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SEMINAR 1 Old Germanic Languages Questions Internal and external factors of language evolution. The laws of language development. Old and modern Germanic languages and their classification. The importance of the Gothic language. Chronological divisions in the history of English. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 2433, 4955. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 911, 34 39. .., .. . .: , 1998. . 527, 9196, 166176. .., .. . .: , 1999. . 711. .. . .: , 1996. . 2224.

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Practice Assignment Compile a table representing the classification of old and modern Germanic languages.

SEMINAR 2 Linguistic Peculiarities of Old Germanic Languages Questions Word stress. The consonantal system (Grimms Law, Verners Law). The vocalic system. The morphological system in old Germanic languages: nouns and adjectives; strong and weak verbs. 4

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Vocabulary. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 3448. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 1230. .., .. . .: , 1998. C. 3880. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 8, 4652, 98100, 133135. .. . .: , 1996. C. 2582.

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Practice Assignment Compile a table demonstrating Grimms Law, Verners Law. Exercises 1. Explain the correspondences of vowels and consonants in the following pairs of words taken from Germanic and non-Germanic languages: OE balu (mischief) Russ. OE csan (to choose) Lat. gustre Germ. Salz (salt) Russ. OE Zuma (man) Lat. homo OE maZan, Goth. magan (to be able, may) Russ. (, ) Russ. Lat. gena Russ. Russ. Russ. OE frond (friend) OE cin (chin) OE fm (foam) OE nakod, Germ. Nakt Goth. triu, OE tro (tree)

2. We can learn a lot about the culture of the people, their social life, geographical conditions from the words of their language. What can you say about the life of the Teutons from the following list of English words, whose cognates are found in other Germanic languages? 5

borough, broth, calf, cliff, earl, east, fox, house, king, north, sea, sheep, ship, south, time, tin, west, whale, wheat, year.

SEMINAR 3 Old English Dialects. Written Records Questions 1. Pre-Germanic Britain. 2. Germanic settlement of Britain. 3. Anglo-Saxon Britain. The old English kingdoms. 4. Old English dialects. 5. Old English written records: old English poetry; old English prose. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 5571. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 4043. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 1115. .., .., .. . , 2000. C. 6768.

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Practice Assignment Compile a summary table representing the OE kingdoms, OE dialects and OE written records.

SEMINAR 4 Old English Phonetics Questions 1. Old English alphabet and rules of reading. 6

2. Word stress in old English. 3. Old English vowels. 4. The phonetic processes in the old English vocalic system: independent changes (development of monophthongs and diphthongs); assimilative changes: breaking, diphthongisation mutation lengthening, contraction, narrowing. 5. Old English consonants. 6. The phonetic processes in the old English consonantal system: voicing and devoicing of fricatives, hardening, rhotacism; palatalization, assimilation, loss of consonants, metathesis. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 7490. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 4453. .., .. . C. 177 179. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 5368. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 425. .. . .: , 1996. C. 8392.

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Practice Assignment 1. Compile a table of the phonetic processes of OE vowels. 2. Read the extract from King Alfreds translation of the World History by Orosius (9th c.): hthere sde his hlforde, lfrde cyninZe, t h ealra Normanna normest bde. H cw t h bde on m lande norweardum wi Wests. H sde eah t t land se swe lanZ nor onan; ac hit is eal wste, bton on fawum stwum styccemlum wcia Finnas, on huntoe on wintra and on sumera on fiscae be re s 7

(Ohthere said to his lord Alfred, the king, that he lived (had lived) to the North of all Northmen (Scandinavians). He said that he lived on that land to the North of the Atlantic ocean. He said also that the land was (OE is) very far (long) north from there; but it was (OE is) all uninhabited, but on few places here and there lived (OE live) the Finns hunting in winter and fishing in summer by that sea). Exercises 1. Read the words paying attention to the stress: modor (n) mid-niht (n) mis-dd (n) Zerestan (v) offaran (v) onZinnan (v) wrtan (v) tima (n) talu (n)

-risan (v) t-weard (adj) forweoran (v)


C

2. Say, what sounds are expressed by the letters F, Z, S, , Y, words: c I con (they) knew cynerice kingdom bc book AnZelcynn England Zeiode language enZlisc English siZlan to sail hfde (he) had Zefeoht fight

in the following OE

ofer over bysgu business ah though faran to go secZan to say

3. Compare the pronunciation of the NE sounds expressed by Z in the following OE words: OE Zaderian Zealla Zar Zeong, ZunZ Zyfan NE to gather gall [gLl] year young to give OE Zyldan, Zylden Zylt hZ dZ Zyrnan (Ziernan) NE gild [gIld], gold guilt hay day to earn

4. State OE and Gothic words. Point out the phonetic features on the basis of which some of the words are OE, others are Gothic: hardus heard, mete matis, fairra feor, slan slahan, eall alls, mah meaht, las laus, augo aZe, wpjan wpan.

