club membership while 15.6% enjoy bonus. Practitioners in this category are also being appreciated in their places of work as reflected in their remuneration package.

Figure 20: Benefits enjoyed by PR practitioners

The organisation/CEOs Survey Questionnaire Majority of the organizations that responded to the survey were private limited companies constituting 56.5% followed by government institutions at 21.7%. These organizations were mainly in construction and ICT industry. The survey showed huge annual budget allocations for the organizations with the highest being Kshs 2 billion. All organizations that participated in the survey had a PR/Communications department. The CEOs of the organizations surveyed indicated that outsourcing of PR/Communications services was done mainly through advertisements. This means of procuring PR/Communications personnel constituted 57.1% followed by Public employment services at 28.6% and website searches and training institutions at 14.3% each. When asked whether prior to employment the PR employees were well trained, 75% felt the training was adequate while 25% felt the training did not quite meet their expectations.

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Majority of the CEOs (87.5%) felt their employees had adequate PR/Communications skills while the remainder were of the contrary view. Of those who disapproved the adequacy of training, 12.5% of them approved the adequacy of PR/Communications skills. This is indicative of the disconnect that exists between training and skill acquisition. The need for capacity building was exemplified in the responses of the CEOs with 62.5% saying their organizations had a capacity building programme for PR/Communication while 37.5% said they did not have the programme in place. This raises the need to have capacity building programmes for PR/Communications. The recognition of the need to have PR in organizations has led to attachment of various titles to the PR heads with respect to their functions. According to the responses, the function of head of PR has been vested in employees with various titles, including Public Relations Officer, Customer Relations Manager, Human Resources Manager, Public Relations Manager, Corporate affairs Manager, Communications Officer, Head of Public Communications, or even Corporation Secretary. In view of their varied functions and responsibilities, the reporting line is equally varied. For instance, according to the CEOs, the head of PR may report to any of the following: Communications & Corporate Affairs Department, CEO, Managing Director, General Manager, Country Head or Permanent Secretary. The survey largely presented the mainstreaming of PR in organizations requiring rethinking given the size of the PR department, which ranged from small to medium. In some cases the department contained 1 person in charge. Even in cases where the organization was very large, and vastly spread, the PR department remained small. One key factor that prevails as an indicator of the value and role of PR is the amount of money allocated to it viz a viz the total budget. When asked the proportion of the organization budget that goes to PR activities, 50% stated that less than 1% and the remaining 50% said the budget allocated fell between 6-10% of the organization budget. Strategic plans for organizations have increasingly taken centre stage in setting the activities and outputs. In view of this, the survey was interested to know whether the organizations had strategic plans. The responses showed that half of the organizations had strategic plans in place while the remaining half did not. PR activities are varied depending on the organization. The support accorded to PR activities by the senior management plays a crucial role. The survey brought out the role of the Head of PR/Communications as follows: Participates in Board meetings, senior management meetings, management meetings, departmental meetings, strategic planning meetings and policy formulation meetings. These activities ought to bring the agenda of PR high up in the organization's priorities.

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When asked about the main purpose of PR/Communications, the CEOs provided a number of related activities some of which emanate from the meetings the head of PR attend. They include: Media Relations, Relationship marketing, to keep in touch with customers, Corporate image, promotions, customer service and advertizing, image management, dissemination, developing communication programs to support operations, guiding on matters dealing with communication and reaching internal and external public and advising management. The survey also wanted to understand the extent to which the department achieves in the selected areas. The Chart below shows the rating on a scale of 0 to 4.

Figure 21: Extent to which the department/section unit in the areas indicated

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Figure 22: PR communication roles

The CEOs noted that some of the PR/Communications activities are outsourced. However, majority (57.1%) did not outsource PR activities which can be attributed to inhouse PR in the organizations. The 42.9% who outsource PR activities may be doing so either because they do not have an in-house PR or the in house PR does not have the skills required. Majority of the CEOs said their organizations had not changed their PR/Communications supplier 2 years prior to the survey. Only 42.9% of the respondents stated that they had changed their PR/Communications supplier.

