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Horizontal Directional Drilling

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Introduction The Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Industry has experienced so much growth in the past two decades that HDD has become commonplace as a method of installation. One source reported that the number of units in use increased by more than a hundredfold in the decade following 1984. This growth has been driven by the benefits offered to utility owners (such as the elimination of traffic disruption and minimal surface damage) and by the ingenuity of contractors in developing this technology. To date, HDD pipe engineering has focused on installation techniques, and rightfully so. In many cases, the pipe experiences its maximum lifetime loads during the pullback operation. The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with some of the important considerations in selecting the proper PE pipe. Proper selection of pipe involves consideration not only of installation design factors such as pullback force limits and collapse resistance, but also of the long-term performance of the pipe once installed in the bore-hole. The information herein is not all-inclusive; there may be parameters not discussed that will have significant bearing on the proper engineering of an application and the pipe selection. For specific projects, the reader is advised to consult with a qualified engineer to evaluate the project and prepare a specification including recommendations for design and installation and for pipe selection. The reader may find additional design and installation information in ASTM F1962, Standard Guide for Use of MaxiHorizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of PE Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings, and in the ASCE Manual of Practice 108, Pipeline Design for Installation by Directional Drilling.

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Background Some of the earliest uses of large diameter PE pipe in directional drilling were for river crossings. These are major engineering projects requiring thoughtful design, installation, and construction, while offering the owner the security of deep river bed cover with minimum environmental damage or exposure, and no disruption of river traffic. PE pipe is suited for these installations because of its scratch tolerance and the fused joining system which gives a zero-leak-rate joint with design tensile capacity equal to that of the pipe. To date, directional drillers have installed PE pipe for gas, water, and sewer mains; communication conduits; electrical conduits; and a variety of chemical lines. These projects involved not only river crossings but also highway crossings and right-of-ways through developed areas so as not to disturb streets, driveways, and business entrances.

PE Pipe for Horizontal Directional Drilling This chapter gives information on the pipe selection and design process. It is not intended to be a primer on directional drilling. The reader seeking such information can refer to the references of this chapter. Suggested documents are the MiniHorizontal Directional Drilling Manual (1) and the Horizontal Directional Drilling Good Practices Guidelines (2) published by the North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT). Horizontal Directional Drilling Process Knowledge of the directional drilling process by the reader is assumed, but some review may be of value in establishing common terminology. Briefly, the HDD process begins with boring a small, horizontal hole (pilot hole) under the crossing obstacle (e.g. a highway) with a continuous string of steel drill rod. When the bore head and rod emerge on the opposite side of the crossing, a special cutter, called a back reamer, is attached and pulled back through the pilot hole. The reamer bores out the pilot hole so that the pipe can be pulled through. The pipe is usually pulled through from the side of the crossing opposite the drill rig. Pilot Hole Pilot hole reaming is the key to a successful directional drilling project. It is as important to an HDD pipeline as backfill placement is to an open-cut pipeline. Properly trained crews can make the difference between a successful and an unsuccessful drilling program for a utility. Several institutions provide operatortraining programs, one of which is University of Texas at Arlington Center for Underground Infrastructure Research and Education (CUIRE). Drilling the pilot hole

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establishes the path of the drill rod (drill-path) and subsequently the location of the PE pipe. Typically, the bore-head is tracked electronically so as to guide the hole to a pre-designed configuration. One of the key considerations in the design of the drill-path is creating as large a radius of curvature as possible within the limits of the right-of-way, thus minimizing curvature. Curvature induces bending stresses and increases the pullback load due to the capstan effect. The capstan effect is the increase in frictional drag when pulling the pipe around a curve due to a component of the pulling force acting normal to the curvature. Higher tensile stresses reduce the pipes collapse resistance. The drill-path normally has curvature along its vertical profile. Curvature requirements are dependent on site geometry (crossing length, required depth to provide safe cover, staging site location, etc.) But, the degree of curvature is limited by the bending radius of the drill rod and the pipe. More often, the permitted bending radius of the drill rod controls the curvature and thus significant bending stresses do not occur in the pipe. The designer should minimize the number of curves and maximize their radii of curvature in the right-of-way by carefully choosing the entry and exit points. The driller should also attempt to minimize extraneous curvature due to undulations (dog-legs) from frequent overcorrecting alignment or from differences in the soil strata or cobbles. Pilot Hole Reaming The REAMING operation consists of using an appropriate tool to open the pilot hole to a slightly larger diameter than the carrier pipeline. The percentage oversize depends on many variables including soil types, soil stability, depth, drilling mud, borehole hydrostatic pressure, etc. Normal over-sizing may be from 1.2 to 1.5 times the diameter of the carrier pipe. While the over-sizing is necessary for insertion, it means that the inserted pipe will have to sustain vertical earth pressures without significant side support from the surrounding soil. Prior to pullback, a final reaming pass is normally made using the same sized reamer as will be used when the pipe is pulled back (swab pass). The swab pass cleans the borehole, removes remaining fine gravels or clay clumps and can compact the borehole walls. Drilling Mud Usually a drilling mud such as fluid bentonite clay is injected into the bore during cutting and reaming to stabilize the hole and remove soil cuttings. Drilling mud can be made from clay or polymers. The primary clay for drilling mud is sodium montmorillonite (bentonite). Properly ground and refined bentonite is added to fresh water to produce a mud. The mud reduces drilling torque, and gives stability and support to the bored hole. The fluid must have sufficient gel strength to keep cuttings suspended for transport, to form a filter cake on the borehole wall that

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contains the water within the drilling fluid, and to provide lubrication between the pipe and the borehole on pullback. Drilling fluids are designed to match the soil and cutter. They are monitored throughout the process to make sure the bore stays open, pumps are not overworked, and fluid circulation throughout the borehole is maintained. Loss of circulation could cause a locking up and possibly overstressing of the pipe during pullback. Drilling muds are thixotropic and thus thicken when left undisturbed after pullback. However, unless cementitious agents are added, the thickened mud is no stiffer than very soft clay. Drilling mud provides little to no soil side-support for the pipe. Pullback The pullback operation involves pulling the entire pipeline length in one segment (usually) back through the drilling mud along the reamed-hole pathway. Proper pipe handling, cradling, bending minimization, surface inspection, and fusion welding procedures need to be followed. Axial tension force readings, constant insertion velocity, mud flow circulation/exit rates, and footage length installed should be recorded. The pullback speed ranges usually between 1 to 2 feet per minute. Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling The Industry distinguishes between mini-HDD and conventional HDD, which is sometimes referred to as maxi-HDD. Mini-HDD rigs can typically handle pipes up to 10 or 12 diameter and are used primarily for utility construction in urban areas, whereas HDD rigs are typically capable of handling pipes as large as 48diamter. These machines have significantly larger pullback forces ranging up to several hundred thousand pounds. General Guidelines The designer will achieve the most efficient design for an application by consulting with an experienced contractor and a qualified engineer. Here are some general considerations that may help particularly in regard to site location for PE pipes: 1. Select the crossing route to keep it to the shortest reasonable distance. 2. Find routes and sites where the pipeline can be constructed in one continuous length; or at least in long multiple segments fused together during insertion. 3. Although compound curves have been done, try to use as straight a drill path as possible. 4. Avoid entry and exit elevation differences in excess of 50 feet; both points should be as close as possible to the same elevation.

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5. Locate all buried structures and utilities within 10 feet of the drill-path for miniHDD applications and within 25 feet of the drill-path for maxi-HDD applications. Crossing lines are typically exposed for exact location. 6. Observe and avoid above-ground structures, such as power lines, which might limit the height available for construction equipment. 7. The HDD process takes very little working space versus other methods. However, actual site space varies somewhat depending upon the crossing distance, pipe diameter, and soil type. 8. Long crossings with large diameter pipe need bigger, more powerful equipment and drill rig. 9. As pipe diameter increases, large volumes of drilling fluids must be pumped, requiring more/larger pumps and mud-cleaning and storage equipment. 10. Space requirements for maxi-HDD rigs can range from a 100 feet wide by 150 feet long entry plot for a 1000 ft crossing up to 200 feet wide by 300 feet long area for a crossing of 3000 or more feet. 11. On the pipe side of the crossing, sufficient temporary space should be rented to allow fusing and joining the PE carrier pipe in a continuous string beginning about 75 feet beyond the exit point with a width of 35 to 50 feet, depending on the pipe diameter. Space requirements for coiled pipe are considerably less. Larger pipe sizes require larger and heavier construction equipment which needs more maneuvering room (though use of PE minimizes this). The initial pipe side exit location should be about 50 W x 100 L for most crossings, up to 100 W x 150 L for equipment needed in large diameter crossings. 12. Obtain as-built drawings based on the final course followed by the reamer and the installed pipeline. The gravity forces may have caused the reamer to go slightly deeper than the pilot hole, and the buoyant pipe may be resting on the crown of the reamed hole. The as-built drawings are essential to know the exact pipeline location and to avoid future third party damage. Safety Safety is a primary consideration for every directionally drilled project. While this chapter does not cover safety, there are several manuals that discuss safety including the manufacturers Operators Manual for the drilling rig and the Equipment Manufacturers Institute (EMI) Safety Manual: Directional Drilling Tracking Equipment. (3)

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Geotechnical Investigation Before any serious thought is given to the pipe design or installation, the designer will normally conduct a comprehensive geotechnical study to identify soil formations at the potential bore sites. The purpose of the investigation is not only to determine if directional drilling is feasible, but to establish the most efficient way to accomplish it. With this information the best crossing route can be determined, drilling tools and procedures selected, and the pipe designed. The extent of the geotechnical investigation often depends on the pipe diameter, bore length and the nature of the crossing. Refer to ASTM F1962, Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings (4) and ASCE MOP 108, Pipeline Design for Installation by Horizontal Directional Drilling (5) for additional information. During the survey, the geotechnical consultant will identify a number of relevant items including the following: a. Soil identification to locate rock, rock inclusions, gravelly soils, loose deposits, discontinuities and hardpan. b. Soil strength and stability characteristics c. Groundwater (Supplemental geotechnical data may be obtained from existing records, e.g. recent nearby bridge constructions, other pipeline/cable crossings in the area.) For long crossings, borings are typically taken at 700 ft intervals. For short crossings (1000 ft or less), as few as three borings may suffice. The borings should be near the drill-path to give accurate soil data, but sufficiently far from the borehole to avoid pressurized mud from following natural ground fissures and rupturing to the ground surface through the soil-test bore hole. A rule-of -thumb is to take borings at least 30 ft to either side of bore path. Although these are good general rules, the number, depth and location of boreholes is best determined by the geotechnical engineer. Geotechnical Data For River Crossings River crossings require additional information such as a study to identify river bed, river bed depth, stability (lateral as well as scour), and river width. Typically, pipes are installed to a depth of at least 20 ft below the expected future river bottom, considering scour. Soil borings for geotechnical investigation are generally conducted to 40 ft below river bottom.

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Summary The best conducted projects are handled by a team approach with the design engineer, bidding contractors and geotechnical engineer participating prior to the preparation of contract documents. The geotechnical investigation is usually the first step in the boring project. Once the geotechnical investigation is completed, a determination can be made whether HDD can be used. At that time, design of both the PE pipe and the installation can begin. The preceding paragraphs represent general guidance and considerations for planning and designing an HDD PE pipeline project. These overall topics can be very detailed in nature. Individual HDD contractors and consultant engineering firms should be contacted and utilized in the planning and design stage. Common sense along with a rational in-depth analysis of all pertinent considerations should prevail. Care should be given in evaluating and selecting an HDD contractor based upon successful projects, qualifications, experience and diligence. A team effort, strategic partnership and risk-sharing may be indicated. Product Design: PE Pipe DR Selection After completion of the geotechnical investigation and determination that HDD is feasible, the designer turns attention to selecting the proper pipe. The proper pipe must satisfy all hydraulic requirements of the line including flow capacity, working pressure rating, and surge or vacuum capacity. These considerations have to be met regardless of the method of installation. Design of the pipe for hydraulic considerations can be found in Chapter 6. For HDD applications, in addition to the hydraulic requirements, the pipe must be able to withstand (1) pullback loads which include tensile pull forces, external hydrostatic pressure, and tensile bending stresses, and (2) external service loads (post-installation soil, groundwater, and surcharge loads occurring over the life of the pipeline). Often the load the pipe sees during installation such as the combined pulling force and external pressure will be the largest load experienced by the pipe during its life. The remainder of this document will discuss the DR (Dimension Ratio) selection based on pullback and external service loads. (PE pipe is classified by DR. The DR is the dimension ratio and equals the pipes outer diameter divided by the minimum wall thickness.) A more detailed explanation of the DR concept is provided in Chapter 5. While this chapter gives guidelines to assist the designer, the designer assumes all responsibility for determining the appropriateness and applicability of the equations and parameters given in this chapter for any specific application. Directional drilling is an evolving technology, and industry-wide design protocols are still developing. Proper design requires considerable professional judgment beyond the scope of this chapter. The designer is advised to consult ASTM F 1962, Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit

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Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings (4) when preparing an HDD design. This methodology is applied to designing municipal water pipe crossings as shown in Petroff (6). Normally, the designer starts the DR selection process by determining the DR requirement for the internal pressure. The designer will then determine if this DR is sufficient to withstand earth, live, and groundwater service loads. If so, then the installation (pullback) forces are considered. Ultimately, the designer chooses a DR that will satisfy all three requirements: the pressure, the service loads, and the pullback load. Although there can be some pipe wall stresses generated by the combination of internal pressurization and wall bending or localized bearing, generally internal pressure and external service load stresses are treated as independent. This is permissible primarily since PE is a ductile material and failure is usually driven by the average stress rather than local maximums. There is a high safety factor applied to the internal pressure, and internal pressurization significantly reduces stresses due to external loads by re-rounding. (One exception to this is internal vacuum, which must be combined with the external pressure.)