5. What peculiarities of OE consonants can account for the difference in the sound values of the underlined letters in the following modern words: sand; to rise (OE rsan); other (OE oer); heaven (OE heofon); to choose (OE csan); North (OE Nor); to think (OE yncan); horse (OE hors); path (OE p); to bathe (OE baian). 6. What phonetic processes are illustrated by the following pairs of words: Goth. maiza OE mra (NE more); Goth. kunian OE can (NE to inform); Goth. daus OE dad (NE dead); *finf OE ff (NE five); Goth. saljan NE sellan (NE to sell); OGerm. isarn OE ren (NE iron); *bridda OE bird (NE bird); Goth. silba OE seolf (NE self). SEMINAR 5 Old English Morphology. The Noun Questions 1. Parts of speech and grammatical categories in old English. 2. The grammatical categories of old English nouns: the category of gender; the category of case, the use of cases; the category of number. 3. Morphological classification of old English nouns. Declensions: the strong declension; the weak declension; the minor types of declension.

Reference Material 1. Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 92101. 2. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 6373. 3. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 100108. 9

4. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 2634. 5. .. . .: , 1996. C. 111117. Practice Assignment 1. Compile a table of the declensions of OE nouns. 2. Learn by heart the extract from King Alfreds translation of the World History by Orosius (see Seminar 4). Exercises 1. Give the forms of the Nom. pl. of the following OE nouns: dZ (n.m.a.), horn (n.n.a.), bc (n.f.cons.), hs-bonda (n.m.n.), word (n.n.a.), heall (n.f..), rce (n.n.ja.), ecZ (n.f.j.), mere (n. m. i.), lamb (n.n.s.), Ze (n.n.n.). 2. State the type of the declensions and complete the table: sg. sg. sg. N. word N. bror N. bc G. wordes G. breres G. bc, bce D. ? D. ? D. ? Ac. ? Ac. ? Ac. ? pl. pl. pl. N. word N. ? N. bc G. ? G. ? G. ? D. ? D. ? D. ? Ac. ? Ac. ? Ac. ?

N. G. D. Ac. N. G. D. Ac.

sg. heorte ? ? ? pl. ? ? ? heortan

3. Explain the use of the ending of the Genetive case in the names of the week: Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and the absence of this ending in Sunday, Friday, Monday. SEMINAR 6 Old English Morphology. The Pronoun. The Adjective. The Adverb. The Numeral 10

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2. 3.

4. 5.

Questions Pronouns: personal pronouns; demonstrative pronouns. Other classes of pronouns. The adjective: the strong declension; the weak declension; the degrees of comparison. The adverb. The numeral. Cardinal and ordinal numerals. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 102108. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 7484. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 112116, 124128, 131132, 132133. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 2640.

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Practice Assignment 1. Compile a table of the declension of OE personal and demonstrative pronouns. 2. Compile a table of the declensions of OE adjectives. Exercises 1. Decline the pronoun c. 2. Give the forms of Acc. sg. and Dat. sg. of the pronouns ho, so, t. Compare them with the forms of the pronouns which have been preserved in ModE and explain the origin of the modern forms. 3. What forms of adjectives (strong or weak) should be used in the following sentences? Fill in the blanks with the appropriate endings:

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and tuZon one hliZ__ mann t of his hse and they drove that holy man out of his house; c eom Zd__ hierde I am a good shepherd. 4. Define the case, number and gender of the nouns: Zdne mann, blinda dor, blindena dora, hira manna, blcum wulfum, cyninZes secZa, one here, swn, bc, bc, Zdra tunZan, sceorte tala, blcum wulfe. 5. Decline the adjective Zd. 6. Give the comparative and the superlative degrees of the adjectives: Zd, lanZ, ltel, eald, blc, micel, swte, earm, ZeonZ. 7. Explain the interchange of the root vowels in the forms of the degrees of comparison: sml smlra smalost slender hah herra hehst high brdra brdost brd broad brdra brdest 8. Count in OE. 9. Decline the cardinal numeral n.

SEMINAR 7 Old English Morphology. The Verb 12

Questions 1. General characteristics of the old English verb. Its grammatical categories. 2. Old English strong verbs. The system of ablaut in strong verbs. 3. Old English weak verbs. Peculiarities of the three classes. 4. Preterite-present, anomalous (irregular and suppletive) verbs. 5. Non-finite forms of the old English verb. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 108 124. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P.74 84. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 136151. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 4060. .. . .: , 1996. C. 93111.

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Practice Assignment Read the text: Syan h underZeat t eall folc him t ZeboZen ws, bd h t man sceolde him Zhwylc tellan; and h wende syan sweard mid fulle fyrde... When he understood that folk had submitted, he ordered that they should tell him everything; and then he went southwards with all his army...

Identify the forms of the verbs underZietan and bdan. Find in the text weak, preterite-present, suppletive verbs. Analyse their forms. Find other verbal forms in the text. Analyse them.

