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1. General

1.1 Design of irrigation channels involve the condition of steady and uniform
flow which inter-alia means that flow characteristics at any given point as
well as at any given time remain same.

1.2 Alluvial tracks are one of the most common among the different types of
terrain through which the canal may pass. This is particularly so in case of
Utter Pradesh. Regime flow conditions govern the design needs of canal
cross section in alluvial soils. The flow of water in an open channel is
generally defined by Chezys equation

V = mean velocity of flow in m/sec
C= a coefficient, its value depends upon the shape and surface of the
R = Hydraulic mean depth in m
S = Slope of channel

1.3 With a view to arrive at stable channel dimensions attempts have been
made from time to time by various authors in the field of open channel flow
to define the value of C in the above equation. The most widely accepted
values are those suggested by Kutter and Manning as given herein below:

1. Kutters Equation

2. Mannings Equation

1.4 In the above equations n is the roughness coefficient and is identical for
both the equations within practical ranges. This is generally referred to as
rugosity coefficient and varies according to the physical roughness of sides
and bed of the channel apart from other factors viz (i) channel curvature (ii)
changes in size and shape of cross section, (iii) obstructions and vegetation

1.5 R.G. Kennedy established a relation between non scouring, non silting
RS C V =
S n

+ +
+ +
00155 . 0
23 1
00155 . 0 1
6 / 1
C =
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velocity, termed as critical velocity of flow and the stage of flow on the basis of
experimental work done by him on the upper BARI-DOAB canal system in
Punjab. For any given channel having a particular soil condition, the critical
velocity ratio which is a function of silt charge and grade and rugosity
coefficient is uniquely fixed. Kutters equation was used for the calculation
of mean velocity in the channel. Though the use of Kutters equation by
Kennedy in theory of channel design made the design procedure tedious and
complicated, Garret had given graphical solutions in the form of charts for
relatively easy design procedures. The design procedures still involved trial
and error.

The reasons behind selection of Kutter equation for determination of mean
velocity instead of Mannings equation is not available, however, hydraulic
engineers have now started preferring Mannings equation in determining
the mean velocity of flow. Mannings roughness coefficient and Kutters
rugosity coefficient are generally identical within practical ranges, the
Mannings roughness coefficient is better known, therefore, the use of
Mannings equation which is much simpler in application is suggested for
determing the mean velocity flow in a channel.

Kennedy had suggested a general form of equation for critical
velocity V
. The value of m depends upon the silt charge and
silt grade. The coefficient C and the power index n are not constant and
change from site to site. The most prevalent values of C and n as worked out
by Kennedy are 0.546 and 0.64 respectively. The popular form of Kennedys
equation for regime channel designs is

= 0.546 m D

For design of stable channel in alluvial soils graphical solutions by
developing hydraulic diagram using Kennedy theory with Mannings
equation is suggested for general application. Taking a trapezoidal section,
the area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic mean depth can be described in
terms of bed width and depth of flow. The mean velocity of flow can be
written in terms of rugosity coefficient n, bed width, depth and slope
parameter. Equating the velocity obtained from Mannings equation to the
critical velocity as per Kennedy theory a chart can be developed between
and depth of flow for various values of B/D and Q/m. These hydraulic
charts can be used for design of channels.

1.6 Bureau of Indian Standards have recommended criteria for design of cross
section for unlined canals in alluvial soils vide IS 7112:2002. IS 5968:1987
(reaffirmed 1998) and IS 4701:1982 (reaffirmed 1995) provide the guidelines
for planning and layout of canal systems for irrigation and code of practice
for earthwork in canals respectively are other relevant references to the
criteria for design for deciding the hydraulic parameters and construction

1.7 IS 7112:2002 which details the criteria for design of cross section of
unlined canals in alluvial soils provides details about the data required,
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design including side slopes, free board, bank width, radii of curvature, berms,
dowels, bed width, depth and slopes, falls, hydraulic gradient lines, catch
water drainage etc. Whereas majority of the above design features are
suggested to be decided on location specific conditions and standard
approaches, the bed width, depth and slope features are required to be
analytically designed for various reaches to carry the required discharge
according to the best prevalent practices as per details given herein below:

1.8 A number of methods for design of unlined canals in alluvium are prevalent
in the country but all of them have some limitations. The use of such a
method which gives good results under similar conditions is the best

I. For design of alluvial channels, Laceys regime equations have been in use
for nearly four decades. The method of design according to Laceys equation
is given in Annexure A of IS 7112:2002.