Figure 1 Borehole Deformation

Design Considerations for Net External Loads This and the following sections will discuss external buried loads that occur on directionally drilled pipes. One important factor in determining what load reaches the pipe is the condition of the borehole, i.e. whether it stays round and open or collapses. This will depend in great part on the type of ground, the boring techniques, and the presence of slurry (drilling mud and cutting mixture). If the borehole does not deform (stays round) after drilling, earth loads are arched around the borehole and little soil pressure is transmitted to the pipe. The pressure acting on the pipe is the hydrostatic pressure due to the slurry or any groundwater present. The slurry itself may act to keep the borehole open. If the borehole collapses or deforms substantially, earth

tain fluid will have a static head, which will remain in the lineChapter 12 Horizontal ead may be subtracted from the external pressure dueDirectional Drilling to oad. The designer should keep in mind that the external load me, for example, flooding.

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pressure will be applied UNDWATER PRESSURE to the pipe. The resulting pressure could exceed the slurry

the stabilityaddition toborehole. of PGW PSURIn PI the (1) overt external pressures such as slurry head and groundwater, the lowing equations caninbe pipe results establish the net external pressure or, as it used to in an increase in external pressure due to the internal vacuum the metimes removal ofthe differential from inside between the defined by outside of t he borehole condition, the the pressurethe pipe. On onis detailedpositive ing the called, atmospheric pressure external pressure other hand, aand loads reaching net pipe depends the inside pe. the designerpressure wishpipe may mediate the external pressure. The following internal borehole) or Eq. 2 (open borehole): ormed/collapsedmay in the to consult a geotechnical engineer il, ermining equations can be used to establish loads. earth and groundwater the net external pressure or, as it is sometimes called, the differential pressure between the inside and outside of the pipe. epending onPSUR Pborehole condition, the net external pressure is defined the PE PPGW PMUD IPI (1) (2) N her Eq. 1Depending on the borehole condition, the net external pressure is defined by either (deformed/collapsed borehole) or Eq. 2 (open borehole): Groundwater Pressure Only
Eq. 1 (deformed/collapsed borehole) or Eq. 2 (open borehole):

pressure unless considerable tunnel arching occurs above the borehole. Where no tunnel arching occurs, the applied external pressure is equal to the combined earth, ach used to when the borehole deforms and contacts river n be the pipe establishlive-load pressure. For river crossings, inor, as it isthe bed groundwater, and the net external pressure unconsolidated soil loadsoils, little arching to the pipe will dependoutside extent of differentialtransmitted is anticipated . The applied pressure likely equals the geostatic pressure between the inside and on the of the stress (sometimesbetween the pipe and the soil. Earth e relative stiffness called the prism load). In consolidated soils, arching above the borehole may occur, and the applied pressure will is not a the geostatic e uniform. Due to this complexity, therelikely be less thansimple stress, even the pipe. If the soil earth condition, after total collapse of the borehole crown ontodefined occurdeposit will by ehole loadato height of cover. Groundwater loadingstay open with little or is stiff clay,the net or partially lithified, the borehole may cemented, external pressure is ns canorno used to only Eq. 2the appliedwhether likelynot thethe slurry it is or benot; the establish the netborehole):pressure or, as head external or to be just slurry eforms collapsed borehole) In this case, (open pressure is deformation. or question is d, themaygroundwater head. design. Thus, what loads outsidethe the differential pressure between the inside and reach of thus in fact control

(1) et external remains round and deforms (1) after drilling. For PN PE psi stable if it pressure, PGW PSUR PI little ernal pressure will typically result in a stable borehole. Stable due to earth pressure, psi ompetent rock roundwater PN where(including the height of river water), to (2) r in some(2) pressure the slurry exerts sufficient pressure soils PMUD PI nd open hole. Since the deformations around the hole are WHERE urcharge and live loads, psi are negligible. The external load s transmitted external pressure, psi P N = Net to the pipe = Net external pressure, N the event vacuum) Ppsi (2) nal pressure, psithe hydrostatic MUD PI of due to the slurry or (negative in P pressure consists only of pressure due to earth pressure, psi PE = External = External = pressuredue(including the height of river water),psi pressure of to earth pressure, psigroundwater Hydrostatic Groundwater4 givesdrilling slurry or pressure due to present. PEquation pressure the hydrostatic GW W = Groundwater pressure psi PSUR Surcharge and live stress, psi if slurry can =carry shearloads, (including the height of river water), out. surface water should be here: Standing pressure, psi (negative in thepressure, psi added to the PI =PN Internal = Net external event of vacuum) si PMUDE Hydrostatic pressure ofpressure groundwater pressure, ifpressure,shear stress, psi P = = External drilling slurry or due areearth slurry can carry UR = Surcharge and live loads, in and surcharge pressures usedpsi Eq. Eq. 1to discussed in a followingin a psi 1 are discussed section of this (Earth, ground water, and surcharge pressures used in PGW = chapter.)pressure, psi (negativepressure (including the height of river water) Internal chapter.) = Groundwater in the event of vacuum) gWH (3) psi (4) PGW =MUD H BW UD = Hydrostatic g pressure of drilling slurry or groundwater P SUR in 2 PMUD = carry2 shear stress, psi ssure, if slurry canSurcharge and live loads, psi 144 in (3) PI = Internal 2 2 144 pressure, psi (negative in the event of vacuum) ft ft WHERE = pressures PMUD pressure due Hydrostatic fluidweight Hydrostatictopressure of surface water, a ground 1 drilling slurry ater, andg surcharge of slurry (drilling mudused in pcf andare discussed inor groundwa Eq. and cuttings), MUD = Unit of this chapter.) differenceslurrylowest point in borehole and entry or exit pit, ftpsi H B pressure, if between can carry shear stress, = Elevation (144 is included for units conversion.) H g MUD B nit weight of slurryPMUD surcharge pressures pcf in Eq. 1 are discussed in (drilling mud2 and cuttings), used arth, ground water, and in evationsection of this chapter.)2 and lowing difference between lowest point in borehole(3) 12 144 ft try or exit pit, ft (144 is included for unitsMUD H B g conversion.) PMUD 2

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When calculating the net external pressure, the designer will give careful consideration to enumerating all applied loads and their duration. In fact, most pipelines go through operational cycles that include (1) unpressurized or being drained, (2) operating at working pressure, (3) flooding, (4) shutdowns, and (5) vacuum and peak pressure events. As each of these cases could result in a different net external pressure, the designer will consider all phases of the lines life to establish the design cases. In addition to determining the load, careful consideration must be given to the duration of each load. PE pipe is viscoelastic, that is, its effective properties depend on duration of loading. For instance, an HDD conduit resists constant groundwater and soil pressure with its long-term apparant modulus stiffness. On the other hand, an HDD force-main may be subjected to a sudden vacuum resulting from water hammer. When a vacuum occurs, the net external pressure equals the sum of the external pressure plus the vacuum. Since surge is instantaneous, it is resisted by the pipes short-term apparant modulus,, which can be four times higher than the longterm apparent modulus. For pressure lines, consideration should be given to the time the line sits unpressurized after construction. This may be several months. Most directionally drilled lines that contain fluid will have a static head, which will remain in the line once filled. This head may be subtracted from the external pressure due to earth/ groundwater load. The designer should keep in mind that the external load also may vary with time, for example, flooding. Earth and Groundwater Pressure Earth loads can reach the pipe when the borehole deforms and contacts the pipe. The amount of soil load transmitted to the pipe will depend on the extent of deformation and the relative stiffness between the pipe and the soil. Earth loading may not be uniform. Due to this complexity, there is not a simple equation for relating earth load to height of cover. Groundwater loading will occur whether the hole deforms or not; the only question is whether or not the slurry head is higher and thus may in fact control design. Thus, what loads reach the pipe will depend on the stability of the borehole. The designer may wish to consult a geotechnical engineer for assistance in determining earth and groundwater loads, as the loads reaching the pipe depend on the nature of the soil. Stable Borehole - Groundwater Pressure Only A borehole is called stable if it remains round and deforms little after drilling. For instance, drilling in competent rock (rock that can be drilled without fracturing and

oundwater Pressure Only


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stable if it remains round and deforms little after drilling. For Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling able if it remains round and result in a stable borehole. For ompetent rock will typically deforms little after drilling. Stable mpetent rock will typically result in a stable borehole. Stable in some soils where the slurry exerts sufficient pressure to n some soils where the slurry exerts sufficient pressure to are nd open hole. Since the deformations around the hole s open hole. Since the deformations aroundStable boreholesare occur in transmitted to will typically result in a stable borehole. the hole may the pipe are negligible. The external load collapsing) transmitted to the pipe are negligible. The external loador onsists only soilsthe hydrostatic pressure due tomaintain a round and open some of where the slurry exerts sufficient pressure to the slurry nsists only ofSince the 4 gives the hydrostatic to the pressures orto present. hole. the hydrostaticaround the holeduesmall, soil slurry transmitted Equation deformations pressure are pressure due esent. Equation are negligible.the external load be the pipe consiststhe to the pipe 4 gives The hydrostatic pressure out. Standing surface water shouldapplied toadded due to of to only t. Standing surface waterto the slurry or be groundwater, if present. Equation the hydrostatic pressure due should the added to the
4 gives the hydrostatic pressure due to groundwater or drilling slurry. Standing surface water should be added to the groundwater.
(4)

g H (4) PGW = W H W W g W 2 (4) PGW = in 144 2 in 144 2ft 2 ft WHERE Hydrostatic fluid pressure due to ground and surface water, PGW = Hydrostatic fluid pressure due to ground and surface water, psi ydrostatic fluid pressure due to ground and surface water,
gw = Unit weight of water, pcf
HW = Height to free water surface above pipe, ft (144 is included for correct units conversion.)
Borehole Deforms/Collapse With Arching Mobilized

When the crown of the hole deforms sufficiently to place soil above the hole in the 12 plastic state, arching is mobilized. In this state, hole deformation is limited. If no soil touches the pipe, there is no earth load on the pipe. However, when deformation is sufficient to transmit load to the pipe, it becomes the designers chore to determine how much earth load is applied to the pipe. At the time of this writing, there have been no published reports giving calculation methods for finding earth load on directionally drilled pipes. Based on the successful performance of directionally drilled PE pipes, it is reasonable to assume that some amount of arching occurs in many applications. The designer of HDD pipes may gain some knowledge from the approaches developed for determining earth pressure on auger bored pipes and on jacked pipes. It is suggested that the designer become familiar with all of the assumptions used with these methods. For additional information on post installation design of directionally drilled pipelines see Petroff (9). ORourke et. al. (7) published an equation for determining the earth pressure on auger bored pipes assuming a borehole approximately 10% larger than the pipe. In this model, arching occurs above the pipe similar to that in a tunnel where zones of loosened soil fall onto the pipe. The volume of the cavity is eventually filled with soil that is slightly less dense than the insitu soil, but still capable of transmitting soil load. This method of load calculation gives a minimal loading. The method published here is more conservative. It is based on trench type arching as opposed to tunnel arching and is used by Stein (8) to calculate loads on jacked pipe. In Steins model, the maximum earth load (effective stress) is found using the modified form of Terzaghis equation given by Eq. 6., Petroff (9). External groundwater pressure must be added to the effective earth pressure. Stein and ORourkes methods

12

einsmodel the maximum earth load (effective stress) isis ns form of Terzhaghis equation load (effective6.stress) ed model the maximum earth given by Eq. External 432 Chapter 12 d formbe of Terzhaghis effective given by Eq. 6.6. External ed form Horizontal Directional Drilling equationearth pressure. External of added to the equation given by Eq. Stein and Terzhaghis must must be only betoto the effective earth pressure. Stein and must be added considered where the depth of cover is the effective earth pressure. Stein and should added shouldonly(typically exceeding five thedepth ofofcover isis ould onlybe considered where the(5) depth diameters), be considered where cover arching pipe arching (typically areexceeding five (5) pipe has sufficient arching loads as traffic (typically exceeding five the soil diameters), insignificant, (5) pipe diameters), s traffic loadsonlyareinsignificant, depth ofsoilhas sufficient a as trafficshould loads and insignificant, the cover has sufficient be is sufficient by ansmit arching,are considered where thethe soilconfirmed to develop arching [?conditions are] (typically and five (5) nsmit arching, and [?conditions are] dynamic loads such by a a loads ansmit the equations given pipe diameters), confirmedpressure Using arching, exceeding[?conditions are] external by traffic in Stein, the confirmed as are equationsthe soil has sufficient the external pressure insignificant,given inin Stein, the external pressure Using the equations given Stein, internal friction to transmit arching, and Using the conditions are confirmed by a geotechnical engineer. KH C d 1 given in Stein, thetan Using the equationsexp - 2 external pressure is given below: Kg SE H C B 2 (5) P (5) k Kg H C C EV Kg SESE H2 (5) (5) PEVEV P in 2 KHCKH C d d 144 inexp - 2 tan tan 1 222 in 144 ft 2 144 2 B B 2 2 k ft ft (6) (6) KH CC dd KH 1 exp - 2 tan 2 B tan 2 B 2 k= PEV = external earth pressure, psi (6) KHC d gSE = effective soil2weight, pcf tan B 2 HC = depth of cover, ft PEV = external earth pressure, psi (6) k = arching factor Where gSE = effective soil weight, pcf PE external earth B = silo=width, ft pressure, psi HC = deptheffective soil weight, gSE = external=ofof cover, ftpcf degrees (For HDD, d = f) V d = angle earth pressure, psi wall friction, k effective= soilofweight, pcf = arching factor ft HC depth 13 cover, = = angle of internal friction, degrees E f 13 k= factor = silo arching13 =B = earth silo width,ft coefficient given by: depth of width, ft cover, ft K B = pressure d = angle of = arching = angle wallfriction, degreesdegreesf)(For HDD, d = f) factorof wall friction, (For HDD, = f = angle of internal friction, = silo width, ft internal friction, degrees degrees f = angle of 2 f K = earth earth friction, degrees (For HDD, d = f) K= pressure coefficient given by: tan 45 Kwall pressure coefficient given by: = angle of 2 angle of internal friction, degrees f = earth pressure2coefficient given by: K tan 45 2 width should be estimated based on the application. It varies between f ameter=and2silo width should bediameter. Aonconservative varies between the to K tan the borehole estimated based the application. It approach is The 45 pipe diameterthe borehole diameter. (The effective soil weight silo width equals 2and the borehole diameter. A conservative approach is to assume the is width should widthestimated based on the application. It is the dry between be equals the borehole diameter. (The effective soil weight varies unit t weight silo the soil for soil above the groundwater level, it is the of ameter and thethe soil for soil above the groundwater level, it is the saturated unit weight to weight of borehole diameter. A conservative approach is nit weight less theofweight soil below the groundwater level.) the groundwater of water for soil below less the weight silo width estimated water for on the application. effective soil weight is equals thebased borehole diameter. (The It varies between should be t weight the the soil for soil above conservative approach is to the of borehole ter and Borehole Collapsediameter.Load the groundwater level, it is with Prism A nit weight less the weight diameter. (The effective soil weight is width equals Prism Load of water for soil below the groundwater Collapse withevent that arching in the soil above the pipe breaks down, considerable earth In the the borehole loading may occur on above the groundwater not occur, is the ight of the soil for soil the pipe. In the event that arching doeslevel, it the upper limit on weight of water for pipe breaks above the pipe. The weight arching in load issoilweight of the soil prism (PE = gSEHthe groundwater t that less thethe the the above the soil below C)down, considerable Collapse with load is most likely to develop in shallow applications subjected to live loads, prism Prism Load g may occur on the pipe. In the event that arching does not occur, the on the load is the weight of the soil prism (PE = ySEHC) [do you mean t that arching in the down, considerable pse with Prism Loadsoil above the pipe breaks develop in shallow the pipe. The prism load is most likely to g may occur on the pipe. In the event that arching does not occur, the s subjected to live loads, boreholes in unconsolidated sediments such