Exercises

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1. Group the following verbs in the classes and the four principal forms (the infinitive, Past sg., Past pl., Part.II). In the list below there are all forms for each verb: sth, fluZon, scat, stiZen, lac, wurdon, helpan, floZan, scoten, feallen, coren, locen, weoran, hulpon, namon, csan, flah, scotan, lcan, wear, nmen, stZan, worden, niman, healp, swon, stiZon, sewen, bunden, cas, nam, foll, band, follon, curon, scuton, holpen, seah, locon, bindan, bundon, son, feallan, floZen. 2. State the class of the following strong verbs, supply the missing forms: Past sg. Past pl. Part. II Inf. stelan ? ? ? ? scn ? ? ? ? ton ? ? ? ? sunZen ceorfan ? ? ? ? ? ? wear sanc ? wc ? ? wurdon ? ? ? ? ? worden ? Zliden ? bacen

meaning to steal to shine to eat to sing to carve to become to sink to glide to wake to bake

3. Explain why some OE weak verbs build the Past form with the help of the dental suffix only and others use the connecting vowel. How does this peculiarity influence the further development of this or that group of verbs? For example: cpan cpte (NE to keep), lcian lcode (NE to look), ferian ferede (NE to carry). 4. Define which verbs of those listed below belong to the 1st and which to the 2nd class of weak verbs. Pay attention to the suffix of the infinitive: begnornian (to deplore), sendan (to send), forspendan (to spend), timbrian (to build), baian (to bathe), cian (to buy), dman (to deem), fstan (to fasten). 5. Conjugate the verb bon.

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SEMINAR 8 Old English Syntax Questions The phrase. The simple sentence. Parts of the sentence. Word order. The composite sentence the compound sentence, means of connection between clauses; the complex sentence, types of clauses and means of connection between them. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 124129. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 114133. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 216231, 239252, 270288, 292295. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 6066.

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Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: The description of Britain Brittannia t Zland... r syndon lyran wedera onne on Brittannia.// .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 319. Exercises 1. Determine the type of the predicates in the following sentences and the means of their expression: (1) Hr syndon Zfrede feorran cumene Gata lode. (2) c hrde niht... (3) HZ hfdon heora lufsang Zesungene. (4) S here ne com oftor. (5) ... o he Zegn hfdon. (6) c eom HiZelaces mZ ond maZo-eZn; hbbe ic mra fela ongunnen on ZeoZoe. 15

2.

Mark the subjects and determine the ways of their expression. Explain the forms of the agreement between the subject and the predicate: (1) Sw clne ho ws ofeallen on AnZelcynne, t swe fawa wron behionan Humbre... (2) So is brdre onne niZ man oferson mZe. (3) ... h lt him of handon lofne floZan hafoc wi s holtes and t re hilde stp... (4) ... ond c wne, tte nht moniZe beZiondan Humbre nren. (5) ... ond ws s cynZ iderweardes on fre... . (6) r wron bollan stpe boren.

3. Define the structure of the following sentences: (1) M ync betre, Zif w sw ync (it seems better for me, if it seems so also for you). (2) H sw dydon: worrhton t Zeweorc on tw healfe re s. (3) B Z on slum. 4. Define the type of word order: (1) Ic Zehte hit . (2) ... t w on t Zede wenden. (3) r wron bollan stpe boren. (4) Hfde s cyninZ his fierd on t tnumen. (5) ... Zif w stilnesse habba. 5. State the syntactic function of the underlined words: (1) Sum man hfde twZen suna. (2) Ond ic bebode on Zodes naman, t nn mon one stel from re bc ne niman cann... (3) Is t sd, t h frdon and nalcton t re ceastre... 6. Mark objects, attributes and adverbial modifiers in the following sentences. Point out the peculiarities of their expression as compared with ModE: (1) s ymb III niht elred cyninZ and lfred his brour r micle fierd t RdinZum Zelddon. 16

(2) Gewt him s elinZ ond his Zen sunu t s Zemearces, e him metod thte, wadan ofer wealdas... (3) onne naman nne w hfdon, tte w cristne wren, ond swe fawe awes... 7. Determine the type of the sentence, mark the main and subordinate clauses, state the type of the subordinate clause and means of connection between them: Ac ic sna eft m selfum andwyrde ond cw: he ne wndon, t fre menn sceolden sw reccelase weoran ond so lr sw ofeallan, for re wilnunZa he hit forlton ond woldon, t hr mra wsdom on londe wre, w m Zeoda con. SEMINAR 9 Old English Vocabulary Questions 1. The structure of the old English vocabulary. Etymological layers of native words in old English. 2. Borrowings from Celtic. 3. Borrowings from Latin before the Anglo-Saxon invasion. 4. Word-formation in old English: word derivation (sound interchanges, word stress, affixation); word-composition. 5. Stylistic stratification of the old English vocabulary. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 131 147. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 5663. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 1518. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 6769.

1. 4. 5. 6.