II. Though the Laceys equations have been in common use in the country, it
has been long realized that these equations are not perfect and suffer from
certain limitations. The major difficulty experienced in the use of Laceys
equations is about its applicability for the design as it is for incoherent
alluvium of infinite extent and the appropriate value of silt factor. Moreover,
the divergence from dimensions given by Laceys equation in existing stable
canals has been found significant in many cases. In view of the necessity for
evolving formulae more accurate than Laceys but without sacrificing the
simplicity of regime equations, regime type-fitted equations were evolved
which are given in Annexure B of IS 7112:2002. Within the range of data
tested, these equations are anticipated to give channel dimensions which
would be nearer to regime conditions. The regime type-fitted equations
recommended for application are not considered the last work on the
subject. It should be fully realized that further modifications in the
equations are possible and necessary as and when more field observations
of stable sites on the canal systems become available. Till then, the use of
these equations is recommended since they are expected to yield more
accurate results than Laceys and other regime formulae.

Lacey modified his equations so as to include sediment concentration (X in
parts per million) and size and density of the sediment as definded by its fall
velocity (V
in m/s) as additional parameters affecting the regime
dimensions of a stable channel. These are given in Annexure C of IS

III. Another method of design is by tractive force approach which is given in
Annexure D of IS 7112:2002.

1.9 Criteria for Design of Hydraulic Profile

The Haidergarh and Jaunpur branch canals are existing channel, to be
redesigned under the UPWSRP rehabilitation initiative.

The details of the existing design cross sectional parameters and bed slope
of the two branches in their different reaches are given in the tables below:

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Haidergarh Branch:

Jaunpur Branch:

The hydraulic design methods for the redesign of Haidergarh branch are
describe herein below.

(i) Both the Haidergarh and Jaunpur branches were highly silted. This is due
to (i) heavy silt load entering the branch at its head and (ii) relatively flat bed
slope of the branch canal. As per the profile of the existing canal cross
section, determined on the basis of surveys provided by PACT. The
accumulated silt volumes in Haidergarh and Jaunpur branches were about
0.94 million cubic metre and 2.0 million cubic metre respectively. The
Haidergarh branch is not drawing its authorized (designed) head discharge
and accordingly the Jaunpur branch and the distribution system have
reduced conveyance efficiencies.

(ii) The branch canals and distribution network are unlined channels
constructed in alluvial soils. Bureau of Indian Standard vide code no -IS
7112:2002 Criteria For Design Of Cross Section For Unlined Channels In
Alluvial Soil. out lines four different approaches for design of canal sections
in alluvial soils. An attempt has been made to design the Haidergarh branch
based on these approaches.

The design sheets giving the hydraulic parameters by use of the four
methods suggested in IS 7112:2002 are given in Annexure 1, 2, 3 and 4 of
the IS 7112:2002. Due to the constraints of existing bed slope of the system,
the results as obtained for the design of Haidergarh branch do not match
the existing parameters in any of the methods.

