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81 WM 106-4

September 1981, p. 4263

Optimal

Control of Electrical Power

Controlled

SystemsContaining

Reactors Part I:

Effect of Controlled

Reactors on theTransient

Stability Limit

V. A. Venikov and V. A. Stroev Moscow Power Institute

Mohsen A. H. Tawfik

Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Cairo

considers the effect of controlled reactors connected to

an EHV long transmission line on the transient stability power

This

paper

transfer limit of the

substantial and

the

degree

operating

be

of the controlled

reactors themselves

of the

controlled reactor parameters undertransientconditions have been

basis to continue

the study to show the damping effect of the controlled reactors in

the line. The

system.

It is shown that this effect

parameters

may

depends

(time

on the

constant and control

compensation

range) as well as on

and the

prefault

of series

capacitive

conditions of

optimum values

determined. The results obtained

case of large disturbances

provide a good

in the system.

81 WM 107-2

September 1981, p. 4271

Optimal Control of Transients in

ElectricalPower

SystemsContaining

Controlled Reactors

Part 2:

Optimal Control

Problem Solution

80 SM 652-8

September1981,4281

SafeSubstation Grounding.Part I

Report of the Substation Committee Working Group
78.1

J. G. Sverak

Gibbs & Hill,Inc.,New York, NY

W. K. Dick ITTBlackburn Co.,St. Louis,MO

T. H. Dodds

McGraw-Edison Co.,Canonsburg, PA

R. H.

Heppe

Computer

Sciences Corp., FallsChurch,VA

The IEEE Std.

Grounding,"

Group

78.1

is

80-1976,

"IEEE Guide for

Safety

in Substation

by

Working

presently being

reviewed and revised

of the Distribution Substation. Subcommittee of the

presented

will

in this

essentially

paper

is a

replace

Substation Committee. The material

preliminary version of the material that

Sections 1 through 6 of the existing

technical papers will present

other sections of the revised

IEEE Std. 80-1976. Future

information that will be included in IEEE Std. 80.

safe groundingdesign hastwo objectives:

A

1 ) Provide means to under normal and

carry and dissipate

continuity operating

and

of service.

electriccurrent intoearth

exceeding any

equipment limits or without adverselyaffecting

fault conditions without

2) Assure such a degree of human safety thata personworking or

walking in the vicinity of grounded facilitieswill not be exposed

to the danger of critical electric shock.

passingthrough the vital parts of a

and duration of

Effects of an electric current

human

bodydepend

The

the current.

hertz

on the

frequency,magnitude

duration of the

magnitude and

current at a 50 or 60

power frequency passing through

a human body should be

lessthanthatwhich causes ventricularfibrillation.

FI8RILLATING CURRENT- mA(rms)

V. A. Venikov and V. A. Stroev Moscow Power Institute

Mohsen A. H. Tawfik

Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Cairo

This paper studies the

electrical

oscillations

power

systems

due

arising

model of the

system,

effective in

the system.

improving

optimal control of transient

for the

to faults.

an

optimal

the transient

purpose

Using

reactors,

of

damping

a second

transient

which

response

have

stabilitypower

processes in

the

system

proved

transfer

maximum get

order nonlinear

has been

obtained with controlled shunt

excitation and turbine

has been applied to a third order nonlinear model of the system and

limit of

to be

A

combined control of reactors,

the possibility of coordination between different controls to

optimal transients has been shown. The Pontryagin's

principle

has been utilized to formulate the

solved using

a modified quasilinearizationalgorithm.

optimization problem

and the produced nonlinear two-pointboundary value problem was

This current is a function of

ventricular

(1 ) providing the duration is

bodyweight

work it

as illustrated in

can be

expected

can

determined

Fig.

1.

Based on the results of Dalziel's

of

persons

without

weighing

50

that99.5%

withstand,

by Equation

kilograms (110 pounds)

current

fibrillation,the

between 0.03 and 3.0 seconds.

lB=kA/t(1)

where lB is a

non-fibrillating

RMS

current,amperes

50

kg.

t is duration of

current, seconds

k

is 0.116 for 99.5% of

personsweighing

Alternatively,

weighing

be

0.157.

70

it can be determined that

for 99.5% of

kilograms(155pounds) the value of Ar in Eq.(1)should

persons

The safe surface potential differences (step and touch) can be

determined from an

analysis

of the

appropriate

tolerable

accidental

ground

circuit using suitable parameters and

values of current.