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Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: Ohtheres and Wulfstans Story hthere sde t... one man ht ScirinZes heal// .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 317. Exercises 1. Using the list of OE words borrowed from Latin, explain what kind of contacts the OE people had with Rome at different historical stages: ynce inch cytel kettle plante plant weall wall bte beet pipor pepper pytt pit copor copper ciste, cest chest cealc chalk enZel angel cyrice, cirice church 2. Determine the part of speech and the meaning of the words in the right column derived from the words in the left one: leornian v. to learn leornere, leorninZ, leornunZ frond n. friend stranZ adj. strange eald adj. old scearp adj. sharp sorZ n. sorrow fst adj. firm, fast Zeorn adj. eager frondlas, frondscipe, frondrde stranZian, stranZlic, stranZlice ealdian, ealdunZ, ealddm scearplic, scearplice, scearpnis sorZian, sorZlic, sorZful fste, fstan, fstlic, fstlice, fstnis Zeornful, Zeorne, Zeornan, Zeornlice, Zeornfulnes, Zeornfullic

3. Add negative prefixes to the following words and explain the meaning of the derivatives: rot glad un-...; hl healthy wan-...; spdiZ rich un-...; c to know un-...; lcian to please mis-...; limpan to happen mis-... . 4. What words listed below, compound by their origin, and cannot be referred to as compounds already in OE? Why? frondlc friendly (frond friend+ lc body; Ze-lc alike) Zarlc yearly (Zar year+ lc) swelc such (sw so+ lc) 18

hwelc which (hw who+ lc) hlford lord (hlf bread, loaf+ weard guard) weorold world (wer warrior+ ealdi age, generation) munuchd monk life (munuc monk+ hd rank, state) Zaderscpe matrimony, wedlock (Zaderian to gather+ scpe state, rank) wsdm wisedom (ws wise+ dm doom, fate) yrfenuma heir (yrfe inheritance+ niman to take). 5. What spheres of the science can be named by the compound words: lce-crft (lce a leech), tunZol-crft (tunZol a heavenly body, planet), rm-crft (rm a number), bc-crft (bc a book). 6. What meanings of the word weorold are realised in the OE words: weorold-ende, weorold-lf, weorold-bearn, weorold-dryhten, weorold-snotor, weorold-fder. 7. Define the meaning of the following compound words typical of OE poetry with an ornamental component: -henZest a water-horse, s-wudu a sea-tree, beadu-lma a battle-ray, hrn-rd a whales road, Z-beorn a battle man, Z-wine a battle friend.

SEMINAR 10 Middle English Morphology. The Nominal System Questions Word stress in middle English. The system of vowels: changes of unstressed vowels. Quantitative changes of stressed vowels. Qualitative changes of stressed vowels. Monophthongization of old English diphthongs and the development of new diphthongs. The system of consonants (growth of sibilants and affricates, development of fricatives, loss of consonants). Changes in the alphabet and spelling. Rules of reading.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P.184200, 209218. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.:Prosvesheniye, 1973. P.160173. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 6889. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 7078, 100112. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 5294.

Practice Assignment Read the extract from Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales (The Prologue): Whan that Aprille with his shores sote... That slepen al the night with open ye// .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 366367. Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: htheres and Wulfstans Story yder h cw... ralande and issum lande // .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 317. Exercises 1. Explain the phonetic changes in the following OE words which took place in ME: OE rd ME rod road OE Zs ME goos goose OE hyll ME hill hill OE heofon ME hevn heaven OE scan ME seken to seek OE dZ ME day day OE cild ME child child OE hlysten ME listen to listen OE clne ME clene clean OE hlf ME lof loaf, bread OE lufian ME loven to love OE nama ME name name OE pleZian ME pleyen to play OE ecZe ME edge edge OE fisc ME fish fish OE fr ME fir fire.

2. Speak on the change of the OE palatalised plosives in ME: scacan, cp, secZan, csan, sceort. 20

3. Explain the appearance of the letter v in the following ME words: loven (<OE lufian), haven (<OE habban), five (<OE ff), seven (<OE seofon). 4. State which words are OE and which are ME. Give your reasons: sna sone nefa neve mous ms child cild Zt yet mydnyght mid-niht 5. Read the following ME words: open, weke, child, wisdom, doore, yvel, blak, that, taughte, knowen, may, bowe, night, herd, queen, hous, my, snow, now, thief, edge, what, love, foul. 6. Restore the OE spelling of the following ME words: se wulves with gift seven ston over thousand doughter

SEMINAR 11 Middle English Morphology. The Nominal System Questions 1. The development of the noun: changes in the grammatical categories; the decay of declensions. 2. The pronoun: changes in personal pronouns; the development of possessive pronouns; changes in demonstrative pronouns, the development of the article system; interrogative, indefinite, relative pronouns. 3. The adjective: the decay of declensions; degrees of comparison.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 220240. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 174183. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 108110, 116124, 128130. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 7880. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 95120.