ay occur on the pipe. In the event that arching does not occur, the occur is the pipe. In the event that arching does not occur, the e load on the weight of the soil prism (PE = ySEHC) [do you mean 12 433 Chapter Horizontal mean load isThe weight of the is most likely =toSEHC) [do you shallow the prism load soil prism (PE y develop in Directional Drilling pipe. pipe. Thelive loads, boreholes in likely to develop in shallow f Earthto prism load is most unconsolidated sediments such jected and Groundwater Pressure cted to holes subjected to in unconsolidated sediments such gs, and live loads, boreholes dynamic loads. The prism load is s, and holes subjected to dynamic loads. The prism load be water is present in the soil formation, its pressure must is boreholes in term. For instance, in in some crossing and can n the external loadunconsolidated sediments such asa riverriver crossings,oneholes asonable subjected to dynamic loads. The prism load is drilled Eq. 7. is subjected confidence that the directionally given by pipe g SE H C essure from theg SE H C 2 combined with the water nation of(7) PE and Groundwater Pressure Earth sediments above it(7) PE (7) in ation of Earth and Groundwater Pressure 2 144 in 144 ft 2 in the soil formation, its pressure must be groundwater is present ft 2 WHERE groundwater is present in term. soil instance, in itsriver crossing onebe ted for inPthe externalpipe, psi the For formation, a pressure must can load E dwith in the==earth pressure on of soil, pcf Pressure directionally river crossing one can for reasonable on load psi that the =Earth pressure weightpipe,term. For instance, in a drilled pipe is subjected earth andexternal of Groundwater e gSE effective confidence earth pressure confidence ft with reasonable on pipe,crown,that the directionallycombined withsubjected = effective= weight of pipe psi Eearth pressure from soil, pcf HC soil height above the sediments above it drilled pipe is the water == soil height above soil, conversion.) ft above it combined with the water effective weight of pipe pcf arth pressure is included for units surface crown,formation, its pressure must be (Note: 144 from the sediments water or below ground level re. atis present in the soil = soil144 is included for units conversion.) . the external load of EarthFor Groundwater in a river crossing one can ote: height above pipe crown, ft n Combination term. and instance, Pressure e: 144 is included for units conversion.) asonableWhere groundwater is D the directionally drilled pipemustsubjected confidence thatpresent in H Wsoil formation, its pressure is be accounted the g BH W g H g H PE from the external load term.CFor instance,it W river crossing one can the water PGW the sediments above in a W (8) with assume with ressure for in combined in 2 reasonable confidence that the directionally drilled pipe is subjected to the earth 14 144 ft 2 pressure from the sediments above it combined with the water pressure. 14 ): Water level at or below ground surface Water level at or below ground surface
Case 1 Water level at or below ground surface

g H + g (H C H W ) + g W H PE + PGW = B H W W g D (D C H W ) + g W H W W (8) g B + H PE + PGW = (8) in 2 level at or below ground surface 144 2 2 in level at or above ground surface 144 pipe in river bottom) (i.e. 2 ft ft Case 2 Water level at or above ground surface (i.e. pipe in river bottom) g BH W g D HC H W g W H W PE (9) GW P (8) gBHC g W H W PE PGW (9) in 2 144 2 2 in 144 ft ft 2 WHERE at or above ground surface (i.e. pipe in river bottom) 2): Water H = Height of Ground water above pipe springline, ft level W Water level at or above ground surface (i.e. pipe in river bottom)
(8)

gB = buoyant weight of soil, pcf g H + gWH = Height =of GroundE water above+ g W H W W P (9) g B C gW weight of water, pcf + PGW = B H C pipe 2springline, ft PEft+ PGW = (9) in C = Height D =above ground surface 144 2pipe in river bottom) g of Cover, r level at or dry unit weight of soil, pcf (i.e. in = buoyant weight of soil, pcf 144 2 2 ft Live Loads ft = weight of water, pcf g HC gWH W Wheel loads from trucks or other vehicles are significant for pipe at shallow depths = dry unit weightPof soil,Bpcfby open cut trenching or directional drilling. The wheel PE (9) GW 2 whether they are installed inwater above pipe springline, ft Height of Ground H W =applied the pipe depends on the vehicle weight, the tire 144water above pipe springline, and size, HH loadHeighttosurface smoothness, pavement and distance frompressureftto the W = Height of Groundftft 2 = the pipe Cvehicle speed, of Cover, Height of Cover, ft soil, proper HC =point of loading. In order to develop pcf soil structure interaction, pipe subject to gB = buoyant weight of gBg= vehicular loadingwater, soil, pcfat least 18 or one pipe diameter (whichever is buoyant weight ofbepcf om trucks= or other vehiclesinstalledsignificant for pipe at shallow are weight of should W gare = dry unit by open cut trenching springline, ft drillingThe weight of water, of soil, pcf W = installed weight pcfabove pipe or directional Hthey Height of Ground water W = gD g = dry unit weight on the vehicle weight, the tire pressure ied toD the pipe dependsof soil, pcf C = Height of Cover, ft = buoyant weight of soil, pcf oads Be speed, surface smoothness, pavement and distance from the
W

HC = height of cover, ft

434 Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

larger) under the road surface. Generally, HDD pipes are always installed at a deeper depth so as to prevent inadvertent returns from occurring during the boring. The soil pressure due to live load such as an H20 wheel load can be found in Tables 3-3 and 3-4 in Chapter 6 or can be calculated using one of the methods in Chapter 6. To find the total pressure applied to the pipe, add the soil pressure due to live load, PL, to the earth pressure, PE. See Example 1 in Appendix A. Performance Limits
Hydrostatic Buckling or Collapse Ring Deformation

Figure 2 Performance Limits of HDD Pipe Subjected to Service Loads

Performance Limits of HDD Installed Pipe The design process normally consists of calculating the loads applied to the pipe, selecting a trial pipe DR, then calculating the safety factor for the trial DR. If the safety factor is adequate, the design is sufficient. If not, the designer selects a lower DR and repeats the process. The safety factor is established for each performance limit of the pipe by taking the ratio of the pipes ultimate strength or resistance to the applied load. External pressure from earth load, groundwater, vacuum and live load applied to the HDD pipe produces (1) a compressive ring thrust in the pipe wall and (2) ring bending deflection. The performance limit of unsupported PE pipe subjected to compressive thrust is ring buckling (collapse). The performance limit of a PE pipe subjected to ring bending (a result of non-uniform external load, i.e. earth load) is ring deflection. See Figure 2. Viscoelastic Behavior Both performance limits are proportional to the apparent modulus of elasticity of the PE material. For viscoelastic materials like PE, the modulus of elasticity is a timedependent property, that is, its value changes with time under load. A newly applied load increment will cause a decrease in apparent stiffness over time. Unloading will

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 435

result in rebounding or an apparent gain in stiffness. The result is a higher resistance to short term loading than to long-term loading. Careful consideration must be given to the duration and frequency of each load, so that the performance limit associated with that load can be calculated using PE material properties representative of that time period. The same effects occur with the pipes tensile strength. For instance, during pullback, the pipes tensile yield strength decreases with pulling time, so the safe (allowable) pulling stress is a function of time under load, and temperature. Typical safe pull tensile stress values for MDPE and HDPE are given in Table 1. Consult the manufacturer for specific applications. The values are given as a function of the duration of continuous loading. For pipe temperatures (not outside air temperatures) other than 73F, multiply the value in Table 1 by the temperature compensating multipliers found in Table B.1.2 of the Appendix to Chapter 3. The Safe Pull Load at 12 hours is given for a variety of pipe sizes and DRs in Tables 3 and 4 (3xxx material) and Tables 5 and 6 (4xxx material) in a following section, Tensile Stress During Pullback.

TaBLE 1 Safe Pull Tensile Stress @ 73 F Duration (Hours)


0.5 1 12 24

Typical Safe Pull Stress (psi) @ 73F PE2xxx (PE2406)


1100 1050 850 800

PE3xxx (PE3408)
1400 1350 1100 1050

PE4xxx (PE4710)
1500 1400 1150 1100

The safe pull stress is the stress at 3% strain. For strains less than 3% the pipe will essentially have complete strain recovery after pullback. The stress values in Table 1 were determined by multiplying 3% times the apparent tensile modulus from the Appendix to Chapter 3 adjusted by a 0.60 factor to account for the high stress level during pullback.

Ring Deflection (Ovalization) Non-uniform pressure acting on the pipes circumference such as earth load causes bending deflection of the pipe ring. Normally, the deflected shape is an oval. Ovalization may exist in non-rerounded coiled pipe and to a lesser degree in straight lengths that have been stacked, but the primary sources of bending deflection of directionally drilled pipes is earth load. Slight ovalization may also occur during pullback if the pipe is pulled around a curved path in the borehole. Ovalization reduces the pipes hydrostatic collapse resistance and creates tensile

436

Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

bending stresses in the pipe wall. It is normal and expected for buried PE pipes to undergo ovalization. Proper design and installation will limit ovalization (or as it is often called ring deflection) to prescribed values so that it has no adverse effect on the pipe. Ring Deflection Due to Earth Load As discussed previously, insitu soil characteristics and borehole stability determine to great extent the earth load applied to directionally drilled pipes. Methods for calculating estimated earth loads, when they occur, are given in the previous section on Earth and Groundwater Pressure. Since earth load is non-uniform around a pipes circumference, the pipe will undergo ring deflection, i.e. a decrease in vertical diameter and an increase in horizontal diameter. The designer can check to see if the selected pipe is stiff enough to limit deflection and provide an adequate safety factor against buckling. (Buckling is discussed in a later section of this chapter.) The soil surrounding the pipe may contribute to resisting the pipes deflection. Formulas used for entrenched pipe, such as Spanglers Iowa Formula, are likely not applicable as the HDD installation is different from installing pipe in a trench where the embedment can be controlled. In an HDD installation, the annular space surrounding the pipe contains a mixture of drilling mud and cuttings. The mixtures consistency or stiffness determines how much resistance it contributes. Consistency (or stiffness) depends on several factors including soil density, grain size and the presence of groundwater. Researchers have excavated pipe installed by HDD and observed some tendency of the annular space soil to return to the condition of the undisturbed native soil. See Knight (11) and Ariaratnam (12). It is important to note that the researched installations were located above groundwater, where excess water in the mud-cuttings slurry can drain. While there may be consolidation and strengthening of the annular space soil particularly above the groundwater level, it may be weeks or even months before significant resistance to pipe deflection develops. Until further research establishes the soils contribution to resisting deflection, one option is to ignore any soil resistance and to use Equation 10 which is derived from ring deflection equations published by Watkins and Anderson (13). (Coincidentally, Equation 10 gives the same deflection as the Iowa Formula with an E of zero.) Spanglers Iowa formula is discussed in Chapter 6. The design deflection limits for directionally drilled pipe are given in Table 2. Design deflection limits are for use in selecting a design DR. Field deflection measurements of directionally drilled pressure pipe are normally not made. Design deflection must be limited to control buckling resistance.

soils contribution to resisting deflection, one option is to ignore Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling nce and to use Equation 10 which is derived from ring deflection shed by Watkins and Anderson (1995). (Coincidentally, Equation me deflection as the Iowa Formula with an E of zero.)
(10)

437

y y 0.0125PE = D E 12 (DR - 1) 3

(10)

(%y/D) y = vertical ring7.5 in 6.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 deflection, 6.0 y = ring ring deformation, in ations D = pipe diameter, in D = pipe Pdiameter, in E = Earth pressure, psi Ratio P pressureDR = Pipe Dimension psi orE = Earth pressure,are equal to 1.5 times the short-term deflection limits applications E = apparent modulus of elasticity, psi (Refer to Appendix, Chapter 3, Engineering Properties, for the DR ASTM F-714. Ratio of = Pipe Dimension for the Material Designation Code of the PE pipe being used and the applicable appropriate value service conditions) E = modulus of elasticity, psi * To obtain ring deflection in percent, multiply y/D by 100. ons are for use in selecting DR and for field quality control. (Field deflection in percent, multiplydeflection do not necessarily indicate ctions exceeding the design y/D by 100. r-strainedTaBLE 2 In this of Buried Polyehtylene Pipe, Long Term, %* pipe. case, an engineering analysis of such pipe Design Deflection Limits n Limits (Ovality Limits) rmed before acceptance.)
DR or SDR 21 17 15.5 13.5 11 9 7.3
Deflection Limit (% y/D) Non-Pressure Applications