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Figure 23: Whether they had to change their PR/Communication supplier in the last 2 years

Those who had changed their PR supplier provided reasons as follows: dropping an agency, unsatisfactory delivery of events and due to stringent government procedures.

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Figure 24: PR/Communications outsourcing

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Status of PR Training in Kenya This section identifies the training institutions that offer public relations course in Kenya and pin points the gaps in the professions from the point of view of whether local institutions give PR the weight it deserves.

Figure 25: Institutions where PR practitioners obtained their qualifications

The section endeavors to establish the cost, scope and quality of PR curriculum offered in these institutions as well as identify the trainers qualifications/credentials and where obtained. Further, a comparative analysis of local versus international standard in the field of PR is elicited. The respondents years of experience ranged from 1 year to 32 years. This shows that the PR profession in Kenya has been in existence for a long time, though its impact is yet to be fully felt. As mentioned earlier in this report, a greater majority of practitioners in the profession are women. Most of the in-house practitioners (57.5%) had masters degree level of education followed by Bachelors degree holders who comprised 35.0% (see figure 19 below).

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Figure 26: Respondents' highest level of education

70.0 60.0 50.0 % 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

57.5 35.0 7.5 0.0 O-Level 0.0 A-Level Diploma 0.0 Higher Bachelors Masters National Degree Degree Diploma

Training institutions Public relations as a course in Kenya is offered by a clique of institutions ranging from middle level colleges to universities. Locally, only 40% of organizations offer formal professional training and development programmes that practitioners can make use of while a greater majority (60%) do not. This jeopardizes the quality of services offered since there is lack of continuous professional training even as the industry keeps changing. However, the survey noted that most of the people interviewed got their PR training outside Kenya.

Table 1: PR/communication courses offered by institutions including short courses Course Media Studies Bachelor of Communication Masters in Communication Level Diploma Mass Degree Duration 2 years Accreditation KIU Minimum D+ C+

3 half and a half KIU years 2 years KIU

Mass Post graduate

1st Degree

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Respondents were asked to outline the PR/communication courses offered by their institutions including short courses as shown in table 2 above. Among all the survey respondents only a small proportion (28.6.%) reported that institutions they work for have PR/communications departments in their management and administrative structures while 71.4% indicated they do not have.

Cost, scope and quality of curriculum The cost of education at whatever level is increasingly going high. Respondents stated that scholarships serve as incentives and motivation to students to pursue professional excellence. All institutions should then be encouraged to offer scholarships to their students. 50.0% of the respondents said their institutions offer academic scholarships for PR/communications students at bachelor s degree level only. Some of the respondents stated they would wish to improve their skills within the PR through access to management and strategic planning courses (a few weeks to one month), CIPR Diploma-(one year) and social media application in PR work (a week). Of significance is the fact that 33.3% of the respondents felt that the PR/communication training offered by their institutions are relevant to what is required in the job market while 66.7% felt what they offer is not relevant. This confirms the fears of the source of the gaps that exist between the job market demands and the skills and qualifications held by graduates. When asked about their satisfaction with knowledge and skills in PR, 15.4% said they were very satisfied with their knowledge and skills in PR, an equal percentage reported that their knowledge was limited, while the majority (82.1%) was comfortable with their knowledge but admitted they could learn more.

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Figure 27: Does your institution send students to organizations for practical exposition/internship as part of their course

80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Course Level Duration Mandatory Requirement? (Yes/no)

Internships are very vital in equipping prospective practitioners with the necessary skills and know-how for effectiveness and efficiency in delivery of services. 66.7% of the respondents indicated that their institutions send students to organizations for practical exposition/internship as part of their course. When asked whether they track their PR/Communication alumni, 66.3% reported that they do not. Tracking their alumni would be one of the ways to improve on quality and relevance of the training they offer. It is therefore of paramount importance for training institutions to track their alumni and get feedback on their progress. This would also help revamp their curriculum owing to such feedback.

