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Materials and Design 32 (2011) 34573464

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Materials and Design


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matdes

A hybrid of back propagation neural network and genetic algorithm for optimization of injection molding process parameters
Fei Yin a, Huajie Mao a,, Lin Hua b
a b

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China School of Automobile Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology and Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automotive Parts. Wuhan 430070, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
This paper presents a hybrid optimization method for optimizing the process parameters during plastic injection molding (PIM). This proposed method combines a back propagation (BP) neural network method with an intelligence global optimization algorithm, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA). A multi-objective optimization model is established to optimize the process parameters during PIM on the basis of the nite element simulation software Moldow, Orthogonal experiment method, BP neural network as well as Genetic algorithm. Optimization goals and design variables (process parameters during PIM) are specied by the requirement of manufacture. A BP articial neural network model is developed to obtain the mathematical relationship between the optimization goals and process parameters. Genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the process parameters that would result in optimal solution of the optimization goals. A case study of a plastic article is presented. Warpage as well as clamp force during PIM are investigated as the optimization objectives. Mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time are considered to be the design variables. The case study demonstrates that the proposed optimization method can adjust the process parameters accurately and effectively to satisfy the demand of real manufacture. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 9 December 2010 Accepted 29 January 2011 Available online 24 February 2011 Keywords: A. Polymers C. Moulding F. Defects

1. Introduction Process parameters during Plastic Injection Modeling (PIM) were mostly relied on the technicians personal experience in the past. Although a better combination of process parameters can be found with the help of the computer numerical simulation technology nowadays, it is still hard to nd the optimum combination of the processing parameters accurately and quickly. As a multi-objective and nonlinear optimization problem, process optimization of PIM has attracted more and more attentions worldwide. Many researches have been carried out to optimize the process parameters during PIM. In 2008, Gao et al. proposed an effective optimization method to minimize the warpage in injection molding by using the Kriging model. The warpage of a cellular phone cover was investigated, and the warpage of the cellular phone cover was effectively decreased by the proposed optimization method [1]. Subsequently they proposed an adaptive optimization method based on Kriging-surrogate model to minimize the warpage of injection molded parts in 2009 [2]. Deng et al. applied Taguchis parameter design method, regression analysis, and the DavidonFletcher

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 13807171614; fax: +86 027 87168391.


E-mail address: maohj@whut.edu.cn (H. Mao). 0261-3069/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2011.01.058

Powell method to propose an approach for determining the optimal process parameter settings of plastic injection molding under single quality characteristic considerations [3]. Zhang et al. applied a mode-pursuing sampling (MPS) method for warpage optimization by integrating injection molding simulation with MPS, and by proposing a reinforced convergence criterion for the optimization process, in an attempt to search for the optimal process parameters of injection molding for minimizing warpage defect [4]. Deng et al. presented an optimization method for minimizing the warpage of injection molded plastic parts based on mode-pursuing sampling method and genetic algorithm (GA). Warpage of a food tray plastic part was minimized by using the proposed method [5]. Altan minimized the shrinkage of rectangular-shaped specimens by Taguchi, experimental design and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Neural network was also used to predict the shrinkage of the part [6]. Hasan Kurtaran et al. proposed an efcient minimization method of warpage on thin shell plastic parts by integrating nite element (FE) analysis, statistical design of experiment method, response surface methodology (RSM), and genetic algorithm [7]. Shen et al. minimized the shrinkage of a plastic part by using the articial neural network and genetic algorithm [8]. Kurtaran et al. considered mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time as the key process parameters during PIM and got the optimum values of process parameters in injection molding of a

