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histology - kamil espiritu - med 1b 2012

CAPILLARIES Lecture 6 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM BLOOD and LYMPH VASCULAR SYSTEM for gaseous exchange O2 and CO2

endothelial tubes surrounded by a basement membrane average diameter is 7 to 9 m connects the arterial & venous circulation found in all tissues of the body except in: mucous CT calcareous matrix of bones cartilage epithelium

external surface resting on basal lamina of collagen fibers

single layer of endothelial cells rolled up in the form of a tube

borders are irregularly shaped with tapering ends apposed either on a simple end to end pattern or slightly overlapping Cytoplasm inclusions: Microfilaments (intermediate filaments) Pinocytotic Vesicles believed to be site of enzymatic activation of angiotensin II in the lungs types: Caveolae (open vesicles) at either inner or luminal surface or at the outer side Vesicles within the cytoplasm Pericytes / Perivascular cells / Cells of Rouget - isolated, irregular-shaped cells distributed at intervals along capillaries, resembling modified muscle cells - presence of myosin, actin, and tropomyosin in pericytes strongly suggests that these cells also have a contractile function

BLOOD VESSELS hollow organs passing a lumen three (3) coats: tunica intima - inner endothelium (flat squamous cells)

tunica media - middle muscular coat (smooth muscle) tunica adventitia - outer fibrous coat (fibro areolar CT) contains blood vessels vasa nervorum

tissues with the highest metabolic activity have networks of branched & closely packed capillaries Close network capillaries lungs liver kidney glands tendon nerve mucous membranes skeletal muscle gray matter of brain smooth muscles serous membranes

arteries : prominent muscular coat


indirect

veins : prominent fibrous coat


contact

capillaries : single layer of endothelial cells


w/ the

Loose network capillaries Types of Capillaries

for easier diffusion of O2 and CO2

tissues

Continuous / Somatic - uninterrupted endothelium and basal lamina - lacks fenestrae - presence of pinocytotic vesicles or caveolae intracellulares - found in muscle tissue, connective tissues, exocrine glands, nervous tissue Ia Ib (thick) (thin) - cells about 200 nm held by gap junctions and desmosomes - cells about 10 nm held by gap junctions, Desmosomes and zonula occludens

histology - kamil espiritu - med 1b 2012

AV Portal System

network

Rete Mirabile - a network of capillaries along the course of an artery which does not empty into a vein found in the glomerulus

Fenestral / Visceral - large fenestrae in the walls of the endothelial cells and continuous basal lamina 2a with diaphragm - fenestra is 60 80 nm closed by a diaphragm and thin basal lamina - found in tissue requiring rapid fluid exchange eg GI mucosa, kidney, endocrine glands, choroid plexus, pericapillary cells, ciliary body of eye 2b without diaphragm - does not rest on the reticular CT layer - very thick basal lamina - found in renal glomerulus 2c sinusoidal - wider lumen - less prominent basal lamina - no intracellular gaps and macrophages - large fenestrae - lack typical diaphragms - found in lymphoid organs, endocrine glands and aortic bodies Functions of Capillaries - selective permeability - metabolic - non thrombogenic ARTERIES I - carry oxygenated blood to the tissues - efferent vessels of the heart

ARTERIOLES - thick muscular wall with a very small lumen - prime controller of blood pressure TI : endothelial cell with rod shaped granules for blood coagulation : corrugated tunica intima

boundary -- Internal Elastic Limiting Membrane

TM : 1 5 layers of smooth muscle : prominent tunica media (more muscle than elastic tissue)

boundary -- External Elastic Limiting Membrane

TA : very thin w/o external elastic lamina II MEDIUM SIZED (MUSCULAR) ARTERIES - wall is thicker than the lumen TI : : : : lined by endothelial cells thicker subendothelial layer corrugated tunica intima prominent internal elastic membrane

TM : 40 layers of smooth cells with elastic collagen fibers and proteoglycans (large amount of elastin) : more smooth muscles : vasa vasorum up to tunica media only MICROCIRCULATION capillary circulation is controlled by neural and hormonal stimulation Arteriole Central capillary channel - smoothy muscles are transversely oriented - convey an active flow of blood at all times METARTERIOLE - proximal portion of a capillary - smooth muscles are longitudinally oriented - intermittent blood flow due to state of contraction of smooth muscle of pre-capillary sphincters Post-capillary Venule Arterio-venous Anastomoses bypass the capillary Aneurysm TA : external elastic lamina in large muscular artery : collagen elastic fibers, fibroblast, adipose tissues, lymphocytes, vasa vasorum, and nervi vasorum

histology - kamil espiritu - med 1b 2012

III LARGE (ELASTIC) ARTERIES - wider lumen in comparison to the thickness of the wall - thicker than muscular artery TI : endothelial cells are peeled or scalloped : sudendothelial layer is thick : absence of internal elastic membrane