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Figure 28: The extent to which one is satisfied with skills in PR and communications-Inhouse practitioners

67.2% of the respondents reported that they had a professional role model while 33.5% did not have. The presence of professional role models shows that the profession has pacesetters that ensure the industry is growing. Majority of respondents with role models (54.5%) said that their models were Kenyan while 45.5% reported that theirs were non Kenyan. This shows the presence and influence of the PR profession in Kenya is recognizable while at the same time, influence from professionals outside Kenya cannot be downplayed. Belonging to a professional body is a key quality check on the fundamentals governing any profession. Among those interviewed, a greater majority (71.4%) reported being members of PRSK, 14.3% members of IPRA, 7.1% members of FAPRA while a slightly above (28.6%) do not belong to any professional body. PRSK then has a duty to nurture its members professionally. Other professional bodies listed by respondents were AMWIK and SARACEN media group. Only 40% of organizations offer formal professional training and development programmes that practitioners can make use of while a majority (60%) do not. This jeopardizes the quality of services offered since there is lack of continuous professional training even as the industry keeps changing.

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To ensure quality control for PR/communication courses, institutions were reportedly said to ensure: i. Classes are attended. ii. Exams are well supervised and marked iii. Lecturers are evaluated after every semester. Use of ICT in teaching and training improves not only the quality of education but also guarantees effectiveness and efficiency. Respondents reported applying use of ICT in teaching PR/communications courses. Virtually none of the institutions from which respondents were drawn reported having institutions they benchmark with and institutions in ensuring quality of education and training. This compromises on the standard of education more so in a field which is not very much developed. Respondents further stated scarcity of research work in the field of PR/Communication albeit the place of research in any training discourse. None of the institutions in the sample had any publication in the field of PR/Communications in peer reviewed journals. This expresses the gravity of the situation in as far as the future of PR/Communications is concerned. This implies that there is little progress in the field of PR/Communications locally other than embarking on supplying PR/Communications graduates to the job market at the expense of growing a stable and self perpetuating career base in this field, through researched theoretical underpinnings. It also leaves the profession lagging behind the developed world where a lot of research is going on.

Enrolment rates for PR courses in local institutions are increasing, even doubling between 2008 and 2010. This trend is seen both for diploma and bachelors levels. This could be an indication of increasing demand in the job market, a pointer to the value professionals as well as organizations have started attaching to PR as playing a pivotal role in all spheres of development.

Trainers qualifications To remain at par with international standards in the field of PR the qualifications of the trainers is of paramount importance. Different institutions offering PR gave the minimum educational requirements for their trainers. The lowest level mentioned was possession of a bachelors degree, then a masters degree and a PhD degree and above. Quality of PR/Communication just like any other course is dependent on the training and experience of the trainer/lecturer. It is ironical to note that most of the trainers/lecturers had certificate/diploma as the minimum requirement (100% and 66.7% respectively).

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Figure 29: Minimum educational requirement for a PR/Communications Trainer/Lecturer per institution for the selected courses

120.0% 100.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% Certificate Diploma Bachelors Masters PhD Others(please specify).......... 0.0% 33.3% 33.3% 33.3% 100.0%

66.7%

In Kenya a vast number of the work force has in the recent past gone back to college to upgrade their skills so as to remain relevant to the job market demands. PR/Communication as a profession has not been left behind either since more people have gone back for further studies either locally or internationally. The need for globally acceptable standards in training can therefore not be over-emphasized.