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bus ceiling lamp base to achieve minimum warpage by using neural network model and genetic algorithm [9]. All the researches cited beforehand accomplished their purposes of optimizing process parameters during PIM and improved the quality of plastic parts greatly. However, a clear mathematical model and a systematical optimization method that can be generally used in process optimization during PIM are still required. In addition, previous researches solved the optimization problem just as a single-objective programming. Warpage or shrinkage of the parts were investigated and decreased greatly. However, in real manufacture, quality of products is only one of the most important factors to be considered. Energy consumption as well as the production cycle and other factors during PIM should also be taken into consideration. Based on nite element analysis software Moldow, Orthogonal experiment method, Back Propagation (BP) neural network as well as genetic algorithm, a multi-objective mathematical optimization model as well as a hybrid of BP/GA optimization method of injection molding process parameters are presented systematically in this paper. In addition, a plastic part is utilized to demonstrate the efciency and validity of the proposed optimization method. Warpage of plastic as well as the clamp force during PIM are investigated in a multi-objective function. A series of solutions are achieved by changing the weights of the optimization objectives in the multi-objective optimization function. 2. BP/GA hybrid method for optimization of injection molding process parameters 2.1. The mathematical model As a multi-objective and nonlinear optimization problem, process optimization of PIM can be stated as follows:

during PIM such as the mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time which contribute greatly to the cause of these considerations can be specied as design variables. 2.2. Establishment of the objective functions based on BP neural network Establishment of objective functions is the key step of the optimization model. However, it is very hard to express the relationship between injection process parameters and optimization objectives by explicit mathematical functions. Hence, a so-called black-box function established by BP neural network is used in the mathematical model. Articial neural network (ANN) is developed based on the working principle of the nervous system of organism. As a kind of information processing system, the network consists of a number of articial neural cells. Each articial neural cell is connected by the connection weight just as the synapse of the nervous system. A designed articial neural network has the ability to obtain the internal law of input information by learning and training process. BP neural network is one of the most widely used and acknowledged articial neural networks nowadays [1012]. Its powerful ability of nonlinear interpolation is utilized in this paper to obtain the relationship between process parameters and optimization goals. In this study, a multilayer BP neural network model is designed by using the Matlab neural network toolbox. The structure of the BP neural network can be seen in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 illustrates the structure of the BP neural network designed in this study. It can be generally applied to the optimization of injection molding process parameters. The network consists of one input layer with m neurons standing for the process parameters x1, x2, . . . , xm, respectively; z hidden layers with several neurons each and one output layer having n neurons representing optimization goals obj1, obj2, . . . , objn, respectively. The input of each neuron comes from the output of the neurons contained in the preceding layer by the transition function shown as follows:

Find X Minimize FX
n X i1

1 ki obji
n X i1

ki fi x1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xm

Subject to X min 6 X 6 X max n X ki 1


i1

neti

N X j0

xij xj

where F(X) denotes the multi-objective optimization function of the process optimization; obji stands for the ith optimization goal, i = 1, 2, . . . , n; fi represents the functional relationship between obji and the key process parameters; ki denotes the weight of the obji; X = [x1, x2, . . . , xm] stands for the matrix consists of injection modeling process parameters, m P 1; Xmax, Xmin stand for the upper and lower bounds of the process parameters, respectively. In addition, in order to eliminate the dimension of each objective, function (2) is used to preprocess each objective by normalizing the inputs so that they fall in the interval [1, 1]. The algorithm can be expressed as follows:

where neti is the total input of the ith neuron in the computing layer; N denotes the number of the neuron in the forward layer; xij stands for the connection weight of the jth neuron in the forward layer and ith neuron in the computing layer; xj represents the output of the jth neuron in the forward layer. Output of the ith neuron in the computing layer (outi) is generated by processing

pn 2p minp=maxp minp 1

where p denotes matrix of input (column) vectors; pn represents matrix of normalized input vectors. During the injection process, a number of defects may occur to the moldings, such as warpage, shrinkage, sink marks as well as weld lines and so on. These defects greatly inuence the quality of the plastic and should be controlled seriously. In the proposed optimization model, these defects can be selected to be the optimization objectives. Meanwhile, the energy consumption of the production and some other requirements such as the production cycle, and production cost can also be selected to be the optimization objectives of the optimization model. And the process parameters

Fig. 1. Structure of the designed BP neural network.

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the input (neti) through a transfer function fs. The function can be described as follows:

out i f s neti

1 eneti 1 eneti

tness is taken as the best solution of the problem. Fig. 2 illustrates the solution procedure of the GA. The entire technical line of the hybrid BP/GA process optimization method for PIM can be seen in Fig. 3.

