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ANALOG SYSTEM LAB EXPERIMENTS

Submitted by Sreekanth N

10mvd0057

M-tech VLSI Design

EXPERIMENT NO:1

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NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS AND INSTUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS

AIM

The goal of this experiment is to understand the application of the negative feedback in designing

amplifiers and to build an instrumentation amplifiers.

UNITY GAIN AMPLIFIER

of the negative feedback in designing amplifiers and to build an instrumentation amplifiers. UNITY GAIN AMPLIFIER

DC ANALYSIS

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DC ANALYSIS 3 OBSERVATIONS Sl No DC input voltage DC Output Voltage 1. 1 V 1

OBSERVATIONS

Sl No

DC input voltage

DC Output Voltage

1.

1 V

1 V

2.

2 V

2V

3.

3V

3V

4.

4V

3.5V

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

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4 OBSERVATION Sl No: Input frequency Magnitude variation Phase variation 1. 1 k -250.73 179.45

OBSERVATION

Sl No:

Input frequency

Magnitude variation

Phase variation

1.

1 k

-250.73

179.45

2.

100 k

-253.5

135.74

3.

500k

-264.43

97.55

4.

800k

-268.44

90.51

TIME RESPONSE

135.74 3. 500k -264.43 97.55 4. 800k -268.44 90.51 TIME RESPONSE NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER

NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER

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5 DESIGN Let R2=1k G=1+R2/R1 G=2 So R2=R1=1k DC CHARECTERISTICS OBSERVATION

DESIGN

Let R2=1k

G=1+R2/R1

G=2

So R2=R1=1k

DC CHARECTERISTICS

5 DESIGN Let R2=1k G=1+R2/R1 G=2 So R2=R1=1k DC CHARECTERISTICS OBSERVATION

OBSERVATION

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Sl No:

Input DC voltage(V)

Output DC voltage(V)

1.

250m

500m

2.

500m

1.00

3.

750m

1.5

4.

1

2

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

3. 750m 1.5 4. 1 2 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OBSERVATIONS Sl no: Input frequency Magnitude

OBSERVATIONS

Sl no:

Input frequency

Magnitude variation

Phase variation

1.

1k

6.02

-35.74m

2.

10k

6.02

-357.41m

3.

100k

-250.84u

135.73m

4.

500k

-250.84

97.55m

TIME RESPONSE

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7

INVERTING AMPLIFIER

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INVERTING AMPLIFIER 8 DESIGN Let R2=1k G=-R2/R1 G=2 So R2=R1=1k

DESIGN

Let R2=1k

G=-R2/R1

G=2

So R2=R1=1k

DC ANALYSIS

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DC ANALYSIS 9 OBSERVATION Sl no: Input DCvoltage Output DC voltage 1. 250Mv -0.5V 2. 500mV

OBSERVATION

Sl no:

Input DCvoltage

Output DC voltage

1.

250Mv

-0.5V

2.

500mV

-1 V

3.

750mV

-1.5V

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

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10 OBSERVATION SL NO: Input frequency Magnitude variation Phase variation 1. 1k 6.02 u 179.95

OBSERVATION

SL NO:

Input frequency

Magnitude variation

Phase variation

1.

1k

6.02

u

179.95

m

2.

100k

6 u

174.65

m

3.

200k

5.93u

169.33m

4.

500k

5.46

u

154.02

m

TIME RESPONSE

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11 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

11 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

DESIGN

Vo =

R (1+ (2R/R))(V2-V1)

R

Given gain=3

Vo/(V2-V1) = 3 =(1+(2R’/R))

(2R’/R) = 2 ; R’= R

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Vo/(V2-V1) = 3 =(1+ (2R’/R)) (2R’/R) = 2 ; R’ = R 12 OBSERVATION Sl no:

OBSERVATION

Sl no:

Input DCvoltage

Output DC voltage

1.

250mV

-749.9Mv

2.

500mV

-1.5 V

3.

750Mv

-2.2V

AC ANALYSIS

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AC ANALYSIS 13 OBSERVATION SL NO: Input frequency Magnitude variation Phase variation 1. 1k 9.5

OBSERVATION

SL NO:

Input frequency

Magnitude variation

Phase variation

1.

1k

9.5

179.9

2.

100k

9.5

170

3.

200k

9.4

160.2

4.