Practice Assignment Learn by heart the extract from Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales (The Prologue): Whan that Aprille with his shores sote... That slepen al the night with open ye// .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 366367. Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: Beowulf Beowulf maelode ... fter slest// .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 333. Exercises 1. Give the forms of the plural of the following ME words: man, mous, goos, foot, tooth. 2. Classify the nouns in the plural given below into the group including words with the old inflection of the plural and the group of nouns, the plural inflection of which is a new formation: applen, sunnen, brothren, children, lamber, vers, eyes, oxen, bokes, horsen, hundes, wordes, tides, earen, winter, scipen, shep, brethren, deden, chyrchen, lawes, honden, wummen, spechen, yer. 3. Account for the use of the Genetive case expressed by the inflection -(e)s and the of-phrase. In what sentences are the old norms of the usage the Genetive preserved? (1) ... of alle ore folies vertues ... (2) ... on Edwardes kinges deZe. 22

(3) ... a com ure drihten of hevenriche to heom on unres sleZe... (4) ... from every shires ende of Englond. (5) ... vor Cristes fif wunden u Zif me... (6) ... He had madd ful many a marriage of yunge wommen. (7) ... of mannes hearte. 4. Determine the number and case of the underlined pronouns in the following word combinations: (3) that Crist us shilde alle fro helle; (1) ... me thincth ic lede; (4) we eow wulleth; (2) that ye mowen nou yhere; (5) and geven hem mine kinetheode; (8) that we moten comen him to...; (9) ful michel thank kan i you...; (6) ... that ich you wile telle; (10) thei hidden hem alle and helden hem. (7) at the beginning of ure tale; 5. Speak of the formation of ME adverbs: (1) OE frndlice > ME frendliche (NE friendly); (2) OE lonZe > ME longe (NE long); (3) OE sian > ME sithens (NE since); (4) OE oon > ME ones (NE once). SEMINAR 12 Middle English Morphology. The Verbal System Questions 1. The development of the verb: strong verbs; weak verbs; preterite-present verbs; anomalous verbs. 2. Changes in the grammatical categories of the verb: simplifying changes in the existing grammatical categories; the growth of new forms in the verbal categories; the development of new grammatical categories (Voice, Time Correlation, Aspect). 3. The verbals. 23

4. The analytical way of form building. The growth of analytical constructions. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 220222, 241273. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 189204. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 154156, 162184, 194198, 204206. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 8193. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 121139.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: The AngloSaxon Chronicle: On lcan Zre ... and sume fower cyninZes eZnas ofslZene. // .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 313. Exercises 1. Give the forms of the Past tense of the following ME verbs: writen, drinken, been, deemen, spreken, looken, haven, knowen, finden. 2. Give ME forms of the following preterite-present verbs: OE sceal scolde, OE mZ mihte, OE cann ce, OE mt mste, OE dearr dorste, OE Zan hte.

3. Determine the peculiarities of the meaning and usage of the ME verb mayen in the following sentence: Shepe that haue longe taylles may worse wyth winter been than those that haue brode taylles.

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4. Determine the peculiarities of the meaning and usage of the ME verb shall in the following sentences: (1) Nay, he schall nat that don (No, he shall not do that). (2) ... heer schall he nat preche (he must not preech here). 5. Determine the peculiarities of the meaning and usage of the ME verb do(n) in the following sentences. Compare them with the meaning and usage of the modern verb to do did done: (1) That he be tan and don in band. (2) If I do not the workis of my fadir, nyle ye bileue to me. 6. Study the analytical Perfect forms. Explain the reason for the use of the verbs ben and haven. Compare them with the Perfect forms in ModE: (1) we ben entered in-to shippes bord... (2) every man hath told his tale. (3) he hadde half his cours y-seyled. (4) he hadde him knowe yeer by yeer. (5) Thys day is the messenger gon to the toun. 7. Speak of the analytical forms of the Future Tense. Compare them with ModE ones: (1) Thou shalt na-more do me to sing... (2) Ne never-mo he shal his lady see... 8. Speak of the analytical forms of the Passive Voice in ME and ModE: (1) he was geven his lif. (2) Arcite is banished on his heed... (3) ther wordis of this bischop oughte to be taken hede to.

9. Determine the forms of the verbals: (1) That oon of hem, in sleeping as he lay, him mette a wonder dreem (2) we haven deserved to be slayn. (3) he hadde schame to schrife him of many sinnis. (4) him spekinge thes thindis, many men believeden into him. 25

(5) Withouten merci askinge wende he.

SEMINAR 13 Middle English Syntax Questions 1. The phrase. 2. The simple sentence. Means of syntactic connection. 3. Parts of the sentence. 4. Word order in middle English. 5. The compound sentence. 6. The complex sentence. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 277294. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 212227. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 224236; 242; 252270; 272; 274; 277; 281; 286; 291; 295299; 309. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 9399.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: The AngloSaxon Chronicle: On m ftran Zre ... com SweZen cyninZ mid his flotan t Sandwic // .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 314.