Mathematical relationship between process parameters and objectives can be gained by training the experimental data got from FE simulations on the commercial software Modelow platform. During training process, the connection weights are calculated to minimize the error between the predictive data and experimental data. The objective function contained in the trained BP neural network can be expressed approximatively as follows:

3. Case study In this paper, a plastic part is utilized to demonstrate the efciency and validity of the proposed optimization method. As one of the most common and prominent defects of plastic, warpage affects both the usage and the appearance of the part and is considered to be one of the most critical considerations for the production of a quality plastic part. Hence, warpage minimization is specied to be one of the optimization objectives in this paper. Besides, capacity of the equipment and energy consumption are considered in this paper. Ozcelik et al. stated that packing pressure is the most inuential parameter on the warpage of PC/ABS material [15]. In addition, Huang et al. also pointed out that the packing pressure has the greatest inuence on the warpage, and with the increase of the packing pressure; the warpage of plastic can be decreased [16]. Namely, warpage of plastic can be greatly decreased by increasing packing pressure during PIM. However, considering the capacity of the equipment and cost of production, packing pressure can not be increased without limit. Hence, the maximum clamp force greatly determined by packing pressure is specied to be the other optimization objective. Mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time as well as the cooling time are considered to be design variables.

obji fi X f l

X

wz1 f s f s

X

w2 f s

X

w1 X



where obji stands for the ith optimization objective; X = [x1, x2, . . . , xm] denotes the matrix consists of the values of process parameters; fl is the liner transfer function between hidden layer z and output layer; fs is the transfer function between input layer and hidden layer 1, as well as hidden layer i and hidden layer i + 1, i = 1, 2, . . . , z 1; w1, w2, . . . , wz+1 represent the connection weights between input layer and hidden layer 1, hidden layer 1 and hidden layer 2. . ., hidden layer z and output layer, respectively. 2.3. Solution of the mathematic model An intelligence global optimization algorithm, i.e. genetic algorithm, is employed to solve the mathematical model established in this paper. Genetic algorithm simulates biological evaluation process: Darwins survival of the ttest and has been widely used in engineer application [13,14]. At the beginning of the solution, a set of potential solutions are randomly selected as the initial chromosomes. The entire set of these chromosomes constitutes a population. Then on the basis of the survival of the ttest theory, new generations are generated through copy, crossover or mutation method. The new chromosomes are then evaluated via a certain tness criteria and the best ones are kept while the others are discarded. After several generations, the tness of the chromosomes will be increased. And the chromosome having the best

Fig. 2. Solution of the GA.

Fig. 3. Technical line of hybrid BP/GA process optimization method for PIM.

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Fig. 4. (a) Geometry and (b) FE model of the plastic cover.

Table 1 Material properties of PP. Material properties Melt density (g/m3) Solid density (g/m3) Eject temperature (C) Maximum shear stress (MPa) Maximum shear rate (s1) Thermal conductivity (W/mC) Elastic module (MPa) Poisson ratio Performance 0.7751 0.92889 93 0.26 24000 0.15 1340 0.392

3.1. Problem description Geometry of the plastic part utilized in this study is shown in Fig. 4a. Its width, length and maximum part thickness are 200 mm, 200 mm and 2 mm, respectively. The material of the part is PP. And the material mode of PP with the trade name of BP Amoco 1046 and manufactured by BP Chemicals which is from the library of the moldow software database was employed as the material of the part during simulations. The detailed material properties can be seen in Table 1. Fig. 4b shows the CAE analysis model of the plastic established under Moldow environment. The part is meshed in fusion mesh method and the meshed part includes 7696 elements. Mesh condition as well as the lling system and cooling system can also be seen in Fig. 4b. Five key process parameters are selected as the design variables in the mathematical model. These are mold temperature (Tmold), melt temperature (Tmelt), packing pressure (Pp), packing time (tp) as well as the cooling time (tc). The upper and lower bounds of the process parameters are set based on the recommended values provided by Moldow software, and the ranges of the process parameters can be seen in Table 2. The mathematical model of the multi-objective optimization problem can be formulated as follows:

Table 2 Ranges of the process parameters. Process parameters Mold temperature (C) Melt temperature (C) Packing pressure (% injection pressure) Packing time (s) Cooling time (s) Ranges 3060 220260 50120 515 520

The commercial injection molding Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software Moldow is employed to simulate the injection molding process. Warpage defects as well as the maximum clamp force can be retrieved from the simulation results.