International PR training standards Vis--vis local standards In efforts to keep abreast with the changing trends in the field of PR, respondents reported they apply the use of electronic learning when teaching PR/communications courses. The data reveals that PR practitioners acquired their qualifications from different institutions in the UK, South Africa, the USA and locally. It was however noted that most respondents got their qualifications from institutions outside Kenya. This could be attributed to the elaborate curricula that institutions from outside offer and the relatively new PR concept in Kenya that leaves aspiring practitioners with little or no options other than trying to access the course from outside. 42.9% of the people interviewed had industry related qualifications while 57.1% had no industry related qualifications. This shows a greater number of people in the PR practice are, they are in

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the profession without background qualifications in PR and related qualifications thus compromised performance in PR as opposed to the international standards. The demands of PR practice in Kenya cannot be wished out hence the need to strive to keep to the task by embracing international standards. Through the internet students are able to get in touch with the international community and borrow the advancements in the PR sector. However, there seems to be no agreed upon standards for adherence in order to maintain quality and relevance in PR. The people who were interviewed said institutions they work for do not have benchmark against which to train PR. Half (50.0%) of the respondents said they had a collection of research work in PR and communications while 50% said they did not. Lack of research means stagnant growth of a profession, it is therefore important for institutions to carry out research for professional growth. Training Attended Recently In the 2 years preceding the survey, the respondents had undergone a number of shortterm trainings which include: leadership, PR and media relations, integrated public relations, digital PR, humanitarian communication, crisis communication, consumer communication strategies among others. These courses were aimed at enhancing efficiency in communication and public relations. Challenges in provision of PR training The provision of PR in Kenya is however, not without challenges. Foregoing are some of the challenges mentioned by the respondents: Lack of specialization in PR; lack of resources e.g. books and well equipped studios and; lack of information by students about PR. Remedial measures to PR challenges To overcome the stated challenges, respondents suggested that there should be; capacity building for Educational Fraternity in PR; workshops for Students and; scholars should take up the challenge to write new PR books. Some recommendations given towards enhancing the PR/communications practice in Kenya include: PR should be introduced at school level and learners exposed to vast career openings plausible since exposure and aggressive publicity is key getting trainees; there should be uniformity in syllabus/course content among institutions that offer PR as a course; PRSK to regulate the practice and follow up so that only qualified people work and; there should be more linkages between colleges and PR/communication.

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CHAPTER FIVE: REGULATORY STANDARDS FOR PR PRACTICE IN KENYA The wave of growth in PR is moving across the continent and has led to establishment of Associations. These Associations are professional bodies mandated to not only regulate the practice of PR but also oversee the adoption of new guidelines in the developed world. When asked whether they belong to any professional body, only 28.6% of the respondents did not belong to any professional body and therefore their practice of PR was not governed by professional ethics. 71.4% of the respondents were members of PRSK, 14.3% were members of IPRA while 7.1% were members of FAPRA. Other professional bodies listed by respondents were AMWIK and SARACEN media group. In the in-house category, 92.5% belonged to PRSK, 7.5% were members of IPRA, 2.5% were members of FAPRA, 5% members of CIPR while 7.5% did not belong to any professional body. Majority of respondents cited membership in professional bodies as beneficial to the practice of PR in Kenya. They said such membership provides a forum where individuals are given an opportunity to interact with colleagues and share ideas. The professional bodies set standards and are able to regulate their members. While appreciating the significant role played by professional bodies, the respondents observed that more value addition needs to be done and suggested additional activities to be undertaken such as: Accredit the proper career curriculum for PR practitioners in Kenya, Enable networking & mentorship, Make the activities more affordable like the trainings and workshops, Make it compulsory for all registered members to take one professional course and urge the corporate members to pay for their employees who work in the PR/Communications departments, Focus on accreditation, training, research and exchange programmes, Hold periodical sessions for exchange of experiences and discussion of emerging trends in the PR world among others. The study has exposed a high degree of consensus amongst PR practitioners as to the elements of good practice. In virtually all the instruments used in the survey, the respondents provided critical information towards setting standards for the practice of PR in Kenya. What seems to come out was the need for PR to be regulated. Belonging to a professional body ensured that the practice enjoyed autonomy and self regulation. Professional bodies set the required standards for PR practice and prescribe sanctions for contravention. PR as it is currently requires re-engineering to improve the skills of those with no PR/Communications background. For instance, institutions offering PR should restructure their faculties to accommodate all aspects of PR in order to bring out individuals with adequate knowledge of PR. Given the internationalization of PR, the profession calls for an update of the current curricula that reflects this aspect and the intercultural aspect of modern PR. It is within this line of thought that PR in Kenya should integrate the 40