The accidental groundcircuitsincludethe equivalent resistance of

the human body from foot to foot or hand to feet. The value of this

PER SEPT

resistance is difficult to establish but 1000 ohms can be selected as a rather conservative value in both cases.

The accidental ground circuitsalso involve the equivalent foot to

earth contact resistance which should include the effect of a thin

surface layer of a material such as crushed rock. These equivalent

contact resistancesare given by Equations (2) and (3).

P2Fs 2{RF

RMF)

fi2Fp=(PF+fiMF)/2

(2)

(3)

where R2Fs ¡s resistance of two feet in series

R2Fp

RF

RMF

is resistance of two feet in

parallel

is the contact resistance of one

foot to earth

is the mutual resistance of one foot with respect to the

other

The values of Rp ano RMFcar\ be calculated as follows:

Pf

PyF{X,).

Ab

Pmi

n

_p,F(X2)

2ndF

where p^ is the surface

b p2

resistivity, ohm m.

is the basement resistivity, ohm m.

is the radius of the equivalent "foot"disc, m.

dF is the separation of the two

feet, m.

Xy = h/b; X2 = h/dF

h is the thickness of the surface

F(X) is determined from Figure 2 for the appropriate reflection

layer,

m.

factor K.

where K=(p2-p^)/(p2 + p)

With the mutual resistance term

uniform soilconditions, as shown

neglected

and b assumed

equal

be

to 0.08 m, the safe voltage limits for step and touch can

established in a form

which is applicable to both two-layer and

below:

P2Fs=6C[pi]

R2Fp = 1.5C[/)1]

(4)

(5)

and

^step = (RB + P2Fs)lB; PB = 1000Í2

^touch = (Pß + P2Fp)lß>

(6)

(7)

where C is a reduction factor for

derating the nominal value of

soil,otherwise,

surface layerresistivitypv C = 1 foruniform

C = F h/0.0S

0.96

Effective(rms)values:

k70 = 90.7 mA\/3= 157 rtiA

*50 = 67.0mA y/3 = 116 mA

*50fib = 107 mA\/3 = 185 mA

Fig. 1. Fibri/fating and

nonfibrillating currents vs.

shock. bodyweight,fora3-second

81 WM 208-8

September 1981, p. 4291

Economic Incentivesfor

Larger

Transmission Conductors

lan S. Grant,Senior

Power

Vito J.

Member, IEEE

Technologies,Inc.,Schenectady, New York

Longo,Member,IEEE

Pacific Gas and Electric

California

Company, San Francisco,

The power

industryinitiallydesigned

500 kV transmission lines in

of losses versus installed cost

requirements. At that

electrical environ¬

the early 1960's. Then, as now, costs

evaluations were made to assess conductor

time, independent of the economic analysis,

mental criteria

is,radiointerference

limitedtheminimum allowableconductorsizes.That

mitigationrequiredlarger conductorsizesthan

did economic requirements. By today's measures, energy then was

inexpensive, and smaller conductor sizes would have satisfied an

optimum balancebetween initialcost and operation

Today

this situation is

reversed,

examples of 500 kV lines using

cost.

and there are several

[1]

recent

four 1.3-in.conductors (4800kcmil),

to the use

Also, while the economics are ap¬

leading

where in the late 1960's, two 1.6-in. conductors (3500 kcmil) would

have been usedfora similar application. Economic pressures are an

important factor in this change. The lowerfuture losses on the four

conductor line more than offsetthe greater initialcost.

This

paper

describesline

costing

of increasing conductor sizes.

trendsthatare

plicable to conventional line configurations, EHV line configurations

are considered which have recently been proposed and which are

departures

figurations in particular

from

present

industry practice:

will

benefit

from

performance,

These new line con¬

the use of larger con¬

ductors to offer improved space utilization, lower initial cost, and

and their dimensions

identify improved

environmental

an area of line

design,namelyphase-phaseswitchingsurge

flashovers of conductor-conductor gaps, that requires further re¬

search.

I

i

2.0

1.8

1.6

FUTURE

1.4

.

3-4 CONO.

1.2

1.0

500 kV

PRESENT

2-C0ND.

15

PHASE-PHASE SPACING - FEET

20

25

30

35

345 kV

FUTURE

3 -C0NÜ.

CRESENT

/2-COND

Fig. 2.

10

15

20

25

30

PHASE-PHASE SPACING - FEET

Fig. 1. Possible range of future conductor sizes.

PER SEPT