(iii) A review of the designed longitudinal and cross section of the branches
indicates that the canal parameters seems to have been designed using
Sl.No Chainage
from-to km.
Bed width
Water depth
cm/ km
1. 0.0 to 4.0 165.5 55.5 3.0 9.1
2. 4.0 to 7.4 165.5 51.8 3.0 10.6
3. 7.4 to 15.4 163.2 50.9 3.0 10.6
4. 15.4 to 16.4 163.2 50.0 3.0 10.6
5. 16.4 to 22.98 159.7 50.0 3.0 10.6
Sl.No Chainage from-
to km.
Bed width
Water depth
cm/ km.
1. 0-16.32 123.204 28.87 3.485 12.2
2. 16.32-22.52 121.195 28.565 3.485 12.2
3. 22.52-27.42 99.648 28.346 3.180 12.2
4. 27.42-35.00 97.742 28.041 3.180 12.2
5. 35.00-41.60 94.07 27.431 3.140 12.2
6. 41.60-44.18 92.762 27.431 3.109 12.2
7. 44.18-58.40 77.819 23.774 3.048 12.2
8. 58.40-66.80 69.064 21.64 2.987 12.2
9. 66.80-76.25 59.207 21.335 2.743 12.2
10. 76.25-100.00 52.612 20.726 2.59 12.2
11. 100.00-110.00 47.236 19.202 2.59 12.2
12. 110.00-116.20 32.991 16.459 2.256 12.2
13. 116.20-119.45 28.688 14.630 2.256 12.2
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Garret Diagram. From a study of channel design as given in Annexure 1 to 5, it is
apparent that the exiting section of Haidergarh branch canals is very much
close to that determined by using Mannings equation. Therefore the design
of channel have been done by use of Mannings equation for velocity
calculations assigning a value of 0.02 for rugosity coefficient. The
longitudinal bed slope has been adopted as per the maximum available
country slope along the canal alignment, which is 9.1 cm/km between km
0.0 to km 4.0 of the Haidergarh Branch.

As discussed in Para (iii) above, the existing design parameters were
determined using Garret diagrams and the existing bed slope of the channel
as guided by the general ground feature. Redesign of the canal cross section
using Mannings equation with a value of n=0.02 is given in Annexure 5.

(iv) An attempt was also made to assess the value of n from analysis of proto
type canal running data for observations on 11.7.03, 16.8.04, 21.9.04 and
3.1.05. In practice because of the changed regime of the canal due to large
silting, the values do not replicate the original ground conditions and was
therefore not considered a rational value for adoption in the redesign. The
revised sectional profile based on the Mannings equation and using the
existing bed width and slope parameters gives a water depth of 3.06m
instead of 3.0m for passing the design discharge of 165.5 cumec.
1.10 The canal parameters as determine by use of the various methods described
in para 1.9(ii) are at large variance with the existing canal parameters.
Notwithstanding the fact that a regime channel as determined by the above
methods is a possibility within the limitations of general country slope, the
existence of the branch canals and their vast distribution networsk with
numerous control and other structures will not permit such an intervention.
The redesign of the branch canals therefore has been done keeping in view
this fact in mind and Mannings equation has been used for velocity
parameter. For mitigation of silt problem in the branch canal a silt trap
arrangement has been proposed to limit the entry of silt in the branch canal
and thereby ensuring its conveyance capacity.


2.1 Haidergarh branch off-takes from left bank of the Sarda Sahayak Feeder
Channel at its km 171.5. The head discharge capacity of this branch canal
is 165.5 cumec. The reach between head to km 23.0 of the Haidergarh
branch and the distributary and minor canal systems in this reach along
with the entire Jaunpur branch, which is a sub system of Haidergarh
branch, with its distributary and minor canal networks from head to km
119.54 is the defined project area. The Haidergarh and Jaunpur branches,
Dy and minor networks were mostly constructed / remodelled in phases
between year 1970 to 1980. The head discharge capacity of Jaunpur branch
is 123.2 cumec. The culturable command of the Haidergarh branch in its
reach from head to km 23.00 is 17,567 ha and that of the Jaunpur branch
system is about 2,75,000 ha. The proposed intensity of irrigation as per
Sarda Sahayak Project stipulations for the above mentioned canal systems
is 115% (Kharif 67%, Rabi 48%).
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2.2 The Haidergarh branch canal in its reach from km 0.0 to 23.0 has 3
distributaries and 8 directly off-taking minors. Similarly, Jaunpur branch
canal has 13 distributaries and 52 directly off-taking minor canals. The
distributary canals serve their respective commend area through sub
distributaries and minor canals. The direct off-take minors serve their
respective command area. The distributary canals also serve a part of their
command area through direct outlets.

2.3 Due to constraints in delivery of design discharge in the feeder channel and
consequently non availability of design discharge in the branch canal, the
distributary and minor systems do not receive their authorized discharge.
The branch canal full supply levels are below the design levels and this
causes problem in feeding the distribution network. In-fact the entire
system is performing sub-optimally, resulting in problems not only in water
management but also in providing services, which situation is reflected in
comparatively low irrigated areas as compared to design stipulations.