practitioners and the role models experiences in developing the curricula, including lessons learned from different parts of the world without losing focus of reality in Kenya. PRSK is best placed to drive this process. With changing world order, there is need for the PR profession to equally change to accommodate the aspects witnessed. Programmes in PR should be undertaken to enhance the understanding of the profession. In this study, most of the respondents have expressed the need to have PR training programme in organizations. These programmes should target the aspects of PR that seem forgotten. As PR evolves into more strategic practice, it affects more people more profoundly and more quickly. As a result, PR practitioners and academics alike have elevated their concern for ethics by ensuring revision of Codes of conduct for PR professional bodies. This survey has brought forth the disconnect that exist between learning institutions and industry players. The findings indicate that the top-rated competencies sought at organization level such as writing skills, critical thinking, problem- solving skills, good attitude, the ability to communicate publicly and initiative are either lacking or inadequate. Ethical standards as we know today transcend geographical and geopolitical boundaries, and a common standard for ethical conduct should apply across different countries and regions. While cultural aspects are key in PR communications, there is increasing danger to dub some unethical actions as culturally bound. Public relations professionals should carefully examine whether these practices indeed are commonly adopted within a culture and are considered to be ethical by the majority of local professionals. As demonstrated in this study and in view of the recent business and communications scandal in Kenya, emphasis has now shifted to the importance of honest, fair and transparent public relations. One of the greatest challenges for public relations professionals is to demonstrate and prove that new ways of thinking and new practices are indeed founded on ethical principles. New generation professional should follow honest practices to build a fundamental trust between public and organizations. Role of Professional Body The following were provided as the roles that the professional body should carry out in enhancing PR practice: 1. Facilitate lessons learnt and best practice sessions and case studies 2. Networking and interaction with international practitioners, regular training in PR specific areas

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3. Exchange Programs between Africa and other International destinations such as USA, UK, etc 4. Scholarships from the above 5. Exchange programmes 6. Best Practice benchmarking/exposure with the more developed economies 7. Sharing of experiences between practitioners and consultants 8. Sponsorship of PR practitioners to share experiences - more workshops, seminars and field trips 9. More training on PR 10. Continuous learning opportunities, like seminars, based on industry trends 11. More involvement of PRSK in training programmes 12. Professional training for those practicing PR /Communications roles 13. Training, workshops and seminars 14. CPD programme by PRSK but must be reasonably affordable for individuals as high rates are prohibitive for otherwise willing professionals 15. Organized PR Practitioners Forums twice or once in a year to share experience while sharing successful stories. 16. Come up with Vocational training for PR professional. 17. In Kenya, there is need to "professionalise" the PR profession by institutionalizing its training and practice through the above provisions 18. Regular short courses that have points that make someone gain status (accreditation) over time 19. Continuous short term courses/conferences will be crucial to keeping abreast of new developments/studies in the practice. Also sharing of case studies to be able to benchmark and learn from colleagues in the practice as well as setting of local industry benchmarks 20. Training in ICT and media technology 21. More training 22. Accreditation, certification in communications consulting 23. Setting and Qualification standard 24. Licencing 25. Accreditation for all PR professionals and awards 26. Introduce strict entry controls i.e. licensing/registration of practitioners 27. Professionalisation of the Course/Practitioners through registration of practitioners with PRSK or other recognized professional bodies 28. Separate media relations as a PR function. It is actually a tool. 29. Home-based learning programs on DVD 30. PRSK should become more active by not only giving awards but also in offering courses at affordable rates 31. A vibrant PR body that is visible to the public eye and audible to its ear. 32. Resource allocation 42