500k

8.4

132.2

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

9.5 179.9 2. 100k 9.5 170 3. 200k 9.4 160.2 4. 500k 8.4 132.2 TRANSIENT RESPONSE

EXPERIMENT NO: 2

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REGENERATIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM, ASTABLE AND MONOSTABLE

MULTIVIBRATOR

AIM:

This experiment illustrates the use of positive regenerative feedback, which is used in

all on-off control systems such as temperature controllers, pulse width modulators and

Class-D amplifiers. The goal of this experiment is to understand the basics of hysteresis

and the need of hysteresis in switching circuits

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

is to understand the basics of hysteresis and the need of hysteresis in switching circuits ASTABLE

DESIGN

T= 2RCln((1+β)/(1- β)) β = R1/(R1+R2) If R1=R2 , β=0.5 Given,

f=1/T=1kHz

10 -3 =2RCln(1.5/0.5)

2.2RC=10 -3 Let C=50nF R=10 -3 /(2.2x50 x 10 -9 )=10k

OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

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- 3 =2RCln(1.5/0.5) 2.2RC=10 - 3 Let C=50nF R=10 - 3 /(2.2x50 x 10 - 9

MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

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MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 16 DESIGN τ = RCln((1/(1- β)) If R1=R2 , β=0.5 Given, τ = 10ms

DESIGN

τ=RCln((1/(1- β)) If R1=R2 , β=0.5 Given,

τ=10ms

RCln(1/0.5)=10x10 -3 RCln2=10x10 -3 0.693RC=10x10 -3 Let C=1µF

R=14.43k

17 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS T 0.00 VG1 -5.00 4.00 VM1 -4.00 0.00 25.00m 50.00m 75.00m 100.00m
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TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
T
0.00
VG1
-5.00
4.00
VM1
-4.00
0.00
25.00m
50.00m
75.00m
100.00m
Time (s)
INVERTING SCHMITT TRIGGER
18 DESIGN R1/R2xVss=1V R1/R2x5=1 R2=5R1 Let R1=1k Then R2=5k TRANSIENT ANALYSIS T 5.00 VG1 -5.00
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DESIGN
R1/R2xVss=1V
R1/R2x5=1
R2=5R1
Let R1=1k
Then R2=5k
TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
T
5.00
VG1
-5.00
5.00
VM1
-5.00
0.00
25.00m
50.00m
75.00m
100.00m
Time (s)
HYSTERISIS ANALYSIS

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T 5.00 2.50 0.00 -2.50 -5.00 -5.00 -2.50 0.00 2.50 5.00 Voltage (V)
T
5.00
2.50
0.00
-2.50
-5.00
-5.00
-2.50
0.00
2.50
5.00
Voltage (V)

Input voltage (V)

OBSERVATION

SL

Regenerative Feedback Factor (β)

Hysteresis(Width)

NO.

1

0.2

1

2

0.25

1.25

3

0.5

2.375

4

0.75

3.625

EXPERIMENT NO:3

INTEGRATORS AND DIFFERENTIATORS

AIM

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The aim of the experiment is to understand the advantages and disadvantages of using

integrators or differentiators as building blocks in building Nth order filters.

INTEGRATOR

of using integrators or differentiators as building blocks in building Nth order filters. INTEGRATOR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

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21 OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

21 OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

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22 OBSERVATION SL NO. INPUT FREQUENCY MAGNITUDE PHASE 1 10 -1.98 99.03 2 100 -9.9 90.84

OBSERVATION

SL NO.

INPUT FREQUENCY

MAGNITUDE

PHASE

1

10

-1.98

99.03

2

100

-9.9

90.84

3

200

-15.96

89.36

4

1k

-29.94

87.49

5

10k

-49 71

88.03

DIFFERENTIATOR

90.84 3 200 -15.96 89.36 4 1k -29.94 87.49 5 10k -49 71 88.03 DIFFERENTIATOR

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

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TRANSIENT ANALYSIS 23 OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS 23 OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

AC ANALYSIS

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AC ANALYSIS 24 OBSERVATION SL NO. INPUT FREQUENCY MAGNITUDE PHASE 1 1k 15.98 -90 2 2k

OBSERVATION

SL NO.

INPUT FREQUENCY

MAGNITUDE

PHASE

1

1k

15.98

-90

2

2k

22.06

-90

3

5k

30.41

-90

4

10k

38.01

-90

5

100k

29.06

-271.09

EXPERIMENT NO:4

ANALOG FILTERS

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AIM

To understand the working of four types of second order filters, namely, Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass, and Band Stop filters, and study their frequency characteristics(phase and magnitude).

SECOND ORDER UNIVERSAL ACTIVE FILTER

and st udy their frequency characteristics(phase and magnitude). SECOND ORDER UNIVERSAL ACTIVE FILTER FREQUENCY RESPONSE

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

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26 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

26 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

BAND PASS FILTER

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BAND PASS FILTER 27 DESIGN f ₒ =1/(2 π RC) Let R=33k Ω , f ₒ

DESIGN

f=1/(2πRC)

Let R=33k,

f=1kHz,

So C=1/(2πR f)=1/(2π×1×10 3 ×33×10 3 )=2.4nF

Here Q=1

We have Q=1/(3-G) G=2

Also G=1+R2/R1R1=R2 say 33k

AC ANALYSIS

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28 STEADY STATE RESPONSE

STEADY STATE RESPONSE

28 STEADY STATE RESPONSE

BAND STOP FILTER

DESIGN

f=1/(2πRC)

Let R=33k,

f=10kHz,

So C=1/(2πR f)=1/(2π×1×10 3 ×33×10 3 )=470pF

Here Q=10

We have Q=1/2(2-G) G=2

Also G=1+R2/R1R1=R2 say 33k

AC ANALYSIS

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30

30 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

30 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

OBSERVATION

 

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BANDPASS

BANDSTOP

SL N0.