Exercises 1. Compare the following ME sentences with their translation into ModE and point out peculiarities of the syntactic structure in both periods. Analyse changes of the syntactic structure and determine their causes: (1) Mest al that me licede ar nu hit me mislichet. 26

Most of what I loved before I dont like now. (2) ... me thunketh that deth hath don us wrong... ...I think that death has done us wrong... (3) ...to late ic habbe me bithogt, bute god me don milce. ...too late I have bethought myself of that, but god has done me mercy. (4) Leir king wende on anne feld and reste hine on folden... King Lear went to the field and rested there on the ground... 2. Point out the subject and the predicate. State the means of their expression: Me thought I showed man luf, when I made hym to be alle angels abuf, like to the trynyte; and now in grete reprufe fulle low ligis he, in erth hymself to stuf with sin that displeasse me most of alle... 3. Mark direct and indirect objects and state their peculiarities as compared with the norms of ModE. What changes can be traced and what are their causes? (1) ... ich hit thonkie the, mi leoue leifdi, and thonkie wulle, the hwule thet ich liuie. (2) A ship he bad me ordayn to safe us oure fee... (3) Thanne spak him child Horn... 4. Point out attributes and define the means of their expression. What is the form and function of their ModE equivalents? (1) Thu ert soule liht and mine heorte blisse. (2) ... mine heorte blod is thin. (3) Thou haves don a wicke dede. (4) Bruillant, the kyng of Mountmirree, of his stede him lijte adoun... (5) To the moost noble and worthiest lordes, moost rightful and wisest conseille to owre ligelorde the king... 5. Point out peculiarities of word order which have appeared in ModE and have widely spread: (1) Krist late us evere so for to do, that we moten comen him to... (2) Krist of hevene was him with. (3) Ich am i-com to speken the with... 27

(4) He tellis, that a scolere at Pares had done many full sinnis, the whilke he hade schame to schrife him of.

SEMINAR 14 Development of the Vocabulary in Middle English Questions Changes in the vocabulary: losses of words or their meanings, replacements, additions. Scandinavian influence. French influence. Wordformation: word derivation sound interchanges; word stress; affixation (native and borrowed prefixes, native and borrowed suffixes); conversion in late middle English; Word formation: word composition. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 296328. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 148160. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 2224. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 1451.

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: Cura Pastoralis (Preface): lfred cyninZ hte grtan ... ond h ZesliZica tda wron Ziond Angelcynn. // .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 321. Exercises 1. Compare the Scandinavian and French influence on the ME vocabulary (linguistic, geographical and social factors; number, nature and spheres of borrowings). 2. Explain the appearance of the etymological doublets in ME: 28

skyrt (skirt) shirte; scateren (to scatter) schateren (to shatter); skrichen (to screech) schriken (to shriek) skremen (to scream). Give your examples. 3. Comment on the following ModE synonyms. Define their origin (native, Scandinavian, French): want wish, search look for, bloom blossom, skill craft, odour smell. 4. Speak on the spheres of French borrowings: court, clergy, coat, sport, armour, jury, nation, table, paradise, jewel, dance, honour, manner, scissors, dinner, painter, pleasure, lesson, count, sergeant. 5. State the difference in the origin between the following words: (a) cow beef; swine pork, bacon; sheep mutton; (b) butcher, tailor smith, shoemaker. 6. Comment on the word derivation means in the following ME words: beseechen, tale (n) tellen (v), mislayen, rider(e), sleepish, sitten setten, cleerness, love (n) love (v), craftesman.

SEMINAR 15 Development of the Sound System in New English Questions General characteristics of the vocalic system. Changes in short vowels. Growth of long monophthongs and diphthongs due to the vocalisation of consonants. The Great Vowel Shift (phonetic and graphical changes). Changes in the system of consonants: development of consonants and associated vowel changes; growth of sibilants and affricates; loss of consonants in clusters. Changes in the alphabet and spelling. 29

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 188 192, 200218. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 254 273. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 8197. .., .., .. . .: , 2000. C. 113124. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 154181.

Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: Cura Pastoralis (Preface): For m ync betre ... w swe e maZon mid Godes fultume.// .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 321. Exercises 1. Read the following ME and NE words. Explain the changes in the NE words: ME NE ME NE ME NE of of wasshe(n) wash pass pass his his glas glass wasp wasp war war water water gras grass is is with with fast fast that that thos those palm palm fur fur warm warm mast mast calm calm quack quack thes these floor floor flour flour there there breeth breath listen listen knowen know 2. What phonetic simplifications can be traced in the following NE words: ME NE climbe(n) climb lamb lamb doumbe dumb 30