33. They need to be empowered and let them have budget for them to do their duties.pr cannot function effectively without budget 34. investigations What else should the professional body do to add value to your professional growth? (In-house practitioners) 1. Help PR in the country grow as a respectable profession by focusing on quality of PRSK's membership and not mass membership for the sake of raising money. Recruiting people only on the basis that they are serving in PR offices or firms without regard to their qualification is to cheapen the profession 2. Fight for our rights just like medical and lawyers body 3. Accredit the proper career curriculum for PR practitioners in Kenya 4. Accreditation, training, research and exchange programmes 5. Make it compulsory for all registered members to take one professional course and urge the corporate members to pay for their employees who work in the PR/Communications departments. 6. Introduce an award scheme for its existing members that would assist in tracking growth for its individual members rather than organizations 7. Other affordable CPD activities 8. Career development for practicing professionals and programmes to develop students 9. Organize serious high caliber courses and workshops 10. Mount regular training sessions for capacity building which are affordable 11. Organise seminar sfor its members 12. Quarterly workshops and training seminars 13. Design trainings that are affordable to students of upcoming pr practitioners 14. Anchor to Higher Institutions of Learning 15. Establish partnerships with institutions of higher to offer tailor-made courses to PRSK members 16. Tailor-made courses 17. Training and exchange visits 18. Offer networking opportunities such as dinners and cocktails. 19. Regular meetings 20. Bimonthly group challenges 21. Monthly get networking sessions for practitioners 22. Facilitate networking of practitioners with the media 23. Mentorship programmes 24. Networking & Mentorship 25. Hold periodical sessions for exchange of experiences and discussion of emerging trends in the PR world. 26. Make it more interactive and have more networking sessions and courses 43

27. Make the activities more affordable like the trainings and workshops 28. Send us consistently magazines and other books that could assist the members improve their work performance. 29. Annual conferences and Recognition Awards 30. More awareness 31. PRSK has been able to introduce measurability of PR efforts in some form a few years ago in conjunction with Synovate. This has removed some of the ambiguity with which the profession has been judged by previously. The Society has now worked on a PR curriculum and through the accreditation of a local college PR theory courses are now locally available enabling practitioners to work and study. The society has also established a code of ethics for the practice and put in tools such as this survey that will go a long way towards professionalism in the practice. 32. Encourage formation of chapters such as practitioners in the public service etc

PR Consultants had this to suggest to the PRSK: 1. Provide quality professional training and certification to regularize practice - just as with other professional bodies - medical, law, survey etc 2. Develop a code of ethics so that practitioners are governed by a set of rules (not sure this is in place). 3. Facilitate accreditation for professional PR persons only, promote access to experienced professionals for modeling, knowledge etc Regular sessions 4. The recent training towards developing professionalism is excellent in value addition 5. Equip practitioners with the necessary skills to inform clients what is PR and how it adds value. 6. Continuous learning opportunities with certification 7. International trainings 8. Association and network with other professionals , resources on industry trends in this region 9. Mentorship 10. Provide more interactive platforms for members to meet and socialize rather than the "tried and tested" 11. Publicise