WHERE

7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 ring deflection (in percent) is limited by the 7.5 pipe wall strain,, the Buckling Deflection Limit (%y/D) c capacity, and the pipes7.5geometric 6.0 stability. Jansen observed 6.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 Pressure Applications essure-rated appliedlimits per ASTM pipeGuide forpressure earth no Drilling for load, pipe, subjected to soil Use offrom only, and upper limit * Design F1962, al pressure deflectionPipe or the Under Obstacles, Including to either Maxi-Horizontal Directional live Placement of al the drilling slurryview Conduit a ring exist for River Crossings. stress in the design point of PE creates seems to compressivebending strain. On the hoop r , pressurized pipes is increased to strains from both hoop stress e external pressure are subject to a point where the soil induced internal pressure. The combined strain may produce al value, Unconstrained Buckling and large inward deformationaofhigh, there is a sudden the Uniform stress. However, the by either from earth it in soil is applied to pipe embedding pressure r-fiber tensile external pressure the pipeas the internal and live load, or ed buckling. Constraining pipe will groundwater, or the and slurry creates a strength reduced. Due to grout tends to re-round drillingthebucklingring compressive hoopallow the to increase the pipes bending strain is and stress in it pipes wall. If the external pressure is increased to a point where the hoop stress r external pressure than if unconstrained. However, as noted in to combined strain (bending and hoop tensile), it is conservative a reaches a critical value, there is a sudden and large inward deformation of the pipe of is not likely buckling. Constraining the pipe by embedding it in In lieu of an pipes to less installed below the groundwater level n it pressure calledthat pipes than non-pressure pipes. soil or cementitious wall, on for allowable from the surroundinglimits in Table to withstandand for grout will increase the limits, the mud-cuttings mixture used. nificant support deflectionpipes buckling strength and allow it 3 can be higher external pressure may take considerable time to develop. oundwater support than if unconstrained. However, as noted in a previous section further it is not likely that Table 3 it is the groundwater level will acquire no research is pipes installed below conservative to assume available significant support from the surrounding mud-cuttings mixture and for pipe above flection Limits of Buried Polyehtylene Pipe, Long Term, %* the soil. groundwater supportequation, knowntime toLevys Therefore, untilmay The following may take considerable as develop. equation, 17 21 9 7.3 etermine furtherallowable external15.5 13.5 (or no constraint from the soil. the research is available it is conservative to assume negative internal pressure 11 nconstrainedfollowing. equation, known as Levys equation, may be used to determine the The pipe. t (%y/D) allowable external pressure (or negative internal pressure) for unconstrained pipe. 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 Applications (11) 2E 1 3 fO PUC = ( ) (11 UA 2 N (1 - m ) DR - 1

ua

= Allowable unconstrained pressure, psi 19 = Modulus of elasticity (apparent), psi

= = = =

= =

t3/12 for solid wall polyethylene 438 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling Poissons ratio, 0.45 for polyethylene Mean diameter, inches (inside diameter plus one wall thickness) Ovality compensation factor, dimensionless (see Figure 10-1) D D min WHERE 100 where P%=Deflection = buckling pressure uc Allowable unconstrained D E = Apparent modulus of elasticity, psi (Refer to Appendix, Chapter 3, Engineering Properties, Pipe average diameter,for the Material Designation Code of the PE pipe being used and the for the appropriate value in applicable Pipe minimum service conditions.) diameter, in
= Poissons Ratio = 0.45 for all PE pipe materials fo = Ovality compensationFigure figure 3) factor (see 10-1
DR = Dimension Ratio (Do/t), where Do =Outside Pipe Diameter and t = Minimum Wall Thickness N = Safety factor, vs. Ovality % Deflectiongenerally 2.0 or higherCorrection Factor, f

Figure 3 Ovality Compensation Factor=fo

buckling pressure of a dimension ratio (DR) series polyethylene pipe (i.e., a For a wall pipes of detailed discussion of buckling see the section in Chapter 6 titledspecified outside different diameters but with the same ratio of Unconstrained Pipe Wall Buckling (Hydrostatic Buckling). Note that the apparent mum wall thickness), the following variation of of the anticipated load.(22), Eq. 10-2, is Love's equation When modulus of elasticity is a function of the duration
selecting a modulus to use in Equation 11 consideration should be given to internal pressurization of the line. When the pressure in the pipe exceeds the external pressure due to earth and live load, groundwater and/or slurry, the stress in the pipe wall reverses from compressive to tensile stress and collapse will not occur. For determining the pipes resistance to buckling during pullback, an additional reduction for tensile stresses is required, which is discussed in a later section of this chapter. Wall Compressive Stress The compressive stress in the wall of a directionally drilled PE pipe rarely controls design and it is normally not checked. However, it is included here because in some

uch as directional drilling at very deep depths such as in Chapter 12 design. Horizontal Directional Drilling

439

pplied to a buried pipe creates a compressive thrust stress n the pipe is pressurized, the stress is reduced due to the ting tensile thrust stresses. The net stress can be such as in landfills it special cases such as directional drilling at very deep depths positive g on themay controlof cover. Buried pressure lines may be depth design. ressive stress pressure applied todown pipe creates a compressive thrust stress The earth when shut a buried or when experiencing ually short-term conditions andis pressurized, the stress consideredto the in the pipe wall. When the pipe are not typically is reduced due , since internal pressure creating tensile thrust stresses. Thepolyolefins positive or the short-term design stress of net stress can be is negative depending on the depth Pipes with large lines may of an the long-term design stress. of cover. Buried pressure depths be subject to net compressive t low pressures may stress when shut down or when experiencing vacuum. These are have net compressive stresses in the usually short-term conditions and are not typically considered significant for design, g equation can short-term design determine the is considerably higher than the longbe used to stress of polyolefins net compressive since the
term design stress. Pipes with large depths of cover and operating at low pressures may have net compressive stresses in the pipe wall. The following equation can be used to determine the net compressive stress:
(12)

Sc =

PS D O PD 2t 288t

(12)

= Earth load pressures, psf mpressivePSwall stress, psi DO = Pipe outside diameter, in th load pressures, psf t = Wall thickness, in e outside Pdiameter, in = (Positive) internal pressure, psi hickness,DinMean diameter, DO-t, in = itive) internal pressure, psi The compressive n diameter, DO-t, in wall stress should be kept less than the allowable compressive

WHERE SC = Compressive wall stress, psi

stress should be kept less than the allowable compressive

stress of the material. For PE4710 PE pipe grade resins, 1150 psi is a safe allowable stress. For other materials see the Appendix of Chapter 3.

EXaMPLE CaLCULaTIONS An example calculation for selecting the DR for an HDD pipe is given in Appendix A.

Installation Design Considerations After determining the DR required for long-term service, the designer must 22 determine if this DR is sufficient for installation. Since installation forces are so significant, a lower DR (stronger pipe) may be required. During pullback the pipe is subjected to axial tensile forces caused by the frictional drag between the pipe and the borehole or slurry, the frictional drag on the ground surface, the capstan effect around drill-path bends, and hydrokinetic drag. In addition, the pipe may be subjected to external hoop pressures due to net external fluid head and bending stresses. The pipes collapse resistance to external pressure given in Equation 2 is reduced by the axial pulling force. Furthermore,

440

Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

the drill path curvature may be limited by the pipes bending radius. (Torsional forces occur but are usually negligible when back-reamer swivels are properly designed.) Considerable judgment is required to predict the pullback force because of the complex interaction between pipe and soil. Sources for information include experienced drillers and engineers, programs such as DRILLPATH (14) and publications such as ASTM F1962 and ASCE MOP 108, Pipeline Design for Installation by Horizontal Directional Drilling. Typically, pullback force calculations are approximations that depend on considerable experience and judgment. The pullback formulas given herein and in DRILLPATH and ASTM F1962 are based on essentially an ideal borehole. The ideal borehole behaves like a rigid tunnel with gradual curvature, smooth alignment (no dog-legs), no borehole collapses, nearly complete cuttings removal, and good slurry circulation. The ideal borehole may be approached with proper drilling techniques that achieve a clean bore fully reamed to its final size before pullback. The closer the bore is to ideal; the more likely the calculated pullback force will match the actual. Because of the large number of variables involved and the sensitivity of pullback forces to installation techniques, the formulas presented in this document are for guidelines only and are given only to familiarize the designer with the interaction that occurs during pullback. Pullback values obtained should be considered only as qualitative values and used only for preliminary estimates. The designer is advised to consult with an experienced driller or with an engineer familiar with calculating these forces. The following discussion assumes that the entry and exit pits of the bore are on the same, or close to the same, elevation. For an overview, see Svetlik (15). Pullback Force Large HDD rigs can exert between 100,000 lbs. to 500,000 lbs. pull force. The majority of this power is applied to the cutting face of the reamer device/tool, which precedes the pipeline segment into the borehole. It is difficult to predict what portion of the total pullback force is actually transmitted to the pipeline being inserted. The pulling force which overcomes the combined frictional drag, capstan effect, and hydrokinetic drag, is applied to the pull-head and first joint of PE pipe. The axial tensile stress grows in intensity over the length of the pull. The duration of the pullload is longest at the pull-nose. The tail end of the pipe segment has zero applied tensile stress for zero time. The incremental time duration of stress intensity along the length of the pipeline from nose to tail causes a varying degree of recoverable elastic strain and viscoelastic stretch per foot of length along the pipe. The DR must be selected so that the tensile stress in the pipe wall due to the pullback force, does not exceed the permitted tensile stress for the pipe material. Increasing the pipe wall thickness will allow for a greater total pull-force. Even though the

ted so that the tensile stress due to the pullback force does tted tensile stress for the pipe. Increasing the pipe wall Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling for a greater total pull-force, but the thicker wall also per foot of the pipe in direct proportion. Hence, thicker wall arily reduce stress, only increase the absolute value of the The designer should carefully check all proposedpullback force within the DRs. thicker wall increases the weight per foot of the pipe, the
bore itself is not significantly affected by the increased weight. Hence, thicker wall pipe generally reduces stress. The designer should carefully check all proposed DRs.

441

stance

llback in Frictional Drag Resistance the borehole depends primarily on the frictional Pipe resistance to pullback in the boreholepipe and the on the frictional force n the pipe and the borehole or the depends primarily ground created between the pipe and the borehole pipe and the ea, the frictional the frictional drag between pipeor thedrilling slurry,ground surface in the drag between pipe and drilling slurry,capstan effect the entry area, and the nds, and at bends, and the weight of the pipe. Equation 13 gives the frictional resistance or the weight of the pipe. Equation 13 gives the required required pulling force for pipe pulled in straight, level bores or across level ground. pulling force for pipe pulled in straight, level bores Equation 13, gives the frictional resistance or required pulling force for pipe pulled .
in straight, level bores or across level ground. (See Kirby et al. (16)).
(13)

FP = mWB L

(13)

ng force,WHERE force, lbs Flbs P = pulling ficient of m = coefficient of friction between pipe and slurry (typically 0.25)ground (typically 0.40) friction between pipe and slurry (typically 0.25) or between pipe and or B = net downward (or upward) force on 0.40) ween pipewand ground (typically pipe, lb/ft L = length, ft downward (or upward) force on pipe, lb/ft h, ft When a slurry is present, WB equals the buoyant force on the pipe minus the weight

of the pipe and its contents, if any. Filling the pipe with fluid significantly reduces is the upward buoyant force of pipe pipe and its sent, wB the buoyancy force and thus the pulling force. PEthe has a density near that of water. If the pipe is installed dry (empty) using a closed nose-pull head, the pipe pe with fluid significantly reducesthe borehole leading toforce and the buoyancy the sidewall loading will want to float on the crown of and frictional drag through the buoyancy-per-foot force and the wetted soil to pipe coefficient of friction. Most major pullbacks are done wet. That is, the pipeline is filled with water as it starts to descend into the bore (past the breakover point). 24 Water is added through a hose or small pipe inserted into the pullback pipe. (See the calculation examples.)

Note: The buoyant force pushing the empty pipe to the borehole crown will cause the PE pipe to rub the borehole crown. During pullback, the moving drill mud lubricates the contact zone. If the drilling stops, the pipe stops, or the mud flow stops, the pipe - slightly ring deflected by the buoyant force - can push up and squeeze out the lubricating mud. The resultant start-up friction is measurably increased. The pulling load to loosen the PE pipe from being stuck in the now decanted (moist) mud can be very high. This situation is best avoided by using thicker (lower DR) pipes, doing wet pulls, and stopping the pull only when removing drill rods.

gress.]
442 Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

hole, the force can be factored into horizontal and vertical al.(3) shows an additional frictional force that occurs in pressureCapstan Force the borehole to keep the steel pipe required by For curves in the borehole, the force can be factored into horizontal and vertical h a radius of curvature similar to that used for steel pipe, components. Huey et al. shows an additional frictional force that occurs in steel nificant for PE pipe. pressure required bybends, it may be steel pipe curved. For For very tight the borehole to keep the prudent pipe due to the e frictional resistance during a similaris that used for steel pipe, these forces are bores with a radius of curvature pull to compounded by the pipe is pulled around a curve ortight bends, it may be prudent to consider them. In insignificant for PE pipe. For very bend creating an angle q, ng of the addition todueforce,thecapstan effect increases frictional resistance when pulling forces this to the direction of the pulling vectors. along a curved effect is given in around a Equations 13 due to the capstan path. As the pipe is pulledEq. 14.curve or bend creating an angle there is a compounding of the forces due to direction the pulling ecursivelyq,topulling pipeF for each capstan effectthegiven the ofpullback vectors. the force, , due to the section along in Eq. 14. Equations 13 and The is C Figure 4.14This method is credited for each section along the pullback distance as are applied recursively to the pipe to Larry Slavin, Outside ces, Inc. Rockaway, 4. This method is credited to Larry Slavin, Outside Plant Consulting shown in Figure N.J.
(17)

Services, Inc. Rockaway, N.J.


(14)

Fc = e mq (mWB L)

(14)

ural logarithm base (e=2.71828) e = Natural logarithm base (e=2.71828) fficient ofm = coefficient of friction friction q =in pipe, radians le of bend angle of bend in pipe, radians w = weight of pipe or buoyant force on pipe, lbs/ft ght of pipeBor buoyant force on pipe, lbs/ft L = Length of pull, ft gth of pull, ft

WHERE

25

m b Wb L 2

Wb H m g Wp L 2 exp m g a

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 443

L3

exp m b a m gis "Wp3" exp m g a [What Wp L above?]