2.4 In reaches of comparative high ground level, along the distributary or minor
canal, the design water surface elevation is not likely to command such
areas. No doubt the cultivators are expected to make their arrangement for
lifting the water at such locations, the general practice however, is to
artificially jack-up the water surface elevation by putting obstructions in the
canal. This adversely affects the canal operation.

2.5 Transfer of operation, maintenance and management of minor canal
systems to duly constituted WUAs is one of the stepping stones towards the
modernized irrigation management systems. In this perspective the supplies
at the head of the minor canal shall be measured and delivered to the WUAs
according to a pre-determined and accepted schedule. The WUAs in turn
will manage the distribution in the respective command of the outlets. This
operation system will enable introduction of volumetric measurement and
billing for water by the department and will replace the presently in vogue
system of measurement on irrigated area basis.

2.6 The present design practices adopted by the department do not generally
incorporate the views / suggestions of the water user, farmers or other
stakeholders. In view of the proposed management transfer to WUAs, the
process of design / redesign has been based on community participation
and discussions / deliberations with the WUAs.


3.1 Equity of Allocation

Promotion of equity and social justice among individuals and groups of
users in water resource allocation and management is one of the main
features of the objectives of State Water Policy. The contract assignment
also stipulates reliable and equitable distribution of water in the farmland
as a basis for the program of rehabilitation and modernization of the system,
which will establish prerequisite conditions for farmers participation
through the WUAs, in the entire process of various project elements of
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planning implementation, operation, maintenance and management, to
ensure success of the program.

The project area command is presently served by the surface irrigation
systems associated with Haidergarh and Jaunpur branches and their vast
distribution network. Any exploitation / use of ground water is only in
private domain with some subsidies provided by the State. The State Water
Policy having recognized the unitary nature of both the surface and ground
water resources, their exploitation and use to the extent of availability has
to be in an equitable manner. This will ultimately realize the objective of the
rehabilitation initiative under the UPWSRP.

In view of the present perennial rights of the users on the surface waters
and very minimal exploitation of the ground water resource, due t6o the
present socio economic condition of the farmers, the approach is to, in the
first phase; equitably distribute the surface waters in the command. Use of
ground water in head reaches where the ground water tables are generally
high shall provide opportunity for higher allocation of surface water to the
lower reaches. With the large scale rehabilitation and modernization of the
systems under the UPWSRP it is expected that ground water exploitation
will increase many fold and the equitable distribution of both surface and
ground water as one resource will be possible. The canal capacity factor
have been optimized for equity, based on the net available water after
deducting the losses and the CCA. As the gross availability of water is
limited to the present design capacities, the changes in the agriculture by
way of cropping intensity have been suggested by use of ground water. As a
precaution for likely higher deliveries in the tail reaches when ground water
is exploited, sufficient free board has been provided in the canal systems.

A review of the existing hydraulic design features of the distributary and
minor canals has revealed that the allocation of discharges to the canal
systems is highly variable in relation to the command area served by them.
The redesign approach for rehabilitation and modernization of the
distributary and minor systems, in view of the above is to ensure equity of
the available supplies in proportion to the CCA served for each system.

The CCA of the Jaunpur branch sub basin has been assessed to be about
2,72,000 ha. The branch canal head discharge is 123.2 cumec. Based on
various empirical formulas, being used for assessment of conveyance loss in
earthen channel, the total conveyance loss in Jaunpur branch sub basin is
estimated to be of the order of 33% (branch canal 8%, distributaries 10%
and minors 15%). The water rights per unit area for the Jaunpur sub
branch basin command area works out to as follows;

1. Head discharge capacity 123.2 Cumec
2. Conveyance losses 33% of (1) above 40.565 Cumec
3. Water available for irrigation at outlet head 82.635 Cumec
4. Total CCA 2,71,853 ha
5. Available equitable discharge per unit area 0.3 l/sec/ha

The corresponding equity at minor and distributary head works out to 0.37
l/sec/ha and 0.42 l/sec/ha after accounting for losses at the head of the
distributary and minor canals.

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The proposal for equitable and uniform allocation of the available water
resource in proportion to the CCA served was presented in the Review
Committee meeting on the Draft Second Interim Report for Package B
Canal systems and was approved.