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CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This section provides a summary of the findings and makes recommendations that will ensure the practice of PR in Kenya is sound and current. For instance, majority of participants in this survey agree that PR should be regulated by professional bodies. They recognize the role of professional bodies to be setting the required standards and monitoring and evaluating the PR programmes. Remuneration in the industry is fairly comparable, with the lower cadre staff in the industry earning slightly less than their counterparts in the consultancies. In terms of industry related skills, in-house practitioners were more skilled than consultants. Being in the PR firm, an individual was more likely to have acquired his/her education outside Kenya and also more likely to have a role model outside Kenya. This correlation was stronger as portrayed by the respondents. A comparison between the curricula offered across the learning institutions showed different institutions were inclined to different courses. There was no standard approach to teaching PR in the institutions of learning. The sooner a standard structure of curricula is put in place for PR training, the better for the practice and movement towards global standards. Although it is discouraging that the response rate among the training institutions was low, the information provided an indication of the disconnect with the job market. The study also showed lack of PhD graduates to steer the profession to the next level academically. However, positive signs have started to emerge with increasing number of studies in this area. Initially, the studies were confined to PR firms and were limited in circulation. A large mass of studies have started flowing creating interest among players for the need to review their responsibilities and functions. The top management of organizations has admitted that PR plays pivotal role in branding and rebranding organizations products and image. However, budget allocations for PR/Communications remain low. This is even made worse by no clear structure of the department and lack of proper titles for the PR officers. Organizations need to allocate adequate amounts to PR and recognize it as a fully fledged department with clear roles and responsibilities. There is also need to define a career path for PR officers to attract and retain competent employees. Internal capacity building programmes need to be encouraged to enable the practice to be more current and globalized. Interaction at different levels with stakeholders will also provide an opportunity for PR officers both in the in-house and in firms to learn and implement sound practices in other jurisdictions.

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Despite the integral part it plays in development, PR/Communication Kenya is yet to attain to international standards. Kenya still lags behind in this field especially in the area of development of local capacities in PR/Communication. As a country we cannot afford any more to relegate such a noble responsibility of training to other countries only. This study recommends that the government, through the ministry of Higher Education and local institutions, should devise the necessary mechanism to create awareness on PR/Communication training. It is therefore recommended that, owing to the realization of the role played by PR/Communication in boosting the economy of this country, local capacities be improved through subsidizing the cost of education for those interested in pursuing PR/Communication courses. This can also be boosted through soliciting of scholarships by the institution offering PR/Communication to further supporting those interested in pursuing careers in this area and probably do not have the capacity to do so. Finally, the role of PRSK in ensuring standards is critical. Regulation and enforcement of standards is a key theme running through the study. It is time the development of accreditation processes took place for the sake of enhancing the role of PR in Kenya.

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IN-HOUSE PR PRATITIONER QUESTIONNAIRE Appendix 1: Practitioners Profile Background information. Please tick as appropriate Gender Practitioners Profile appropriate Gender Answer Options Female Male answered question skipped question Background information. Please tick as Response Percent 72.5% 27.5% Response Count 29 11 40 3

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Appendix 2: Age(In Years) Age(in years) Answer Response Percent Options 18-25 5.0% 26-35 42.5% 36-45 37.5% 46-55 15.0% 56-65 0.0% 66 and 0.0% above answered question skipped question Response Count 2 17 15 6 0 0 40 3

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Appendix 3: Education level Education level PhD Masters degree Bachelors degree Higher National Diploma (HND) Diploma A-level O-level Other (please specify) Percent 0.0% 57.5% 35.0% 0.0% 7.5% 0.0% 0.0%

Appendix 4: Do you have any industry-related qualifications? (Industry related qualifications are those that are vocational and specific to communications and PR)

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Appendix 5: To what extent are you satisfied with your skills in PR and communications?

Appendix 6: Do you have a role model/mentor that has shaped/is shaping your career?

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Appendix 7: Is your role model Kenyan?

Appendix 7: List the PR/Communications professional bodies that you are a member of:

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Appendix 8: Formal professional training? Does your organisation have a formal professional training and development programme that you can make use of? Response Response Answer Options Percent Count Yes 32.4% 12 No 67.6% 25

Most practitioners rated their organizations ability to recruit experienced PR/Communications professionals as average with poor employee retention. This revelation gives insight in to the poor value firms attach to their employees in terms of work environment, monetary value, motivation among others, hence the quality of services offered in the PR industry where professional turn-over is high. This high turn-over rates negatively affect the place of PR/Communication. 52

Appendix 10: What type of organisation/establishment do you currently work in? (please tick as appropriate)