F exp(m exp W a + L 2 + L exp ) m b Wb L 4 1 =Wb H g a )(m g m p (L1m g Wp L 3 + L 4 )m g a b 4

b b 2 b g p 2 g = Depth of 2bore (ft)b 1 = Pull Force on pipe at Point i (lb) F3 = F2 + m b W L exp(m b a )(m g Wp L 3 exp(m a )) = Horizontal distance bof3 Pull from point to pointg (ft) = Coeff. of friction (ground (g) and borehole (b)) F4 = exp(m b b )(F3 + m b Wb L 4 W H exp(m b a )(m g W L exp(m g a ))) = Pipe weight (p) and Buoyant pipe bweight (b) (lb/ft) p 4 b = Entry WHERE and Exit angles (radians)

F = exp(m a )(F + m W L + W H m W L exp(m a ))

Where:

to point (ft) m = Coeff. of friction (ground (g) and borehole (b)) m = Coeff. of friction (ground (g) and borehole (b)) W Wp = Weight of pipeFigure 4 weight (p) and Buoyant pipe weight (b) (lb/ft) (lb/ft)= Pipe a, b Entry Calculation Wb = Buoyant force on pipe minus weight of pipe and angles (radians) Estimated Pullback=Forceand Exitcontents (lb/ft)
a, b = Entry and Exit angles (radians)
Figure 4 Estimated Pullback Force Calculation

H = Depth of bore (ft) Fi = Pull Force on pipe at Point i (lb) Fi = Pull Force on pipe at Point i (lb) Li = Horizontal distance of Pull from point Li = Horizontal distance of Pull from point to point (ft)

H = Depth of bore (ft)

orce

pipe movement is Force resisted Estimated Pullback Force Calculation by the drag force of the drilling fluid. Hydrokinetic ic force is difficult to estimate and depends on the drilling slurry, During pulling, pipe movement is resisted by the drag force of the drilling fluid. Hydrokinetic Force pipe pullback rate, and is difficult to estimate pipe sizes. the drilling slurry, borehole and and depends on Typically, the This hydrokinetic force essure is estimated to be in the 30 toborehole and pipe sizes. Typically, the slurry flow rate pipe pullback rate, and 60 kPa (4 to 8 psi) range.
hydrokinetic pressure is estimated to be in the 30 to 60 kPa (4 to 8 psi) range.

Figure 4

During pulling, pipe movement is resisted by the drag force of the drilling f This hydrokinetic force is difficult to estimate and depends on the drilling sl (15) p 2 slurry flowrate pipe pullback rate, and borehole and pipe sizes. Typically, FHK p (D H - OD 2 ) (15) hydrokinetic pressure is estimated to be in the 30 to 60 kPa (4 to 8 psi) range 8

HK

p WHERE 2 = hydrokinetic force, lbs FHK = p (D H - OD 2 ) FHK = hydrokinetic force, lbs 8 = hydrokinetic pressure, psi p = hydrokinetic pressure, psi DH = diameter, in H = borehole borehole diameter, in = hydrokinetic force, lbs Where: FHK OD = pipe outside diameter, in D = pipe outside diameter, in p = hydrokinetic pressure, psi ack force, FT, then is theborehole diameter, in force, FP, plus the DH = combined pullback ASCE the example apipe outside diameter, in equals F4. MOP 108 suggests shown in Figure 4, FP the hydrokinetic drag OD = different method for calculating ce, FHK. For

(15

ESS

outer fiber tensile stress should not exceed the safe pull stress. outer fiber tensile stress isfiber tensile stress should notsum of the safe pull str The maximum outer obtained by taking the exceed the

force. Ittotal pull back force,external surface the of the pipe bypullback force, FP, plus The suggests multiplying the FT, then is area combined a fluid drag (18) coefficient of 0.025 lb/in2 after PucketttheThe total pull back force,Figure 4,the equals F4. . example shown in FT hydrokinetic force, DURING PULLBACKFHK. For hydrokinetic force, F . For the, then is FP combined pullback force, FP, plus the example HK shown in Figure 4, FP equals F4. TENSILE STRESS DURING PULLBACK

The maximum outer fiber tensile stress is obtained by taking the sum of

444

Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

n the pipeTensile Stresspullback force, the hydrokinetic pulling force, due to the During Pullback e bending stress due fiber tensile stress should not exceed the safe pull stress.it is to pipe curvature. During pullback The The maximum outer onitor the maximum outer fiber tensile stress isa weak link (such of the tensile stress pulling force and to use obtained by taking the sum as a pipe of chanical break-awaytoconnectorforce,other failsafe method and prevent in the pipe due the pullback or the hydrokinetic pulling force, to the tensile he pipe. bending stress due to pipe curvature. During pullback it is advisable to monitor
the pulling force and to use a weak link (such as a pipe of higher DR) mechanical break- away connector or other failsafe method to prevent over-stressing the pipe. The tensile stress occurring in the pipe wall during pullback is given by Eq. 16.
(16)

ss occurring in the pipe wall during pullback is given by Eq. 16.


st = E D FT + T OD 2R t (D OD - t)

(16)

= Axial tensiletensile stress, psi sT = Axial stress, psi FT = Total pulling force, lbs T = Total pulling force, lbs t = wall wall thickness, in = Minimum Minimumthickness, in DOD = Outer diameter of pipe, in OD = Outer diameter of pipe, in ET = Time-dependent apparent modulus, psi (Refer to Appendix, Chapter 3, Engineering Properties, for the appropriate value for modulus, psi T = Time-dependent tensile the Material Designation Code of the PE pipe being used and the = Minimum applicable servicecurvature in bore path, in radius of conditions
R = Minimum radius of curvature in bore path, in

WHERE

e stress due to tensilepulling forces should should not exceedthepipes safe pull the stress due to the pulling force not exceed the safe pull The axial Table 5 load. Asbe used, a previousdesignertensile strength of PE pipesafe pull can discussed in or the section, the can calculate a is load-rate a differentsensitive. Time under load is an important previous section, theappropriate pull time. As discussed in a consideration in selecting the tensile pipe is tensile strengthsensitive, and the safe pull load. During pullback, the pulling load-rate to use in calculating therefore values of safe pull force is not continually applied to the pipe, as the driller must stop pulling after ght be satisfactory for sliplining or insert renewal where the pull extracting each drill rod in order to remove the rod from the drill string. The net d for a maximum of 30 min. to 60 minthe drill rod and then stops until the for may not be satisfactory result is that the pipe moves the length of ng. With extracted rod is removed. Pullback is an incremental (discrete) process rather than directional drilling, the time duration of stress intensity r--betweencontinuous process. The pipe is not subjected to a constant tensile forceis time a 4 hours to 24 hours. The safe pullload and thus may relax or between pulls. pull load (to limit elongation be the nce, the 60 min.some less safe A one-hour apparent modulus value might in safe for design, however, a 12-hour of the pipeline where the pull value will normally minimize stretching of thefor force is largest), is inappropriate pipeline. Tables 3 through 6 give safe pull loads for PE pipes based on a 12-hour pulls. Table 2 gives safe also referred to as thevalues for time in the Tables tensile stress allowable tensile load intervals. value. The safe pull force value will3 through 6 is based on the minimum pipe wallstretch low be found using normally keep the pull-nose thickness and may and avoid ation of the HDPE (The safe pull Allowable be found using the average wallfor gas Equation 17. pipeline. load may also safe pullback values thickness. Check with the Practice the Determining Allowable safe pullback in ASTM F-1807, manufacture forfor average wall values.)Allowable Tensile values for gas pipe during ASTM F-1807, Practice for Determining Allowable hylene (PE) Gas Pipeare given inPull-In Installation. Tables 5 and 6 Tensile Load for Polyehtylene (PE) Gas Pipe during Pull-In Installation. oads for HDPE pipes.

pipe may take several hours (typically equal to the duration of the from the axial strain. When pulled from the reamed borehole, the

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 445

(17)

WHERE FS = Safe Pull Force (lbs)

TALLOW = Safe Pull Stress (psi) DOD = Outside Diameter (in) DR = Dimension Ratio

After pullback, pipe may take several hours (typically equal to the duration of the pull) to recover from the axial strain. When pulled from the reamed borehole, the pull-nose should be pulled out about 3% longer than the total length of the pull. The elastic strain will recover immediately and the viscoelastic stretch will remember its original length and recover overnight. One does not want to come back in the morning to discover the pull-nose sucked back below the borehole exit level due to stretch recovery and thermal-contraction to an equilibrium temperature. In the worst case, the driller may want to pull out about 4% extra length (40 feet per 1000 feet) to insure the pull-nose remains extended beyond the borehole exit.

446

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TaBLE 3 PE 3xxx 12 hour Pull IPS Size Safe Pull Force, lbs Size
1.25 1.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 48 54

Nom. OD
1.660 1.900 2.375 3.500 4.500 6.625 8.625 10.750 12.750 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000 22.000 24.000 26.000 28.000 30.000 32.000 34.000 36.000 42.000 48.000 54.000

9
940 1232 1924 4179 6908 14973 25377 39423 55456 66863 87331 110528 136454 165110 196494 230608 267450 307022 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

11
787 1030 1610 3497 5780 12529 21235 32988 46404 55949 73076 92487 114182 138160 164422 192967 223796 256909 292305 329985 369949 N.A. N.A. N.A.

13.5
653 855 1336 2902 4797 10398 17623 27377 38511 46432 60646 76756 94760 114660 136454 160144 185729 213210 242585 273856 307022 417891 N.A. N.A.

17
527 690 1079 2343 3872 8393 14225 22098 31086 37480 48954 61957 76490 92553 110146 129268 149920 172102 195814 221056 247827 337321 440582 N.A.

*Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 447

TaBLE 4 PE 3xxx 12 hour Pull DIPS Size Safe Pull Force, lbs Size
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48

Nom. OD
4.800 6.900 9.050 11.100 13.200 15.300 17.400 19.500 21.600 25.800 32.000 38.300 44.500 50.800

9
7860 16241 27940 42031 59440 79856 103282 129717 159160 227074 349323 N.A. N.A. N.A.

11
6577 13590 23379 35171 49738 66822 86424 108544 133182 190010 292305 418730 N.A. N.A.

13.5
5458 11279 19403 29188 41277 55456 71724 90081 110528 157690 242585 347506 469121 N.A.

17
4406 9104 15662 23561 33319 44764 57895 72713 89218 127287 195814 280506 378673 493483

*Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe

448 Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

TaBLE 5 PE 4xxx 12 hour Pull IPS Size Safe Pull Force, lbs Size
1.25 1.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 48 54

Nom. OD
1.660 1.900 2.375 3.500 4.500 6.625 8.625 10.750 12.750 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000 22.000 24.000 26.000 28.000 30.000 32.000 34.000 36.000 42.000 48.000 54.000

9
983 1287 2012 4369 7222 15653 26531 41214 57977 69902 91300 115552 142657 172615 205426 241090 279607 320978 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

11
822 1077 1683 3656 6043 13098 22200 34487 48513 58492 76398 96691 119372 144440 171896 201739 233969 268587 305592 344985 386765 N.A. N.A. N.A.

13.5
682 894 1397 3034 5015 10870 18424 28621 40262 48543 63403 80244 99067 119871 142657 167424 194172 222901 253612 286304 320978 436886 N.A. N.A.

17
551 722 1128 2449 4048 8774 14872 23103 32499 39184 51179 64773 79967 96760 115152 135144 156735 179925 204715 231104 259092 352654 460609 N.A.

*Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 449

TaBLE 6 PE 4xxx 12 hour Pull DIPS Size Safe Pull Force, lbs Size
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48

Nom. OD
4.800 6.900 9.050 11.100 13.200 15.300 17.400 19.500 21.600 25.800 32.000 38.300 44.500 50.800

9
8217 16980 29210 43942 62141 83486 107977 135613 166395 237395 365201 N.A. N.A. N.A.

11
6876 14208 24442 36770 51998 69859 90353 113478 139235 198647 305592 437764 N.A. N.A.

13.5
5706 11791 20285 30515 43154 57977 74984 94176 115552 164858 253612 363302 490445 N.A.