The allocation of discharge to the distributary head and minor head for the
purpose of designing, the hydraulic profile of the canal systems has been
worked out according to the proposed criterion of equity and reassessment
of the CCA from the GIS data provided by PACT. This will meet of objective
of the State Water Policy as well as the public participation in redesign
process through the Water Users Association.

3.2 Canal Design

The following IS codes shall be referred for planning and layout and
hydraulic profile design of the distributary and minor canal systems.

IS 5968 : 1987 (reaffirmed 1998) - Guide for Planning and Layout of
Canal System for Irrigation.
IS 7112:2002 Criteria for Design of Cross Section for Unlined Canal in
Alluvial Soils.
IS 4701 : 1982 (reaffirmed 1995) Code of Practice for Earthwork on
IS 4839 (Part 1) : 1992 (reaffirmed 1998) Maintenance of Canals Code
of Practices Silt Disposal

3.3 The distributary and minor canal systems in the present case are an
existing system. The redesign and rehabilitation proposals while following
the above design standards and any other relevant standard that may be
necessary, have to take into consideration, the limits of possibilities of
hydraulic and structural changes. This is all the more essential because of
the constraints on the presently allocated flow quantities in the system,
which cannot be altered much. The design process shall be oriented in such
a manner that an economical and efficient system is put in place both in
respect of water deliveries as well as management processes. The redesign
process would broadly comprise the following :

(i) Determination of hydraulic parameters.

(ii) Defining longitudinal and cross sectional profiles.

(iii) Arrangement for control of water surface elevation over a wide ranges of
discharges in distributary and minor canal system to enable proper system
control and operation.

(iv) Design of new canal head regulator, cross regulator, bridges, deck slab, tail
wall and other structures.

(v) Possibilities of clubbing of direct outlets on distributary canals.

(vi) Outlet system to ensure reliable and timely deliveries and their operation by
farmers semi module outlets.

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(vii) Orifice modules near minor heads for regulation and measurement of

(viii) Redefined location of outlets, delineation of their command and fixing layout
of field channels for proper water distribution with a view to ensure equity of

3.4 Design Option

The data on distributary and minor canal systems i.e. long section of canals,
received from the field divisions show that the existing canal systems have
been designed using Mannings equation for velocity parameters-

where V = Velocity of flow,
n = Rugosity coefficient
R = Hydraulic mean depth
S = Canal bed slope.

The canal bed width and water depth are thereafter worked out from the
design discharge values. The value of rugosity coefficient n has been adopted
as 0.0225, which normally fits well for the system. The regime type fitted
equations have been generally recommended as a suitable option for channel
designs within the range of data tested [IS 7112:2002]. The limitation
of canal bed slope, however, is a major constraint in use of this method.
Other methods recommended for canal design also suffer from limitations of
assigning suitable values to the variables.


4.1 Canal section

The canal section shall be trapezoidal, having the following internal side

- Canals in cutting - 1:1
- Canals in filling - 1.5:1

4.2 Free board

Free board above the water surface up to the top of the bank (ignoring daula
height) shall be provided as follows

- 0.3m Up to 1 m

- 0.5m 1 to 10 m3/s
- 0.75m 10 to 30 m3/s
2 / 1 3 / 2
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4.3 Bank width

The minimum top width of bank shall be adopted according to the
parameters given in Table-1:

Table-1 : Canal Discharge and Bank Width Parameters

The canal cross sectional profile shall, however, be accommodated within
the available land width.

4.4 Hydraulic gradient

For embankments less than 5 m height, which is generally the case in
distributary canals the hydraulic gradient shall be kept with in the following

- For silty soils 4:1
- For silty sand 5:1
- For sandy soils 6:1

A hydraulic gradient of 5:1 is proposed to be adopted for design of
distributary and minor canals. In case the embankment height is more than
5 m at any specific location, its stability shall be checked by appropriate
design procedures. The embankment height in specific cases of the present
canal systems are all less than 5.0 m. Stability analysis is therefore not
recommended. The hydraulic gradient line shall, in all cases, be provided
with a minimum cover of 0.3 m. Appropriate counter berm shall be provided
as found necessary.

