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Conclusion (I would like to keep it short !!!)

Dear Mr. Dr. Ravishenkar and all,

I appreciate your effort and express my thanks to explain about mtDNA and in suggesting the paper by Mr. Jones et al, 2002, the arguments raised by him regarding the limitations are very true and logical, one cannot rely on mtDNA analysis to speculate the era (time period) of certain migrations, as Mr. Dr. Ravishenkar said or Mr. Jones presented that the factors should also be considered like linguistics. Which is logical. However, one cannot completely eradicate the method as false, it is not done in the above mentioned paper even. The paper is a specific case study of Amerindians and some of the points can be taken into consideration.

1) The mtDNA analysis of a population can be correlated to some other population from any part of the globe if and only if the other part of the population is non migratory, or the group of people who have simultaneously migrated to different parts of the world at the same period of time which is in the cause of Eurasian migration.

2) mtDNA analysis provides a very strong tool for molecular anthropology as a discipline has give rise paleoanthropologists. What does it mean? paleoanthropologists can extract and study mtDNA from the fossils and co-relate it to the existing populations and their origin, where to extract nuclear DNA in some cases could be difficult or even not possible, carbon dating of the fossil is performed to know the age approximately (up to 60 % accuracy) . This had recently given rise to the conclusion that all the human beings had originated from Africa and migrated to different parts of the world (Human genome project). This conclusion again has its pro and contra parts.

Most of the other nice points about mtDNA are nicely and positively being explained by Mr. Dr. Ravishenkar in points 1,2 and 3 and I share the same opinion.

However, the reference submitted by me (R. Cordaux et al. European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 253264) where the origin of different sects in India is simply not based on mtDNA sequencing, it is correlated with ethnography and linguistics (For better understanding see the tables and graphs). Eventually, one can clearly understand even today just by looking at the vivacity of Indian population (physically and linguistically). Seriously we are not a single group of people derived from a single group of population, there was a large intermixture of different groups of people who migrated to India and got settled in the

subcontinent and brought wide range of knowledge with them. Though most of the knowledge and costumes are brewed in India by the intellectuality of the immigrated population, it cannot be denied that there were uncultured native tribes who were living in the subcontinent before our arrival.

Aryan migration theory (better to call it this way than invasion),

I absolutely disagree with Mr. Dr. Ravishenkar, AMT is a theory that is strongly supported by the left wing historians from JNU (Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi). However, most of the right wing historians oppose it, there is a strong political reason behind it, the Aryan migration theory was introduced by westerners especially Germans and later supported by British. However, some westerners need not have to say us the history of our country, if we think by ourselves logically we can clearly find the geopolitical situation in northern India and the possibility of population migration. Denying migration is something like arguing that Islam is born and bought up in India or Buddhism in China or Hinduism in Indonasia.

Again coming to the point that Vedas are brought by immigrating people is not completely

wrong, while Rig-Veda was brought by immigrating people (Eurasians) where a very small part of it is still intact most of it is lost (watch: The story of India a BBC documentary link

given below in youtube,

and the other Vedas and social structure (caste system) were composed in India by the immigrated population. If the question arises, was it done by the natives or immigrated people, answer is very simple, because the Vedas are written in Sanskrit (Indo-European language) and Sanskrit (check: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit) was not language of native Indians it might have been composed by the immigrants. Then what was the language of native Indians? Most of the Indian tribes did not have any specific written language, the Dravidians!!! (I call them people who before at Indus valley) which were with time pushed to southern India from Indus valley retained their language (this is based on the historical evidences found in Indus valley civilization which provided a strong evidence of sign language found in Mayiladuthurai, Tamilnadu). Why the migration theory took such a strong limelight in the history? because of the Indo-European languages spoken in Europe (German is one of them, a non Latin based language) is it purely based on linguistic evidence? No, it is again based on mtDNA evidence and also based on a very specific evidence that I was very impressed from, I was once talking to a scientist from Bayer-Germany where they were doing research on the lactase gene, in general adults are not prone to digest milk because the lactase enzyme is a

infant enzyme. However, there are some populations especially Caucasians and most of the Europeans who have this enzyme even in the adults, this gene was actually present in the populations which were taming cows for their livelihood, like goats are being tamed in middle east (not a proper place to tame cows and buffalos) and buffalos in southern India and south- eastern Asia. Now if you see a very clear relation between the populations that tame cows one can clearly imagine how the cultures got intermixed with time (I believe that these people brought the culture of praying Mr. Krishna as god). Others are illogical evidences that dwaraka is situated in north India and its still intact , or Mr. Rama got birth in Ayodhya-UP and so on. Indian culture a large intermixture of different races and cultures which are being intermixed, brewed and took a wonderful shape with time. A wonderful intellectual gene pool has been created due to the immigration of different kinds of populations and developed a marvelous philosophy that we must be proud of, it doesn’t belong to a single person, single tribe or single caste, its an intermixture and for thousands of years we allowed the system to evolve in such a way till the people got mean and introduced new rules restricting the flow of knowledge and its evolution.

Now coming to the caste system, as Mr. Pawan (sorry for not initiating with the family name) said before, caste system is a very wonderfully designed social infrastructure to balance all the needs of a perfect society again introduced by the migrated people. However, with time it lost its charm, but I strongly believe that in present day conditions it will retain its charm. Why because, if someone pays 100-500 Rs to a barber for one hair cut and he is earning about 50,000 Rs per month (I am not joking) everyone would like to become a barber (European situation) the same is with mochis, just visit mochi in hyd, a pair of pure leather cheppal costs over 1000 Rs. And its absolutely false if someone blames Bhrimins for the poor socio- economic conditions of certain caste, I don’t think the Barber community or a gouda community will allow me to do their jobs and cut a share in their income. The same happened to reliance when they wanted to introduce barber shops in hyd, the barber community fought against it, same is the case with gouda community, there are milliners in these communities.

Now coming to reservations, 8 % of ST communities must be provided reservations for their development and social integrity which we suppressed for thousands of years, but not the other casts got self destroyed economically due to the lack of proper organization and ill practices or I should say due to the lack of proper understanding of caste system.

Coming to Telangana we are all immigrated people who occupied the subcontinent and share the same origin both ethnically and linguistically, we possess a small variation in nucleotide diversity and speak Dravidian, why should we fight in ourselves to divide a piece of land.

Beast regards

Dr. Shravan Tanugula