17
4606 9518 16374 24632 34834 46799 60527 76018 93273 133073 204715 293256 395886 515914

*Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe

External Pressure During Installation During pullback it is reasonable to assume that the borehole remains stable and open and that the borehole is full of drilling slurry. The net external pressure due to fluid in the borehole, then, is the slurry head, PMUD. This head can be offset by pulling the pipe with an open nose or filling the pipe with water for the pullback. However, this may not always be possible, for instance when installing electrical conduit. In addition to the fluid head in the borehole, there are also dynamic sources of external pressure: 1. If the pulling end of the pipe is capped, a plunger action occurs during pulling which creates a mild surge pressure. The pressure is difficult to calculate. The pipe will resist such an instantaneous pressure with its relatively high shortterm modulus. If care is taken to pull the pipe smoothly at a constant speed, this calculation can be ignored. If the pipe nose is left open, this surge is eliminated. 2. External pressure will also be produced by the frictional resistance of the drilling mud flow. Some pressure is needed to pump drilling mud from the reamer tool into the borehole, then into the pipe annulus, and along the pipe length while conveying reamed soil debris to the mud recovery pit. An estimate of this short term hydrokinetic pressure may be calculated using annular flow pressure loss formulas borrowed from the oil well drilling industry. This external pressure is dependent upon specific drilling mud properties, flow rates, annular opening, and hole configuration. This is a short-term installation condition. Thus, PE pipes short-term external differential pressure capabilities are compared to the actual

tional external pressure to the slurry head: tional external pressure to the slurry head:
450 Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

PN PMUD PHK - P1 PN = PMUD + PHK - P1

(17) (17)

he terms have been defined previously. e terms have been defined previously.

nce to External normal conditions, the annular-flow back Under Collapse Pressure During nce to External Collapse Pressure During pressure component is less k Installation than k Installation 4-8 psi.

short-term total external pressure during this installation condition.

wable external buckling pressure equation, Eq.11, with the appropriate additional external pressure to the wable external buckling pressureslurry head: Eq.11, with the appropriate equation, endent modulus MUD + PHK - Pbe used to calculate the pipes resistance to (18) PN = P value can I endent modulus value can be used to calculate the pipes resistance to rnal pressure, PN, given by Eq.17 during pullback. The following rnal pressure,terms have been defined previously. PN, given by Eq.17 during pullback. The following Where ns in strengththe should be taken: ns in strength should be taken:
Resistance to External Collapse Pressure During Pullback Installation

In consideration of the dynamic or hydrokinetic pressure, PHK, the designer will add

The allowable external buckling pressure equation, Eq.11, with the appropriate apparent modulus (see chapter 3- Appendix) value can be used to calculate the pipes resistance to reduces the PN, given by resistance. This tensile pulling force the external pressure,buckling Eq.18 during pullback. The can be tensile pulling reductions in strength should be taken: force reduces the buckling resistance. This can be ed for by following an additional reduction factor, fR. The pulling load in the pipe d for by an additional reduction factor, fR. The pulling load in the pipe The tensile described by the buckling resistance. This hoop strain reduces a hoop strain as pulling force reducesPoissons ratio. Thecan be accounted for by a hoop strain as described byFR. The pulling load in theThe creates a hoop strain Poissons ratio. pipe hoop strain reduces an additional reduction factor, ling resistance. Multiply Eq.11 by the reduction factor, fR to obtain the ling resistance. Multiply Eq.11The hoop strain reduces the factor, resistance. as described by Poissons ratio. by the reduction buckling fR to obtain the e externalMultiply Eq.11pressure during pullback.the allowable external buckling buckling by the reduction factor, F to obtain e external buckling pressure during pullback. R pressure during pullback.
(19)

FR = FR

(5.57 - (r + 1.09) 2 ) - 1.09 (5.57 - (r 1.09) 2 ) - 1.09

(18) (18) (19) (19)

(20)

sT r = sT r 2S 2S

sT = WHERE calculated tensile stress during pullback (psi) sT = scalculated tensile stress (psi) = calculated tensile stress during pullback during pullback (psi) s = sT= safe pull stress (psi) (psi) safe pull stress s = safe pull stress (psi)
r = tensile stress ratio

e pullback time is typically several hours, a modulus value consistent Since the e pullback timepullback time is typically several hours, aa modulus consistent with is typically several hours, modulus value value consistent the pullback be selected from Table 2. Chapter 3. pullback time can time can be selected from Appendix, pullback time can be selected from Table 2.
Bending Stress HDD river crossings incorporate radii-of-curvature, which allow the PE pipe to cold bend within its elastic limit. These bends are so long in radius as to be well within the flexural bending capability of SDR 11 PE pipe which can be cold bent to 25 times 29 its nominal OD (example: for a 12 SDR 11 PE pipe, the radius of curvature could 29 be from infinity down to the minimum of 25 feet, i.e., a 50-foot diameter circle). Because the drill stem and reaming rod are less flexible, normally PE can bend easily

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 451

to whatever radius the borehole steel drilling and reaming shafts can bend because these radii are many times the pipe OD. However, in order to minimize the effect of ovaling some manufacturers limit the radius of curvature to a minimum of 40 to 50 times the pipe diameter. As in a previous section, the tensile stress due to bending is included in the calculations. Thermal Stresses and Strains HDD pipeline crossings generally become fully restrained in the axial direction as progressive sedimentation and soil consolidation occur within the borehole. The rate at which restraint occurs depends on the soil and drilling techniques and can take from a few hours to months. This assumption is valid for the vast majority of soil conditions, although it may not be completely true for each and every project. During pipe installation, the moving pipeline is not axially restrained by the oversize borehole. However, the native soil tends to sediment and embed the pipeline when installation velocity and mud flow are stopped, thus allowing the soil to grip the pipeline and prevent forward progress or removal. Under such unfortunate stoppage conditions, many pipelines may become stuck within minutes to only a few hours. The degree to which the pipeline will be restrained after completed installation is in large part a function of the sub-surface soil conditions and behavior, and the soil pressure at the depth of installation. Although the longitudinal displacement due to thermal expansion or contraction is minimal, the possibility of its displacement should be recognized. The PE pipe should be cut to length only after it is in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding soil (usually overnight). In this way the installed versus operating temperature difference is dropped to nearly zero, and the pipe will have assumed its natural length at the existing soil/water temperature. Additionally, the thermal inertia of the pipe and soil will oppose any brief temperature changes from the flow stream. Seasonal temperature changes happen so slowly that actual thermally induced stresses are usually insignificant within PE for design purposes. Torsion Stress A typical value for torsional shear stress is 50% of the tensile strength. Divide the transmitted torque by the wall area to get the torsional shear stress intensity. During the pullback and reaming procedure, a swivel is typically used to separate the rotating cutting head assembly from the pipeline pull segment. Swivels are not 100% efficient and some minor percent of torsion will be transmitted to the pipeline. For thick wall PE pipes of SDR 17, 15.5, 11, 9 and 7, this torsion is not significant and usually does not merit a detailed engineering analysis.

452

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EXaMPLE CaLCULaTIONS Example Calculations are given in Appendix A and B.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Sener, E.M. & Stein, R. (1995). Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling Manual, North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT), Reston, Virginia. Horizontal Directional Drilling Good Practices Guidelines, North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT), Reston, Virginia. Safety Manual: Directional Drilling Tracking Equipment, Equipment Manufacturers Institute (EMI). ASTM F1962, Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 108, Pipeline Design for Installation by Horizontal Directional Drilling, ASCE, Reston, Virginia (2005). Petroff, L.J. (2006). Designing Polyethylene Water Pipe for Directional Drilling Applications Using ASTM F1962, NASTT No-Dig Conference, Nashville, TN. ORourke, T.D., El-Gharbawy, S.L. & Stewart, H.E. (1991). Soil Loads at Pipeline Crossings, ASCE Specialty Conference on Pipeline Crossings, Denver, CO.. Stein, D., Mollers, K. & Bielecki, R (1989) Microtunnelling, Ernest & Sohn, Berlin.. Petroff, L.J. (1999). Guidelines for Design of Directionally-Drilled Polyethylene Pipe, International Plastic Pipe Fuel Gas Symposium, PPI, AGA, & GTI, New Orleans, LA. Spangler, M. G. & Handy, R. L. (1973). Soil Engineering, Intext, Harper and Row, New York, NY. Knight, M.A., Duyvestyn, G., & Gelinas, M. (2001, Sept). Excavation of surface installed pipeline, J. Infrastructural Systems, Vol. 7, no 3, ASCE. Ariaratnam, S.T. (2001). Evaluation of the Annular Space Region in Horizontal Directional Drilling Installations, Arizona State University. Watkins, R.K. & Anderson, L.R. (1995). Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT. DRILLPATH (1996). Infrasoft L.L.C., Maurer Technology. Svetlik, H. (1995, March). Design Considerations for PE Pipe Used in Directional Drilling, No-Dig Engineering, Vol.2, No.3. Kirby, M.J., Kramer, S.R., Pittard, G.T., & Mamoun, M. (1996). Design Guidelines and Procedures for Guided Horizontal Drilling, Proceedings of the International No-Dig 96 Conf., New Orleans, LA. Huey, D.P., Hair, J.D., & McLeod, K.B. (1996). Installation Loading and Stress Analysis Involved with Pipelines Installed by Horizontal Directional Drilling, No-Dig 96 Conf., New Orleans, LA. Puckett, J.S. (2003). Analysis of Theoretical versus Actual HDD Pulling Loads, ASCE International Conference on Pipeline Engineering and Construction, Baltimore, MD.

appendix a Design Calculation Example for Service Loads (Post-Installation)


Example 1

A 6 IPS DR 11 PE4710 pipe is being pulled under a railroad track. The minimum depth under the track is 10 ft. Determine the safety factor against buckling.

GIvEN PaRaMETERS OD = 6.625 in Nominal Pipe OD

DR = 11 Pipe
Dimension Ratio

H = 10 ft.
Max. Borehole Depth

gs = 120 lbf/ft 3
E-80 Live Load

Unit Weight of Soil

PLive = 1,100 Ibf/ft 2

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 453

Wheel loading from train will be applied for several minutes without relaxatio ding from Repetitivebe applied for several minutes without relaxation. train will trains crossing may accumulate. A conservative choice for t apparent modulus is the 1000-hour modulus. trains crossing may accumulate. A conservative choice for the modulus is the 1000-hour modulus. PE Material will be el loading Emid =train Parameters = 0.45 Long-Term Poissons Ration from 43,700 psi applied for several minutes without relaxation. Wheel loading from train will be applied for several minutes choice for the titive trains 0.45 Long-Termaccumulate. A conservative without relaxation. 00 psi = crossing may Poissons Ration Repetitive trains crossing may accumulate. A conservative choice for the apparent ent modulus isand Live Load Pressure on Pipe (Assuming that the earth load equals t Soil the 1000-hour modulus. modulus is the 1000-hour modulus. See Appendix of Chapter 3 Table B.1.1. ive Load prism load is Pipe (Assuming that the earth load a calculation involving dynam Pressure on perhaps too conservative except for equals the E 46,000 Long-Term Poissons Ration = is perhaps too == loading.) except for a calculation involving dynamic 43,700 psi mid conservative surface 0.45 psi ading.) = Pressure on Pipe (Assuming = 15.97 psi and Live LoadPoissons Ratio = 0.45 for2/144 in2 P = (gSH+ PLive) 1 ft all PE pipe materials Pthat the earth load equals the load 1 perhaps 2 Live Load = 15.97 psi Soil in PLive) is ft2/144andtoo conservativeon Pipe (Assuming that the earth load equals the prism P Pressure except for a calculation involving dynamic ce loading.) isDeflection conservative from soil calculation involving dynamic surface load Ring perhaps too resulting except for a and live load pressures assuming no si loading.) support is soil and live load pressures assuming no side ection resulting fromgiven by equation 10. 1 ft2/144 P P gSH+ PLive) P = (g H 10. 2 ) 1 /144 = 15.97 psi given by equation + inLive s

Deflection Presulting from soil and live load pressures assuming no side = 16.0 psi ort is given by equation 10. y 0.0125P O O y Ring Deflection resulting from soil and live load pressures assuming no side support 0.0125P E mid D O = is given by equation 10. O 3 E mid D 12 DR 1 3 12(DR .1) P y y 0 0125
O O

%y/D = 5.482 Percent deflection from soil loads 3 12 DR 1 %y/D = 5.482 Percent deflection from soil loads Determine Percent deflection from soil loads % y / D = 5.1 critical unconstrained buckling pressure based on deflection fro loading and safety factor using Eq.based on deflection from critical unconstrained buckling pressure 11 d safety %y/D = 5.482Eq. 11 deflection from pressure based on deflection from factor using Percent Determine critical unconstrained buckling soil loads fo = 0.56 Ovality factor using Eq. 11 factor for 5.5% ovality from Figure 3 loading and safety compensation mine compensation factor forbuckling pressure Figure 3 on deflection from critical unconstrained 5.5% ovality from based vality fo = 0.58 Ovality compensation factor for 5.1% ovality from Figure 3 ng and safety factor using Eq. 11 2E mid 1 PUC ( )3 f O 2 2E mid 1 ( 1 - m ) DR 1 3 ( f 56 Ovality PUC = compensation factor )for O5.5% ovality from Figure 3 2 ( 1 - m2 ) DR 1

E mid

PUC = 68.4 psi 2E mid 1 PUC ( pressure (no safety factor) )3 f O PUC =unconstrained buckling Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor) Critical 61.37 psi 2 ( 1 - m ) DR 1 7 psi Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor) PUC SFcr SFcr = 3.84 Safety factor against buckling P 61.37 psiSF = 3.84 Safety factor against buckling Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor) cr SFcr = 4.3 Safety factor against buckling Example 2: A 6 IPS DR 13.5 HDPE pipe is being pulled under a small river f PUC use pipe electrical duct. At its a small river the : A 6 IPS DR 13.5 HDPEas anis being pulled under lowest point, for pipe will be 18 fe SFcr = 3.84 Safety river against Assume the slurry weight is equal to P as an electrical duct. At itsfactor surface.buckling will be 18 feet below the lowest point, the pipe use Ib/cu.ft. The duct is weight is equal to 75 below the river surface. Assume the slurryempty during the pull. Calculate a) t pleIb/cu.ft.6The DR 13.5 HDPE pipe is being pulledCalculatesmall the against buckling 2: A IPS duct maximum pulling force and b) under a a) river for is empty during the pull. the safety factor use as an electricalpipe. Assume that the pipes pipe willis 3% and that the pulli the and b) At its lowest point, the ovality befor feet maximum pulling force duct. the safety factor against buckling 18 below the rivertime will not exceedthe 3% and that is pulling surface. Assume is slurry the pipe. Assume that the pipes ovality 10 hours. weight the equal to 75 Ib/cu.ft. The duct is empty during the pull. Calculate a) the

454

Chapter 12

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Example 2

A Solution:6 IPS DR 13.5 PE4710 pipe is being pulled under a small river for use as an

electrical duct. At its lowest point, the pipe will be 18 feet below the river surface. Assume the Solution: slurry strength or to 75 Ib/cu.ft. The duct is empty during the pull. Calculate the safe pullweight is equalallowable tensile load. Calculate a) the maximum pulling force and b) the safety factor against buckling Calculate Assume pull strength or allowable tensile load. OD =for the pipe.the safethat the pipes ovality is 3% and that the pulling time will not 6.625in. Pipe outside diameter Solution: DR =exceed 10 hours. Pipe dimension ratio 13.5