Find X T melt ; T mold ; Pp ; t p ; tc Minimize k1 f n W k2 f n F C Subject to : 30 6 T mold 6 60 220 6 T melt 6 260 50 6 Pp 6 120 5 6 t p 6 15 5 6 t c 6 20

Fig. 5. The structure of the BP neural network used in this case.

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where W denotes the warpage of the part; FC represents the maximum clamp force during the injection molding process; fn represents the normalized function as shown in function (2); k1 , k2 represent the weight of warpage and clamp force, respectively.

3.2. Implementation of the proposed BP/GA optimization procedure 3.2.1. Objective functions founded by BP neural network A 5-9-9-2 BP network is used to gain the mathematical relationship between optimization objectives and process parameters. The structure of the designed network can be seen in Fig. 5. The function of the designed neural network is to predict the warpage of the part as well as the clamp force during PIM under a specied combination of the process parameters. In order to make the designed network acquiring the ability of prediction, it should be trained by a number of samples rst. To save the computing resource and improve the coverage of the samples, orthogonal experiment method is employed to conduct the FE simulations under Moldow environment. Sixteen samples designed by the orthogonal experiment method as well as other 44 samples randomly generated by computer, 60 samples in sum, are used to train the designed network. The distribution of the samples can be seen in Fig. 6. During training process, the learn rate of the network is set as 0.03 and the mean square error of the training data is set as 0.0001. The training process takes about half an hour on HP personal workstation. Fig. 7 shows the training process of the network, it can be seen from Fig. 7 that with the updating of the connection weights, the mean square error between the network prediction data and training data declines gradually and converges to 0.0001 interminably within 900,000 epochs.

Fig. 7. Training process of the 5-9-9-2 BP neural network.

Fig. 8. Testing results of the BP neural network.

Six groups of process parameters not used in the training process are used to test the accuracy and reliability of the predictive system. It can be seen from Fig. 8 that the predictive values are in good agreement with the experimental values. The predictive error is less than 5% on average. Hence, the trained network can be used as the surrogate of the objective function in the optimization model. 3.2.2. Solution of GA In the GA optimization process, the operation parameters needed to be specied in GA are adapted. The population size, the crossover rate, the mutation rate and the generation size are set as 100, 0.5, 0.1 and 60, respectively. Four groups of weights during optimization are given to the objective function: Case 1: k1 1 k2 0. Case 2: k1 0:8 k2 0:2.

Table 3 Process parameters optimized by the proposed BP/GA method under different weights of optimization objectives. Process parameters Mold temperature (C) Melt temperature (C) Packing pressure (% injection pressure) Packing time (s) Cooling time (s) Case 1 50.911 226.656 116.116 12.361 8.065 Case 2 36.419 232.13 100.36 10.402 5 Case 3 54.971 241.53 71.281 11.835 16.471 Case 4 34.149 252.58 53.558 10.457 16.059

Fig. 6. (a) Warpage and (b) Clamp force distribution of the samples.

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Fig. 9. Warpage and clamp force analysis results of case 14.

Case 3: k1 0:5 k2 0:5. Case 4: k1 0:2 k2 0:8. It takes about half an hour of each solution on HP workstation platform. Process parameters optimized by the proposed optimization method can be seen in Table 3.

4. Results and discussion Process parameters are set as recorded in Table 3 on the Moldow platform, warpage results and clamp force results of the optimized process parameters can be seen in Fig. 9. In addition, to validate and compare the optimization results, we also obtain

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Fig. 10. (a) Warpage and (b) clamp force results by using Moldow recommended process parameters.