INPUT

PHASE

MAGNITUDE

PHASE

MAGNITUDE

FREQUENCY

1

10

89.37

-29.37

-342.03

6.02

2

100

83.66

-9.35

-3.42

6.02

3

1k

7.84

9.73

-30.99

6.02

4

10k

-82.85

-7.91

-22.8

2

EXPERIMENT NO. 5 :

SELF TUNED FILTER

AIM

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The goal of this experiment is to learn the concept of tuning a filter. The idea is to Adjust the RC time constants of the filter so that in phase response of a low-pass filter, The output phase w.r.t. input is exactly ´90˚ at the incoming frequency. This principle is utilized in distortion analysers and spectrum analysers, such self-tuned filters are used to lock on to the fundamental frequency and harmonics of the input.

spectrum analysers, such self-tuned filters are used to lock on to the fundamental frequency and harmonics

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

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TRANSIENT ANALYSIS 33 OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS 33 OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

EXP NO. 6 :

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FUNCTION GENERATOR AND VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR

AIM:

The goal of this experiment is to design and build a function generator capable of generating a square wave and a triangular wave of a known frequency. We will also convert a function generator to a Voltage Controlled Oscillator which is a versatile building block that finds numerous applications.

OUTPUT WAVEFORM

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OUTPUT WAVEFORM 35 SL NO. CONTROL VOLTAGE(V c ) FREQUENCY 1 1.5V 2.92k 2 1V 1.08k

SL NO.

CONTROL VOLTAGE(V c )

FREQUENCY

1

1.5V

2.92k

2

1V

1.08k

3

500Mv

537.6Hz

4

250Mv

271Hz

EXP NO.

7 :

PHASE LOCKED LOOP

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AIM

The goal of this experiment is to make you aware of the functionality of the Phase Locked Loop, commonly referred to as PLL. The PLL is mainly used for generating stable, high-frequency clocks in the 100 MHz - GHz range.

as PLL. The PLL is mainly used for generating stable, high-frequency clocks in the 100 MHz

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

as PLL. The PLL is mainly used for generating stable, high-frequency clocks in the 100 MHz

EXPERIMENT NO. 8 :

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AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL (AGC)/AUTOMATIC VOLUME CONTROL (AVC)

AIM

In the front-end electronics of a system, we may require that the gain of the ampli_er is adjustable, since the amplitude of the input keeps varying. Such as system can be designed using feedback. This experiment demonstrates one such system.

varying. Such as system can be designed using feedback. This experiment demonstrates one such system. TRANSIENT

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

varying. Such as system can be designed using feedback. This experiment demonstrates one such system. TRANSIENT

OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW

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OSCILLOSCOPE VIEW 38 Here the lock range is between 5V and 10 V

Here the lock range is between 5V and 10 V

AIM

EXPERIMENT 9

DC-DC Converter

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The goal of this experiment is to design a DC-DC converter using a general purpose Op- Amp and a comparator and study its characteristics. We also aim to study characteristics of a DC-DC converter integrated circuit; we select the wide-input synchronous buck DC/DC

Our aim is to design a DC-DC converer with high

converter TPS40200 from Texas

efficiency using general purpose Op-Amp for a variety of applications like SwitMode Power Supply (SMPS) and audio amplifier (Class D Power Amplifier) etc.

DC-DC CONVERTOR

like SwitMode Power Supply (SMPS) and audio amplifier (Class D Power Amplifier) etc. DC-DC CONVERTOR TRANSIENT

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

like SwitMode Power Supply (SMPS) and audio amplifier (Class D Power Amplifier) etc. DC-DC CONVERTOR TRANSIENT

EXPERIMENT NO:10

LOW DROP OUT REGULATOR

AIM

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The goal of this experiment is to design a Low Dropout regulator using a general purpose Op-Amp and study its characteristics. We will also see that an integrated circuit family of regulators, called TLV700xx, is available for the purpose and study their characteristics. Our aim is to design a linear voltage regulator with high efficiency, used in low noise, high ef_ciency applications.

voltage regulator with high efficiency, used in low noise , high ef_ciency applications. LINE REGULATION SIMULATION:

LINE REGULATION SIMULATION:

voltage regulator with high efficiency, used in low noise , high ef_ciency applications. LINE REGULATION SIMULATION:

OUTPUT VOLTAGE VS INPUT RESISTANCE:

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OUTPUT VOLTAGE VS INPUT RESISTANCE: 41