LYMPHATIC

thin walled vessel with a large lumen containing fibrinous coagulum (lymphocytes) variable in shape and caliber absence of pericytes (cells of Rouget) presence of anchoring filaments

TM : more elastic fibers TA : relatively thin tunica adventitia VEINS - bring back CO2 rich blood to the heart for oxygenation in the lungs

affected mainly by edema formation Lymph capillaries

single layer of endothelial cells with its nuclei flattened and oval in shape larger and irregular diameter than capillaries lacks fenestrae but has micropinocytotic vesicles absent basal lamina cells are apposed by anchoring filaments

presence of valves to prevent backflow of the blood collapsed lumen containing RBCs reduplication of tunica intima

Lymph vessels resemble veins in structure (valves, large lumen, thick walls) but the walls are thinner than those veins of the corresponding caliber and there are indistinct layers Main Lymphatic Ducts right lymphatic duct thoracic duct HEART pumping organ of the blood to be distributed to the different parts of the body through the arteries responsible for producing the hormone atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

fibrous central region of the heart, called, the fibrous skeleton, serves as the base of the valves as well as the site of origin and insertion of the cardiac muscle cells I VENULES -0.2 1 nm in diameter TI : Endocardium - lined by an inner endothelium layer - simple squamous epithelium continuous with the endothelium of the blood vessels

TI : thin sub endothelial layer TM : 1 2 layers of smooth muscle cells TA : thick and well developed II TI SMALL VEINS : endothelium and thin subendothelium (may be present) TM : smooth muscle with elastic tissue TA : relatively thick III MEDIUM SIZED VEIN -1 9 mm in diameter

TM : Myocaridum - middle contractile layer - thickets layer of the heart - more prominent in the left ventricle than in the other chambers two (2) types of cell: - contractile cells for contraction - impulse generating and conducting cells TA : Epicardium - lined by an outer mesothelial layer - forms part of the pericardium - a subepicardial layer of loose connective tissue contains veins, nerves, and nerve ganglia - adipose tissue that generally surrounds the heart accumulates in this layer : Pericardium - the serous membrane in which the heart lies. - between the visceral layer (epicardium) and the parietal layer is a small amount of fluid that facilitates the heart's movements

- most of the veins except main venous trunks and abdominal cavities TI : thin endothelial layer : absent subendothelial layer : presence of valves in the extremities

TM : small bundles of smooth TA : prominent tunica adventitia (contains valves) : vasa vasorum extends up to tunica intima IV LARGE VEIN - relatively thick walled TI : lining endothelium with relatively abundant lamina TM : poorly developed tunica media TA : prominent longitudinal layers of smooth muscle and elastic networks

histology - kamil espiritu - med 1b 2012

ARTERY Thickest Coat Thickness of Wall Muscular & Elastic Tissue Tunica Intima tunica media thicker more abundant often corrugated or scalloped after death more rigid

VEIN tunica adventitia thinner prominent only in large veins; more abundant fibrous tissue; never scalloped less rigid; vessels appear collapsed never as prominent present in veins of medium-sized caliber, especially those in extremities wall is thinner than lumen up to tunica intima bigger

Rigidity of Wall

Internal Elastic Membrane prominent in some (fenestrated coat of Henle) arteries Valves none

Wall Thickness to Lumen Size Ratio Vasa Vasorum Lumen

except in large arteries, wall is thicker than lumen up to tunica media smaller

Cardiac Muscle Cells Ordinary Cardiac Muscle Cell striated, involuntary muscles branching fibers muscles in the main branch Purkinje Cells (Conducting System) larger diameter than ordinary cardiac muscle cell less contains 2 or more rounded nucleus sacroplasm ; glycogen absent T tubule (+) Ach esterase test

Cardiac Fibrous Skeleton - composed of dense connective tissue - its principal components are the septum membranaceum, the trigona fibrosa, and the annuli fibrosi