autumne

autumn

3. Explain the absence of diphthongization in the words: NE room (OE rm), loop, stoop (OE stpian), tomb (ME tumb), droop (ME droupen), group, wound, route if it is known that in the 15th century there was [u:], which usually turned into the diphthong [au]. 4. Explain the absence of the vowel shift in the words: redeem (Fr. redimer), esteem (Fr. estimer), canteen (Fr. cantine), breeze (Sp. brisa), genteel (Fr. gentil), shagreen (Fr. chagrin), tour, routine, rouge, soup, machine, vase, promenade. 5. State the phonetic processes which determined different pronunciation of etymologically one and the same vowel in the roots of the following related words and their forms: child children wild wilderness wise wisdom keep kept meet met feed fed house husband sheep shepherd listen loud merry mirth. 6. Give historical reasons, why one and the same letter a expresses different sounds: half [R], calf [R], blank [], grand [], walk [L], all [L], dance [R], branch [R], danger [eI], safe [eI], (Fr. sauf), gaunt [L], ancestor [], cant [], haunt [L]. 7. Account for the mute letters in the following ModE words: ate, know, climb, castle, glisten, Christmas, wrong, answer, solemn, muscle, handsome, Greenwich, grandmother. 8. Explain the pronunciation of the letter s in the following words: son, possess, wisdom, busy, bookes (ME bookes ['bLks]), thousand, dresses, mouse, deserve, (ME deserven [d'servn]), resemble (ME resemblen [r 'sembln]).

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9. Give ModE words which have appeared due to the certain phonetic and graphical changes: OE hyran, spdan, sceort, duru, scnan, snwan, hearm, sceal, wearm, butere, bc, bt, mete, mtan, hund, hundred, hwt, tn, stelan, smoca, drfan, cl, dop. 10. Explain the appearance of mute letters in the following words: NE thumb (OE uma), NE house (OE hs), NE delight (OE delite), NE horse (OE hors), NE limb (OE lim), NE whole (OE hl).

SEMINAR 16 New English Morphology Questions 1. The nominal system: the development of the grammatical categories of the noun; changes in the system of pronouns; the modern standard usage of degrees of comparison. 2. The verbal system: new grouping of verbs; changes in the verb paradigm; the further development of analytical constructions; verbals. Reference Material 1. Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 231276 (441443; 445447; 461; 473; 476486; 495; 502509; 512; 520). 2. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 273292.

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3. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 110112, 116124, 130, 156162, 184191, 194200, 206215. 4. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 182199. Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: Aelfrics Grammar: lcum men Zebyra ... t hliZe godspel seZ. // .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 324325. Exercises 1. Give the historical reasons of the development of the Genetive case: (1) e kyng his land (13 c.); (2) the king is land (15 c.); (3) the kings land (18 c.). 2. Speak of the development of the modern pronouns this that, these those. 3. Explain the formation of the degrees of comparison of some adjectives in NE: more better; it was the most unkindest cut of all. 4. Why is the ending -en preserved in such ModE words as drunken, bounden, sunken, if it is known that in Participles II in n+a consonant the suffix is usually dropped (Cf. find found found, sing sang sung, etc). 5. State the reasons of different past tense forms of some verbs in the British and American variants of ModE: to learn (Am. learned, Br. learnt), to smell (Am. smelled, Br. smelt), to spell (Am. spelled, Br. spelt), to spill (Am. spilled, Br. spilt).

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6. Explain the origin of some NE non-standard verbs which have developed from the OE and ME weak verbs of Class I: Inf. Past Part.II sell (OE sellan) sold sold put (ME putten) put put feed (OE fdan) fed fed

SEMINAR 17 New English Syntax Questions: 1. Peculiarities of the phrase as a unit of an analytical language. 2. The simple sentence. 3. Word order. 4. Negation. 5. The composite sentence (compound, complex). 6. Means of connection between clauses in a complex sentence. Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 277289 (530534; 535541; 54546). Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 295298. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 236239, 242244, 252268, 272273, 274275, 277280, 287, 291292, 304 305, 309310. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 200208.

1. 2. 3.

4.

Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: Aelfrics Grammar: And lc man e wisdm lufa ... bton h on juZoe leornion?// .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 325.

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Exercises 1. Comment on the word order in the sentences. Define their types: (1) Mother, you have my father much offended. (2) How like you this play? (3) How much better is it to weep at joy than to joy at weeping! (4) She should not go there. Compare the structures of the sentences with present-day English ones. 2. Analyse the following sentences taken from Shakespeares works and determine the peculiarities of the usage of infinitives (syntactic functions) as compared with ModE: (1) Beshrew that heart that makes my heart to groan... (Sonnet 133, 1). (2) ... I saw her coral lips to move... (Taming of the Shrew, I, 1, 179). (3) And what would you have me to do? (Alls Well, V, 2, 30). 3. Speak on the constructions of the following NE sentences: (1) It likes me well. (2) It shall not need. (3) It is informed me. 4. Determine the types of the predicate: (1) I shall do diligence... (2) ... that makes man fall a traitor. (3) I will ever remain your assured friend. 5. Define syntactic functions of the underlined words: (1) He may look his dog (Cf. ModE to look for). (2) They speak of beauty and perfections eldest daughter. (3) I opened the door for her to come in. (4) I will restore this man his wife. (5) Nor their lyvynge is not much worse. (6) We shall be blessed to do your pleasure. 6. Comment on the type of the following compound and complex sentences and determine the means of the connection in them: (1) If two men ride on a horse one must ride behind. (2) He promised that he would deliver my letter. 35