4.5 Radii of curvature

The radii of curvature for canals in its curved reaches shall usually be 3 to 7
times of water surface width subject to the minimum values given in Table-

Table-2 : Canal Discharge and Radii of Curvature Parameters


Minimum Bank Top Width
Inspection Bank Non- Inspection
1 2 3 4
(i) < 0.30 1.5 1.5
(ii) 0.3 to 1.0 3.0 1.5
(iii) 1 to 7.5 5.0 2.0
(iv) 7.5 to 10.0 5.0 2.5
(v) 10.0 to 15.0 6.0 2.5
(vi) 15.0 to 30.0 6.00 3.5
Discharge [m
/ s]
Radius, Min. [m]
(1) (2)
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4.6 Berms

Berms along earthen canal are usually provided to reduce bank loads which
may cause sloughing of earth into the canal section and to lower the
elevation of the service road for easier maintenance. Berms have to be
provided in all cuttings when the depth of cutting is more than 3m. Berms
width varying between 2D to 3D (D = water depth) have been recommended
in IS 7112:2002 for different situations of canal bank formation i.e.
completely in cutting, infilling or in partial filling and cutting. The depth of
cutting in distributaries and minors under consideration is less than 3m. It
is proposed to provide a berm width of only 0.5 D at FSL with minimum
width of 0.2m.

4.7 Daula

A 0.5 m high Daula above the bank level shall be provided on the service
bank. The top width of the Daula shall be 0.5 m and the side slopes shall be

4.8 Catch Water Drainage

An affective system of catch water drainage shall be provided to prevent
damage of the bank. For this purpose suitably designed chutes shall be
provided at locations where the canal is in complete or partial filling.


5.1 Canal Section

In the existing minor canal systems, water to the minor service area is
distributed through a network of outlets serving individual chak area
through water course and turnouts. The minor canal head discharge as well
as the location of outlet and their ventage shall generally be adopted from
the relevant details made available by UPID/ PACT for designs. The location
of outlet and layout of field channel have been finalized in consultation with
Stakeholders and Culaba Samiti members. In view of the fact that any
appreciable change in the system deliveries is not practicable except in some
isolated cases, the deliveries to outlets are not proposed to be converted into
delta and duty functions but it shall be provided as an instrument to ensure
method of equitable supplies to the system and the agriculture practices
shall have to match these deliveries. Large variation in water drawl in
different reaches of the minor canal system, have generally resulted in
failure of equity of distribution. However, now that WUAs are in position
and they shall manage the distribution of water among the users; equity of
80 and above 1,500
Less than 80 to 30 1000
Less than 30 to 15 600
Less than 15 to 3 300
Less than 3 to 0.3 150
Less than 0.3 90
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distribution to the extent of available surface waters can be ensured. As the
gross availability falls short of the demand (intensity of irrigation in each
crop season being less than 100%) any supplemental requirements of water
for increasing intensity of agriculture shall have to be conjuncted from
ground water systems. The present design section for minor canals shall be
trapezoidal and shall be limited to the following :

(i) assigning the head discharge,
(ii) assessment of losses,
(iii) rehabilitation of intake, profile designs,
(iv) provision of gate and arrangements of flow control / regulation and
(v) rationalisation of outlet discharges and command areas,
(vi) finalization of location of outlets,
(vii) type of outlet.

Item (i), (ii), (iv), (v) have been considered as part of basic input for design and
the relevant details are presented with the design calculations. Regarding the
rationalization of intake designs, provision of gates and arrangements for
control regulation and measurement of flow volumes to the minors, the
details are described in respective sections.

The design equity has been calculated according to availability of
maximum canal water in Kharif season after deducting 33% total
cumulative losses in the entire system dividing by total CCA. Discharge
of 0.3 l/sec/ha has been taken as equity for design canal sections. For
design purposes, a combined figure for evaporation and seepage losses
has been taken as 8 cusec per million on sq. ft. of wetted area.

Free Board

It shall be kept equal to 0.3 m.

Bank Width

For discharge more than 0.3 m
/s, inspection bank 3.0 m wide shall be
provided if canal land width is available. In all other cases, both the banks
being non inspection banks, their widths shall be kept as 1.5 m.


Berm shall be provided as per Para 4.6 with a minimum dimension of
0.20 m.

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