OD 6.625in. Pipe outside diameter Tallow = 1150=psi Typical safe pull stress for HDPE for 12-hour pull duration Calculate the safe pull strength or allowable tensile load. Solution DR = 13.5 Pipe dimension ratio Calculate the safe pull strength or allowable tensile load. Tallow = 1150 psi 1 Typical safe pull stress for HDPE for 12-hour pull duration 1 OD = OD6.625in. = 2 Pipe ) Fs Tallow 6.625in.(- Pipe outside diameter outside diameter OD 2 DR DR Pipe dimension ratio DR = 13.5 - Pipe dimension ratio = 13.5 DR 1 1 2 safe pull stress duration. See Table 1. Tallow = T1150 Typical safe Typicalfor PE4710 for 12-hour pull for HDPE for 12-hour pull duration Fs Tallow = allow OD ( 1150 psi - psi pull stress2 ) 4 DR strength for 6 IPS DR 13.5 HDPE pipe assuming Fs = 1.088 x 10 lbf Safe pull DR 10-hour maximum pull duration 1 1 ) F = Tallow OD 2 Fss = 1.088 x 104( lbf Safe pull strength for 6 IPS DR 13.5 HDPE pipe assuming DR DR 2 10-hour maximum pressure during Installation for the Step 1: Determine the critical buckling pull duration Fs = 1.088 x 104 lbf pipe (include tensile reduction factor assuming the frictional drag 4 Fs =pull force for 6 IPS DR 13.5 PE pipepull strengthmaximum pull duration. 13.5 HDPE pipe assuming Safe 1.088 x 10 lbf Safe assuming 12-hour for 6 IPS DR Step 1: duringDetermine the1000 psibuckling pressurestress) Installation for t critical longitudinal pipe during pull force. Also see Table 5 for safe pull results in maximum pull duration 10-hour pipe (include tensile reduction factor assuming the frictional dr Step psi during pullmodulus of elasticity (for 10 hours at stress) E = 57,500 1 Apparent results in 1000 psi longitudinal pipe 73 degrees F) Step 1: the critical buckling pressure during Installation for the pipe (include Determine the critical buckling pressure during Installation for t Determine = 0.45 Poissons ratio (long term value) pipe (include tensile reduction factor results assuming the frictional dr tensile reduction factor assuming themodulusdrag (for 3% (for 10 hours at E Apparent frictional of during pull fo = 0.76= 57,500 psiOvality compensation factorelasticity ovality) in 1000 psi 73 degrees during pull results in 1000 psi longitudinal pipe stress) longitudinal pipe stress) Poissons ratio (long term value) = 0.45 fo = 0.76 Ovality assumed at 73 psi F) E = Tensile ratio (based on compensationdegrees pull stress calculation) R = 0.43563,000 psi - Apparent modulus of elasticity (for 12 hours1000factor (for 3% ovality) E =Poissons Ratio = 0.45 for all PE materials modulus of elasticity (for 10 hours at 73 degrees 57,500 psi Apparent = = 0.76 - Ovality compensation factor (for 3% ovality) (long term value) 0.45 Poissons ratio f = Ro = 0.435 Tensile ratio (based on assumed 1000 psi pull stress calculation) fo = 0.76 Ovality compensation factor (for 3% ovality)
f = 5.57 r 1 ratio 1.09 0.71 Tensile Reduction Factor R R 0.435 Tensile.09 (based onf assumed 1000 psi pull stress calculation) R
2

Critical unconstrained Factor Tensile Reduction buckling pressure for DR 13.5 ) fO fR PCR 39.90 ( Pcr (1 - 2 ) DR - 1 Critical unconstrained pipe without safety factor 2 1 2E f R = 5.57 (r + 3 .09) f 1.09 P f R = 0.71 1f Tensile Reduction Factor buckling pressure for DR ) O R 39.90 ( Pcr CR (1 - 2 ) DR - 1 Step 2: Determine expected loads on pipe (assume onlypipe without safety factor static unconstrained Criticaldrilling fluid 2E head acting soil loading) Tensile Reduction Factor 1 on 3pipe, and borehole intact with no buckling pressure for DR ) fO fR PCR = 39.90 ( Pcr = PCR = 43.71 Step 2: - 2 ) Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only staticsafety factor DR - 1 (1 3 pipe without drilling fluid Critical unconstrained buckling pressureonDR 13.5 pipe without safety factor for pipe, and borehole intact with no soil loading) head acting gslurry = 75 lbf/ft , drilling fluid weight H = 18 ft, Maximum bore depth

R = 0.435 - Tensile ratio (based on assumed 1000 psi pull stress calculation) 2 f 1.09 f R 0.71 1 5.57 r 1.09 fR2E = 0.71 R 3

Step 2: Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only static drilling fluid gslurry = 75 lbf/ft3, drilling fluid weight H = 18 ft, Maximum bore depth Total static 1ft 2 head acting on pipe, and borehole intact with no drilling soil loading) ) Pslurry 9.37 psi Pslurry Hg slurry ( fluid head pressure if 2 144in 2 drilled Total surface from static drilling gP = 75 lbf/ft3,1ft ) P slurry 9.37 psi H = 18 ft, Maximum bore depth if Hg slurry ( drilling fluid weight fluid head pressure slurry slurry 144in 2 drilled from surface Step 3: Determine the resulting safety factor against critical buckling during

2 Tensile Reduction Factor f R f R 5.575.57 1r091.09 1.091.09 f R f 0.710.71 Tensile Reduction Factor r . R 2
Horizontal Directional Drilling
Chapter 12 455

2E 2E 1 13 3 ) f)O f R f R PCR PCR 39.90 39.90 ( ( Pcr Pcr O 2 - DR - 1 (1 - (1 ) 2 ) DR - 1

Critical unconstrained Critical unconstrained buckling pressure for 13.5 buckling pressure for DR DR pipepipe without safety factor without safety factor

Step 2: StepStep 2 2:

gslurry = 75 lbf/ft , drilling fluid weight H =H = ft, Maximum bore depth gslurrygslurry= lbf/ft3,3,drilling fluid weight = 75 75 lbf/ft drilling fluid weight 18 18 ft, Maximum bore depth
H = 18 ft, Maximum bore depth

Determine expected loads on pipe (assume boreholedrilling fluidwith soil soil loading) head acting on pipe, only static intact with no acting on head acting on pipe, andand borehole intact head no loading) pipe, and borehole intact with no soil loading)
3

Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only static drilling fluid Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only static drilling fluid

1ft 2 1ft 2 ) P 9.37 psi P Hg Hg slurry Pslurry slurry slurry ( ( 2 ) Pslurry slurry 9.37 psi 144in 2 144in
Step Step 3: 3:
Step 3

Total static drilling Total static drilling fluid head pressure fluid head pressure if if drilled from surface drilled from surface

Pslurry = 9.36 psi Total static drilling fluid head pressure if drilled from surface

Determine resulting safety factor against critical buckling during Determine the the resulting safety factor against critical buckling durin Installation Installation

Determine the resulting safety factor against critical buckling during installationfactor against Safety Safety factor against

SFCR

PCR SF PCR PCR SFCR =CR = Pslurry slurrySFCR P Pslurry

SFCR = 4.25 4.25 SFCR = 4.25

critical buckling durin critical buckling during pull. pull.

34 34 SFCR = 4.67 3: Determine the safety factor term long term for the ample Examplefactor againstDetermine during pull for long for for performance performance for t 3: Example 3: the safety factorsafety factor long term performance for the Determine critical buckling the Safety communication duct in 2. Assume there are 10there of feet of communication duct in example 2. Assume are 10 communication duct in example example 2. Assume therefeet are 10 feet Example 3 riverbed deposits above the the borehole having saturated unitu riverbed deposits borehole borehole ahaving a aunit above saturated riverbed deposits above 3 3 the having saturated 3 110110 Ib/ft . (18 feet deep,the communication duct Determine weight factor for long-term feet initial for initial ovality) weight weight ofthe safetyof . (18 Ib/ft .deep, 3%deep, 3% 3% initial ovality) 110 Ib/ft of feet (18 performance ovality)
in Example 2. Assume there are 10 feet of riverbed deposits above the borehole having Solution: a saturated unit weight of 110 lb/ft3. (18 feet deep, 3% initial ovality) Solution:

ution:

Solution Step 1: Determine soil pipe soil load (Warning requires Input of of oval 1: Determine load (Warning requires Input of ovality p 1: StepDetermine the pipe the the pipe soil load (Warning requires Input ovality compensation in step 4.) 4.) compensation Step 1 compensation in step 4.) in step

Determine the pipe soil load (Warning: Requires input of ovality compensation E long psi E Long term modulus Long term apparent modulus long in step 4. long = 28,200 psi term apparent apparent modulus = 28,200 = 28,200 psi Long

3 3 g 62.4 lbf/ft.apparent Unit water gw = long = 29,000 psi =Long-term Unit weight of weight of water lbf/ft.3 E 62.4 gw = w - 62.4 lbf/ft. modulus Unit weight of water H = -18 18 ft Max. borehole depth water H gw 18 ftlbf/ft.3 H = ft Max.3 3 = = 62.4 Max.Unit weight ofborehole borehole depth depth gs - = s110110 lbf/ft. g 3 = depth Saturated unit weight of weight of sediments lbf/ft. Saturated unitunit weight of sediments Saturated sediments gs H = 110 lbf/ft. = 18 ft Max. Borehole Groundwater g==18 lbf/ft.3 - Saturated unit weight of sediments Groundwater height GW s 110 GWGW = ft ft Groundwater height height ft = 18 18 10ft. GW 10ft. -C =C = 10ft.Height of Height of soil soil cover = 18 ft Groundwater height C= soilHeight of cover cover C= 10ft. -OD OD = coverin Nominal pipe OD pipe OD OD = Height of6.625 = soil 6.625 in Nominal Nominal pipe OD 6.625 in DR Nominal 13.5 Pipe dimension ratio Pipe dimension ratio DROD = 6.625 in -DR = pipe ODPipe dimension ratio = 13.5 = 13.5 DR = 13.5 - =dimension ratio Pipe = 0.45 0.45 Long Term ratio Long Term Poissons ratio = 0.45 Long Term PoissonsPoissons ratio

= Poissons Ratio = 0.45 for all PE materials

il

2 1ft 2 1ft 2 Prism load on 10 of =C ( (g SW C ( ) Pg Psoilg= -1ft -)g W ) C ( 2 ) PpsiPsoil = 3.30 psi load on Prism loadpipepipe from 10 of ( S g Prism pipe from on from 10 of ) Psoil 3.302 soil = 3.30 psi (g S - soil ) W 2 144in 144in saturated cover saturated cover (including 144in saturated cover (including(including buoyant force on submerged Psoil = 3.30 psi buoyant force buoyant force on submerged on submerged soil)soil) Prism load on pipe from 10 of saturated cover (including soil) force on submerged soil) buoyant

Step 2: 2: Calculate ring resulting from soil loads assuming no p 2: StepCalculateCalculate deflectiondeflection resulting from soil soil loads assuming the ring the the ring deflection resulting from loads assuming no side support. side support.side support.

456 Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

buoyant force on submerged soil)

Step 2: Calculate the ring deflection resulting from soil loads assumi PsideCR P SFCR SFCR CR CR support. SFCR 4.254.25 SF Pslurry slurry P
Step 2

Calculate ring deflection Example 3: 3:theDetermine the safety factor for long term performance for the Example Determine the resulting from soilfor long term performance for the safety factor loads assuming no side support. communication duct in example 2. Assume there are are 10 feet of communication duct in example 2. Assume there 10 feet of 0 . 0125 Psoil riverbed deposits above the the borehole having saturated from unit riverbed deposits 100 above borehole having a deflection unit soil Percent a saturated %(y/D) = weight of 110110 Ib/ft3. (18 feet deep, 3% initial ovality) weight of Ib/ft3. (18 feet deep, 3% initial 3.43 ovality) %y/D = loads %(y/D) = E long [ ] 12 (DR - 1) 3 Solution: Solution:
% (y/D) = 3.33 Percent deflection from soil loads