Table 4 Comparison between the optimized analysis results and the recommended analysis results. Analysis results Warpage (mm) Recommended Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 3.307 1.092 1.286 1.513 1.765 Clamp force (Ton) 63.63 79.01 67.51 42.28 28.26 Rate of change (%) Warpage 66.9 61.1 54.2 46.6 Clamp force +24.1 +6.1 33.6 55.6

the warpage result as well as the clamp force result of the part by employing the Moldow recommended values for the process parameters in the FE simulation. The recommended process parameters are set as follows:

T mold 60;

T melt 240;

Pp 100;

t p 8;

tc 15

The warpage and clamp force analysis results are 3.307 mm, 63.63 ton, respectively. And they can be seen in Fig. 10. In this study, to illustrate the efciency and exibility of the proposed BP/GA optimization method, different weights of optimization objectives are specied to the multi-objective optimization function. Fig. 9ad shows the optimized results of case 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. And the comparison between the optimized results and the recommended analysis results can be seen in Table 4 clearly. Different optimized results are obtained by setting different weights to the optimization objectives. In case 1, warpage is considered to be the only optimization objective. It can be seen from Fig. 9a-1 and Table 4 that the optimized warpage value is 1.092 mm, which has been reduced by 66.9% comparing with the warpage result, 3.307 mm, obtained by using Moldow recommended process parameters. Meanwhile, because the clamp force is not taken into consideration during optimization, packing pressure is just limited by the upper bound of packing pressure specied in the mathematical model. Hence, it can be increased without limit to decrease the warpage of the part. Results show that the optimized packing pressure of case 1 recorded in Table 3 is 116.116 MPa, which is very close to the upper bound of packing pressure 120 MPa. The clamp force shown in Fig. 9a-2 is 79.01 ton, which has been increased by 24.1% comparing with the recommended analysis result 63.63 ton. In case 2, warpage is specied to be the main optimization objective. Meanwhile, the clamp force during PIM is taken into consideration. It can be seen in Fig. 9b-1 that the optimized warpage value is 1.286 mm, which has been reduced by 61.1%, fewer than 66.9% of case 1, comparing with the warpage result obtained by using Moldow recommended process parameters. At the same

time, the clamp force shown in Fig. 9b-2 is only increased slightly comparing to the recommended analysis result. In case 3, warpage and clamp force are specied the same weight during optimization. Analysis results shown in Fig. 9c-1, 2 illustrate that warpage of the part as well as the clamp force during PIM are both reduced and comparing with the analysis results obtained by using Moldow recommended process parameters, they are decreased by 54.2% and 33.6%, respectively. In case 4, the clamp force during PIM is specied to be the main optimization objective. Results show that the clamp force during PIM is decreased greatly, that is 55.6% comparing to the recommended analysis result. At the same time, the warpage of the part is also decreased. In addition, it can be seen from Table 4 that all the cases have decreased the warpage of the part. And with the decrease of the weight of warpage in the multi-objective optimization function from case 1 to case 4, the decrement of warpage is declined gradually. Meanwhile, clamp force is increased in case 1 and case 2, because higher packing pressure is needed to decrease the warpage of the part, which shows a good agreement with the conclusions of the cited literatures [15,16]. However, with the increase of the weight of clamp force, clamp force plays a more and more important role in the multi-objective function and is limited more and more seriously. That is why increment of clamp force in case 2, 6.1%, is fewer than that in case 1, 24.1%. In case 3 and case 4, the weight of clamp force is large enough to impact or dominate the optimization. Hence, the clamp force in case 3 and 4 are decreased instead of increased. Warpage is decreased just by adjusting other process parameters, such as packing time and cooling time, resulting in a longer production cycle. Comparing with the researches of the cited literatures [16], the proposed BP/GA optimization method in this investigation takes both the warpage of the plastic part and energy consumption during PIM into consideration. In addition, the proposed optimization method has the advantage of exibility. The optimization objectives can be optimized in different degrees by specifying different combination of the weights. And each solution has its advantages and disadvantages. Case 1 extremely decreased the warpage of the part, while its clamp force is the largest, which means process of case 1 will consume more energy than other cases; cases 2, 3 and 4 take both warpage and clamp force into consideration, while the ratio of the weights is different. Hence, the warpage and the energy consumption during PIM are optimized in different degree. And a ttest solution can be selected by the demands and objective factors of real manufacture.