(3) To these things they gave him no answer, only they looked upon each other, and laughed. (4) Were I free I should go with you. SEMINAR 18 New English Vocabulary Questions 1. The development of word stock in new English: borrowings from classical languages; borrowings from contemporary languages; word derivation (sound interchanges, word stress, affixation, conversion, back formation); word composition; semantic changes of words. 2. English outside Great Britain. 3. Spelling and pronunciation. Reference Material 1. Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 306328. 2. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 237253. 3. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 2845. 4. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 209224. Practice Assignment Read, translate and make a morphological analysis of the text: Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Liber Secundus, I Nis s onne se hlisa ... c moniZe cwmon t bicZenne inZ. // .., .. // . .: , 1999. C. 323.

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Exercises 1. Give an etymological analysis of the ModE words: house, to write, to steal, man, fellow, island. 2. Describe the semantic changes illustrated by the following words; point out examples of metaphoric and metonymic change, narrowing and widening of meaning: NE Earlier meanings (OE, ME) aunt fathers sister bird young fowl carry transport by cart corn any grain fare travel, go hound dog 3. What process is examplified by the following words: adventure < Fr. avanture, equal < OFr. egal 4. State the origin of the following words and explain what kind of contacts Great Britain had with these countries: macaroni, maize, rouble, violin, cargo, vodka, tomato, cigar, canoe, kangaroo, jungle, cookatoo, samovar, opera. 5. Prove that the following words are hybrid formations: retell, readable. 6. Explain the existance of such pairs of words as: father fatherly, paternal; sun sunny, solar. 7. Analyse the following ModE words from the point of view of modern spelling and pronunciation: cake cat car care; fate fare; use (n) use (v); this his; thick this; light; climb; debt; what this teach short; me meet meat; go note soap.

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Assignments for Self-Preparation


Questions 1. Historical background in Britain before the Anglo-Saxon invasion (Celtic tribes, the Roman conquest). 2. The Anglo-Saxon invasion. 3. The Scandinavian invasion and its impact on English. 4. The Norman conquest. 5. Economic and social conditions in Britain after the Norman conquest. Extension of the English territory. 6. Reestablishment of English as the language of state and literature (ME dialects, struggle between English and French). 7. Rise of the London dialect. The age of Chaucer. 8. Historical background in Britain in the 16th-19th centuries. Establishment of the English nation. Development of the national literary English language. 9. Introduction of printing. W.Caxton. 10. Literary Renaissance. 11. Establishment of the written standard. Normalising tendencies. Growth of the spoken standard. 12. Expansion of the English language from the 17th to 19th centuries. 13. The modern period. Contemporary dialects. 14. Varieties of English (British English, American English). Reference Material Rastorguyeva T.A. A History of English. M.: , 2001. P. 5563, 149183. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L.: Prosvesheniye, 1973. P. 3444, 134148, 228245, 298302. .., .. . .: , 1999. C. 915, 1945. .. ( ). .: , 1998. C. 1451, 140153.

1. 2. 3. 4.

38

Pronunciation Key [R] [:] [e:] [i:] [L] [u:] [y:] Z [j], [g], [] , [], []

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CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ 1 SEMINAR 1. Old Germanic Languages ........................................................................ 4 SEMINAR 2. Linguistic Peculiarities of Old Germanic Languages ............................. 4 SEMINAR 3. Old English Dialects. Written Records .................................................... 6 SEMINAR 4. Old English Phonetics.............................................................................. 6 SEMINAR 5. Old English Morphology. The Noun ........................................................ 9 SEMINAR 6. Od English Morphology. The Pronoun. The Adjective. The Adverb. The Numeral .............................................. 11 SEMINAR 7 Old English Morphology. The Verb ........................................................ 13 SEMINAR 8. Old English Syntax ................................................................................. 15 SEMINAR 9. Old English Vocabulary......................................................................... 17 SEMINAR 10. Evolution of the Sound System in Middle English ............................... 19 SEMINAR 11. Middle English Morphology. The Nominal System ............................. 21 SEMINAR 12. Middle English Morphology. The Verbal System ................................ 23 SEMINAR 13. Middle English Syntax.......................................................................... 26 SEMINAR 14. Development of the Vocabulary in Middle English ............................. 28 SEMINAR 15. Development of the Sound System in New English.............................. 29 SEMINAR 16. New English Morphology..................................................................... 32 SEMINAR 17. New English Syntax.............................................................................. 34 SEMINAR 18. New English Vocabulary...................................................................... 36 Assignments for Self-Preparation ................................................................................ 38 CONTENTS .................................................................................................................. 40

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