t Step 1: = OD/DROD/DR t =0.491 inpipe soil load (Warning requires Input ovality Step 1:= tDetermine the the soil load (Warning requires Input of of ovality Determine pipe t =0.491 in compensation in step 4.) 4.) compensation in step Step 3: Determine the long-term hydrostatic loads on the pipe Step 3 Determine the long-term psi E long = 28,200 psi hydrostatic loads on term apparent modulus E long = 28,200 Long term apparent modulus Long the pipe 3 3 gw = w = 62.4 lbf/ft. g 62.4 lbf/ft. UnitUnit weightwater External pressure due to weight of of water GW = 11.09 ) Max. PW = H =H = ft Max. Psoil PWborehole depth ( 18 18 ft+ borehole depth groundwater head 2.31 ft/psi External pressure gs( = s110110) lbf/ft.3 P Saturated unitunit weightsediments g GW lbf/ft.3 P = Saturated weight of of sediments due to 11.09 PPW 11.09 soil W W= GWGW = ft ft =GW 18 18 Groundwater height External pressure due to Groundwater heightgroundwater head 2.31 ft/psi) P External pressure due to 3 PW Unit 11.09 PW fluid g slurry =(7531 ft/psigroundwater head Height weight soil coverExternal pressure due to lb/cu.ft. C .=GW 10ft. soil C= 10ft. Heightsoil of drillinggroundwater head of of cover 35 11.09 PW OD OD = 6.625 Psoil PWNominal pipe OD OD External pressure due to ( 2 =GW ) in 6.625 in Nominal pipe groundwater head PW = ( 2.31 ft/psi )3+ Psoil PW = 11.09weight of drilling fluid Unit g slurry 75 lb/cu.ft. DR .= 13.5 3 1ft 2 Pipe dimension ratio groundwater head Pipe dimension ratio 2DRft/psi 31 = 13.5 gP weightg drilling fluid lb/cu.ft. External slurry =75 =H ( =Longpsi ) Pslurry Unit weight ofPoissons ratio pressure due to slurr 9.37 Term drilling fluid Unit of Long Term Poissons ratio slurry = 0.45 slurry 0.45 2 3 144in Unit weight of drilling fluid head g slurry 75 lb/cu.ft.3 1ft 2 External pressure due to slurr g slurry = 75 slurry H (2 2 ) Pslurry Unit weight of drilling fluid 9.37 psi Pslurry g lb/cu.ft. 1ft 144in 2 1ft headon from 10 of Prism loadloadpipepipe fromdue to slurr Prism External pressure 10 of on 3.30 psi psi Psoil PsoilgW - gPslurryW therefor use soil Pfor buckling load (Pslurry gSWgg , ) H ( 2 )2 PPW slurry 3.30 psi C ) soil 9.37 > -)slurry( C S ( 144in1ft 2 2 ) P 144in head saturated cover (including due to slurry saturated cover pressure External (including 9.37 psi Pslurry g slurry H ( 1ft 2 External pressure for PW ==Pg slurry therefor use ) W slurry buckling load buoyant force on submergeddue to slurry , H (144in 2 P Pslurry = 9.37 psi buoyant force on submerged head Pslurry 9.37 psi P slurry slurry Step 4: , therefor use P for buckling load soil)soil)buckling pressure based head PW pressure DetermineW critical unconstrained ExternalPslurry due to 144in slurry head deflection from loading PW 4: Step Pslurry , therefor use PW for buckling load Determine critical unconstrained buckling pressure based P Step 2: W2: Pslurry , thereforthe thefrombuckling loadresulting from soil loads assuming no Step > Calculate use ringfor loading resulting from soil loads assuming no Calculate PW ring deflection deflection deflection Step 4: Determine Compensation based on 3% pressure based 5% Ovality fo = 0. 64 side support. critical unconstrained buckling initial ovality and 2 side support. Therefor use deflection Step 4: PW for buckling load from loading Determine critical unconstrained buckling pressure based o deflection Step 0. 64 Determinefrom loading 5% Ovality Compensation based on 3% pressure based 2 fo = 4: deflection critical unconstrained buckling initial ovality and o Step 4 deflection from loading deflection Compensation based on 3% initial ovality and 2 fo = 0. 64 long 5% Ovality 2E Determine critical ( 1 ) 3 f buckling pressure based on deflection from loading unconstrained PUC = 23.17 psi deflection Compensation based on 3% initial ovality and 2 Critical unconstrained UC = foP= 0. 64 2 5% Ovality O (1 ) f = 0. Five percent Ovality Compensation based on 3.3% deflection with an on 3% initial ovality and 2 Ovality fo o= 0. 64642Em 5%DR1- 1 3 Compensation based additional factor for pressure (no safety buckling deflection long conservatism. 0125 soil P soil ) 100 PUC 23.17 psi PercentCritical from soil soil PUC . 0125 2P ( 0 0. 100 Percent deflection unconstrained deflection from 2E long deflection3 f O factor 1 -1 PUC%y/D = 3.433.43 23.17 psi loads Critical unconstrained safet PUC = (1 m ) ( DR ) f O buckling pressure (no 2E loads %y/D = %(y/D) = %(y/D) (1 Elong ) long 1 - 1 3 2E m long PUC 23.17 psi PUC[ [2E long2 ( DR 3 ) 3 f O factor ] ] buckling pressure (no Critical unconstrained safety 2 31 m 12 P UC 2 )- 1) - 1) 12 ( PUC = 23.17 psi factor against buckling pressure of PUC = (1(DR(DR DR - 1) f O Critical unconstrained safety factor Safety buckling pressure (no SF CR =1 m ) DR - 1 SF CR = 2.08 ( buckling pressure (no safety PUC = 23.83 P W psi highest load (slurry) factor t = OD/DR unconstrained bucklingin SF (no safety factor) t = Critical t =0.491 in pressure OD/DR P UC =0.491 t Safety factor against buckling pressure of factor SF CR 2.08 CR highest load (slurry) UC Safety factor against buckling pressure of SFCR = 2.14PP W SF CR SF CR 2.08 PW P UC Step 3: Determine the the long-term hydrostatic loadsloadthe pipe buckling pressure of Step 3: Determine long-term hydrostatic loads onfactor(slurry) highest the pipe Safety on against SF CR SF CR 2.08 P UC Safety factor(slurry) buckling pressure of highest load against SF CR = 2.08 SF CR = P W PW highest load (slurry)

PUC =

1 3 ) fO (1 m ) DR - 1
2

2E long

PUC = 23.17 psi

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 457

Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor

SF CR =

P UC PW

SF CR = 2.14 2.08

Safety factor against buckling pressure of highest load (slurry)

Safety Factor against buckling pressure of highest load groundwater head (11.09 psi)

aPPENDIX B Design Calculations Example for Pullback Force


Example 1

APPENDIX B: DESIGN CALCULATIONS EXAMPLE FOR PULLBACK FORCE

Find the estimated force required to pull back pipe for the above theoretical river crossing using Slavins Method. Determine the safety factor against collapse. Assume the PE pipe is 35 ft deep and approximately 870 ft long with a 10 deg. entry angle and a 15 deg. exit angle. Actual pullback force will vary depending on backreamer size, selection, and use; bore hole staying open; soil conditions; lubrication with bentonite; driller expertise; and other application circumstances.

36
PIPE PROPERTIES Outside Diameter
OD = 24 in - Long-term Modulus - Elong = 29,000 psi, PE4710 Material

Standard Dimension Ratio


DR = 12 - 12 hr Modulus - E 24hr =63,000 psi

Minimum wall thickness


t = 2.182 in - Poissons ratio (long term) - = 0.45 - Safe Pull Stress (12 hr) - s pb = 1,150 psi

PaTH PROFILE H = 35 ft Depth of bore

gin = 10 deg Pipe entry angle gex = 15 deg Pipe exit angle
L1 = 100 ft Pipe drag on surface (This value starts at total length of pull, approximately 870 ft. then decreases
with time. Assume 100 ft remaining at end of pull)

Lcross = 870 ft

100 ft remaining at end of pull)


458 Chapter 12

cross Horizontal Directional Drilling

= 870 ft

Path length (Determine L2 and L4): Average Radius of Curvature for Path at Pipe Entry radians PaTH LENGTH (DETERMINE L2 aND L4)
Average Radius of Curvature for Path at Pipe Entry gin is given in radians

gin

is

given

in

R avg in = 2H/g in avgin

R avgin = 2.298 10 3 ft

Average Radius offor Path at Pipe Exit Path at Pipe Exit Average Radius of Curvature Curvature for 2 R agex 2H/g ex R agex 1.021 10 3 ft 2 Ravg ex = 2H/g ex R agex = 1.021 10 3 ft agex Horizontal Distance Required to 37 Achieve Depth or Rise to the Surface at Ravg ex = 1.021 x 103 ft Pipe Entry Distance Achieve Depth orto Achieve DepthEntry Rise to the Surface at Horizontal Distance Horizontal Required to Required Rise to the Surface at Pipe or Pipe Entry Horizontal Distance Achieve Depth orto Achieve DepthExit Rise to the Surface at Horizontal Distance Required to Required Rise to the Surface at Pipe or Pipe Exit Distance Required to Achieve Depth or Rise to the Surface at Horizontal WHERE L2 & Exit PipeL4 = horizontal transition distance at bore exit & entry respectively.
L 2 2H/g in L = 401.07 ft L2 2 = 2H/g in L 2 401.07ft L 2 = 401.07ft

Ravg in = 2.298 x 103 ft

R = Ravg ex L2 & L = horizontal transition distance at bore exit & entry Where: - Min. Radius for4Drill path R = 1.021 x 3 respectively.& L4 = horizontal transition distance at bore exit & entry Where: 10Lft 2 OD = 24 in respectively. should exceed 40 times the pipe outside diameter to prevent ring collapse. Radius of curvature Determine Axial Bending Stress: r = 40 OD Determine Axial Bending Stress: r = 80 ft Okay Min. Radius for Drill path R > r R = Ravgex 3 R = Ravgex Min. Radius for Drill path R = 1.021 x 10 ft
Bending strain
ea = OD/2R

L 4 2H/gex L 4 = 2H/gex DETERMINE aXIaL BENDING STRESS

L 4 267.38ft L 4 = 267.38ft

3 R = 1.021 OD = 24 inx 10 ft ea = 9.79 x 10 -4 in/in RadiusOD curvature should exceed 40 times the pipe outside diameter to of = 24 in WHERE prevent of curvature should exceed 40 times the pipe outside diameter to Radius ring collapse. ea = bending strain, in/in prevent ring collapse. OD = outside diameter of pipe, in r = 40 OD R = minimum radius of curvature, ft r = 40 OD r = 80 ft Okay. R>r Bending stress 80 ft Okay. r strain R>r Bending=

Bending strain Sa = 61.68 psi ea = 9.79 x 10-4 in/in ea = OD/2R WHEREe = OD/2R ea = 9.79 x 10-4 in/in a Sa = bending stress, psi Where: ea = bending strain, in/in Where: ea = bending diameter of OD = outside strain, in/in pipe, in Bending stress OD minimum radius of of pipe, in R = = outside diameter curvature, ft R = minimum radius of curvature, ft

Sa = E12hrea

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 459

FIND PULLING FORCE Weight of Empty Pipe


Pw =3.61x10 -2 lbf/in3 ga = 0.95 gb = 1.5 wa = OD 2 (DR-1/DR 2)r w ga 12 in/ft wa = 61.54 lbf/ft

Net Upward Buoyant Force on Empty Pipe Surrounded by Mud Slurry


Wb = (OD 2 /4) r w gb 12 in/ft - wa wb = 232.41 lbf/ft

WHERE rw = density of water, lb/in3 ga = specific gravity of the pipe material

gb = specific gravity of the mud slurry wa = weight of empty pipe, Ibf/ft wb = (OD2 /4)rwgb 12in/ft - wa
DETERMINE PULLBaCk FORCE aCTING ON PIPE See figure:

L1 = 100 ft - va = 0.4 L2 = 401.07ft - vb = 0.25 L3 = 200ft - = gin - = 10 deg = 0.175 radians L 4 = 267.38 - = gex - = 15 deg = 0.262 radians L3 = Lcross- L 2 - L 4 - L 3 = 201.549ft TA = exp (va ) [va wa (L1 + L 2 + L 3 + L 4)] TA = 2.561 x 104 Ibf TB = exp (vb ) (TA + vb [wb] L2 + wb H - va wa L 2 exp (vb )) TB = 4.853 x 104 Ibf TC =TB + vb [wb] L 3 - exp(vb ) (va wa L 3.exp (va )) TC = 5.468 x 104 Ibf TD = exp(vb ) [TC + vb [wb] L 4 - wb H - exp(vb ) (va wa L 4 exp (vb ))] TD = 5.841 x 104 Ibf
WHERE TA = pull force on pipe at point A, Ibf

TB = pull force on pipe at point B. Ibf TC = pull force on pipe at point C, Ibf TD = pull force on pipe at point D, Ibf L1 = pipe on surface, ft L2 = horizontal distance to achieve desired depth, ft L3 = additional distance traversed at desired depth, ft

460

Chapter 12

Horizontal Directional Drilling

tic

P = 10 psi Dh = 1.5 0D (refer to figure at Dh = 36in T = P (/8) (Dh2 - OD2) Pressure T = 2.82 x 103Ibf

L 4 = horizontal distance to rise to surface, at L3 = additional distance traversed ft desired depth, ft va = coefficient of friction to rise the surface before L4 = horizontal distanceapplicable atto surface, ftthe pipe enters bore hole vb = coefficient friction applicable at the surface before the pipe va = coefficient ofof friction applicable within the lubricated bore hole or after the (wet) pipe exits = bore hole hole enters boreangle at pipe entry, radians = bore hole angle at pipe exit, radians vb = coefficient of friction applicable within the lubricated bore hole (refer to figure at start of this appendix) or after the (wet) pipe exits = bore hole angle at pipe entry, radians HydrokinetiC at pipe exit, = bore hole angle Pressure radians

start of this appendix)

= 10 psi = 1.5 0D WHere: Dh = 36in T = 2 - OD2) increment, Ibf x 103Ibf pulling force = P ( /8) (Dh T = 2.82 P = hydrokinetic pressure, psi T = pulling force increment, Ibf Dh = = hydrokineticback reamed holepsi pressure, diameter, in = back reamed hole diameter, in
s1 = 190.13 psi <1,150 psi OK s2 = 343.40 psi <1,150 psi OK Axials3 = 384.55 psi <1,150 psi OKPipe Stress Acting on s4 = 409.48 psi <1,150 psi OK

Axial Tensile Stress with Allowable Tensile Stress D Average Axial Stress Acting on Pipe Cross-section at Points A, B. C, During Pullback of Cross-section at Points A, B. C, D

Compare Axial Tensile Stress with Allowable Tensile Stress During Pullback of 1,150 psi: (Assume the pull takes several hours and use 12 hours safe pull stress.)

erage

s1 = (Ti + T)
WHere

1 DR 2 )( ) OD2 DR - 1

Ti T , TB, TC, TD psi s1==A190.13(Ibf) <1,100 psi OK si corresponding stress, psi s2== 343.40 psi <1,100 psi OK s3 = 384.55 psi be set so thatpsi OK applied to pipe does not exceed 1,150 psi stress. <1,100 pullback force Breakaway links should s4== 409.48 psi <1,100 psi OK ID OD - 2t
Fb = s pb (/4)(OD 2 - ID 2)

5 ere: Ti = TFb =TB, T10, Ibf D (Ibf) A, 1.64 x C T

= corresponding stress, psi faCtor against ring CollaPse during PullbaCk determine safety
External Hydraulic Load

External static head pressure akaway links should be set so that pullback force applied to pipe does 3 Pha = exceed 1,100(1.5) (62.4 lbf/ft ) (H) psi stress. Pha = 22.75 psi

ID = OD - 2t Fb = spb ( /4)(OD2 - ID2)

Fb = 1.64 x 105 Ibf

Horizontal Directional Drilling

Chapter 12 461

Combine static head with hydrokinetic pressure


Peffa = Pha + P Peffa = 32.75 psi

CRITICaL COLLaPSE PRESSURE Resistance to external hydraulic load during pullback fo = 0.76 Ovality compensation factor (for 3% ovality) r = S 4/2SPb r = 0.178 Tensile ratio (based on 1,150 psi pull stress calculation) Tensile reduction factor PCR = 108 psi

SaFETy FaCTOR aGaINST COLLaPSE SF = Pcr/Pha F = 4.75

WHERE Pha = applied effIective pressure due to head of water of drilling Pcr = calculated critical buckling pressure found by solving Equation 11 multiplied by Equation 19 for 24 DR11, psi SF = Safety Factor