5. Conclusions In this study, a hybrid of BP/GA optimization method of injection molding process parameters is presented systematically on

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F. Yin et al. / Materials and Design 32 (2011) 34573464 [2] Gao YH, Wang XC. Surrogate-based process optimization for reducing warpage in injection molding. J Mater Process Technol 2009;209:13029. [3] Deng WJ, Chen CT, Sun CH, Chen WC, Chen CP. An effective approach for process parameter optimization in injection molding of plastic housing components. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 2008;47:9109. [4] Zhang Y, Deng YM, Sun BS. Injection molding warpage optimization based on a mode-pursuing sampling method. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 2009;48:76774. [5] Deng YM, Zhang Y, Lam YC. A hybrid of mode-pursuing sampling method and genetic algorithm for minimization of injection molding warpage. Mater Des 2010;31:211823. [6] Altan M. Reducing shrinkage in injection moldings via the Taguchi, ANOVA and neural network methods. Mater Des 2010;31:599604. [7] Kurtaran H, Erzurumlu T. Efcient warpage optimization of thin shell plastic parts using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2006;27:46872. [8] Shen CY, Wang LX, Li Q. Optimization of injection molding process parameters using combination of articial neural network and genetic algorithm method. J Mater Process Technol 2007;183:4128. [9] Kurtaran H, Ozcelik B, Erzurumlu T. Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm. J Mater Process Technol 2005;169:3149. [10] Baseri H, Rabiee SM, Moztarzadeh F, Solati-Hashjin M. Mechanical strength and setting times estimation of hydroxyapatite cement by using neural network. Mater Des 2010;31:258591. [11] Dehghani K, Nekahi A. Articial neural network to predict the effect of thermomechanical treatments on bake hardenability of low carbon steels. Mater Des 2010;31:22249. [12] Yu WX, Li MQ, Luo J, Su SS, Li CQ. Prediction of the mechanical properties of the post-forged Ti6Al4V alloy using fuzzy neural network. Mater Des 2010;31:32828. [13] Fu ZM, Mo JH, Chen L, Chen W. Using genetic algorithm-back propagation neural network prediction and nite-element model simulation to optimize the process of multiple-step incremental air-bending forming of sheet metal. Mater Des 2010;31:26777. [14] Yang Z, Gu XS, Liang XY, Ling LC. Genetic algorithm-least squares support vector regression based predicting and optimizing model on carbon ber composite integrated conductivity. Mater Des 2010;31:10429. [15] Ozcelik B, Sonat I. Warpage and structural analysis of thin shell plastic in the plastic injection molding. Mater Des 2009;30:36775. [16] Huang MC, Tai CC. The effective factors in the warpage problem of an injection molded part with a thin shell feature. J Mater Process Technol 2001;110:19.

the basis of nite element analysis software Moldow, Orthogonal experiment method, BP neural network and genetic algorithm. The mathematical model and technique line for optimization of process parameters during PIM are established clearly in this paper. As an application, a plastic part is employed in this paper. Warpage as well as the clamp force during PIM are chosen to be the optimization objectives. Mold temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time as well as the cooling time are considered to be design variables. A series of combination of weights of optimization objectives are specied to the multi-objective optimization model. After implementing the proposed BP/GA method, warpage as well as the clamp force of the part is optimized in different degrees comparing with the warpage result obtained by using Moldow recommended process parameters. The ttest combination of process parameters can be selected by the requirements of the real manufacture. For its efciency and exibility, the proposed BP/GA optimization method can be used generally to optimize defects of plastic as well as other considerations such as production cycle, cost and so on during PIM. In addition, the crystallization temperature of the injected materials plays an important role in shrinkage and warpage of the plastic part during PIM, hence, it can be taken into consideration during the optimization for PIM in the future. Acknowledgment The work was supported by a grant from National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 50725217). The supports are gratefully acknowledged. References
[1] Gao YH, Wang XC. An effective warpage optimization method in injection molding based on the Kriging model. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2008;37: 95360.