Appendix 11: What is the geographical distribution of the operations of your organisation? Country Area (eg Nairobi,Mombasa,Kisumu etc.Please list all)

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Appendix 12: Current job title What is your current job title? Answer Options Intern/Trainee Personal Assistant to MD/CEO/Director/Director General Public Relations Officer Corporate Communications Officer Corporate Affairs Officer Public Relations Executive Account Executive PR Manager Account Manager Corporate Communications Manager Corporate Affairs Manager Head of Corporate Communications Account Director Assistant/Deputy Director of Public Relations Assistant/Deputy Director of 54 Response Percent 0.0% 3.7% 25.9% 14.8% 3.7% 7.4% 0.0% 7.4% 0.0% 11.1% 3.7% 18.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Response Count 0 1 7 4 1 2 0 2 0 3 1 5 0 0 0

Communications Director of Public Relations Director of Communications Managing Director/CEO Other (please specify)

0.0% 0.0% 3.7% 10

0 0 1

Appendix 13: What would you say is the main purpose of your PR/communications department? On a scale of 0 4, please rate the extent to which you achieve in the area indicated: 0 (Not 1 4 Rating Response Answer Options 2 3 applicable) (Weak) (Excellent) Average Count Building and maintaining a 1 1 13 12 7 2.68 34 positive image in the media Supporting 0 1 10 12 9 2.91 32 products/services Building and maintaining 0 2 6 17 7 2.91 32 corporate brand Managing issues 0 3 12 10 6 2.61 31 Staff feel valued and 1 9 7 9 4 2.20 30 involved Promoting mission and values 0 5 8 15 6 2.65 34 externally Promoting mission 1 5 11 9 5 2.39 31 and values internally Positive investors 2 4 8 12 4 2.40 30 view Building and maintaining 0 5 9 12 4 2.50 30 product/services brands Supporting community and 1 4 12 10 6 2.48 33 social activities Managing 3 4 11 9 5 2.28 32 government 55

relations Compiling information on social 3 responsibility and environment Building and maintaining a 1 positive image among suppliers

13 6

2.29

31

13 9

2.26

31

Appendix 14: Activities performed in your current position Which of the following activities do you perform in your current position? Please indicate all that apply. Response Response Answer Options Percent Count Advertising 61.1% 22 Advocacy 25.0% 9 Branding/Corporate Identity 72.2% 26 Consumer/public campaigning 38.9% 14 Communication campaigns 66.7% 24 Corporate communications 75.0% 27 Corporate social responsibility 69.4% 25 Crisis communications and management 55.6% 20 Development of communications/PR 75.0% 27 strategy Event management 77.8% 28 Financial PR/Investor relations 16.7% 6 Information provision 52.8% 19 Internal communications 86.1% 31 Which of the following activities do you Response Response perform in your current position? Please Percent Count indicate all that apply Issues management 41.7% 15 Lobbying 22.2% 8 Managing budgets 52.8% 19 Managing other staff 36.1% 13 Marketing 27.8% 10 Media relations 86.1% 31 Online reputation management 50.0% 18 Pitching to prospective clients 13.9% 5 56

Political Communication PR/Communications research Project management Public affairs/Government Relations Sponsorship Stakeholder relations Writing and editing Other (please specify) 16.7% 58.3% 19.4% 50.0% 44.4% 50.0% 83.3% 6 21 7 18 16 18 30 2

Appendix 15: Current basic salary What is your current basic salary in Kenya Shillings? Answer Options Below 20,000 20,000 50,000 50,000-100,000 101,000-200,000 201,000-300,000 301,000-400,000 401,000-500,000 Above 500,000 Other (please specify) Response Percent 0.0% 23.5% 38.2% 17.6% 8.8% 5.9% 0.0% 5.9% Response Count 0 8 13 6 3 2 0 2 1

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Appendix 15Is there a Public Relations/Communications department/section/unit in your organization?

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